WorldWideScience

Sample records for hepatic se concentrations

  1. Hepatic element concentrations of lesser scaup (aythya affinis) during spring migration in the upper midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillatzki, A.E.; Neiger, R.D.; Chipps, S.R.; Higgins, K.F.; Thiex, N.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of some hepatic elements might be contributing to the decline of the continental lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) population. We evaluated hepatic element concentrations of male and female lesser scaup collected from the upper Midwest (Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) during the 2003 and 2004 spring migrations. We measured concentrations of 24 elements in livers of 117 lesser scaup. We found that only selenium concentrations were at levels (>3.0 ??g/g wet weight [ww)]) proposed to adversely affect reproduction. Approximately 49% of females (n = 61) had individual hepatic concentrations >3.0 ??g/g ww selenium (Se). Our observed hepatic concentration of Se was similar to that reported in lesser scaup collected from the mid-continental United States but less than Se concentrations reported from the Great Lakes region. We found that the liver cadmium (Cd) concentration for males was significantly higher than that for females. Gender differences in hepatic Cd concentrations have not been previously reported for lesser scaup, but Cd is known to have negative impacts on male reproduction. Our results indicate that lesser scaup migrating through the upper Midwest in spring have elevated Se levels and that males carry a significantly greater Cd burden than females. Moreover, elemental concentrations might be high enough to affect reproduction in both male and female lesser scaup, but controlled laboratory studies are needed to adequately assess the effects of Se and Cd on lesser scaup reproduction. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Hepatic handling of a synthetic gamma-labeled bile acid (75SeHCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galatola, G.; Jazrawi, R.P.; Bridges, C.; Joseph, A.E.; Northfield, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    75 Se-homocholic acid-taurine ( 75 SeHCAT) is the first available gamma-labeled bile acid, and should therefore be handled more efficiently and specifically by the liver than previous hepatoscintigraphic agents. We have measured serum and hepatic kinetics for 75 SeHCAT, and compared them with those for the conventional hepatobiliary scintigraphic agent 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid, and with serum kinetics for the corresponding natural bile acid, [ 14 C]cholic acid-taurine. We used a dynamic scintigraphic technique and serial blood sampling in 8 subjects. Initial hepatic uptake rate was identical to initial serum disappearance rate (14% dose/min) for 75 SeHCAT, but significantly lower for 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid (6% vs. 14% dose/min, p less than 0.001). Hepatic transit time was shorter for 75 SeHCAT (13 min vs. 22 min, p less than 0.02), net hepatic excretory rate was more rapid (1.4% vs. 0.8% dose/min, p less than 0.001), and urinary excretion was lower (1.0% vs. 9.0% dose, p less than 0.001). Initial and late-plasma disappearance rates were significantly lower for 75 SeHCAT (14.3% and 1.5% dose/min) than for [ 14 C]cholic acid-taurine (21.3% and 2.8% dose/min, respectively), and plasma clearance was also lower (2 75 vs. 670 ml/min). In vitro, 75 SeHCAT was bound to serum proteins more completely than [ 14 C]cholic acid-taurine (90.4% vs. 86.5%, p less than 0.005). We conclude that 75 SeHCAT provides a hepatoscintigraphic agent that is handled more efficiently and specifically by the liver than the conventionally used agent 99mTc-hepatoiminodiacetic acid. It is not cleared from the serum as rapidly as [ 14 C]cholic acid-taurine, probably due to its stronger protein binding. The clinical value of 75 SeHCAT in assessing liver disease should be investigated

  3. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T CDNB activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T CDNB and GSH concentration regardless of VE status

  4. Serum bile acid concentrations in dairy cattle with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, F B; Fettman, M J; Curtis, C R; Smith, J A

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate serum bile acid measurements as indicatory, of liver function and/or hepatic fat infiltration in dairy cattle. Serum bile acid concentrations were measured in healthy dairy cattle at different stages of lactation after fasting or feeding. Bile acid concentrations were compared with liver fat content and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) half-life (T 1/2). Serum bile acid concentrations were higher in cows in early lactation and with higher daily milk production. Compared with prefasting values, bile acid concentrations were decreased at 8, 14, and 24 hours of fasting. Blood samples from fed cows at 1- to 2-hour intervals had wide and inconsistent variations in bile acid concentration. Because serum bile acids correlated well with BSP T 1/2, it is suggested that both measurements evaluate a similar aspect of liver function. Neither bile acids nor BSP T 1/2 correlated with differences in liver fat content among cows. Because of large variability in serum bile acid concentrations in fed cows and the lack of correlation of measured values with liver fat content, bile acid determinations do not appear useful for showing changes in hepatic function in fed cows with subclinical hepatic lipidosis nor serve as a screening test for this condition.

  5. Iron overload and genotype 3 are associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C Sobrecarga de hierro y genotipo 3 se asocian a la presencia de esteatosis en la hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Fernández Salazar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine epidemiological, biochemical, virological, and histological factors associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C. Subjects: the medical histories of 53 patients biopsied for chronic hepatitis C diagnosis between June 2000 and December 2002 were retrospectively studied. Epidemiological, biochemical, and virological data were collected. Patients with hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were excluded. Liver biopsy specimens were reviewed and scored by one pathologist. Weight and height were measured at liver biopsy time. The statistic association between qualitative and quantitative variables and the presence of liver steatosis was studied. Results: steatosis was identified in 52% of biopsies. There was no statistic association with age, sex, method of transmission, duration of infection, alcohol consumption, other diseases, body mass index, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, AST, ALT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, or viral load. Liver steatosis was associated with serum iron, transferrin saturation, and ferritin. Genotype 3 was also associated with steatosis. Piecemeal necrosis, hepatocellular injury, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, liver iron, and portal fibrosis were also associated with steatosis. A multivariate analysis showed that genotype 3, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, and liver iron were associated with the presence of steatosis. Conclusions: liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C associates with genotype 3, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, and iron overload. Hepatic steatosis also associates with greater inflammation and fibrosis, and must be considered to contribute to disease progression.Objetivo: determinar los factores epidemiológicos, analíticos, virológicos e histológicos a los que se asocia la esteatosis en la hepatitis C. Pacientes: se revisaron de forma retrospectiva 53 historias clínicas de pacientes biopsiados consecutivamente desde junio de 2000 a dicembre de 2002. Se

  6. Changes of very low-density lipoprotein concentration in hepatic blood from cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shin; Mizunuma, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yukari; Tharwat, Mohamed

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) components in hepatic blood (HB) from 5 nonlactating nonpregnant cows fasted from days 0 to 3 and subsequently refed to day 10 and, in addition, to assess those of other lipoproteins. Increased phospholipid concentrations in each lipoprotein after the start of fasting suggested their availability for the surface lipids of lipoproteins. Although the VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration in HB from all cows increased on day 1, the value on day 4 became similar to that on day 0. However, the concentration on day 10 was significantly increased. In all cows, the decreased ratio of the VLDL-TG concentration in HB to the non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration in portal blood (PB) on day 4 appeared to reflect relatively decreased secretion of TG as VLDL by NEFA excessively mobilized to the liver via PB. The markedly increased ratio on day 10 was considered to contribute to the improvement of hepatic lipidosis.

  7. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cozollino, Silvia M.F., E-mail: marmelin@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: msaiki@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: smfcozzo@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  8. Concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn in Brazil nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria José A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Cardoso, Paulo S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cozollino, Silvia M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The concentrations of Se, Ba, Zn and Mn were determined in samples of Brazil nuts collected in two ways: a) in a production farm predominantly for export and, b) in various points of sale from different regions of Brazil. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used in this study. Results indicate that the concentrations of Se and Ba varied greatly among the Brazil nut samples analyzed. This large variability may be related to the soil characteristics from which the nuts were produced. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentrations of Se and Ba. On the other hand, the concentrations of Zn and Mn did not show significant differences among these samples. (author)

  9. Reduction of serum triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein concentrations in cows with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt, T H; Liesman, J S; Gerloff, B J; Emery, R S

    1983-02-01

    The hepatic and serum lipid concentrations in 49 dairy cows with displaced abomasum, 7 postpartum cows fasted for 6 days, and 14 healthy postpartum cows were studied. The cows with displaced abomasums were retrospectively allotted to 2 groups: those with greater than 15% liver fat (DAHF) and those with less than 15% liver fat (DALF). Liver total lipid concentrations were high in the DAHF group, exceeding these values in the fasted cows by 30% and in the healthy and DALF cows by 63% on the average. In contrast, the liver phospholipid concentrations were low in the DAHF group, intermediate in the fasted and DALF groups and high in the healthy group. On a group basis, an inverse relationship was observed between serum and liver lipid concentrations. The serum concentrations of both total and dextran-sulfate-precipitable (DSP) lipids were high in the fasted cows and were less in the DALF and healthy cows and in the DAHF cows (lowest). The between-group differences in serum total and serum DSP concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid followed the same quantitative pattern as the total lipids. However, the relative difference between groups was greater for each of the DSP lipid fractions. These results support the hypothesis that severe hepatic lipidosis in cattle occurs due to impaired hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and secretion.

  10. Brain concentrations of benzodiazepines are elevated in an animal model of hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, A.S.; Pannell, L.; Jaouni, T.; Gammal, S.H.; Fales, H.M.; Jones, E.A.; Skolnick, P.

    1990-01-01

    Brain extracts from rats with hepatic encephalopathy due to thioacetamide-induced fulminant hepatic failure contained 4- to 6-fold higher concentrations of substances that inhibit radioligand binding to benzodiazepine receptors than corresponding control rat extracts. Both isocratic and gradient-elution HPLC indicated that this inhibitory activity was localized in 3-8 peaks with retention times corresponding to deschlorodiazepam, deschlorolorazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, and N-desmethyldiazepam. The presence of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Both mass spectroscopic and radiometric techniques indicated that the concentrations of N-desmethyldiazepam and diazepam in brain extracts from encephalopathic rats were 2-9 and 5-7 times higher, respectively, than in control brain extracts. While benzodiazepines have been identified previously in mammalian and plant tissues, this report demonstrates that concentrations of these substances are increased in a pathophysiological condition. These findings provide a rational basis for the use of benzodiazepine receptor antagonists in the management of hepatic encephalopathy in humans

  11. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 {mu}g/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 {mu}g/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 {mu}g/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in the liver of Franciscana

  12. Concentration and subcellular distribution of trace elements in liver of small cetaceans incidentally caught along the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunito, Takashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Anan, Yasumi; Kubota, Reiji; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Rosas, Fernando C.W.; Fillmann, Gilberto; Readman, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, T-Hg, Org-Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in liver samples of estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis; n=20), Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei; n=23), Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis; n=2), common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n=1) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba; n=1) incidentally caught along the coast of Sao Paulo State and Parana State, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. The hepatic concentrations of trace elements in the Brazilian cetaceans were comparable to the data available in literature on marine mammals from Northern Hemisphere. Concentrations of V, Se, Mo, Cd, T-Hg and Org-Hg increased with increasing age in liver of both estuarine and Franciscana dolphins. Very high concentrations of Cu (range, 262-1970 μg/g dry wt.) and Zn (range, 242-369 μg/g dry wt.) were observed in liver of sucklings of estuarine dolphin. Hepatic concentrations of V, Se, T-Hg, Org-Hg and Pb were significantly higher in estuarine dolphin, whereas Franciscana dolphin showed higher concentrations of Mn, Co, As and Rb. Ratio of Org-Hg to T-Hg in liver was significantly higher in Franciscana dolphin than estuarine dolphin, suggesting that demethylation ability of methyl Hg might be lower in liver of Franciscana than estuarine dolphins. High hepatic concentrations of Ag were found in some specimens of Franciscana dolphin (maximum, 20 μg/g dry wt.), and 17% of Franciscana showed higher concentrations of Ag than Hg. These samples with high Ag concentration also exhibited elevated hepatic Se concentration, implying that Ag might be detoxified by Se in the liver. Higher correlation coefficient between (Hg + 0.5 Ag) and Se than between Hg and Se and the large distribution of Ag in non-soluble fraction in nuclear and mitochondrial fraction of the liver also suggests that Ag might be detoxified by Se via formation of Ag 2 Se in the liver of Franciscana dolphin

  13. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  14. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Serum free amino acid concentration in hepatic lipidosis of dairy cows in the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibano, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-04-01

    Blood samples were taken from eight multiparous cows at a dairy farm on eight occasions between the prepartum period and peak lactation to study the serum concentrations of amino acids and biochemical constituents. The cows were classified as having either severe hepatic lipidosis (HL) or non-hepatic lipidosis (non-HL) according to their clinical condition after calving and changes in serum biochemical parameters. The serum concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyric acid were higher in the HL group than in the non-HL group (ANOVA: phepatic lipidosis.

  16. Effects of tellurium concentration on the structure of melt-grown ZnSe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atroshchenko, Lyubov V.; Galkin, Sergey N.; Rybalka, Irina A.; Voronkin, Evgeniy F.; Lalayants, Alexandr I.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Fedorov, Alexandr G.

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that isovalent doping by tellurium positively affects the structural perfection of ZnSe crystals related to the completeness of the wurtzite-sphalerite phase transition. The optimum concentration range of tellurium in ZnSe crystals is 0.3-0.6 mass %. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that in ZnSe 1-x Te x crystals at tellurium concentrations below 0.3 mass % twinning and packing defects occur, while tellurium concentrations above 0.6 mass % lead to formation of tetragonal crystal lattice

  17. Prevalence of nucleic acid sequences specific for human parvoviruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses in coagulation factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrow, S; Wenzel, J J; Schimanski, S; Schwarzbeck, J; Rothe, U; Oldenburg, J; Jilg, W; Eis-Hübinger, A M

    2011-05-01

    Due to their high resistance to inactivation procedures, nonenveloped viruses such as parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV), human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) pose a particular threat to blood products. Virus transmission to patients treated with blood products presents an additional burden to disease. We determined the frequency and the amount of nucleic acid specific for nonenveloped viruses in recently manufactured preparations of commercial coagulation factor concentrates. At least three different batches of each of 13 different plasma-derived and recombinant coagulation factor products were tested for the presence and the amount of nucleic acid for parvovirus B19, HBoV, human parvovirus 4, hepatitis A virus and HEV by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whereas none of the recombinant products tested positive for any of these viruses, parvovirus B19 DNA with amounts ranging between 2×10(1) and 1.3×10(3) genome equivalents/ml was detected in five plasma-derived products. In addition to parvovirus B19 genotype 1, genotypes 2 and 3 were observed in two batches of a factor VIII/von-Willebrand factor product. In two products (one factor VIII concentrate and one activated prothrombin complex concentrate), a combination of both genotypes 1 and 2 of parvovirus B19 was detected. The data show that nucleic acids from several relevant nonenveloped viruses are not found at detectable levels in coagulation factor concentrates. In some cases, parvovirus B19 DNA was detectable at low levels. Testing of the plasma pools for the full range of parvovirus genotypes is advocated for ensuring product safety. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

  19. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor and chronic hepatitis C Factor de crecimiento hepatocitario y hepatitis crónica C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marín-Serrano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by hepatic stellate cells and implicated in liver regeneration and fibrosis. Serum levels of HGF vary in liver diseases, reflecting hepatic damage and hepatocellular dysfunction. In this study, serum levels of HGF and the relationship between HGF and biochemical, histological and virological data, have been analysed in patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Patients and methods: serum HGF concentration was measured by ELISA in sandwich in 45 patients with CHC. Correlation between HGF levels and histological (necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis score and biochemical (transaminases, prothrombin activity, albumin, bilirubin, or virological (hepatitis C virus load parameters was analyzed. Serum HGF concentration was also studied in a subgroup of the original sample treated with interferon and ribavirin. Results: serum HGF concentrations of patients with CHC were significantly higher than those detected in healthy controls. Patients with significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2 had a significantly older age, lower count of platelets and higher values of AST, GGT and HGF, than those patients with a fibrosis score F Objetivo: el factor de crecimiento hepatocitario (HGF es una citocina pleiotrópica producida por las células estrelladas hepáticas, que está implicada en la regeneración y la fibrosis hepática. La concentración sérica del HGF en las enfermedades hepáticas es variable, reflejando daño hepático y disfunción hepatocelular. En este estudio se ha analizado la concentración sérica del HGF en pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus de la hepatitis C (VHC y su relación con los datos bioquímicos, histológicos y virológicos. Pacientes y métodos: se determinó la concentración sérica de HGF mediante ELISA en sándwich y se analizó la correlación entre los niveles del HGF y los datos histológicos (actividad necroinflamatoria, estadio de

  1. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo R.; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Fernandez, Marcos A.S.; Vidal, Lara G.; Barbosa, Lupercio A.; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Fragoso, Ana B.L.; Torres, Joao P.M.; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic ΣSn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic ΣSn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n = 20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. - Cetaceans from Brazil are highly exposed to organotin compounds

  2. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: dornelespr@gmail.com; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Fernandez, Marcos A.S. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Quimica, Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: hallfz@uerj.br; Vidal, Lara G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: vidallara@yahoo.com.br; Barbosa, Lupercio A. [Instituto ORCA, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: lupercio@orca.org.br; Azevedo, Alexandre F. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: alexandre.maqua@gmail.com; Fragoso, Ana B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: abfragoso@gmail.com; Torres, Joao P.M. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic {sigma}Sn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic {sigma}Sn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n = 20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. - Cetaceans from Brazil are highly exposed to organotin compounds.

  3. Hepatitis A, B y D en Chocó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Padilla

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una recopilación y análisis de la información epidemiológica existente sobre hepatitis A, B y delta en el departamento de Chocó en el período 1976-1993. En un estudio anterior, se informó una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis A de 85,7 por mil, en una muestra representativa de la población, con evidencia de transmisión en todos los grupos de edad; en la misma muestra, se encontró una prevalencia de antigeno de superficie de hepatitis B de 4,2/1.000. Se han detectado focos de hepatitisfulminante aguda por hepatitis delta en la región de Truandó-Salaquí, en el municipio de Riosucio, donde se encontró una prevalencia de infección por hepatitis B de 915/1.000 y una prevalencia de antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B de 200/1.000, El principal patrón de transmisión es vertical-horizontal. Los principales factores de riesgo de importancia en la transmisión en esa área son el hacinamiento, la promiscuidad, los grupos femeninos de 15 a 24 años y la evidencia de transmisión en algún miembro de la familia. En la zona rural de Quibdó, se han identificado dos focos de hepatitis fulminante aguda en las localidades de Bebaramá y Guarandó, encontrándose prevalencias de infección por hepatitis B de 74 y 85%. En un estudio realizado en personal de salud cuyo objetivo era identificar los grupos con mayor riesgo, se encontraron prevalencias de infección entre 27 y 33%; además, la prevalencia de antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B fue 13,3 a 13,6 %, principalmente en personal de enfermería y laboratorio. Finalmente, se plantean alternativas integrales de solución para hepatitis A y B basadas en actividades de promoción de la salud, medidas de prevención como la vacunación contra hepatitis B, la vigilancia y el control.

  4. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min; Huang, Yu-hua; Luo, Ji-xiang

    2015-02-01

    The authors measured the absorption and the fluorescence spectra of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS with 4 nm in size at different concentration with the use of the UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectrometer. The effect of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS's concentration on its fluorescence was especially studied and its physical mechanism was analyzed. It was observed that the optimal concentration of the quantum dots CdSe/ZnS for fluorescence is 2 micromole x L(-1). When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the concentration. While the quantum dot's concentration is less than 2 micromol x L(-1), the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the concentration. There are two main reasons: (1) fluorescence quenching and 2) the competition between absorption and fluorescence. When the quantum dot's concentration is over 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is so close that the fluorescence quenching is induced. The closer the distance between quantum dots is, the more serious the fluorescence quenching is induced. Also, in this case, the absorption is so large that some of the quantum dots can not be excited because the incident light can not pass through the whole sample. As a result, the fluorescence is decreased with the increase in the quantum dot's concentration. As the quantum dot's concentration is below 2 micromol x L(-1), the distance between quantum dots is far enough that no more fluorescence quenching is induced. In this case, the fluorescence is determined by the particle number per unit volume. More particle number per unit volume produces more fluorescence. Therefore, the fluorescence is decreased with the decrease in the quantum dot's concentration.

  6. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species.

  7. Concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus and its indicator from artificial seawater using zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is the leading worldwide cause of acute viral hepatitis, and outbreaks caused by this virus often occur in fecal polluted waters. Rapid concentration and detection of viral contamination in water environments can prevent economic loss and can identify the source of contamination within a short time. However, conventional methods for virus concentration are often laborious, time consuming, and subject to clogging. Furthermore, most methods require a secondary concentration step to reduce the final volume of samples. We developed a method to concentrate HAV from seawater using zeolite in aid of rapid detection. In this method,artificial seawater was inoculated with HAV (7-8 log TCID50) and filtered with zeolite. The viruses were then eluted from zeolite with sodium dodecyl sulfate and detected via real-time PCR (qPCR). Zeolite was able to concentrate HAV from artificial seawater with ∼99% efficiency in less than 5min and was more efficient in seawater than in fresh water. The entire concentration and detection can be done in approximately 2h. Compared to existing methods, this method eliminated the need for a secondary concentration step as well as the necessity to modify the pH or salinity of the seawater during concentration, and was simple and inexpensive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Se Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens From the Boreal Forest of Forthern Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, L.; Lhomme, J.; Carignan, J.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge of Se concentration in environmental samples is important because this element may be both toxic and nutrient for live organisms. This study aims to characterise the Se concentration in lichen samples in order to document the variability of atmospheric fallout. Lichens are of particular interest because their epiphytic character makes them totally dependant of atmospheric nutrients, so that their chemical composition reflects that of atmospheric matter. Lichens hanging on tree branches were sampled in various location of the boreal forest of northern Québec. We developed a separation and pre-concentration technique for Se analysis of low mineral matrix samples by GFAAS. After mineralisation and addition of a Se-free mineral charge to the sample, total Se is reduced to Se IV and fixed onto a thiol cotton. The latter is dissolved and directly analysed by GFAAS. A limit of determination of 0.02 ppm in the solid sample and a precision (relative standard deviation) varying from 3 to 15% was found through the course of this study. Our results are very similar to the certified values of the reference materials analysed, suggesting a good accuracy of the method for organic materials. Some lichen samples were also analysed by INAA and the agreement between results obtained by both techniques is not always perfect. There is, however, no systematic bias between the methods. Some samples agree within analytical uncertainty (about 5%), whereas others differ by more than 20%. The most probable reason why such discrepancies are observed is because these lichen samples were not crushed and homogenised before analysis. Indeed, some duplicate samples analysed by INAA yielded results that differed by more than 20%, while other agreed within 2%. Considering these facts, the overall agreement between GFAAS and INAA is pretty much satisfactory. The Se concentrations measured in lichens vary from 1.2 to 0.3 ppm and decrease from the coast of Hudson Bay towards inland at

  9. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in, E-mail: surya-tr@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  10. Influence of dopant concentration on the electrical properties of the CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite. CdSe-PMMA nanocomposite has been prepared by ex-situ technique through chemical route. The influence of three different Ag doping concentrations on the electrical properties has been studied in the temperature range ∼ 303-353 K. Transmission electron micrograph reveals the spherical morphology of the CdSe nanoparticles and their proper dispersion in the PMMA matrix. The electrical conduction of the polymer nanocomposites is through thermally activated process with single activation energy. With Ag doping, initially the activation energy increases upto 0.2 % Ag doping concentration but with further increase in Ag concentration, it decreases. This behavior has been discussed on the basis of randomly oriented grain boundaries and defect states. Thus, the results indicate that the transport properties of the polymer nanocomposites can be tailored by controlled doping concentration.

  11. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camejo María I

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (p<0,05 e incremento en la edad (p<0,05. No se encontró ningún caso positivo de VIH. La encuesta reveló que el 38,5% de las trabajadoras sexuales nunca utilizan el condón y un 25,6% de ellas no utiliza ningún tipo de método anticonceptivo. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario implementar planes de inmunización de hepatitis B en este grupo de mujeres, así como campañas de educación sobre la importancia del uso del condón para disminuir la probabilidad de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual.

  12. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Camejo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (p<0,05 e incremento en la edad (p<0,05. No se encontró ningún caso positivo de VIH. La encuesta reveló que el 38,5% de las trabajadoras sexuales nunca utilizan el condón y un 25,6% de ellas no utiliza ningún tipo de método anticonceptivo. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario implementar planes de inmunización de hepatitis B en este grupo de mujeres, así como campañas de educación sobre la importancia del uso del condón para disminuir la probabilidad de contraer infecciones de transmisión sexual.

  13. Removal of selenite by zero-valent iron combined with ultrasound: Se(IV) concentration changes, Se(VI) generation, and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fenglian; Lu, Jianwei; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the performance and application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) assisted by ultrasonic irradiation for the removal of selenite (Se(IV)) in wastewater was evaluated and reaction mechanism of Se(IV) with ZVI in such systems was investigated. A series of batch experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ultrasound power, pH, ZVI concentration, N2 and air on Se(IV) removal. ZVI before and after reaction with Se(IV) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicated that ultrasound can lead to a significant synergy in the removal of Se(IV) by ZVI because ultrasound can promote the generation of OH and accelerate the advanced Fenton process. The primary reaction products of ZVI and Se(IV) were Se(0), ferrihydrite, and Fe2O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalencia de hepatitis B, hepatitis C y sífilis en trabajadoras sexuales de Venezuela Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis in female sex workers in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Camejo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En Venezuela las trabajadoras sexuales reciben un control sanitario para la sífilis y el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Sin embargo, otras importantes infecciones de transmisión sexual no son evaluadas. Así, se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de determinar el nivel socio-cultural de un grupo de trabajadores sexuales y su relación con la sero-presencia de marcadores de Hepatitis C y Hepatitis B, en adición a la evaluación de rutina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron 212 trabajadoras sexuales, que acudieron al control sanitario en el servicio de infecciones de transmisión sexual, de la ciudad de Los Teques, Venezuela. Fueron entrevistadas en cuanto a edad, nivel educativo, uso de anticonceptivos y del condón. Se les tomó una muestra de sangre para determinar sífilis, antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg y la presencia de anticuerpos contra el core de hepatitis B (anti-HBc, virus de hepatitis C (anti-HC y VIH. Los datos fueron evaluados estadísticamente por Chi-cuadrado y correlación de Pearson. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia fue de 2,4% para sífilis, 0,5% para anti-HC, 3,8% para HBsAg y 13,8% para anti-HBc. Un aumento en la prevalencia de marcadores de hepatitis B se correlacionó con un bajo nivel educativo (pOBJECTIVE: In Venezuela, female sex workers are submitted to a preventive control of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. However, other very important sexually transmitted infections are not evaluated. A study was carried out to identify the sociocultural background of a group of sex workers and its association with the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C markers, in addition to routine evaluation. METHOD: A total of 212 female sex workers who attended the control center of sexually transmitted infections (STI in the city of Los Teques, Venezuela, were evaluated. Women were asked their age, educational background, use of contraceptive methods and condoms. Blood was drawn to determine the prevalence

  15. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  16. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan.A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening.Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses.We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  17. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  18. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  19. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  20. Examination of hepatic dynamic CT images following infusion of high-concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Kinebuchi, Yuko; Kitahara, Tadashi; Ohbuchi, Masao; Shinjyo, Hidenori; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2008-01-01

    There are scarce examinations on the integrated effects of given iodine weight (mgI) and its rate (mgI/sec) on the quality and diagnostic accuracy in the hepatic contrast CT imaging while the former is known to affect the image of parenchyma and the latter, of arterial systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the effects qualitatively and quantitatively in hepatic dynamic CT images of patients with moderate body weight in whom different concentrations of I are given at the same flux rate and total weight. Patients having chronic hepatitis suspicious of carcinoma, or cirrhosis were 52-84 years old (M 50/F 55, b. wt. 50-65 kg) and were randomly divided in A and B group. A group received infusion of 25 sec in the right elbow vein of iopamidol, 300 mgI/100 mL, and B group, 370 mgI/80 mL: the I flux of ca. 1.2 gI/sec and total I of ca. 30 gI. Before and at 25 (early arterial phase), 40 (late art. phase), 70 (portal vein) and 180 (equilibrium) sec after infusion, CT images were obtained with the machine Light Speed select (GE Healthcare), Housfield Units before and after enhancing were used for quantitative evaluation, three experts qualitatively read images, and PACS system in Synapse 3.1.0 (Fuji Film Med.) was used for observation of tumor nodules if present. Neither qualitative nor quantitative differences were found in these CT images of the 4 phases and use of high-concentration contrast media was confirmed to be possible for lowered infusion rate. Authors also pointed out the importance of care for radiation exposure in this CT technique. (R.T.)

  1. Seasonal variations in hepatic Cd and Cu concentrations and in the sub-cellular distribution of these metals in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, Lisa D.; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Hare, Landis

    2006-01-01

    Temporal fluctuations in metal (Cd and Cu) concentrations were monitored over four months (May to August) in the liver of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) sampled from four lakes situated along a metal concentration gradient in northwestern Quebec: Lake Opasatica (reference lake, low metal concentrations), Lake Vaudray (moderate metal concentrations) and lakes Osisko and Dufault (high metal levels). The objectives of this study were to determine if hepatic metal concentrations and metal-handling strategies at the sub-cellular level varied seasonally. Our results showed that Cd and Cu concentrations varied most, in both absolute and relative values, in fish with the highest hepatic metal concentrations, whereas fish sampled from the reference lake did not show any significant variation. To examine the sub-cellular partitioning of these two metals, we used a differential centrifugation technique that allowed the separation of cellular debris, metal detoxified fractions (heat-stable proteins such as metallothionein) and metal sensitive fractions (heat-denaturable proteins (HDP) and organelles). Whereas Cd concentrations in organelle and HDP fractions were maintained at low concentrations in perch from Lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, concentrations in these sensitive fractions were higher and more variable in perch from Lakes Dufault and Osisko, suggesting that there may be some liver dysfunction in these two fish populations. Similarly, Cu concentrations in these sensitive fractions were higher and more variable in perch from the two most Cu-contaminated lakes (Dufault and Osisko) than in perch from the other two lakes, suggesting a breakdown of homeostatic control over this metal. These results suggest not only that metal concentrations vary seasonally, but also that concentrations vary most in fish from contaminated sites. Furthermore, at the sub-cellular level, homeostatic control of metal concentrations in metal-sensitive fractions is difficult to maintain in

  2. Efficacy of high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. Comparison of high doses-standard contrast medium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Munetaka; Kondo, Tamaki; Nishikawa, Takahiro; Kuginuki, Yasuaki; Yokota, Hajime; Higashi, Kotaro; Tonami, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the enhancement of liver parenchyama with high iodine concentration contrast medium with saline pushing to that with high doses standard iodine concentration in hepatic CT in patients with chronic liver disease. There was no statistically significant difference regarding to the enhancement of liver parenchyama between the 370 mgI/ml of contrast medium with saline pushing and high doses standard iodine concentration contrast medium. (author)

  3. Central nervous system immunoreactive somatostatin, substance P and met-enkephalin concentrations in experimental hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.L.; Millar, R.P.; Kirsch, R. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa))

    1982-06-12

    Immunoreactive somatostatin, substance P and met-enkephalin concentrations were measured in various regions of the rat brain 65 hours after portacaval shunt and compared with concentrations in sham-operated animals. No significant difference was detected in any of the three peptides in the regions studied, suggesting that these peptides do not play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  4. Thermodynamic model for the solubility of BaSeO4(cr) in the aqueous Ba2+-SeO42--Na+-H+-OH--H2O system. Extending to high selenate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Felmy, Andrew R.; Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi; Moore, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The aqueous solubility of BaSeO 4 (cr) was studied at 23 ± 2 C as a function of Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations (0.0001 to 4.1 mol kg -1 ) and equilibration periods (3 to 596 d). The equilibrium, approached from both the under- and over-saturation directions, in this system was reached rather rapidly (≤ 3d). The SIT and Pitzer's ion-interaction models were used to interpret these data and the predictions based on both of these models agreed closely with the experimental data. Thermodynamic analyses of the data show that BaSeO 4 (cr) is the solubility-controlling phase for Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations -1 . The log 10 K 0 value for the BaSeO 4 (cr) solubility product (BaSeO 4 (cr) ↔ Ba 2+ + SeO 4 2- ) calculated by the SIT and Pitzer models were very similar (-7.32 ± 0.07 with Pitzer and -7.25 ± 0.11 with SIT). Although the BaSeO 4 (cr) solubility product and Ba concentrations as a function of Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations predicted by both the SIT and Pitzer models are similar, the models required different sets of fitting parameters. For examples, (1) interpretations using the SIT model required the inclusion of Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 2- species with log 10 K 0 = 3.44 ± 0.12 for the reaction (Ba 2+ + 2SeO 4 2- ↔ Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 2- ), whereas these species are not needed for Pitzer model, and (2) at Na 2 SeO 4 concentrations > 0.59 mol kg -1 it was also possible to calculate the value for log 10 K 0 for the solubility product of a proposed double salt (Na 2 Ba(SeO 4 ) 2 (s) ↔ 2Na + + Ba 2+ + 2SeO 4 2- ) which for the SIT model is -(8.70 ± 0.29) whereas for the Pitzer model it is -(9.19 ± 0.19). The ion-interaction/ion-association parameters hitherto unavailable for both the SIT and Pitzer models required to fit these extensive data extending to as high ionic strengths as 12.3 mol kg -1 were determined. The model developed in this study is consistent with all of the reliable literature data, which was also used to extend the model to barium concentrations as high as 0.22 mol kg

  5. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Hepatitis fulminante en la Sierra Nevada: Una forma de superinfección del virus delta con el virus de la hepatitis B.

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Villanueva; Patricia A. Fraser; Rafael García; Pedro Ospino; Pedro Ariza; Thomas O' Brien

    1992-01-01

    Durante septiembre de 1980 a octubre de 1983, se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico para hepatitis A y B, en 258 personas en una ciudad (Santa Marta) población de 250.000 y tres pequeños municipios (Santa Rosalía, Julio Zawady y Aracataca), poblaciones de 768, 800 y 5.000 habitantes respectivamente. La presencia de hepatitis A se encontró en un 77 a 93% (IgG Hepatitis A). Hbs Ag o Anti-Hbs Ag en 30.5% de la población en dos municipios (Santa Rosalía y Julio Zawady), en 2.5% en el municipio...

  7. Hepatitis fulminante en la Sierra Nevada: Una forma de superinfección del virus delta con el virus de la hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Villanueva

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante septiembre de 1980 a octubre de 1983, se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico para hepatitis A y B, en 258 personas en una ciudad (Santa Marta población de 250.000 y tres pequeños municipios (Santa Rosalía, Julio Zawady y Aracataca, poblaciones de 768, 800 y 5.000 habitantes respectivamente. La presencia de hepatitis A se encontró en un 77 a 93% (IgG Hepatitis A. Hbs Ag o Anti-Hbs Ag en 30.5% de la población en dos municipios (Santa Rosalía y Julio Zawady, en 2.5% en el municipio de Aracataca y 48.5% en la ciudad de Santa Marta. La presencia del Agente Delta (Anti-delta en el suero se determinó también en estas mismas poblaciones, encontrándose ausente en la ciudad y uno de los municipios (Aracataca, en contraste con una prevalencia de 13.7% y 22% en Julio Zawady y Santa Rosalía (P: 0.0001. Se excluyeron por historia clínica, antecedentes de drogadicción, transfusiones, o prácticas homosexuales, como mecanismos de transmisión de los virus B y delta. En veinte pacientes con diagnóstico histopalógico de hepatitis fulminante y en quienes se descartaron otras etiologías se demostró la presencia serológica de los virus de la hepatitis By Delta. De estos veinte, diez provenían de Julio Zawady y los otros diez de Santa Rosalía. La evolución clínica de esta enfermedad fue indistinguible de otras causas de falla hepática aguda. La mortalidad de estas formas fulminantes de hepatitis alcanzaron hasta un 65%. Los corticoides no modificaron el curso de esta enfermedad. La población joven mostró mayor compromiso y peor diagnóstico (P:0.033. La hepatitis fulminante de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta es el resultado de la superinfección con el virus Delta sobre la infección virus B. La aparición simultánea de casos intrafamiliares sugiere una relación importante entre los grupos comprometidos, aunque la forma exacta de transmisión permanece aún desconocida.

  8. Hepatitis autoinmune en la edad pediátrica Autoimmune hepatitis in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Romero

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis autoinmune es una enfermedad inflamatoria de origen desconocido responsable de una destrucción progresiva del hígado y evolución hacia la cirrosis. Objetivo: el objetivo es evaluar las características de las hepatitis autoinmunes en la población infantil. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticados en nuestro servicio en los últimos 10 años. Las variables analizadas son: edad, sexo, forma de presentación, función hepática, inmunoglobulinas, autoinmunidad, histología, tratamiento, necesidad de trasplante y evolución clínica. Según la positividad de los auto-anticuerpos se clasifican en tipo I (ANA y/o ASMA y tipo II (LKM-1. Resultados: se diagnostica a siete pacientes, 5 mujeres (71,5% y 2 varones (28,5%; tipo I 5 y tipo II dos pacientes. La edad al diagnóstico es 21 meses a 12 años. En el tipo I la presentación clínica es como hepatitis aguda en 3 casos y 2 pacientes con insuficiencia hepática progresiva. Las tipo II se diagnostican tras un hallazgo analítico siendo asintomáticas. La elevación de transaminasas (x10 su valor se observa en el 71,5% e hipergammaglobulinemia en el 85%. El tratamiento instaurado es azatioprina y corticosteroides con un tiempo medio de remisión de 14 meses. Dos pacientes recaen al retirar corticosteroides. Conclusión: las formas de presentación son variadas y puede ser indistinguible a una hepatitis viral. Se debe sospechar ante una elevación de las aminotransferasas y la presencia de hipergammaglobulinemia. Con buenos resultados el tratamiento recomendado sería azatioprina y corticosteroides. Existen altos porcentajes de recaídas al retirar la corticoterapia por lo que algunos pacientes precisarían de dosis mínimas para mantener la remisión.Background: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin that is responsible for progressive liver necrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. Objective: our aim was to evaluate

  9. Vitamin E decreases extra-hepatic menaquinone-4 concentrations in rats fed menadione or phylloquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sherry M; Leonard, Scott W; Labut, Edwin M; Raines, Hannah F; Card, David J; Harrington, Dominic J; Mustacich, Debbie J; Traber, Maret G

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism for increased bleeding and decreased vitamin K status accompanying vitamin E supplementation is unknown. We hypothesized that elevated hepatic α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations may stimulate vitamin K metabolism and excretion. Furthermore, α-T may interfere with the side chain removal of phylloquinone (PK) to form menadione (MN) as an intermediate for synthesis of tissue-specific menaquinone-4 (MK-4). In order to investigate these hypotheses, rats were fed phylloquinone (PK) or menadione (MN) containing diets (2 μmol/kg) for 2.5 weeks. From day 10, rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of either α-T (100 mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 24 h after the seventh injection. Irrespective of diet, α-T injections decreased MK-4 concentrations in brain, lung, kidney, and heart; and PK in lung. These decreases were not accompanied by increased excretion of urinary 5C- or 7C-aglycone vitamin K metabolites, however, the urinary α-T metabolite (α-CEHC) increased ≥ 100-fold. Moreover, α-T increases were accompanied by downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression and modified expression of tissue ATP-binding cassette transporters. Thus, in rats, high tissue α-T depleted tissue MK-4 without significantly increasing urinary vitamin K metabolite excretion. Changes in tissue MK-4 and PK levels may be a result of altered regulation of transporters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Regulation of energy substrate utilization and hepatic insulin sensitivity by phosphatidylcholine transfer protein/StarD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapa, Erez F; Pocai, Alessandro; Wu, Michele K; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Glenz, Lauren; Kanno, Keishi; Li, Hua; Biddinger, Sudha; Jelicks, Linda A; Rossetti, Luciano; Cohen, David E

    2008-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, also known as StarD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid binding protein with accentuated expression in oxidative tissues. Here we show that decreased plasma concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids in fasting PC-TP-deficient (Pctp(-/-)) mice are attributable to increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. In hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, Pctp(-/-) mice exhibited profound reductions in hepatic glucose production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and glucose cycling. These changes were explained in part by the lack of PC-TP expression in liver per se and in part by marked alterations in body fat composition. Reduced respiratory quotients in Pctp(-/-) mice were indicative of preferential fatty acid utilization for energy production in oxidative tissues. In the setting of decreased hepatic fatty acid synthesis, increased clearance rates of dietary triglycerides and increased hepatic triglyceride production rates reflected higher turnover in Pctp(-/-) mice. Collectively, these data support a key biological role for PC-TP in the regulation of energy substrate utilization.

  11. Treatment of chronic Hepatitis B virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño, N.; Moreno, D.; Sangro, B.

    2004-01-01

    El tratamiento del paciente con hepatitis crónica por virus B (VHB) debe realizarse bajo el conocimiento de que el porcentaje de pacientes infectados por el virus B que desarrollan hepatitis crónica se mantiene entre el 5-10%. De ellos, el 10-30% presentarán infección crónica con replicación viral activa, lesión hepática necroinflamatoria, evolución a cirrosis hepática y riesgo de desarrollar hepatocarcinoma. Por este motivo la meta del tratamiento es lograr la negativización del HBeAg, la se...

  12. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  13. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  14. Prevalencia de los marcadores serológicos de hepatitis viral B y C en retardados mentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Ma. Suárez Mendoza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 200 pacientes retrasados mentales del Hospital "La Castellana", a los cuales se les determinaron los marcadores serológicos: antígeno de superficie para el virus de la hepatitis B y anticuerpo para el virus de la hepatitis C, donde se encontró una seroprevalencia para el VHB de un 5 % y de un 17 % para el VHC; se comprueba que los pacientes con un régimen interno, con mayor tiempo de institucionalización y con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles son más susceptibles a adquirir estos virusSUMMARY: 200 mentally retarded patients from «La Castellana» Hospital were studied. The following serological markers were determined: hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibody. A seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C of 5 % and 17 %, respectively, was found. It was proved that interned patients with longer length of institutionalization and with non-communicable chronic diseases are more susceptible to get these viruses

  15. Peculiar behavior of magnetoresistance in HgSe single crystal with low electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchakov, A. T.; Bobin, S. B.; Deryushkin, V. V.; Okulov, V. I.; Govorkova, T. E.; Neverov, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetoresistive properties of the single crystal of HgSe with a low electron concentration were studied in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Some fundamental parameters of the spectrum and scattering of electrons were experimentally determined. Two important features of magnetic transport were found—strong transverse magnetoresistance (MR) and negative longitudinal MR, which can indicate the existence of the topological phase of the Weyl semimetal (WSM) in HgSe. Taking this hypothesis into account, we suggest a modified band diagram of mercury selenide at low electron energies. The obtained results are essential for the deeper understanding of both physics of gapless semiconductors and WSMs—promising materials for various applications in electronics, spintronics, computer, and laser technologies.

  16. Phosphine-free synthesis of high-quality reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe core with CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS multishell nanocrystals and their application for detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Yuan, Hang; Niu, Jin Zhong; Xu, Shasha; Zhou, Changhua; Ma, Lan; Li, Lin Song

    2011-09-01

    Highly photoluminescent (PL) reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) and ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS core/multishell NCs were successfully synthesized by a phosphine-free method. By this low-cost, 'green' synthesis route, more than 10 g of high-quality ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS NCs were synthesized in a large scale synthesis. After the overgrowth of a CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS multishell on ZnSe/CdSe cores, the PL quantum yields (QYs) increased from 28% to 75% along with the stability improvement. An amphiphilic oligomer was used as a surface coating agent to conduct a phase transfer experiment, core/multishell NCs were dissolved in water by such surface modification and the QYs were still kept above 70%. The as-prepared water dispersible ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS core/multishell NCs not only have high fluorescence QYs but also are extremely stable in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, a biosensor system (lateral flow immunoassay system, LFIA) for the detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was developed by using this water-soluble core/multishell NCs as a fluorescent label and a nitrocellulose filter membrane for lateral flow. The result showed that such ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/CdxZn1 - xS/ZnS core/multishell NCs were excellent fluorescent labels to detect HBsAg. The sensitivity of HBsAg detection could reach as high as 0.05 ng ml - 1.

  17. Activación linfocitaria en portadores del virus de la hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina; Collazo Borrego, Lucas Enrique; Borbolla Busquets, Elvira

    2000-01-01

    Se sabe que la evolución de las hepatitis virales agudas y crónicas de tipo B está particularmente relacionada con la respuesta inmune celular del huésped. Se caracterizó el estado funcional de los linfocitos T en individuos portadores del virus B y se estudió la activación linfoblástica en 13 portadores asintomáticos y 23 pacientes con hepatitis crónica activa con replicación viral y sin ella, determinada por la presencia del antígeno "e" en la muestra estudiada. Se analizaron las siguientes...

  18. Is hepatic steatosis associated with left ventricular mass index increase in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Katharina; Schmidt, Carsten O; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and change in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) over five years, and examine whether systolic and diastolic blood pressures are mediators of the association between hepatic steatosis and LVMI using a general population sample. METHODS We analyzed data from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The study population comprised 1298 individuals aged 45 to 81 years. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the presence of a hyperechogenic pattern of the liver together with elevated serum alanine transferase levels. Left ventricular mass was determined echocardiographically and indexed to height2.7. Path analyses were conducted to differentiate direct and indirect paths from hepatic steatosis to LVMI encompassing systolic and diastolic blood pressure as potential mediating variables. RESULTS Hepatic steatosis was a significant predictor for all measured echocardiographic characteristics at baseline. Path analyses revealed that the association of hepatic steatosis with LVMI change after five years was negligibly small (β = -0.12, s.e. = 0.21, P = 0.55). Systolic blood pressure at baseline was inversely associated with LVMI change (β = -0.09, s.e. = 0.03, P < 0.01), while no association between diastolic blood pressure at baseline and LVMI change was evident (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.05, P = 0.56). The effect of the indirect path from hepatic steatosis to LVMI via systolic baseline blood pressure was small (β = -0.20, s.e. = 0.10, P = 0.07). No indirect effect was observed for the path via diastolic baseline blood pressure (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.06, P = 0.60). Similar associations were observed in the subgroup of individuals not receiving beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system. CONCLUSION Baseline associations between hepatic steatosis and LVMI do not extend to associations with LVMI change after five years. More studies are needed to study the longitudinal effects of hepatic

  19. Toxicity and oxidative stress of different forms of organic selenium (Se) and dietary protein in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Heinz, G.; Eisemann, J.; Pendleton, G.

    1994-01-01

    High concentrations of Se have been found in aquatic food chains associated with irrigation drainwater and toxicity to fish and wildlife. Earlier studies have compared toxicities of Se as selenite and as seleno-DL-methionine (DL) in mallards. This study compares DL, seleno-L-methionine (L), selenized yeast (Y) and selenized wheat (W). Day-old mallard ducklings received an untreated diet (controls) containing 75% wheat (22% protein) or the same diet containing 15 or 30 ppm Se in the above forms. After 2 weeks blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical assays and Se analysis. All forms of selenium caused significant increases in plasma and hepatic glutathione peroxidase activities. Se as L was the most toxic, resulting in high mortality (64%) and impaired growth (>50%) and the greatest increase in ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione with 30 ppm in the diet. Se as Y accumulated the least in liver. In a subsequent experiment with 30% dietary protein Se as L was less toxic.

  20. Hepatic iron overload: Quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Horev, G.; Tamary, H.; Zandback, J.; Kornreich, L.; Zaizov, R.; Freud, E.; Krief, O.; Ben-Meir, J.; Rotem, H.

    1991-01-01

    Iron deposits demonstrate characteristically shortened T2 relaxation times. Several previously published studies reported poor correlation between the in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements made by means of midfield magnetic resonance (MR) units and the hepatic iron content of iron-overloaded patients. In this study, the authors assessed the use of in vivo 1/T2 measurements obtained by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T using short echo times (13.4 and 30 msec) and single-echo-sequences as well as computed tomographic (CT) attenuation as a measure of liver iron concentration in 10 severely iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. The iron concentrations in surgical wedge biopsy samples of the liver, which varied between 3 and 9 mg/g of wet weight (normal, less than or equal to 0.5 mg/g), correlated well (r = .93, P less than or equal to .0001) with the preoperative in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements. The CT attenuation did not correlate with liver iron concentration. Quantitative MR imaging is a readily available noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic iron concentration in iron-overloaded patients, reducing the need for needle biopsies of the liver

  1. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  2. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis A Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a man who has sex with other men, • use illegal drugs, • have a chronic liver disease such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C, • are being treated with clotting-factor concentrates, • work with hepatitis A-infected animals or in a hepatitis A research laboratory, or • expect to have close personal contact with ...

  4. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  5. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  6. Influence of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlambo, M. [Department of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: makwenam@vut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Moloto, N. [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Mdluli, P.S. [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: The temperature effect on the growth and size of silver selenide nanoparticles with the size distribution and XRD patterns. Highlights: ► The HDA-capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles were synthesized via the colloidal route. ► Temperature and monomer concentration of the reaction were varied. ► The concentration as a factor influenced particles with a decrease observed as the amount of Ag{sup +} ion source is increased. ► Temperature has expected influence on the growth of particles resulting in increase as the temperature is increased. ► TEM images shows spherical particles and their orthorhombic phase from structural analysis by XRD. - Abstract: The size dependent of temperature and precursor concentration on the synthesis of hexadecylamine capped Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles via the colloidal route were studied using the combination of optical and structural analysis. The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles showed the quantum confinement with all the obtained absorption band edges blue-shifted from the bulk and their corresponding emission maxima displaying a red-shift from band edges characterised by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The particle sizes were obtained from transmission electron microscopy analysis. The increase in precursor concentration resulted in a decrease in nanoparticle sizes. The increase in reaction temperature showed an increase in the nanoparticle sizes, when the critical temperature at 160 °C was reached, the nanoparticle sizes decreased.

  7. Hepatic hypervitaminosis A: a familial observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarles, J; Scheiner, C; Sarran, M; Giraud, F

    1990-01-01

    Four siblings with hepatic fibrosis are described. The liver damage in these patients was secondary to chronic ingestion of massive doses of vitamin A for congenital ichthyosis. Although the extrahepatic manifestations were helpful in the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A, the distinctive features of hepatic histopathology were confirmatory. The plasma concentrations of vitamin A and retinol-binding protein were misleading. The recovery from the liver damage in these patients was slow despite a complete withdrawal of the vitamin A intake. These cases show the importance of hepatic vitamin A assessment in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis.

  8. A window of opportunity: declining rates of hepatitis B virus infection among injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro, and prospects for targeted hepatitis B vaccination Ventana de oportunidad: reducción de las tasas de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B entre usuarios de drogas inyectadas en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y planes futuros en torno a la vacunación contra la hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A. N. Oliveira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure hepatitis B virus (HBV infection rates among injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to report their knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis and HBV vaccination. METHODS: 609 injection drug users recruited in Rio de Janeiro between 1999 and 2001 answered a questionnaire and were tested for hepatitis B and other blood-borne infections. Questions covered sociodemographic information, alcohol and illicit drug consumption, drug injection and sexual practices, medical history, and knowledge about HIV, AIDS and viral hepatitis. RESULTS: The prevalence of HBV infection was 27.1% , with 3.4% of the sample positive for HbsAg (active infection and 0.8% positive for anti-HBs (indicating previous HBV vaccination. Most interviewees (81.3% were aware of at least one form of viral hepatitis and received information from many different sources. In agreement with laboratory findings, 96.7% of the interviewees stated they had never been vaccinated against hepatitis B, but almost all unvaccinated interviewees (97.8% said they would volunteer to be vaccinated if HBV vaccination were available. CONCLUSIONS: Few of the injection drug users surveyed had ever been vaccinated against HBV. Although most were aware of the risks posed by viral hepatitis, this awareness seldom translated into consistent behavioral change. The participants' willingness to be vaccinated against HBV suggests that the implementation of vaccination for this population may help decrease rates of hepatitis B infection.OBJETIVOS: Calcular las tasas de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB en usuarios de drogas inyectadas en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y dar a conocer sus conocimientos y actitudes en torno a la hepatitis y a la vacunación contra el VHB. MÉTODOS: Seiscientos nueve usuarios de drogas que se reclutaron en Río de Janeiro entre 1999 y 2001 respondieron a un cuestionario y fueron sometidos a pruebas para detectar la presencia de hepatitis B

  9. Relationship of hepatic lipidosis to health and performance in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, B J; Herdt, T H; Emery, R S

    1986-04-15

    In a field study of 80 cows in 9 dairy herds, serial liver biopsies were performed over the peripartum period to determine degree of hepatic lipidosis. Cattle were separated into categories of mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis on the basis of maximal amounts of hepatic triglyceride that accumulated during this period. Number of cattle with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic lipidosis were 52, 16, and 12, respectively. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had greater concentrations of hepatic triglyceride before calving and after parturition, and greater serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations and body condition loss after parturition than cattle with mild hepatic lipidosis. Rate of disease and culling and death rate because of disease were greater in cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis. Cattle with severe hepatic lipidosis had reproductive performance equal to clinically normal cattle; however, cattle with moderate hepatic lipidosis had increased days to conception, possibly related to greater milk production.

  10. Determination of Se at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Alessandra S.; Rondan, Filipe S.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Mello, Paola A.; Perez, Magali; Armstrong, Joseph; Bullock, Liam A.; Parnell, John; Feldmann, Joerg; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2018-05-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of selenium at low concentration in coal by collision/reaction cell technology inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS). Samples were decomposed by high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) using 250 mg of coal, a mixture of 5 mL of 14.4 mol L-1 HNO3 and 1 mL of 40% HF and 70 min of heating program (200 °C and 40 bar). Hydrogen gas used in the collision/reaction cell was investigated to minimize the argon-based interferences at m/z 77, 78 and 80. The rejection parameter (RPq) and the H2 gas flow rate were set to 0.45 and 4.8 mL min-1, respectively. The use of H2 in the cell resulted in other polyatomic interferences, such as 76Ge1H+, 79Br1H+ and 81Br1H+, which impaired Se determination using 77Se, 80Se and 82Se isotopes, thus Se determination was carried out by monitoring only 78Se isotope. Selenium was determined in certified reference materials of coal (NIST 1635 and SARM 20) and an agreement better than 95% was observed between the results obtained by CRC-ICP-MS and the certified values. Under optimized conditions, the instrumental limit of detection was 0.01 μg L-1 and the method limit of detection was 0.01 μg g-1, which was suitable for Se determination at very low concentration in coal.

  11. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  12. Phosphine-free synthesis of high-quality reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe core with CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS multishell nanocrystals and their application for detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Huaibin; Niu Jin Zhong; Xu Shasha; Zhou Changhua; Li Linsong [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yuan Hang; Ma Lan, E-mail: malan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: lsli@henu.edu.cn [Life Science Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2011-09-16

    Highly photoluminescent (PL) reverse type-I ZnSe/CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) and ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS core/multishell NCs were successfully synthesized by a phosphine-free method. By this low-cost, 'green' synthesis route, more than 10 g of high-quality ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS NCs were synthesized in a large scale synthesis. After the overgrowth of a CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS multishell on ZnSe/CdSe cores, the PL quantum yields (QYs) increased from 28% to 75% along with the stability improvement. An amphiphilic oligomer was used as a surface coating agent to conduct a phase transfer experiment, core/multishell NCs were dissolved in water by such surface modification and the QYs were still kept above 70%. The as-prepared water dispersible ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS core/multishell NCs not only have high fluorescence QYs but also are extremely stable in various physiological conditions. Furthermore, a biosensor system (lateral flow immunoassay system, LFIA) for the detection of human hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was developed by using this water-soluble core/multishell NCs as a fluorescent label and a nitrocellulose filter membrane for lateral flow. The result showed that such ZnSe/CdSe/CdS/Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}S/ZnS core/multishell NCs were excellent fluorescent labels to detect HBsAg. The sensitivity of HBsAg detection could reach as high as 0.05 ng ml{sup -1}.

  13. Linking hepatitis C virus infection to pre-1994 blood transfusions in female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ramos Flores

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La mayor parte de las transfusiones se llevan a cabo en mujeres. La introducción en los bancos de sangre de las técnicas serológicas disminuyó la incidencia de infección por virus de hepatitis C después de una transfusión. En México, las pacientes que se transfundieron antes de 1994 están en riesgo de presentar una infección por virus de hepatitis C. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la asociación entre el antecedente transfusional antes de 1994 e infección por virus de hepatitis C en mujeres atendidas en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México. MÉTODOS Estudio observacional, analítico, de casos y controles, en el que se incluyeron mujeres sanas y mujeres con infección por hepatitis vírica tipo C, en las cuales se determinó el antecedente transfusional antes y después de 1994. El grupo de casos lo conforman 150 mujeres con diagnóstico serológico y confirmatorio de hepatitis C, en tanto el grupo control son 150 mujeres sanas con serología negativa. RESULTADOS Se encontró un odds ratio de 9,07 (intervalo de confianza 95% 5,37 – 15,3; p<0,001, una proporción de casos expuestos de 0,72, de controles expuestos de 0,22, una fracción atribuible poblacional de 0,64 (intervalo de confianza 0,53 – 0,73 y una fracción atribuible en expuestos de 0,88 (intervalo de confianza 0,81 – 0,93. CONCLUSIONES En las mujeres, el haber tenido una transfusión antes de 1994 en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, representa un riesgo 9,07 veces mayor de infección por virus de la hepatitis C que no tener antecedente transfusional en esa fecha.

  14. Hepatic ABC transporters and triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, John S; Chung, Soonkyu; Shelness, Gregory S

    2012-06-01

    Elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL concentrations are prominent features of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Individuals with Tangier disease also have elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low HDL, resulting from mutations in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates nascent HDL particle assembly. Past studies attributed the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride to intravascular lipid exchange and catabolic events. However, recent studies also suggest that hepatic signaling and lipid mobilization and secretion may explain how HDL affects plasma triglyceride concentrations. Hepatocyte-specific ABCA1 knockout mice have markedly reduced plasma HDL and a two-fold increase in triglyceride due to failure to assemble nascent HDL particles by hepatocytes, causing increased catabolism of HDL apolipoprotein A-I and increased hepatic production of triglyceride-enriched VLDL. In-vitro studies suggest that nascent HDL particles may induce signaling to decrease triglyceride secretion. Inhibition of microRNA 33 expression in nonhuman primates augments hepatic ABCA1, genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, and decreases expression of lipogenic genes, causing increased plasma HDL and decreased triglyceride levels. New evidence suggests potential mechanisms by which hepatic ABCA1-mediated nascent HDL formation regulates VLDL-triglyceride production and contributes to the inverse relationship between plasma HDL and triglyceride.

  15. Hepatitis B reactivation and current clinical impact Reactivación de la hepatitis B y su impacto clínico actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Álvarez Suárez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV reactivation results from increased viral replication in inactive carriers or patients with prior infection with HBV. Reactivation may occur spontaneously or secondary to immunomodulating or immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Reactivation may manifest with no symptoms but on occasion results in acute or even severe acute hepatitis. Prevention is the best management approach, hence HBV screening using serology should be performed for all patients undergoing any immunomodulating, immunosuppressive or chemotherapeutic treatment. Antiviral prophylaxis has proven effective in inactive carriers and in some patients with former infection with HBV undergoing selected immunosuppressive therapies.La reactivación del virus de la hepatitis B se debe a un aumento de la replicación del virus en pacientes portadores inactivos o con infecciones pasadas de VHB. La reactivación puede producirse espontáneamente o de manera secundaria a tratamientos de quimioterapia, inmunomoduladores o inmunosupresores. La reactivación puede manifestarse de manera asintomática pero en algunos casos puede causar hepatitis agudas e incluso hepatitis agudas graves. El mejor tratamiento es la prevención por lo que se debe realizar un cribado del VHB mediante una serología a todos los pacientes que vayan a someterse a cualquier tratamiento inmunomodulador, de quimioterapia o inmunosupresor. El tratamiento profiláctico antiviral ha demostrado ser eficaz en los pacientes portadores inactivos y en algunos pacientes con infecciones pasadas de VHB sometidos a ciertos tratamientos inmunosupresores.

  16. Correlation of hepatic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 ± 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), γ -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and γ -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration

  17. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  18. Effect of nickel chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione concentration in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1989-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of nickel chloride enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation (HLP) in 6-wk-old and 8-12-wk-old male CBA-mice but not in 3-wk-old mice. Nickel chloride administration depleted hepatic GSH in 8-12-wk-old mice but not in the younger age groups. After 300 mumol NiCl2/kg...

  19. Factores asociados a una respuesta inadecuada a la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en personal sanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosa Martínez Natividad; Tenías Burillo José María; Pérez Bermúdez Brígido; Sanchis Álvarez Juan Bautista

    1998-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: La vacuna recombinante contra la hepatitis B confiere inmunidad aproximadamente en el 95 % de los casos, pero existe un porcentaje que responde insuficientemente. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los factores que se asocian con una inadecuada respuesta inmunitaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio observacional y analítico en el que se sigue retrospectivamente una cohorte de sujetos vacunados frente al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). Se recogieron las variables de interés del ...

  20. Thermoelectric transport of Se-rich Ag2Se in normal phases and phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wenlong; Lv, Yanhong; Qiu, Pengfei; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Zhang, Tiansong

    2014-01-01

    Small amount of Se atoms are used to tune the carrier concentrations (n H ) and electrical transport in Ag 2 Se. Significant enhancements in power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) are observed in the compositions of Ag 2 Se 1.06 and Ag 2 Se 1.08 . The excessive Se atoms do not change the intrinsically electron-conducting character in Ag 2 Se. The detailed analysis reveals the experiment optimum carrier concentration in Ag 2 Se is around 5 × 10 18  cm −3 . We also investigate the temperature of maximum zT and the thermoelectric transport during the first order phase transitions using the recently developed measurement system

  1. Infección simultánea por el virus de la hepatitis E y de otras hepatitis virales en Colombia y su caracterización genotípica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dioselina Peláez

    2016-08-01

    Conclusiones. La mayor seropositividad se registró para las hepatitis A y E. La frecuencia de la infección simultánea con el virus de la hepatitis E y otros virus hepatótropos indica que este patógeno puede ser más frecuente de lo esperado. La circulación del genotipo 3a implica que esta enfermedad puede presentarse en forma de brote y de zoonosis en Colombia.

  2. Effects of dietary selenium on tissue concentrations,pathology, oxidative stress, and immune function in common eiders (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David; Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Finley, Daniel L.; Flint, Paul L.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2007-01-01

    Common eiders (Somateria mollissima) were fed added Se (as L-selenomethionine) in concentrations increasing from 10 to 80 ppm in a pilot study (Study 1) or 20 (low exposure) and up to 60 (high exposure) ppm Se in Study 2. Body weights of Study 1 ducks and high-exposure ducks in Study 2 declined rapidly. Mean concentrations of Se in blood reached 32.4 ppm wet weight in Study 1 and 17.5 ppm wet weight in high-exposure birds in Study 2. Mean Se concentrations in liver ranged from 351 (low exposure, Study 2) to 1252 ppm dry weight (Study 1). Oxidative stress was evidenced by Se-associated effects on glutathione metabolism. As Se concentrations in liver increased, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, oxidized glutathione levels, and the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione increased. In Study 2, the T-cell-mediated immune response was adversely affected in high-exposure eiders, but ducks in the low-exposure group exhibited evidence of an enhanced antibody-mediated immune response. Gross lesions in high-exposure ducks included emaciation, absence of thymus, and loss of nails from digits. Histologic lesions included severe depletion of lymphoid organs, hepatopathy, and necrosis of feather pulp and feather epithelium. Field studies showed that apparently healthy sea ducks generally have higher levels of Se in liver than healthy fresh-water birds, but lower than concentrations found in our study. Data indicate that common eiders and probably other sea ducks possess a higher threshold, or adverse effect level, for Se in tissues than fresh-water species. However, common eiders developed signs of Se toxicity similar to those seen in fresh-water birds.

  3. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae; Cha, Judy J.; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrot, Pascal; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Guibert, Pierre; Bouculat, François; Cassagnes, Lucie; Léger-Enreille, Anne; Buc, Emmanuel; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bommelaer, Gilles; Boyer, Louis; Abergel, Armand

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T 1/2 ) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC 24 ) values were significantly decreased after embolization (C max p = 0.0075; AUC 24 p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of C max , respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T 1/2 and AUC ∞ values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T 1/2 elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  6. Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlemann, Barbara; Jones, Terry C.; Damgaard, Peter de Barros

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatitis. There is considerable uncertainty about the timescale of its evolution and its association with humans. Here we present 12 full or partial ancient HBV genomes that are between approximately 0.8 and 4.5 thousand years old. The ancient se...

  7. Presencia del antígeno de superficie del virus hepatitis B en donantes de sangre Presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarelis Prieto Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis B es considerada un importante problema de salud pública mundial, por su amplia distribución geográfica y elevado número de portadores crónicos. Objetivo: demostrar la asociación existente entre el virus de la hepatitis B con factores de riesgo como: edad, raza, intervenciones quirúrgicas, conducta sexual, tatuajes y tratamiento estomatológico. Material y método: se realizó un estudio longitudinal, aplicado y prospectivo en los donantes de sangre del municipio Sandino, en el período de septiembre de 2010 a agosto del de 2011; se les aplicó una encuesta epidemiológica y realizó el antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B. La muestra fue de 1420 donantes. Resultados: se encontraron 18 positivos al antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B, para un 1,3 %, predominó el grupo etáreo de 18-34 años (45,2 % y la raza blanca (60,2 %, el 80,7% no temían intervenciones quirúrgicas, en cuanto a la conducta sexual el 99,3 % heterosexual y los no tatuados predominaron con un 99,3 %. Respecto al tratamiento estomatológico recibido en el último año fue más representativo el grupo que no había recibido tratamiento para un 67,2 %, encontrándose diferencia estadísticamente significativa. Conclusiones: hay una elevada prevalencia del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre de Sandino, no hay asociación entre la edad, raza, intervenciones quirúrgicas, conducta sexual y tatuajes y la aparición del virus de la hepatitis B. Por el contrario, si hubo relación entre el virus de la hepatitis B y el tratamiento estomatológico.Introduction: hepatitis B is considered an important public health problem all over the world, due to the ample geographic distribution and high number of chronic carriers. Objective: to demonstrate the association of hepatitis B virus with risk factors such as: age, race, surgical interventions, sexual preference, tattoos and dental treatment. Material and method: a longitudinal

  8. Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis en pacientes con cirrosis hepática en Yucatán, México Frequency of antibodies against the hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatic cirrhosis in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán A Góngora-Biachi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En este estudio reportamos la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis (Ac-VCH en un grupo de pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio prospectivo, transversal y descriptivo, de marzo de 1998 a mayo de 1999. Se estudiaron a 153 pacientes (117 (76% hombres y 36 (24% mujeres con diagnóstico de CH, que eran atendidos en el Hospital General Agustín O' Horan y en el Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Doctor Hideyo Noguchi, en la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario con datos clínico-epidemiológicos y se determinó la presencia de Ac-VCH (ELISA de 2ª generación y RIBA-2 para confirmar el diagnóstico a cada paciente. Se determinó también el antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (AgsHB y anticuerpos contra el antígeno central de la hepatitis B (Anti-HBc mediante el método de ELISA. La presencia de Ac-VCH fue relacionada con las variables epidemiológicas de los sujetos. La prevalencia de anti-HCV y la frecuencia de características se compararon entre los pacientes positivos y negativos con las pruebas de c² y exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: El 32% de los pacientes con CH (35/117 (30% hombres y 14/36 (39% mujeres fueron positivos para los Ac-VCH. El alcoholismo estuvo presente en todos los hombres serorreactivos y en ninguna de las mujeres positivas (pOBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of antibodies against the hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV in a group of patients with hepatic cirrhosis (HC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective transversal and descriptive study was carried out from March 1998 to May 1999. Study subjects were 153 patients; 117 (76% male and 36 (24% female, diagnosed with HC. They were attended at the General Hospital Agustín O' Horan and at Regional Research Center Doctor Hideyo Noguchi, in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. A clinical-epidemiologic questionnaire completed by interview was used for data collection. Anti-HCV were detected

  9. Correlation of hepatic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 {+-} 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), {gamma} -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and {gamma} -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration.

  10. Role of Mn2+ concentration in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugop, B.; Prasanth, S.; Rithesh Raj, D.; Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Pranitha, S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2016-12-01

    Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were successfully synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and their structural and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Visible absorption and photo luminescence spectroscopy. XRD pattern reveals the hexagonal structure of the particles and the peak positions were shifted to higher 2θ values with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The average particle size determined from XRD varies from 6 to 11 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows absorption edge around the blue region and is red-shifted with increasing Mn2+ concentration consequently the optical bandgap energy is decreasing. The PL emission spectrum shows a broad emission around 380 nm, and the intensity of the emission decreases with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were analysed using Z-scan technique and the samples show optical limiting behaviour and the 2 PA coefficient increases with increasing Mn2+ concentration. Overall, manganese concentration influences the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles.

  11. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrot, Pascal, E-mail: pchabrot@chu-clermontferrand.fr [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Cardot, Jean-Michel [Universite d' Auvergne Clermont 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Service de Biopharmacie (France); Guibert, Pierre; Bouculat, Francois [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Cassagnes, Lucie [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Leger-Enreille, Anne [Centre Jean Perrin, Service de Biologie (France); Buc, Emmanuel [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Dechelotte, Pierre [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service d' Anatomie-Pathologique (France); Bommelaer, Gilles [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Boyer, Louis [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Abergel, Armand [Universite d' Auvergne Clermont 1, Faculte de Medecine, ISIT, UMR CNRS 6284 (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T{sub 1/2}) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC{sub 24}) values were significantly decreased after embolization (C{sub max}p = 0.0075; AUC{sub 24}p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of C{sub max}, respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} and AUC{sub {infinity}} values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  12. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  13. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, L; Sharkey, L C; Armstrong, P J; Little, K; Rendahl, A

    2016-01-01

    Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Twenty-eight client-owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. Prospective observational study. Serum BHB concentrations were measured at admission in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, for comparison with a reference interval established using healthy cats. Results of dipstick urine ketone measurement, when available, were compared to BHB measurement. Beta hydroxybutyrate was above the reference interval (<0.11 mmol/L) in 6/28 cats (21%) with CKD, 7/34 cats (20%) with HT, and 11/15 cats (73%) with HL, significantly exceeding the expected 2.5% above the reference interval for healthy cats (P < .001 for all groups). Elevations were mild in CKD and HT groups (median BHB 0.1 mmol/L for both groups, 80th percentile 0.12 and 0.11 mmol/L, respectively), but more marked in HL cats (median BHB 0.2 mmol/L, 80th percentile 0.84 mmol/L). None of 11 cats with increased serum BHB concentration having urine dipstick analysis performed within 24 h of sampling for BHB were ketonuric. Increases in serum BHB concentrations occur in cats with CKD, HT, and HL, and might provide an useful index of catabolism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. The role of MR imaging in detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurowska, Edyta; Sikorska, Katarzyna; Izycka-Swieszewska, E; Nowicki, Tomasz; Romanowski, Tomasz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Studniarek, Michał

    2010-01-27

    There are many pathological conditions with hepatic iron overload. Classical definite diagnostic methods of these disorders are invasive and based on a direct tissue biopsy material. For the last years the role of MR imaging in liver diagnostics has been increasing. MRI shows changes of liver intensity in patients with hepatic iron overload. Changes in MR signal are an indirect consequence of change of relaxation times T2 and T2*, that can be directly measured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate usefulness of MR imaging in the detection of hepatic iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins. MR imaging at 1.5T was prospectively performed in 44 patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone liver biopsy with histopathological assessment of hepatic iron deposits. In all patients the following sequences were used: SE, Express, GRE in T2 and T1-weighted images. Signal intensity (SI) was measured on images obtained with each T2 weighted sequence by means of regions of interest, placed in the liver and paraspinal muscles. The correlation between iron overload, histopathological score, serum ferritin and SI ratio was analyzed. In 20 patients with iron overload confirmed by the biopsy, the liver parenchyma demonstrated lower signal intensity than that of paraspinal muscles. This effect was visible only in 8 patients with hepatic iron overload in Express T2-weighted images. Higher signal intensity of liver than that of skeletal muscles on GRE - T2 weighted images was noted in 24 patients with cirrhosis and without elevated hepatic iron concentration. We observed a correlation between low and high iron concentration and liver to muscle SI ratio. MR imaging is a useful and fast noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of liver iron overload in patients with cirrhosis of different origins.Liver to muscle SI ratio in GRE-T2-weighted sequence facilitates to differentiate patients with low and high degree of hepatic iron overload, which correlates

  15. Effects of Arsenic in Drinking Water on Risk of Hepatitis or Cirrhosis in Persons With and Without Chronic Viral Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-I; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Fang-I; Yang, Tse-Yen; Wen-Juei Jeng, Rachel; Liu, Chien-Ting; Chen, Chi-Ling; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is associated with hepatomegaly and death from liver cancer. However, confounding factors related to liver diseases have not been carefully studied. We examined associations between exposure of arsenic in drinking water and risk of hepatitis and cirrhosis, and the interaction with chronic viral hepatitis, in people living in the Lanyang Basin of northeastern Taiwan, where well water has an arsenic content that ranges from undetectable to 3590 μg/L. We tested blood samples from 4387 people who lived in arseniasis-endemic areas in northeastern Taiwan from 1991 through 1994 for hepatitis B virus DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). We measured arsenic concentrations in well water and collected information on residents' histories of major chronic diseases. Reports of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis were ascertained using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Reports of liver cancer were ascertained using the Taiwan National Cancer Registry. Prevalence odds ratios in the overall study population for chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis for well water arsenic concentrations of ≤10 μg/L were 1.00 (reference), 0.93 for 10.1-49.9 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-1.52), 1.24 for 50.0-99.9 μg/L (95% CI, 0.68-2.23), 0.98 for 100.0-299.9 (95% CI, 0.52-1.85), and 1.86 for ≥300.0 μg/L (95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Increasing levels of arsenic in drinking water were associated with increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis in residents who were seronegative for HBsAg and seronegative for anti-HCV, but not for seropositive for either HBsAg or anti-HCV. In individuals who were seropositive for HBsAg or anti-HCV, we observed an inverse association between hepatitis or cirrhosis and consumption of water with levels of arsenic ≥100.0 μg/L. Among participants who were seropositive for HBsAg or anti-HCV, consumption of water with levels of arsenic ≥100.0 μg/L was associated

  16. Precursor concentration and temperature controlled formation of polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe-quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan P. Shah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol-capped CdSe quantum dots, with a size within their quantum confinement limit, were prepared in aqueous solution at room temperature, by a simple and environmentally friendly chemical method. The size of the CdSe quantum dots was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the precursors of cadmium and selenium ions, as well as on the aging time and the reaction temperature; all of which could be used conveniently for tuning the size of the particles, as well as their optical properties. The synthesized quantum dots were characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The samples were fluorescent at room temperature; the green fluorescence was assigned to band edge emission, and the near-infrared fluorescence peaks at about 665 and 865 nm were assigned to shallow and deep trap states emissions, respectively. The quantum dots were fairly stable up to several days.

  17. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and liver cytosol antibody type 1 concentrations in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, L; Cataleta, M; Muratori, P; Lenzi, M; Bianchi, F

    1998-01-01

    Background—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol antibody type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). 
Aims—Since LKM1 and LC1 react against two distinct liver specific autoantigens (cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and a 58 kDa cytosolic polypeptide respectively), the aim was to see whether LKM1 and LC1 concentrations correlate with liver disease activity. 
Patients—Twenty one patients with type 2 AIH were studied. 
Methods—A...

  18. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  19. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundy, R.G.; Simpson, J.D.; Ross, H.M.; Merrick, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-[ 75 Se]selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/μCi, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/μCi. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 μCi. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 μCi has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 μCi, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract

  20. Absorbed dose to man from the Se-75 labeled conjugated bile salt SeHCAT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundy, R.G.; Simpson, J.D.; Ross, H.M.; Merrick, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose that would result from the oral or intravenous administration of SeHCAT (23-[75Se]selena-25-homotaurocholate) has been calculated using the MIRD tables and formulas and data from measurements of whole-body distribution and from long-term whole-body counting in rats, mice, and man. When SeHCAT is administered to normal subjects, the gallbladder is the critical organ, receiving 12 mrad (oral dose) or 22 mrad (i.v.) per microcurie. The whole-body dose is 1 mrad/microCi, whatever the route of administration. In severe hepatic failure the liver might receive 200 mrad/microCi. The activity likely to be used in routine clinical practice is 10 microCi. Where a whole-body counter is used, an activity of 1 microCi has proved adequate. Even at an administered activity of 25 microCi, the absorbed dose is small compared with established techniques of investigating the gastrointestinal tract

  1. Effect of sulfonylureas on hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    In isolated rat livers perfused with oleic acid (0.1 mM), infusion of tolbutamide or glyburide decreased the rate of ketogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was maximal at 2.0 mM and 10 μM concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide, respectively. Neither tolbutamide nor glyburide inhibited ketogenesis in livers perfused with octanoate. The inhibition of hepatic ketogenesis by sulfonylureas was independent of perfusate oleic acid concentration. Additionally, in rat livers perfused with oleic acid in the presence of L-(-)-carnitine (10 mM), submaximal concentrations of tolbutamide and glyburide did not inhibit hepatic ketogenesis. Finally, glyburide infusion into livers perfused with [U- 1 $C]oleic acid (0.1 mM) increased the rate of 14 C label incorporation into hepatic triglycerides by 2.5-fold. These data suggest that both tolbutamide and glyburide inhibit long-chain fatty acid oxidation by inhibition the key regulatory enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, most probably by competing with L-(-)-carnitine

  2. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  3. An iron-deficient diet stimulates the onset of the hepatitis due to hepatic copper deposition in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Naoki; Sugawara, Chieko [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-09-01

    To study effects of dietary Cu and Fe levels on the onset of hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, female rats (40 days old) were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.1 or 10 mg Cu/kg and 1.5 or 150 mg Fe/kg in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement for 35 days. At 75 days after birth, LEC rats (+Cu-Fe) fed a Cu-sufficient but Fe-deficient diet (Cu, 10 mg/kg; Fe, 1.5 mg/kg) showed jaundice, with lethargy, anorexia, and malaise. The biochemical variables relating to liver function were significantly increased compared to three other groups, a Cu- and Fe-deficient (-Cu-Fe) group, a Cu-deficient but Fe-sufficient (-Cu+Fe) group, and a Cu and Fe sufficient (+Cu+Fe) group. Furthermore, the +Cu-Fe rat liver showed massive necrosis with huge nuclei. The other three groups presented no biochemical and histological findings of hepatitis. Hepatic Cu and metallothionein concentrations were 289 {+-} 87 (mean {+-} SD) {mu}g/g liver and 8.7 {+-} 1.8 mg/g liver, respectively, in the +Cu-Fe rats. However, in the +Cu+Fe group the values were 196 {+-} 28 {mu}g Cu/g liver and 10.8 {+-} 1.0 mg/g liver. Hepatic Fe deposition was not influenced significantly by the dietary Cu level. The +Cu-Fe group with jaundice showed the highest free Cu concentration in the liver among the four groups, but the hepatic free Fe concentration was similar to those in the -Cu+Fe and +Cu+Fe groups. Our results indicate that an Fe-deficient diet enhances the deposition of hepatic Cu due to increased absorption of Cu from the gastrointestinal tract. This deposition stimulated the onset of hepatitis. (orig.)

  4. Clinical evaluation of drug-induced hepatitis Evaluación clínica de las hepatitis producidas por fármacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martí

    2005-04-01

    ínicas-, analíticas y evolutivos -evolución a curación o cronicidad. Resultados: diagnosticamos un total de 61 pacientes con hepatitis por fármacos, 26 hombres y 35 mujeres, con edad media 52.4 ± 17 años y edades superiores a los 40 años en el 72,2%. Se produjo ingreso hospitalario en el 43% de los casos. En la mayoría de los pacientes (87% existían dos o más fármacos siendo los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, neurofármacos y antituberculosos, los que con más frecuencia encontramos implicados en la aparición de la enfermedad hepática. La evolución a curación se produce en el 94% de los casos. Conclusiones: las hepatitis por fármacos se presentan más frecuentemente en edades superiores a los 40 años (72% y en mujeres (57%, siendo los fármacos más frecuentemente implicados los antiinflamatorios (45 casos, neurofármacos (26 casos y antituberculosos (19 casos. La mayoría de los casos evolucionó a la curación.

  5. Análise da produção científica sobre Hepatite B na pós-graduação de enfermagem Análisis de la producción cientifica sobre Hepatitis B en el post-grado de enfermería Analysis of the scientific production on Hepatitis B in post-graduate nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Maria Calixto de Carvalho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa bibliográfica, com enfoque na hepatite B, com o objetivo de identificar onde estão sendo realizadas estas pesquisas; qual a natureza, o tipo e a ênfase de estudo. Pesquisou-se na base de dados CEPEn e Banco de Teses da CAPES, no período de 2000 a 2006, utilizando os descritores: hepatite B e vacina contra hepatite B. Encontrou-se 21 pesquisas, dois centros de pesquisa concentram os estudos, Universidade de São Paulo (47,6% e Universidade Federal de Goiás (23,8%. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos em curso de mestrados (95,2 % e doutorado (4,8%, a maioria deles é de natureza quantitativa (95,2%. Quanto à ênfase do estudo, 61,9 % são relacionados a acidente ocupacional e 19,0 % a estudos com soroprevalência da hepatite B.Investigación bibliográfica, con enfoque en la hepatitis B, con el objetivo de identificar dónde están siendo realizadas estas investigaciones; cuál es la naturaleza, el tipo y el énfasis del estudio. Se investigó en la base de datos CEPEn y Banco de Tesis de la CAPES, en el período de 2000 a 2006, utilizando las palabras clave: hepatitis B y vacuna contra hepatitis B. Se encontró 21 investigaciones, dos centros de investigación concentran los estudios, Universidad de San Paulo (47,6% y Universidad Federal de Goiás (23,8%. Los estudios desarrollados en el curso de maestría (95,2% y doctorado (4,8%, la mayoría de ellos son de naturaleza cuantitativa (95,2%. En cuanto el énfasis del estudio, 61,9% son relacionados a accidente ocupacional y 19,0% a estudios con soroprevalência de la hepatitis B.A bibliographic study focusing on Hepatitis B, aiming to identify where the studies are taking place, their nature, type and the emphasis of the studies was undertaken. Research was done through the CEPEn Thesis Bank for the period of 2000 through 2006,using the descriptors: "Hepatitis B" and "Hepatitis B Vaccine". Twenty-one (21 studies were found concentrated in two centers of study: University of São Paulo

  6. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  7. Hepatitis C: Lo que debe saber (Hepatitis C: What You Need to Know)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-07

    Este podcast está basado en el informe Vital Signs de los CDC de mayo del 2013. Trata sobre la hepatitis C, una infección viral grave, y la necesidad de que todas las personas nacidas entre 1945 y 1964 se hagan una prueba de detección.  Created: 5/7/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/7/2013.

  8. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT. El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos con variaciones en sus niveles de tirotropina (TSH y hormonas tiroideas. En el seguimiento postratamiento, el paciente continuó con hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. La tiroiditis autoinmune es una complicación frecuente del uso de interferón en pacientes con hepatitis C. En algunos casos se presenta como hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. Se debe evaluar la función tiroidea y los anticuerpos antitiroideos antes y durante el tratamiento con interferón.A 43 year old man presented with asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no relevant past history. The patient denied being a chronic alcohol drinker. Work-up revealed an active hepatitis C, and liver biopsy showed active inflammation. Treatment was started with interferon-alfa and ribavirin. During the 48 weeks of treatment, the patient developed positive thyroid antibodies with varying level of thyrotropin (TSH and thyroid hormones. At follow-up after treatment, the patient continued with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common complication of using interferon in patients with hepatitis C. In some cases, it is presented as hyperthyroidism because of Graves’ disease. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be evaluated before and during treatment with interferon.

  9. Comparison of two recombinant hepatitis B vaccines and their interchangeability in Argentine infants Comparación de dos vacunas recombinantes contra la hepatitis B y su intercambiabilidad en lactantes argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two pediatric recombinant hepatitis B vaccines-the Engerix-B reference vaccine and the Euvax-B vaccine-in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity, and also to investigate their interchangeability, that is, whether a three-dose hepatitis B vaccination schedule begun with a first dose of Engerix-B could be completed with two doses of Euvax-B. METHODS: This study was conducted in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, from March 1999 through February 2000. Three groups of Argentine newborns (100 per group were vaccinated at 0, 1, and 6 months of age with hepatitis B vaccine: group A, three doses of Euvax-B; group B, three doses of Engerix-B; and group C, one dose of Engerix-B followed by two doses of Euvax-B. Reactogenicity was evaluated based on parental reporting of any solicited local or systemic event occurring during the 7-day period following vaccination. Whether Euvax-B and Engerix-B were clinically identical was assessed in terms of the seroprotection rates (antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg >10 milli-international units per mL (mIU/mL 2 months after the third vaccination. RESULTS: Reactogenicity was low in all three groups. Five months after the second dose (that is, immediately prior to the third vaccination, seroprotection rates were 95.9%, 94.7%, and 90.2% for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Two months after the third dose all subjects were seroprotected, with geometric mean concentrations of anti-HBsAg of 2 468.1, 1 714.8, and 2 075.3 mIU/mL for groups A, B, and C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Both of the recombinant hepatitis B vaccines that we studied were well tolerated and highly immunogenic. Euvax-B was clinically identical (not inferior to the Engerix-B reference vaccine, and either vaccine could be used to achieve the World Health Organization goal of immunizing all infants against hepatitis B. Further, Euvax-B can be safely used in infants given an initial dose of either Euvax-B or Engerix

  10. The determination of Se content in Se egg by NAA in MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Hou Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    The selenium contents in the yolk, albumin and shell of the egg which was laid by layer hen fed with various Se concentrations are determined by thermal neutron activation analysis with a nuclear reaction 78 Se(n, γ) 77 Se m on the miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR). The results show that the more the selenium added to the feed, the higher the Se content in the egg and that in the egg constituents, the highest Se content is in the egg yolk and the lowest in the egg albumin

  11. Stable isotope and trace element status of subsistence-hunted bowhead and beluga whales in Alaska and gray whales in Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehn, Larissa-A. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000 (United States)]. E-mail: ftld@uaf.edu; Follmann, Erich H. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000 (United States); Rosa, Cheryl [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000 (United States); Duffy, Lawrence K. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000 (United States); Thomas, Dana L. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6660 (United States); Bratton, Gerald R. [Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Taylor, Robert J. [Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M. [Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000 (United States); Department of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough, Barrow, AK 99725 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Tissues of bowhead, beluga, and gray whales were analyzed for Ag, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, THg and MeHg (belugas only). {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C in muscle were used to estimate trophic position and feeding habitat, respectively. Trace element concentrations in tissues were significantly different among whale species. Hepatic Ag was higher in belugas than bowheads and gray whales. Gray whales had lower Cd concentrations in liver and kidney than bowhead and belugas and a sigmoid correlation of Cd with length was noted for all whales. Renal and hepatic Se and THg were higher in belugas than in baleen whales. The hepatic molar ratio of Se:THg exceeded 1:1 in all species and was negatively correlated to body length. Hepatic and renal Zn in subsistence-harvested gray whales was lower than concentrations for stranded whales. Se:THg molar ratios and tissue concentrations of Zn may show promise as potential indicators of immune status and animal health.

  12. Stable isotope and trace element status of subsistence-hunted bowhead and beluga whales in Alaska and gray whales in Chukotka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehn, Larissa-A.; Follmann, Erich H.; Rosa, Cheryl; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Thomas, Dana L.; Bratton, Gerald R.; Taylor, Robert J.; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of bowhead, beluga, and gray whales were analyzed for Ag, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, THg and MeHg (belugas only). δ 15 N and δ 13 C in muscle were used to estimate trophic position and feeding habitat, respectively. Trace element concentrations in tissues were significantly different among whale species. Hepatic Ag was higher in belugas than bowheads and gray whales. Gray whales had lower Cd concentrations in liver and kidney than bowhead and belugas and a sigmoid correlation of Cd with length was noted for all whales. Renal and hepatic Se and THg were higher in belugas than in baleen whales. The hepatic molar ratio of Se:THg exceeded 1:1 in all species and was negatively correlated to body length. Hepatic and renal Zn in subsistence-harvested gray whales was lower than concentrations for stranded whales. Se:THg molar ratios and tissue concentrations of Zn may show promise as potential indicators of immune status and animal health

  13. Speciation of Se and DOC in soil solution and their relation to Se bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Supriatin, Supriatin; Bussink, Wim; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-01-01

    A 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction is often used to asses the bioavailability of plant nutrients in soils. However, almost no correlation was found between selenium (Se) in the soil extraction and Se content in grass. The recently developed anion Donnan membrane technique was used to analyze chemical speciation of Se in the 0.01 M CaCl(2) extractions of grassland soils and fractionation of DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The results show that most of Se (67-86%) in the extractions (15 samples) are colloidal-sized Se. Only 13-34% of extractable Se are selenate, selenite and small organic Se (<1 nm). Colloidal Se is, most likely, Se bound to or incorporated in colloidal-sized organic matter. The dominant form of small Se compounds (selenate, selenite/small organic compounds) depends on soil. A total of 47-85% of DOC is colloidal-sized and 15-53% are small organic molecules (<1 nm). In combination with soluble S (sulfur) and/or P (phosphor), concentration of small DOC can explain most of the variability of Se content in grass. The results indicate that mineralization of organic Se is the most important factor that controls Se availability in soils. Competition with sulfate and phosphate needs to be taken into account. Further research is needed to verify if concentration of small DOC is a good indicator of mineralization of soil organic matter.

  14. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  15. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  16. Tests for the absorption of /sup 75/Se-labelled homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (/sup 75/Se-HCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, H.J.; Berberich, R.; Mueller, K.P.; Feifel, G.; Ecker, K.W.

    1985-05-01

    The absorption of selenomethionine Se 75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (/sup 75/-SE-HCAT) was tested in 46 patients. Retention measurements using (1) an uncollimated gamma camera and (2) a measuring arrangement similar to a human-body counter were compared in order to obtain a quantitative assessment of the absorption capacity of the terminal ileum for bile acids. The retention curve obtained after the oral administration of the /sup 75/Se-labelled bile-acid analogue showed a monoexponential decline; in the case of unimpaired absorption, the half-life was greater than 2.5 days. When more than 30 cm of the ileum had been eliminated by inflammatory infection or resection, the measured half-life was below 0.5 days due to malabsorption. We also performed a quantitative determination of the hepatic secretion of /sup 75/-Se-HCAT into the gall bladder. If more than 80% of the activity administered is found in the gall bladder, disturbed absorption of bile acids in the terminal ileum can be excluded. Values smaller than 80%, however, do not provide proof of disturbed absorption.

  17. Zinc concentration effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus [Department of Electrical and Electronic, Engineering Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Yıldırım, M. Ali, E-mail: mayildirim@erzincan.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ateş, Aytunç [Department of Material Engineering, Engineering and Natural Sciences Faculty, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Yıldırım, Muhammet [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatürk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were deposited using SILAR method. ► The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration (x). ► The resistivity and activation energy changed as a function of the zinc concentration (x). -- Abstract: Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films with different compositions (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The zinc concentration (x) effect on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Se thin films were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all the films exhibited polycrystalline nature and were covered well on glass substrates. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis confirmed nearly stoichiometric deposition of the films. The energy bandgap values were changed from 1.99 to 2.82 eV depending on the zinc concentration. Bowing parameter was calculated as 0.08 eV. The electron effective mass (m{sub e}*/m{sub o}), refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the zinc concentration. The resistivity values of the films changed between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7} Ω cm with increasing zinc concentration at room temperature.

  18. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  19. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  20. Dielectric functions and carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. J.; Peiris, F. C., E-mail: peirisf@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States); Brill, G.; Doyle, K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783-1197 (United States); Myers, T. H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry, ranging from 35 meV to 6 eV, was used to determine the dielectric functions of a series of molecular beam epitaxy-grown Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se thin films deposited on both ZnTe/Si(112) and GaSb(112) substrates. The fundamental band gap as well as two higher-order electronic transitions blue-shift with increasing Cd composition in Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se, as expected. Representing the free carrier absorption with a Drude oscillator, we found that the effective masses of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se (grown on ZnTe/Si) vary between 0.028 and 0.050 times the free electron mass, calculated using the values of carrier concentration and the mobility obtained through Hall measurements. Using these effective masses, we determined the carrier concentrations of Hg{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}Se samples grown on GaSb, which is of significance as films grown on such doped-substrates posit ambiguous results when measured by conventional Hall experiments. These models can serve as a basis for monitoring Cd-composition during sample growth through in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  1. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  2. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  3. Achieving tunable doping of MoSe2 based devices using GO@MoSe2 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Tiwary, Krishna Kanhaiya; Karmakar, Debjani

    2017-05-01

    Doping nature of MoSe2, one of the promising Graphene analogous device material, can be tuned by controlling the concentration of functional groups in Graphene oxide (GO)@MoSe2 heterostructure. In this study, by first-principles simulation, we have observed that GO can be used as a carrier injection layer for MoSe2, where n or p type carriers are introduced within MoSe2 layer depending on the type and concentration of functional moieties in it. Both n and p-type Schottky barrier height modulations are investigated for different modeled configurations of the heterostructure. This combinatorial heterostructure can be a promising material for future electronic device application.

  4. Comparison of CT during arterial portography, delayed iodine CT, and MR imaging for the preoperative evaluation of hepatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Chezmar, J.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with neoplastic involvement of the liver were studied with CT during arterial portography, delayed iodine CT, and MR imaging, to determine the number, size, and location of focal hepatic lesions prior to hepatic tumor surgery. The MR pulse-sequences used included T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences and inversion-recovery (IR) sequences at 0.5 T, 1.5 T, or both. Results were compared with operative and pathologic findings. The sensitivities for the detection of individual focal lesions are as follows: CT during arterial portography, delayed iodine CT, 77%, IR at 0.5 T, 74%; T1-weighted SE at 0.5 T, 69%; T2-weighted SE at 1.5 T, 55%, IR at 1.5 T, 50%; T2-weighted SE at 0.5 T, 48%, and T1-weighted SE at 1.5 T, 31%. The positive predictive values ranged from 88% to 100% for all techniques. The authors' data suggest that CT during arterial portography is a superior technique for evaluating patients prior to hepatic tumor surgery

  5. Hepatic sinusoid is not well-stirred: estimation of the degree of axial mixing by analysis of lobular concentration gradients formed during uptake of thyroxine by the perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, R.A.; Mendel, C.M.; Cavalieri, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Two general models have been proposed for predicting the effects of metabolism, protein binding, and plasma flow on the removal of drugs by the liver. These models differ in the degree of plasma mixing assumed to exist within each hepatic sinusoid. The venous equilibrium model treats the sinusoid as a single well-stirred compartment, whereas the sinusoidal model effectively breaks up the sinusoid into a large number of sequentially perfused compartments which do not exchange their contents except through plasma flow. As a consequence, the sinusoidal model, but not the venous equilibrium model, predicts that the concentration of highly extracted drugs will decline as the plasma flows through the hepatic lobule. To determine which of these alternative models best describes the hepatic uptake process, we looked for evidence that concentration gradients are formed during the uptake of [ 125 I]thyroxine by the perfused rat liver. Autoradiography of tissue slices after perfusion of the portal vein at physiologic flow rates with protein-free buffer containing [ 125 I]thyroxine demonstrated a rapid exponential fall in grain density with distance from the portal venule, declining by half for each 8% of the mean length of the sinusoid. Reversing the direction of perfusate flow reversed the direction of the autoradiographic gradients, indicating that they primarily reflect differences in the concentration of thyroxine within the hepatic sinusoids rather than differences in the uptake capacity of portal and central hepatocytes. Analysis of the data using models in which each sinusoid was represented by different numbers of sequentially perfused compartments (1-20) indicated that at least eight compartments were necessary to account for the magnitude of the gradients seen

  6. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol....../min, independent of the concentration. At blood concentrations usually used for clinical estimation of the galactose elimination capacity (approximately 4 mmol/l), hepatic removal in the pig accounted for 55% and renal removal for 30% of total removal; 15% of removal occurred in other organs. We conclude...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  8. Manejo médico de la exposición al virus de la hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Mancel Martínez; Craig Shapiro; Ana Bracho; Fernando De La Hoz

    1991-01-01

    Se hace una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el tratamiento en el caso de una probable exposición al virus de la hepatitis B. Se presenta la pormenorización de las diferentes clases de exposición así como la indicación y dosificación de la inmunoglobulina específica y de la vacuna anti-hepatitis B. Esta revisión tiene como fundamento las recomendaciones del CDC de Atlanta y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud.

  9. Manejo médico de la exposición al virus de la hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancel Martínez

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de los conocimientos actuales sobre el tratamiento en el caso de una probable exposición al virus de la hepatitis B. Se presenta la pormenorización de las diferentes clases de exposición así como la indicación y dosificación de la inmunoglobulina específica y de la vacuna anti-hepatitis B. Esta revisión tiene como fundamento las recomendaciones del CDC de Atlanta y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud.

  10. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Good, Jonathan P; Pillans, Richard D; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-10-01

    Plasma urea levels and hepatic urea production in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, acclimated to freshwater and seawater environments were measured. It was found that plasma urea concentration increased with salinity and that this increase was, in part, the result of a significant increase in hepatic production of urea. This study provides direct evidence that hepatic production of urea plays an important role in the osmoregulatory strategy of C. leucas. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia, E-mail: G.Keramida@bsms.ac.uk [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Potts, Jon [Department of Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A. Michael [Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUV{sub LV}). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUV{sub ave}, SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub LV} displayed similar relations with BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV}, but not SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}, correlated significantly with BG. SUV{sub max}, but not SUV{sub ave}, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub ave} correlated more strongly with CT density than SUV{sub max}. CT density correlated inversely with SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub LV} but positively with SUV{sub ave}/SUV{sub LV}. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUV{sub max} because SUV{sub ave} is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat.

  12. Brain MR imaging in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: relationship between high intensity signal in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images and elemental concentrations in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Sato, M.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kimura, M.; Sonomura, T.; Terada, M.; Kishi, K.

    1997-01-01

    In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, the globus pallidus and putamen show high intensity on T1-weighted MRI. While the causes of this high signal have been thought to include paramagnetic substances, especially manganese, no evidence for this has been presented. Autopsy in four cases of hepatic cirrhosis permitted measurement of metal concentrations in brain and histopathological examination. In three cases the globus pallidus showed high intensity on T1-weighted images. Mean manganese concentrations in globus pallidus, putamen and frontal white matter were 3.03 ± 0.38, 2.12 ± 0.37, and 1.38 ± 0.24 (μg/g wet weight), respectively, being approximately four- to almost ten-fold the normal values. Copper concentrations in globus pallidus and putamen were also high, 50 % more than normal. Calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium concentrations were all normal. The fourth case showed no abnormal intensity in the basal ganglia and brain metal concentrations were all normal. Histopathologically, cases with showing high signal remarkable atrophy, necrosis, and deciduation of nerve cells and proliferation of glial cells and microglia in globus pallidus. These findings were similar to those in chronic manganese poisoning. On T1-weighted images, copper deposition shows no abnormal intensity. It is therefore inferred that deposition of highly concentrations of manganese may caused high signal on T1-weighted images and nerve cell death in the globus pallidus. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Study on the diagnostic value of determination of serum IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD concentrations for hepatic fibrosis in patients with B hepatitis of various types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuocheng; Chen Jianxiong; Xiong Ying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of collagen type IV(IV-C), procollagen type III (PC III), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and prolidase (PLD) and their relationship with hepatic fibrosis in patients with B hepatitis of different types. Methods: Serum levels of IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD were measured with RIA in 39 controls and 103 patients with HBV infection of various types (including acute hepatitis AH n=19, chronic persistent hepatitis CPH n=29, Chronic active hepatitis CAH n=25 and liver cirrhosis LH n=30. Degree of hepatic fibrosis (Grade 0-4) was ascertained with liver biopsy in 35 patients (CAH16, LC19) and correlationship with the corresponding levels of these 5 serum markers was steadied. Results: 1) Serum levels of IV-C, PC III, HA, LN and PLD were significantly higher in patients with CAH and LC than those in other patients and controls (P 0.05). 3) Serum levels of these markers were all positively correlated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis noted in the biopsy specimens obtained from patients with CAH (n=16) and LC (n=19) (r=+0.64 - + 0.89, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of these markers could reflect the degree of hepatic fibrosis and severity of liver damage; determination of which was of diagnostic and even prognostic value. HA and LN appeared to be better correlated with degree of hepatic fibrosis than the remaining three markers did. (authors)

  14. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  15. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  16. Association of ITPA gene variation and serum ribavirin concentration with a decline in blood cell concentrations during pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mina; Sakamoto, Naoya; Watanabe, Takako; Nishimura-Sakurai, Yuki; Onozuka, Izumi; Azuma, Seishin; Kakinuma, Sei; Nitta, Sayuri; Kiyohashi, Kei; Kusano-Kitazume, Akiko; Murakawa, Miyako; Yoshino, Kohei; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variation leading to inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) deficiency protects chronic hepatitis C patients receiving ribavirin against hemolytic anemia. The relationship between ITPA gene variation and serum ribavirin concentration was analyzed in association with a reduction in blood cells and dose reduction of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) or ribavirin. A total of 300 hepatitis C patients treated with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin were analyzed. Genetic polymorphisms were determined in ITPA and the quantitative reduction in blood cells from the baseline was analyzed every 4 weeks for the duration of treatment and after the end of therapy. The decline in hemoglobin (Hb) or platelet (PLT) level at week 4 compared to baseline was also assessed according to ribavirin concentrations. Patients with the ITPA-CA/AA genotypes showed a lower degree of Hb reduction throughout therapy than those with the ITPA-CC genotype and a marked difference in mean Hb reduction was found at week 4 (CA/AA -1.0 vs. CC -2.8, p < 0.001). The ITPA-CC genotype had significantly less reduction in the mean platelet count than the ITPA-CA/AA genotypes early during treatment (p < 0.001 for weeks 4 and 8). Patients with the ITPA-CA/AA genotypes were less likely to develop anemia, regardless of the concentration of ribavirin. Patients with baseline PLT counts below 130 × 10(3)/μl had a significantly lower tendency to achieve sustained virological response (SVR), especially those with the ITPA-CA/AA genotypes. ITPA gene variation was not extracted by multivariable analysis as an important predictor of SVR. Despite the fact that ITPA variants were less likely to develop anemia, patients with low baseline PLT counts were difficult to treat, especially those with the ITPA-CA/AA genotype. These results may give a valuable pharmacogenetic diagnostic tool for the tailoring of dosing to minimize drug-induced adverse events.

  17. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  18. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egloff, Caroline [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  19. La hepatitis C como un problema de salud pública en México Hepatitis C as a public health problem in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan resultados de un seminario multidisciplinario que aborda el reconocimiento y construcción de la hepatitis C como problema de salud en México. La prevalencia es de 1.4%. La incidencia se estima en 19 300 nuevos casos por año. Al disminuir los casos relacionados a transfusión, aumentan en importancia la transmisión nosocomial y uso de drogas vía intravenosa o intranasal. Es necesario construir nuevos contenidos para las representaciones sociales y percepción de riesgo. El tratamiento basado en respuesta por PCR-ARN ha modificado los esquemas de manejo, situación importante al considerar políticas de tratamiento. Jurídicamente existe poca incidencia legislativa en el tema. La distribución de competencias entre el Gobierno Federal y las entidades federativas en materia de salubridad general se encuentra establecida en el artículo 13 de la Ley General de Salud (México. Es necesario definir una estrategia que adquiera el carácter de política pública de alcance nacional.We report the results of a multidisciplinary seminar approaching the recognition and construction of hepatitis C as a health issue in Mexico. Its prevalence is 1.4% and its incidence is estimated in 19 300 new cases per year.As transfusion decreases as a risk factor, the relevance of nosocomial transmision and use of intravenous or intranasal drugs increases. It is necessary to develop new contents for the social representation and risk perception of the disease. Response guided treatment based on PCR-RNA has modified the treatment schemes, a very important issue when considering policies for management. Legislation about hepatitis C in the country is limited. Assignments of the Federal Government and the federative entities in the country regarding health issues are framed in the 13th article of the General Mexican health law. It is necessary to advance towards the development of a public health policy at the national level for hepatitis C.

  20. Estudio de un brote poblacional de hepatitis A: Efectividad de la vacunación como medida de control Study of a population outbreak of hepatitis A: Effectiveness of vaccination as a control measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Díaz Villaescusa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir un brote de hepatitis A en la ciudad de Albacete y valorar la efectividad de las medidas de control adoptadas. Métodos: Constatada la existencia del brote, se establecieron las definiciones de caso. Se recogieron los datos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los casos mediante encuesta. Se describió la distribución temporoespacial, mediante la localización de los casos y la curva epidémica. Se pusieron en marcha, como medidas de control y prevención inmediatas, la administración de inmunoglobulina (IG y educación sanitaria a la población en riesgo. Resultados: Desde enero de 2005 a enero de 2006 se declararon 62 casos. Los grupos de edad más afectados fueron los escolares y los adultos jóvenes. El mecanismo de transmisión fue de persona a persona. La curva epidémica presenta dos periodos. Las medidas de control iniciales fueron higiénicas y administración de IG a los contactos; en el segundo periodo se complementaron con la vacunación contra la hepatitis A, administrada a los alumnos de los centros de enseñanza de los dos barrios inicialmente implicados. La extensión del brote a los barrios colindantes y la alarma social que ocasionó hicieron que se ampliara la vacunación a los centros de enseñanza próximos a aquellos en que se habían detectado casos. Después de la última vacunación, en enero de 2006, no se notificó ningún caso. Conclusiones: El uso de la vacuna postexposición frente al virus de la hepatitis A en la población escolar y los adultos jóvenes parece ser una medida efectiva para el control de un brote.Objective: To describe an outbreak of hepatitis A in the city of Albacete (Spain and to assess the effectiveness of the control measures implemented. Methods: When the outbreak was noted, definitions of a case were established. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected through a survey. The temporal-spatial distribution was identified through mapping and the epidemic curve. Health

  1. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  2. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  3. Low Hepatic Tissue Copper in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Michael; Caltharp, Shelley; Song, Ming; Collin, Lindsay; Konomi, Juna V; McClain, Craig J; Vos, Miriam B

    2017-07-01

    Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD. Secondary outcomes compared hepatic copper levels against steatosis, fibrosis, lobular inflammation, balloon degeneration, and NAFLD activity score (NAS). The study analysis included 150 pediatric subjects (102 with NAFLD and 48 non-NAFLD). After adjusting for age, body mass index z score, gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin, NAFLD subjects had lower levels of hepatic copper than non-NAFLD (P = 0.005). In addition, tissue copper concentration decreased as steatosis severity increased (P steatosis alone. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between copper levels and NAFLD progression.

  4. Bajo impacto de la infección silente por el virus de la hepatitis B en la incidencia de hepatitis postransfusional en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de ADN del VHB en sueros de donantes de sangre negativos en las pruebas de los marcadores serológicos de hepatitis B empleados en el tamizaje, con el fin de evaluar el impacto de la infección silente por VHB sobre la incidencia de hepatitis B postransfusional en Venezuela. Métodos. Los sueros de 2 075 donantes de sangre negativos en las pruebas de los marcadores serológicos pesquisados en bancos de sangre venezolanos fueron analizados en 53 muestras, compuestas por la mezcla de 25-50 donaciones (0,5-1,0 mL de cada suero. Estas fueron sometidos a ultracentrifugación previa a la extracción del ADN viral por el método de proteinasa K-fenol-cloroformo. Resultados. En estas mezclas de sueros no se detectó ADN del VHB en ninguno de dos ensayos anidados de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, mediante cebadores altamente conservados de las regiones que codifican el antígeno de superficie y de la cápside virales. Se observaron niveles normales de aminotransferasas en 98% de 200 sueros evaluados. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que el riesgo de adquirir hepatitis B postransfusional en Venezuela es bajo.

  5. Detección de un brote de hepatitis A en Ceuta a través del sistema de información microbiológica Detection of a hepatitis A outbreak in Ceuta [Spain] through a microbiological surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortega-Maján

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El Servicio de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Ceuta comunicó al Centro Nacional de Epidemiología un aumento de casos de hepatitis A, detectado por el sistema de información microbiológica (SIM. Se investigó la posible existencia de un brote y se instauraron las medidas de control oportunas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y otro de casos y controles. La información sociodemográfica, clínica y sobre factores de riesgo se obtuvo mediante un cuestionario cumplimentado por vía telefónica. Resultados: Se identificaron 19 casos. En el estudio univariante se encontró una asociación entre enfermar y el consumo de verduras crudas (odds ratio [OR] = 9,3; intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%: 1,5-57,6 y de navajas (OR = 55; IC del 95%: 4,3-703,4. En el análisis multivariante sólo se mantuvo la asociación con el consumo de navajas (OR = 36,1; IC del 95%: 2,4-530,4. Ninguno de los 3 restaurantes inspeccionados disponía de control de facturas ni albaranes. Conclusiones: Se confirmó un brote de hepatitis A asociado al consumo de navajas en domicilios y restaurantes. El SIM fue la herramienta fundamental para su detección.Background: The Public Health Department of Ceuta informed the Spanish National Epidemiology Center of an increase in hepatitis A cases detected by the microbiological surveillance system. We conducted a study to confirm the outbreak and to initiate control measures. Methods: A descriptive study and a case-control study were performed. A standardized telephone questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, symptoms, and risk factors. Results: Nineteen cases of hepatitis A were identified. Univariate analysis revealed an association between infection and eating raw vegetables (OR = 9.3; 95%CI: 1.5-57.6 or razor-shell (OR = 55; 95%CI: 4.3-703.4. In the logistic regression model, only razor-shell consumption remained a significant risk factor (OR = 36.1; 95%CI: 2

  6. Effect of dietary sodium selenite, Se-enriched yeast and Se-enriched Chlorella on egg Se concentration, physical parameters of eggs and laying hen production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivan, M.; Šimáně, J.; Dlouhá, G.; Doucha, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 163-167 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : sodium selenite * se-yeast * se-chlorella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.421, year: 2006

  7. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations.

  8. Glass forming tendencies of chalcogenides of the system (As2Se3)sub(1-x):(T12Se)sub(x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    In this paper glass forming capabilities of chalcogenide glasses based on As 2 Se 3 with T1 2 Se concentrations are discussed. The studies were made using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. These studies show that the glass forming tendency of As 2 Se 3 decreases as the concentrations of T1 2 Se molecules are increased. Also these studies show that with addition of T1 2 Se, the glass transition temperature Tsub(g) of As 2 Se 3 decreases, suggesting a tendency for weaker bonding and hence less stability of T1-rich compositions. (author)

  9. Case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thortrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirato, H.; Kudo, N.; Takita, K. (Nakatori Hospital, Akita (Japan))

    1980-09-01

    A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thorotrast injected as a contrast 40 years before was reported. The patient was a 64-year-old man with severe liver dysfunction, and had psychic and neurological symptoms, and hyperammonemia. There was a relationship between ammonium concentration in blood and psychic and neurological symptoms. Electroencephalogram showed three phases waves peculiar to hepatic coma intermittently. Thorotrast in the liver was detected by radiological methods and in vivo measurement of the radioactivity. From the above-mentioned result, this disease was diagnosed as hepatic encephalopathy induced by long-term sedimentation of thorotrast without complication of malignant tumors. Because of the concurrent presence of cerebral infarction, the diagnosis was difficult to make.

  10. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  11. [Chronic active hepatitis: clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic correlation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subauste, M C

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study over 26 female patients with chronic active hepatitis was made. The mean age was 39 years old, the mean length of illness of 8 months; 5 patients had positive markers for hepatitis B. Patients were selected with the grade of histological activity: 8 patients had a mild form from disease (2A) and 16 with a severe one (2B). The predominant group was 2B. Severe inflammatory infiltration was the hallmark and multiobulillar necrosis, bridging, eosinophils and hiperplasia of kuppfer cells were found only in this group. Clinical features range from hepatic manifestations to systemic ones. Chronic active hepatitis may present with cholestasis, but the latter is not always related with the grade of activity. Group 2B had elevated aminotransferases and a low concentration for protrobine.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Rolapitant in Patients With Mild to Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Arora, Sujata; Lu, Sharon; Kansra, Vikram

    2018-05-01

    Rolapitant is a selective and long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist approved in an oral formulation in combination with other antiemetic agents for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. This was a phase 1 open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic and safety study of a single oral dose of 180 mg of rolapitant and its major active metabolite, M19, in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy matched controls. Pharmacokinetics were assessed by a mixed-model analysis of variance of log-transformed values for maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ), observed time at C max (t max ), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-t ), and AUC from time 0 to 120 hours (AUC 0-120 ), with hepatic group as a fixed effect. Mean rolapitant C max , AUC 0-t , and AUC 0-120 were similar in the mild hepatic impairment and healthy control groups. In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, AUC 0-t was similar and C max was 25% lower than in healthy controls. Mean M19 C max and AUC 0-t were similar in the mild hepatic impairment group and healthy controls, but impairment versus healthy controls. Fraction of unbound rolapitant was comparable in all groups for rolapitant and M19. Rolapitant was well tolerated in all groups, without serious adverse events. Pharmacokinetic differences between healthy subjects and those with mild or moderate hepatic impairment are unlikely to pose a safety risk and do not warrant predefined dosage adjustment in the presence of hepatic impairment. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. IMPACT OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY FOR CHRONIC HEPATITIS C ON CYTOKINE SYNTHESIS AND HEPATIC FIBROSING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Shchekotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the time course of changes in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, and the hepatic fibrosis indicators hyaluronic acid (HA and liver elasticity index during combined antiviral therapy (AVT with interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC. Subjects and methods. Fifty patients with CHC were examined. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and HA were estimated using an enzyme immunoassay. The stage of hepatic fibrosis was determined by fibroelastography with the liver elastic index being measured; the time course of changes in the indicators was assessed in 20 patients at the end of AVT. A virological response was monitored at therapy completion and 6 months later. Results. The patients with CHC in the reactivation phase were found to have enhanced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-4 activities in 84, 60, and 100 % of the cases, respectively (р < 0.001, р = 0.01, р < 0.001, respectively. The median serum concentration of HA in CHC was 1.8-fold higher than that in the control group (p = 0.03; the liver elastic index averaged 6.5 kPa. TNF-α and IL-6 levels correlated with viremia, transaminases, and hepatic fibrosis indicators. At combined AVT completion, the virological response rate was as high as 85 %, which was attended by a considerable reduction in cytolysis, HA concentrations, and liver density index to 5.4 kPa (3.6–6.8 kPa (p < 0.04, and in the activity of the examined cytokines. The sustained virological response rate was 80 %. Only IL-4 levels decreased and TNF-α and IL-6 concentration remained at the baseline level in patients unresponsive to AVT. Conclusion. It is expedient to monitor TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and HA to evaluate the severity of liver involvement in CHC and to predict the efficiency of AVT.

  16. Universal vaccination of children against hepatitis a in Chile: a cost-effectiveness study La vacunación infantil universal contra la hepatitis a en Chile: análisis de la relación costo-efectividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Quezada

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the healthcare and economic impact of routine hepatitis A vaccination of toddlers in Chile. METHODS: We used a dynamic model of hepatitis A infection to evaluate the impact of a two-dose vaccination program, administered at ages 12 and 18 months. The model incorporated the changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in Chile and the development of vaccine-induced herd immunity. Our analysis was conducted from the public payer perspective, and an estimation of the societal perspective was performed. Costs are expressed in 2005 U.S. dollars. RESULTS: Vaccination of toddlers rapidly reduced the healthcare burden of hepatitis A. In the base case (95% vaccination coverage, 100-year time horizon, 1% annual decrease in force of infection, the average number of infections fell by 76.6% annually, and associated deaths fell by 59.7%. Even at 50% coverage, the program reduced infection rates substantially. Routine vaccination of toddlers had economic as well as health benefits, saving $4 984 per life-year gained (base case scenario. The program became cost saving after 6 years, and its overall cost-effectiveness per life-year gained was largely unaffected by changes in disease-related costs, herd immunity, coverage rate, and annual decrease in force of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination of toddlers will reduce the rates of symptomatic hepatitis A and associated mortality. The two-dose schedule evaluated here will be less expensive than disease-related costs in the absence of vaccination from the sixth year of its implementation. These findings support the establishment of a routine vaccination program for toddlers in Chile.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto sanitario y económico de la vacunación sistemática de infantes contra la hepatitis A en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un modelo dinámico de hepatitis A para evaluar el impacto de un programa de vacunación de dos dosis administradas a los 12 y 18 meses. El modelo incorporó la

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  18. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  19. Metabolic profiles and bile acid extraction rate in the liver of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, T; Oikawa, S; Iwasaki, Y; Mizunuma, Y; Takehana, K; Endoh, D; Kurosawa, T; Sato, H

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to monitor lipid profile in the portal and hepatic blood of cows with fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis, and to compare the results with those in the jugular blood. The work was also carried out to investigate bile acid (BA) in these vessels, and further to investigate BA extraction rate in the liver. Five cows were equipped with catheters in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins (day 0), fasted for 4 days (day 1-day 4) and then refed (day 5-day 11). Before morning feeding, blood was sampled before, during and after fasting from the catheterized vessels. In the portal blood, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) showed a progressive increase and at day 5 there was an approximate twofold rise. Increased NEFA concentrations were also found similarly in the other two veins. At day 5, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the portal, hepatic and jugular blood rose to 197, 190 and 186% of the pre-fasting value, respectively. However, the concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in the three veins gradually returned to pre-fasting concentration during the refeeding period. Compared with the pre-fasting value at day 0, the content of liver triglyceride (TG) increased significantly at day 5 (P hepatic extraction rate of BA dropped from 3.1 times pre-fasting to 2.2 times during fasting. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of glucose, TG, total cholesterol, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol and phospholipids. The results of the current study show that metabolic alterations occur in the portal, hepatic and jugular veins during induction of hepatic lipidosis in cows, and mostly metabolites, with exception of BA concentration, run parallel. The decreased BA extraction rate in the liver of fasted cows was considered to reflect hepatic cell impairment caused by TG accumulation. Hopefully, the findings, at least in part, contribute to the explanation of the pathophysiology of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  1. [Selenium uptake and transport of rice under different Se-enriched natural soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-qiang; Shen, Jia; Zu, Chao-long

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a pot experiment was conducted with "Wandao 205" as test materials to investigate Se uptake and translocation in rice under different Se concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg . kg-1). Results showed that there was no significant change in rice yield when Se concentration in soil was lower than 1.5 mg . kg-1. Significant linear correlations existed between Se concentration in soil and different rice plant tissues. Se concentration in rice plant followed the order of root > straw > grain. Se concentration in different rice grain fractions followed the order of bran > polished rice > hull. The root absorption index of Se was more than 1.86, suggest that the rice could absorpt Se from soil effectively. However, the transport and accumulation of Se in seeds from Se-enriched soil was relatively constant. The Se transport index in seeds was between 0.53 and 0.59. Soil Se concentration within the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 could produce Se-enriched rice, which might be enough for human requirement of 60-80 µg . d-1 Se. However, polished rice at high-Se treatment (1.5 mg . kg-1) exceeded the maximum standard limit of Se (0.3 mg . kg-1) for cereals in China. These results suggested that we could produce Se-enriched rice under soil Se concentration in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mg . kg-1 without spraying Se fertilizer, thus reducing the cost and avoiding soil and water pollution caused by exogenous Se.

  2. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  3. Effect of Silver Doping on Transport Properties of Bi2Se3: AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhan-Tao

    2018-05-01

    Ag-doped Bi2Se3 with the formula AgxBi2Se3 and Bi2-xAgxSe3 were prepared and their electrical and magnetic transport properties have been investigated to study the influence of silver doping on transport properties of Bi2Se3 with different Ag-doped method. All samples exhibited metallic resistivity and the resistivity increased with increasing Ag concentration. The lattice parameter c of Ag-substituted and Ag-intercalated samples displays a contrary change as the Ag concentration increased. For the Ag-intercalated samples, both the resistance upturn were observed in the curves of temperature dependent of resistivity and temperature dependent of magnetoresistance, respectively, indicating that the enhanced surface effect was obtained in those samples. Monotonously, field-induced MR peaks around 200 K were also observed in those samples. Similar behaviors were not observed in the Ag-substituted samples.

  4. Serum Sialic Acid Concentration and Content in ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins in Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Cylwik, Bogdan; Panasiuk, Anatol; Filisiak, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-01-01

    The great significance for the metabolism of lipoproteins is the composition of carbohydrate chain of apolipoproteins, where sialic acid (SA) is located. In VILDL and LDL sialic acid is attached to apolipoprotein B. The sialylation of serum proteins including apolipoprotein B can be affected in the course of liver diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the concentration and content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins. The tested group consisted of 165 patients (118 males, 47 females) with liver diseases: alcoholic cirrhosis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, and liver cancer. ApoB-containing lipoproteins were isolated by a turbidimetric procedure and SA concentration was measured according to an enzymatic method. There was a significant increase in the serum concentration of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in viral hepatitis. Although the serum concentration of ApoB was not significantly different between specific liver diseases, the serum levels of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins appeared to be different. There is an association between SA concentration and triglycerides in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis. Also, in viral hepatitis SA concentration correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol. The content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis was significantly higher than that in the control group, but did not differ between diseases. This study may explain the variations in serum lipids and lipoproteins in liver diseases. It seems that the reason for these abnormalities is the changes in the concentration of sialic acid in ApoB-containing lipoproteins.

  5. /sup 75/Se selenomethionine in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J G; Zambartas, C N; Sumerling, M D; Finlayson, N D.C.

    1981-02-01

    A 74 year old man presented with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and ascites. On /sup 99/Tcsup(m) sulphur colloid scanning he was found to have a filling defect in the right lobe of the liver which disappeared when the liver scan was repeated with /sup 75/Se selenomethionine. This lesion, initially thought to be a hepatoma, proved eventually at post mortem to be a hyperplastic hepatic nodule.

  6. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S; Martin, B; Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  7. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  8. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  9. Clinical and virological improvement of hepatitis B virus-related or hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis with concomitant hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Pisapia, Raffaella; Onofrio, Mirella; Sagnelli, Caterina; Catuogno, Antonio; Scolastico, Carlo; Piccinino, Felice; Filippini, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and virological characteristics of hepatitis A virus infection in persons concomitantly infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We enrolled 21 patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis with no sign of liver cirrhosis, 13 patients who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (case B group), 8 patients who were anti-HCV positive (case C group), and 21 patients with acute hepatitis A without a preexisting liver disease (control A group). Two control groups of patients with chronic hepatitis B (control B group) or C (control C group) were also chosen. All control groups were pair-matched by age and sex with the corresponding case group. Fulminant hepatitis A was never observed, and hepatitis A had a severe course in 1 patient in the case B group and in 1 patient in the control A group. Both patients recovered. On admission, HBV DNA was detected in 1 patient in the case B group (7.7%) and in 13 patients (50%) in the control B group; HCV RNA was found in no patient in the case C group and in 16 patients (81.2%) in the control C group. Of 9 patients in the case B group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 became negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, 2 remained positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and negative for HBV DNA, and 4 became positive for HBV DNA with a low viral load [corrected] Of 6 patients in the case C group who were followed up for 6 months, 3 remained negative for HCV RNA, and 3 had persistently low viral loads. Concomitant hepatitis A was always self-limited, associated with a marked inhibition of HBV and HCV genomes, and possibly had a good prognosis for the underlying chronic hepatitis.

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate a Potential Hepatitis B Booster Vaccination Strategy Using Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Zhou, Youming; Chen, Lixin; Xia, Wei; Song, Yufei; Tan, Zhengliang; Gao, Lidong; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Gang; Han, Xing; Li, Junhua; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Booster doses could play a major role in no responders or low responders to primary hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. Planed time point for hepatitis A vaccination in China provides a good opportunity to carry out HB booster dose by using combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of toddlers 18-24 months of age receiving 3 different vaccination regimens: 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (group 1), 1 dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine plus 1 dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 2) or 2 doses of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 3). All 3 groups showed 100% seroprotection for antihepatitis A virus antibody after vaccination. Seroprotection rate for anti-HB antibody before vaccination ranged from 79.5% to 92.9% in the 3 groups. After second inoculation, anti-HBs seroprotection increased from 92.9% to 100% in group 2 with postvaccination geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 2258.3 mIU/mL and from 79.5% to 98.9% in group 3 with postvaccination GMC of 2055.3 mIU/mL. The adverse events were not statistically different among groups (P = 0.345). Combined hepatitis A and B vaccine could stimulate high level of both antihepatitis A virus and anti-HBs antibodies and not increase adverse events, providing a new choice for HB booster.

  12. Hepatic chemerin mRNA in morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajor, Maciej; Kukla, Michał; Waluga, Marek; Liszka, Łukasz; Dyaczyński, Michał; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Żądło, Dominika; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Chapuła, Mateusz; Kostrząb-Zdebel, Anna; Bułdak, Rafał J; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic chemerin mRNA, serum chemerin concentration, and immunohistochemical staining for chemerin and and chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) in hepatic tissue in 56 morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to search for a relationship with metabolic and histopathological features. Chemerin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, chemerin, and CMKLR1 immunohistochemical expression with specific antibodies, while serum chemerin concentration was assessed with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum chemerin concentration reached 874.1 ±234.6 ng/ml. There was no difference in serum chemerin levels between patients with BMI steatosis, and definite nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver chemerin mRNA was observed in all included patients and was markedly, but insignificantly, higher in those with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2, hepatocyte ballooning, greater extent of steatosis, and definite NASH. Hepatic chemerin mRNA might be a predictor of hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) but seemed not to be a primary driver regulating liver necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis. The lack of association between serum chemerin and hepatic chemerin mRNA may suggest that adipose tissue but not the liver is the main source of chemerin in morbidly obese women.

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  14. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  15. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  17. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wilson disease (WD is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA (tx-j mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal to adulthood (28 weeks. Methods: Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results: Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion: Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.

  18. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C Safety of recombinant interferon alpha 2b plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Yoan Antonio Sánchez Rodríguez; Enrique Arús Soler; Pedro López Saura; Hugo Nodarse Cuní

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  19. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  20. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  2. Determination of changes in the concentration and distribution of elements within olive drupes (cv Leccino) from Se-biofortified plants, using LA ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Roberto; Petrelli, Maurizio; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Perugini, Diego; Businelli, Daniela

    2018-03-25

    Biofortification of food crops has been used to increase the intake of Se in the human diet, even though this may change the concentration of other elements and modify the nutritional properties of the enriched food. Therefore, Se-biofortification programs should include the routine assessment of the overall mineral composition of enriched plants. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) was used for the assessment of mineral composition of table olives. Olive trees were fertilized with Na-selenate before flowering. At harvest, the edible parts of drupes proved to be significantly enriched in Se, delivering 6.1 μg g -1 (39% of the RDA for 5 olives). Such enrichment was followed by significant changes in the concentrations of B, Mg, K, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu in edible parts, which are discussed for their impact on food quality. The technique of biofortification of olive plants has allowed the enrichment of fruits in Selenium. The enrichment with Selenium has also caused the increase of the concentration of other elements that can change the impact on the nutritional quality of the drupes. The analytical technique used well as a valuable tool for routinely determining the chemical composition of all fruit parts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by trotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hideo; Kudo, Norishige; Takita, Kyoji

    1980-01-01

    A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thorotrast injected as a contrast 40 years before was reported. The patient was a 64-year-old man with severe liver dysfunction, and had psychic and neurological symptoms, and hyperammonemia. There was a relationship between ammonium concentration in blood and psychic and neurological symptoms. Electroencephalogram showed three phases waves peculiar to hepatic coma intermittently. Throtrast in the liver was detected by radiological methods and in vivo measurement of the radioactivity. From the above-mentioned result, this disease was diagnosed as hepatic encephalopathy induced by long-term sedimentation of thorotrast without complication of malignant tumors. Because of the concurrent presence of cerebral infarction, the diagnosis was difficult to make. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  5. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  6. Insulin resistance, hepatic lipid and adipose tissue distribution in HIV infected men

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S.; Ionescu, Gabriel; Glesby, Marshall J.; Albu, Jeanine B.; Kotler, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background A large proportion of HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral medication develop insulin resistance, especially in the context of fat redistribution. This study investigates the interrelationships among fat distribution, hepatic lipid content, and insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Design and methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from twenty-three HIV-infected participants in 3 prospective clinical studies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to quantify hepatic lipid concentrations. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify whole body adipose tissue compartments, i.e., subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes as well as inter-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT) subcompartment, and omental-mesenteric adipose tissue (OMAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) subcompartments of VAT. Homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results Hepatic lipid content correlated significantly with total VAT (r=0.62, p=0.0014) but not with SAT (r=0.053, p=0.81). In univariate analysis, hepatic lipid content was associated with the OMAT (r=0.67, p=0.0004) and RPAT (r=0.53, p=0.009) subcompartments; HOMA-IR correlated with both VAT and hepatic lipid contents (r=0.61, p=0.057 and 0.68, p=0.0012, respectively). In stepwise linear regression models, hepatic lipid had the strongest associations with OMAT and with HOMA-IR. Conclusion Hepatic lipid content is associated with VAT volume, especially the omental-mesenteric subcompartment, in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content is associated with insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content might mediate the relationship between VAT and insulin resistance among treated, HIV-infected men. PMID:18572755

  7. Insulin resistance, hepatic lipid and adipose tissue distribution in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Engelson, Ellen S; Ionescu, Gabriel; Glesby, Marshall J; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral medication develop insulin resistance, especially in the context of fat redistribution. This study investigates the interrelationships among fat distribution, hepatic lipid content, and insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 23 HIV-infected participants in three prospective clinical studies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify hepatic lipid concentrations. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify whole-body adipose tissue compartments: that is, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes, as well as the intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) subcompartment and the omental-mesenteric adipose tissue (OMAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) subcompartments of VAT. The homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Hepatic lipid content correlated significantly with total VAT (r = 0.62, P = 0.0014), but not with SAT (r = 0.053, P = 0.81). In univariate analysis, hepatic lipid content was associated with the OMAT (r = 0.67, P = 0.0004) and RPAT (r = 0.53, P = 0.009) subcompartments; HOMA-IR correlated with both VAT and hepatic lipid contents (r = 0.61, P = 0.057 and r = 0.68, P = 0.0012, respectively). In stepwise linear regression models, hepatic lipid had the strongest associations with OMAT and with HOMA-IR. Hepatic lipid content is associated with VAT volume, especially the OMAT subcompartment, in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content is associated with insulin resistance in HIV-infected men. Hepatic lipid content might mediate the relationship between VAT and insulin resistance among treated, HIV-infected men.

  8. Uso de heroína inyectada y el riesgo de hepatitis C en tres ciudades de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi-Fernández

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Introducción: La hepatitis C es uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública en el mundo, especialmente por su alta transmisibilidad por vía inyectada. Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de la infección por VHC, y factores asociados en usuarios de drogas psicoactivas inyectables en tres ciudades (Armenia, Bogotá y Cúcuta de Colombia. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal en 668 usuarios de drogas inyectables captados a través de muestreo guiado por el respondiente, a quienes se indagó sobre características demográficas y comportamientos de riesgo. Se utilizó la prueba de Anticuerpos, tomado en papel de filtro y se confirmaron los casos de VHC, con pruebas de carga viral de RNA. Se estimó la prevalencia de VHC y los factores asociados con pruebas estadísticas Chi-cuadrado y se calcularon razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas con regresión logística usando RDSAT y SPSS. Resultados: La prevalencia de infección por VHC fue del 17,5% y se encontraron como factores que aumentan la prevalencia de hepatitis: tener VIH, inyectarse con otra persona portadora del virus, utilizar dosis de una jeringa que estaba compartiendo, inyectarse con una jeringa casera y consumir marihuana. Como factor que reduce la prevalencia, el adquirir jeringas en droguerías u otras tiendas. Conclusión: Se evidencia un consumo establecido de drogas por vía inyectada, poniendo de relieve la importancia de generar intervenciones para la reducción de daños y la prevención de hepatitis C en estas tres ciudades del país.

  9. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774-775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in AD 774-775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765-796, were collected and their 14C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ14C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  10. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  11. Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 and liver cytosol antibody type 1 concentrations in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, L; Cataleta, M; Muratori, P; Lenzi, M; Bianchi, F B

    1998-05-01

    Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol antibody type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Since LKM1 and LC1 react against two distinct liver specific autoantigens (cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and a 58 kDa cytosolic polypeptide respectively), the aim was to see whether LKM1 and LC1 concentrations correlate with liver disease activity. Twenty one patients with type 2 AIH were studied. All sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and immunoblotting visualised by enhanced chemiluminescence. To evaluate LKM1 and LC1 levels, the 50 kDa microsomal reactivity (corresponding to CYP2D6) and the 58 kDa cytosolic reactivity were quantified by densitometric analysis. Seven patients were positive for LKM1, nine for LC1, and five for both. Serial serum samples at onset and during immunosuppressive treatment were analysed in 13 patients (four positive for LKM1, six positive for LC1 and three positive for both). During remission, LKM1 concentration remained essentially unchanged in six of seven patients, and decreased in only one. Conversely, in two of nine patients, LC1 was completely lost, and, in the remaining seven, LC1 concentration was reduced by more than 50%. After immunosuppression tapering or withdrawal, flare ups of liver necrosis ensued with increasing LC1 concentration, but not LKM1. LC1 concentration, at variance with that of LKM1, parallels liver disease activity, and its participation in the pathogenic mechanisms of liver injury can be hypothesised.

  12. Workers of the printing industry and hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Caciari, T; Chighine, A; Gioffrè, P A; Andreozzi, G; Sacchi, L; Giubilati, R; Tomei, G; Suppi, A; Sacco, C; Tomei, F; Rosati, M V

    2014-01-01

    Typesetting industry is still the primary instrument of communication, despite the development of new technological systems. This study focuses on the analysis of the hepatic effects induced by the use of some organic solvents employed in the printing industry. We studied a group of 194 workers: 93 exposed and 101 not exposed. The level of the exposure to chemical pollutants were assessed through the environmental monitoring of blood concentrations and the analysis of airborne substances. The health survey was performed through the collection of the medical history and the use of hepatic tests, which were evaluated by calculating Mean, Standard Deviation, Student's t-test and X² test with Yates Correction, to investigate statistically significant differences in some hepatic parameters: AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, fractional and total bilirubin. The environmental data sometimes exceeded the TLV-TWA. The clinical evaluation of the hepatic parameters showed statistically significant differences as to the hematic concentrations of AST, ALT, GGT. The results we obtained support the hypothesis of a risk among the printing industrial workers attributable to the hepatotoxic solvents. This risk seems to be related to the use of a mixture of solvents, although at low doses, and the analysis of the results obtained confirms the validity of the investigation for the health screening protocol adopted in order to identify subjects and/or population at risk of hepatotoxicity.

  13. Endothelial activation markers (VCAM-1, vWF in patients with chronic hepatitis C and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Antonova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood markers of endothelial activation (sVCAM-1, vWF: Ag in patients with chronic hepatitis C in the presence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and its components had been evaluated. The study included 69 patients with chronic hepatitis C with oligosymptomatic the disease. In one third of cases of chronic hepatitis C (33.3% showed improvement in the blood content of sVCAM-1 and / or vWF: Ag. In patients with chronic hepatitis C with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome significantly more often found signs adhesion of endothelial dysfunction (increased blood concentrations of sVCAM-1 than in patients without these disorders. Found that in patients with severe hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C blood concentration sVCAM-1 is significantly higher compared to patients with early stages of fibrosis (F0-F2, including those in patients without insulin resistance. These data suggest the multivariate development of endothelial dysfunction in chronic hepatitis C.

  14. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  15. Prevalencia del virus de la hepatitis C en las unidades de hemodiálisis de la región occidental cubana

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Rita Rosa; Martínez Córdova, Zuzet; Martínez Echeverría, María Teresa; Mato Luis, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    La población de hemodiálisis constituye un grupo de alto riesgo en el caso de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C. Se realizó un análisis multicéntrico de la prevalencia de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C en las unidades de diálisis de la región occidental aplicando las técnicas serológicas y moleculares, y se observó si existían diferencias significativas en cuanto a la aplicación de ambas técnicas. Se obtuvieron valores elevados de prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-VHC en ...

  16. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  17. Effects of Interaction between Cadmium (Cd) and Selenium (Se) on Grain Yield and Cd and Se Accumulation in a Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) on their accumulation in three rice cultivars, which remains unclear. The results showed that Se reduced Cd-induced growth inhibition, and increased and decreased Se and Cd concentrations in brown rice, respectively. Cadmium concentrations in all tissues of the hybrid were similar to those in its male parent yet significantly lower than those in its female parent. Selenium reduced Cd accumulation in rice when Cd concentration exceeded 2.0 mg kg -1 ; however Se accumulation depended on the levels of Cd exposure. Finally, Cd had minimal effect on Se translocation within the three cultivars. We concluded that Cd concentration in brown rice is a heritable trait, making crossbreeding a feasible method for cultivating high-yield, low-Cd rice cultivars. Selenium effectively decreased the toxicity and accumulation of Cd, and Cd affected Se uptake but not translocation.

  18. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovač, K; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Banjac, M

    2009-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are detected frequently in various types of environmental water samples, such as irrigation water, wastewater, recreational water, ground or subsurface water and even drinking water, constituting a primary source of gastroenteritis or hepatitis outbreaks. Only a few, but still...

  19. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  20. Papel de la vía de señalización de la insulina y mTOR en la infección por el virus de la Hepatitis C. Implicación en el desarrollo de carcinoma hepatocelular

    OpenAIRE

    García-Valdecasas Merino, Marta María

    2016-01-01

    Introducción El virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) promueve resistencia a la insulina (RI) y el desarrollo de esteatosis. Al progresar la enfermedad puede provocar la aparición de fibrosis hepática, cirrosis y carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). Los mecanismos moleculares por los que el VHC induce la RI no están del todo descritos, por tanto es necesario estudiar como la vía de señalización de la insulina es modificada por la infección. Además, la vía de señalización de la insulina activa la vía de...

  1. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  2. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinación mediante inmunohistoquímica de infección por virus de la fiebre amarilla y virus de la hepatitis b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Morón C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La inmunohistoquímica (IHQ constituye una herramienta para definir la etiología en el síndrome icterohemorrágico. Objetivo: Identificar mediante IHQ la presencia en hígado del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B y del virus de la fiebre amarilla. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron muestras de tejido hepático procedentes de 55 fallecidos por síndrome icterohemorrágico, remitidos entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2001 al Instituto Nacional de Salud, (Lima, Perú. Resultados: La prueba se realizó únicamente en 46 muestras, 33% (15/46 fueron diagnosticados por histopatología como fiebre amarilla, de ellos, 9 casos fueron positivos por IHQ para fiebre amarilla, siendo 2 de ellos también positivos para HBsAg. Histológicamente, se reportaron 6 casos como hepatitis con necrosis submasiva o masiva, que por IHQ fueron sólo 2 casos positivos para fiebre amarilla. En 39% (18/46 no se llegó al diagnóstico etiológico de la hepatitis, y finalmente hubo 2 casos con diagnóstico histopatológico de ádenocarcinoma hepático y sólo se obtuvo positividad por IHQ para HBsAg en uno. Conclusión: La IHQ es una alternativa para la confirmación diagnóstica de hepatitis B y fiebre amarilla.

  4. Laparoscopy hepatic biopsy through cauterization Biópsia hepática laparoscopica por cauterização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pinheiro Fantinatti

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic biopsy was realized through laparoscopy with simultaneous cauterization in the present study, whose principal aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the applied method and to study its effects in the liver of healthy dogs. Furthermore, we tried to verify the main hematological and chemistry profile alterations related to the hepatic function, and to investigate the viability of the fragments collected by histopathology. To attain this objective, 21 clinically healthy dogs, weighing between 10 and 15kg were submitted to hepatic biopsy with forceps connected to the cautery. Cautery was performed by applying radiofrequency energy at 45 watts. Forty-two hepatic biopsies through laparoscopy were conducted in the animals. At group I one hepatic fragment per animal was collected, at group II two hepatic fragments per animal were collected, and at group III three fragments were collected. Hematocrit and alanine-aminotransferase measurements were employed to evaluate the animals at the pre-operative period, at four and six hour post-operative, and at day 30 post-operative. The results revealed that the procedure was safe and effective for hepatic biopsy in dogs. There were no clinical alterations related to the technique. The fragments collected were viable for histopathology. Hepatic biopsy through laparoscopy with simultaneous cauterization is an effective and usefull method in dogs.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do método de biópsia hepática laparoscópica por cauterização e estudar os seus efeitos no fígado de cães sadios. Além disso, procurou-se verificar as principais alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas-séricas relacionadas às funções hepáticas e averiguar a viabilidade dos fragmentos colhidos por exame de histopatologia. Para tanto, 21 cães clinicamente sadios pesando entre 10 e 15kg, foram separados em três grupos de sete animais cada grupo. As amostras foram retiradas da borda no lobo lateral esquerdo

  5. Anti-HBc testing for blood donations in areas with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity Detección de anticuerpos anti-HBc en sangre donada en lugares donde la hepatitis B tiene endemicidad intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Turchi Martelli

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available En otros estudios se ha evaluado el menor riesgo de infecciones transmitidas por transfusión sanguínea que acarrea el tamizaje de anticuerpos contra los antígenos nucleares de la hepatitis B (anti-HBc, sumado a la prueba detectora de antígenos de superficie (HbsAg. No obstante, la mayoría de estos estudios se basaron en datos procedentes de zonas con baja endemicidad por hepatitis B o de bancos de sangre de países desarrollados, donde la mayoría de la sangre proviene de personas que han donado previamente. A fin de examinar los pros y los contras del tamizaje de anticuerpos anti-HBc en el Brasil, los autores describen los antecedentes y la interpretación de las pruebas de tamizaje para prevenir la hepatitis postransfusión. También presentan los datos sobre el tamizaje de la hepatitis B en todas las regiones del Brasil. No hay pruebas suficientes para suspender el tamizaje de los anticuerpos anti-HBc en el país. Debe darse alta prioridad a comparar el costo-efectividad de un marcador basado en la biología molecular con el de la actual prueba detectora de anticuerpos anti-HBc aplicada comúnmente, a fin de mejorar las medidas de tamizaje que garantizan la inocuidad de la sangre.

  6. Improving hepatitis B immunization among high-risk adolescents: a low-cost intervention on the Mexico-United States border Mejores prácticas de inmunización anti-hepatitis B para adolescentes en alto riesgo: intervención de bajo costo en la frontera mexicano-estadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. O'Rourke

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze factors associated with hepatitis B immunization adherence among adolescents attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic in El Paso, a city in Texas that is on the border between Mexico and the United States of America. Methods. In this cohort study with 248 adolescents we obtained data on demographics and health beliefs through personal interviews and medical record abstraction. We monitored each of the individuals for 8 months to determine whether the adolescents received a first, second, and third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Results. Overall, 32% of the adolescents received the first immunization, 9% the second, and 2% the third. The strongest predictor of receiving either one or two doses was providing the vaccine at the STD clinic as opposed to referring adolescents to a separate vaccination clinic (relative risk (RR for receiving the first immunization = 7.3; RR for receiving the second immunization = 3.8. Several health beliefs were also associated with receiving vaccinations. Conclusions. The results of our study indicate that hepatitis B vaccination programs can be improved through such steps as providing vaccinations at a convenient site, educating adolescents about hepatitis B risk factors, and emphasizing the difficulty of treating hepatitis B infection.Objetivo. Analizar los factores asociados con el cumplimiento de la inmunización anti-hepatitis B entre adolescentes que acuden a una clínica para el tratamiento de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS en El Paso, ciudad de Texas en la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos de América. Métodos. En este estudio de cohorte que se realizó en 248 adolescentes, obtuvimos datos demográficos y sondeamos las creencias de los jóvenes en torno a la salud mediante entrevistas personales y datos extractados de expedientes clínicos. Se vigiló a cada persona durante 8 meses para determinar si los adolescentes recibían la primera, segunda o

  7. Association of Hospital Market Concentration With Costs of Complex Hepatopancreaticobiliary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Marcelo; Chen, Sophia Y; Dillhoff, Mary; Schmidt, Carl; Canner, Joseph K; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-09-20

    Trade-offs involved with market competition, overall costs to payers and consumers, and quality of care have not been well defined. Less competition within any given market may enable provider-driven increases in charges. To examine the association between regional hospital market concentration and hospital charges for hepatopancreaticobiliary surgical procedures. This study included all patients undergoing hepatic or pancreatic resection in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011. Hospital market concentration was assessed using a variable-radius Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) in the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Hospital Market Structure files. Data were analyzed from November 19, 2016, through March 2, 2017. Hepatic or pancreatic resection. Multivariable mixed-effects log-linear models were constructed to determine the association between HHI and total costs and charges for hepatic or pancreatic resection. Weighted totals of 38 711 patients undergoing pancreatic resection (50.8% men and 49.2% women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 55-73 years]) and 52 284 patients undergoing hepatic resection (46.8% men and 53.2% women; median age, 59 years [interquartile range, 49-69 years]) were identified. Higher institutional volume was associated with lower cost of pancreatic resection (-5.4%; 95% CI, -10.0% to -0.5%; P = .03) and higher cost of hepatic resection (13.4%; 95% CI, 8.2% to 18.8%; P markets relative to moderately concentrated markets, although overall charges were 8.3% lower (95% CI, -14.0% to -2.3%; P = .008) in highly concentrated markets. For hepatic resections, hospitals in highly concentrated markets had 8.4% lower costs (95% CI, -13.0% to -3.6%; P = .001) compared with those in unconcentrated markets and charges that were 13.4% lower (95% CI, -19.3% to -7.1%; P markets and 10.5% lower (95% CI, -16.2% to -4.4%; P = .001) compared with unconcentrated markets. Higher market concentration was

  8. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  9. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  10. Carcinoma hepatocelular, alcoholismo y virus de la hepatitis C Hepatocellular carcinoma, alcoholism and hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Orrego B.

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 64 años, con el antecedente de consumo excesivo de alcohol, quien consulta por dolor localizado en el cuadrante superior derecho, de varios meses de evolución. En la laparoscopia se aprecian cirrosis macronodular y una masa localizada en el lóbulo Izquierdo del hígado, previamente detectada por ecografía. El estudio histológico demostró un carcinoma hepatocelular. Los estudios metabólicos, Inmunológicos y sexológicos permitieron documentar solamente la asociación con anticuerpos contra el virus de la Hepatitis C.

    We report on the case of a sixty-four year old man who drank alcohol chronically. For several months he had suffered pain in his right upper abdominal quadrant. At laparoscopy macronodular cirrhosis and a mass 10-calized on the left hepatic lobe were observed; the mass had previously been identified by ultrasound examination. Histologic examination of the lesion established the presence of a hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic, Immunologic and serologic studies documented only the association with antibodies to hepatitis C virus.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Vernia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.

  12. Hepatic Insulin Resistance Following Chronic Activation of the CREB Coactivator CRTC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, Meghan F; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Matsumura, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    and dephosphorylation of the cAMP regulated CREB coactivators CRTC2 and CRTC3. In parallel, decreases in circulating insulin also increase gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation and activation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is increased in insulin resistance where...... increased gluconeogenic gene expression under fasting as well as feeding conditions. Circulating glucose concentrations were constitutively elevated in CRTC2S171,275A expressing mice, leading to compensatory increases in circulating insulin concentrations that enhance FOXO1 phosphorylation. Despite...... accompanying decreases in FOXO1 activity, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression remained elevated in CRTC2S171,275A mice demonstrating that chronic increases in CRTC2 activity in the liver are indeed sufficient to promote hepatic insulin resistance and to disrupt glucose homeostasis....

  13. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-06-22

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group ( p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group ( p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls ( p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  14. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  15. Hepatic enzyme decline after pediatric blunt trauma: a tool for timing child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L; Lindberg, Daniel M; Burke, Bonnie L; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F

    2008-09-01

    Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern could indicate a developing complication. Retrospective review of pediatric patients with injuries including blunt liver trauma admitted to one of four urban level 1 trauma centers from 1990 to 2000. Cases were excluded for shock, death within 48 h, complications, or inability to determine injury time. Transaminase concentration decline was modeled by individual patients, by injury grade, and as a ratio with regard to injury time. One hundred and seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) clearance changed significantly over time. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell more slowly. Of the 118 patients who had multiple measurements of AST, for 112 (95%) the first concentration obtained was the highest. When ALT was greater than AST, the injury was older than 12h (97% specificity (95% CI, 95-99%), sensitivity 42% (95% CI, 33-50%)). Patients with enzymes that rose after 14 h post-injury were more likely to develop complications (RR=24, 95% CI 10-58). Hepatic transaminases rise rapidly after uncomplicated blunt liver injury, then fall predictably. Persistently stable or increasing concentrations may indicate complications. ALT>AST indicates subacute injury.

  16. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  17. Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    Full Text Available Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6 kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to GSH-CDNB; GSH-ρ-nitrophenylacetate; and GSH-Ethacrynic acid all conforms to a rapid equilibrium sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism rather than steady state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic. α was 2.96 ± 0.35 for the model. The pH profile of Vmax/KM (with saturating 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and variable GSH concentrations showed apparent pKa value of 6.88 and 9.86. Inhibition studies as a function of inhibitor concentration show that the enzyme is a homodimer and near neutral GST. The enzyme poorly conjugates 4-hydroxylnonenal and cumene hydroperoxide and may not be involved in oxidative stress protection. The seGST is unique and overwhelmingly shows characteristics similar to those of homodimeric class Pi GSTs, as was indicated by its kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and inhibition studies. The rate- limiting step, probably the product release, of the reaction is viscosity-dependent and is consequential if macro-viscosogen or micro-viscosogen. Keywords: Silver catfish, Glutathione transferase, Steady-state, Kinetic mechanism, Inhibition

  18. Hepatite C Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Strauss

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que cerca de 3% da população mundial esteja infectada pelo vírus da hepatite C. Todos os que receberam transfusão de sangue ou seus componentes e os usuários de drogas podem estar infectados. Procedimentos odontológicos, médicos, tatuagem ou acupuntura também constituem fatores de risco. A infecção se cronifica em até 85% dos indivíduos, com evolução assintomática durante anos ou décadas e apresentação clínica variada. Para o diagnóstico, a determinação do anti-VHC revela-se muito sensível e a confirmação se faz pela determinação do RNA-VHC no sangue; o estadiamento da doença e a avaliação da atividade inflamatória pela biópsia hepática. O tratamento objetiva deter a progressão da doença hepática através da inibição da replicação viral. Devido à baixa eficácia terapêutica aliada a importantes efeitos colaterais do interferon e da ribavirina, esses medicamentos encontram indicações e contra-indicações específicas. Vários fatores preditivos de resposta ao tratamento, principalmente a carga viral e o genótipo do VHC, mostram-se úteis na avaliação dos pacientes.It has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis C virus. Those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. Dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. Chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. Determination of anti-HCV in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of HCV-RNA. Staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. The aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. Due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side

  19. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Momelotinib in Subjects With Hepatic or Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan; Kawashima, Jun; Weng, Winnie; Kwan, Ellen; Tarnowski, Thomas; Silverman, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-01

    Momelotinib is a Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of myelofibrosis. Two phase 1 open-label, parallel-group, adaptive studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a single 200-mg oral dose of momelotinib in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment compared with healthy matched control subjects with normal hepatic or renal function. Plasma pharmacokinetics of momelotinib and its major active metabolite, M21, were evaluated, and geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for impaired versus each control group were calculated for plasma exposures (area under concentration-time curve from time 0 to ∞ [AUC ∞ ] and maximum concentration) of momelotinib and M21. There was no clinically significant difference in plasma exposures of momelotinib and M21 between subjects with moderate or severe renal impairment or moderate hepatic impairment and healthy control subjects. Compared with healthy control subjects, momelotinib AUC ∞ was increased (GMR, 197%; 90%CI, 129%-301%), and M21 AUC ∞ was decreased (GMR, 52%; 90%CI, 34%-79%) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment. The safety profile following a single dose of momelotinib was similar between subjects with hepatic or renal dysfunction and healthy control subjects. These pharmacokinetic and safety results indicate that dose adjustment is not necessary for momelotinib in patients with renal impairment or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, however, the dose of momelotinib should be reduced. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Influence of Se concentrations and species in hydroponic cultures on Se uptake, translocation and assimilation in non-accumulator ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Antoine; Di Tullo, Pamela; Aubry, Emmanuel; Bueno, Maïté; Thiry, Yves; Pannier, Florence; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2016-11-01

    The success of biofortification and phytoremediation practices, addressing Se deficiency and Se pollution issues, hinges crucially on the fate of selenium in the plant media in response to uptake, translocation and assimilation processes. We investigate the fate of selenium in root and shoot compartments after 3 and 6 weeks of experiment using a total of 128 plants grown in hydroponic solution supplied with 0.2, 2, 5, 20 and 100 mg L -1 of selenium in the form of selenite, selenate and a mixture of both species. Selenate-treated plants exhibited higher root-to-shoot Se translocation and total Se uptake than selenite-treated plants. Plants took advantage of the selenate mobility and presumably of the storage capacity of leaf vacuoles to circumvent selenium toxicity within the plant. Surprisingly, 28% of selenate was found in shoots of selenite-treated plants, questioning the ability of plants to oxidize selenite into selenate. Selenomethionine and methylated organo-selenium amounted to 30% and 8% respectively in shoots and 35% and 9% in roots of the identified Se, suggesting that selenium metabolization occurred concomitantly in root and shoot plant compartments and demonstrating that non-accumulator plants can synthesize notable quantities of precursor compound for volatilization. The present study demonstrated that non-accumulator plants can develop the same strategies as hyper-accumulator plants to limit selenium toxicity. When both selenate and selenite were supplied together, plants used selenate in a storage pathway and selenite in an assimilation pathway. Plants might thereby benefit from mixed supplies of selenite and selenate by saving enzymes and energy required for selenate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønge, Bl; Jespersen, S; Medina, C; Té, Ds; da Silva, Zj; Ostergaard, L; Laursen, Al; Wejse, C; Krarup, H; Erikstrup, C

    2014-10-01

    In the case of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatic disease progression is often accelerated, with higher rates of liver cirrhosis and liver-related mortality. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests used routinely to detect HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Blood samples from HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau were stored after testing for HBsAg and anti-HCV with rapid tests. Samples were subsequently re-tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV in Denmark. Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended on the antigen and antibody concentrations, respectively. Sex, age, CD4 cell count and antiretroviral therapy status did not differ between false negative and true positive samples in either of the tests. The study is limited by a low number of anti-HCV positive samples. New diagnostic rapid tests should always be evaluated in the setting in which they will be used before implementation. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  2. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised......Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...

  3. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  4. Optical properties of thermally annealed CdZnSe/ZnSe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margapoti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the diffusion characteristics, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out in extensive detail on single, as well as, ensembles of thermally annealed (TA) CdSe/ZnSe QDs. For a series of QD-ensembles, each annealed for t A = 30 s at temperatures from T A = 300-550 C, the change in the QD-composition has been calculated from the blue-shift of the exciton ground-state PL-emission, using a concentration function based on Fick's laws of diffusion. The diffusion length (L D ) and the activation energy (E A ) have been determined thereof. For the studied QDs, E A has been evaluated to be 2.2 eV. Additionally, TA results also in an enhancement of the PL-intensity and reduction of the full-width-at-half maximum (FWHM) of the spectra. This point towards an increased homogeneity of the QD-size and composition, and decrease in the concentration of defects around the QDs. For single CdSe/ZnSe QDs, TA has been varied from 100-240 C, in steps for 20 C, with t A kept fixed at 30 s. Finally, the evolution of the magneto-optic response with post-growth thermal annealing has been studied for both individual QDs and QD-ensembles. An external magnetic field, applied perpendicular to the plane of the QDs (Faraday configuration), results in Zeeman spin splitting of the ground exciton state. The emissions from the Zeeman-split states are left and right circularly polarized and from the degree of circular polarization (DCP), as well as, the spectral separation of the PL-peaks, the g-factor can be estimated. For CdSe/ZnSe QD-ensembles, the g-factor has been observed to change sign with TA. (orig.).

  5. Optical properties of thermally annealed CdZnSe/ZnSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margapoti, Emanuela

    2010-07-01

    To analyse the diffusion characteristics, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out in extensive detail on single, as well as, ensembles of thermally annealed (TA) CdSe/ZnSe QDs. For a series of QD-ensembles, each annealed for t{sub A} = 30 s at temperatures from T{sub A} = 300-550 C, the change in the QD-composition has been calculated from the blue-shift of the exciton ground-state PL-emission, using a concentration function based on Fick's laws of diffusion. The diffusion length (L{sub D}) and the activation energy (E{sub A}) have been determined thereof. For the studied QDs, E{sub A} has been evaluated to be 2.2 eV. Additionally, TA results also in an enhancement of the PL-intensity and reduction of the full-width-at-half maximum (FWHM) of the spectra. This point towards an increased homogeneity of the QD-size and composition, and decrease in the concentration of defects around the QDs. For single CdSe/ZnSe QDs, TA has been varied from 100-240 C, in steps for 20 C, with t{sub A} kept fixed at 30 s. Finally, the evolution of the magneto-optic response with post-growth thermal annealing has been studied for both individual QDs and QD-ensembles. An external magnetic field, applied perpendicular to the plane of the QDs (Faraday configuration), results in Zeeman spin splitting of the ground exciton state. The emissions from the Zeeman-split states are left and right circularly polarized and from the degree of circular polarization (DCP), as well as, the spectral separation of the PL-peaks, the g-factor can be estimated. For CdSe/ZnSe QD-ensembles, the g-factor has been observed to change sign with TA. (orig.).

  6. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  7. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sam Uel; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage

  8. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  9. Osthole attenuates hepatic injury in a rodent model of trauma-hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

  10. Kombucha Tea Ameliorates Trichloroethylene Induced Hepatic Damages in Rats via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Free Radicals Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.A.; Gharib, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Kombucha Tea (KT) is reported to exhibit a wide variety of biological effects, including antioxidant. Evidence shows the important role of oxidative stress in the hepatic damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effects of oral administration of KT in rats with trichloroethylene (TCE)-induced damage for ten consecutive days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by measuring total free radicals levels, biochemical and histological examinations. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity (the hepatic damage marker), total protein, albumin and globulin as well as malonaldehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) content, nitric oxide (NO) concentration were evaluated in liver tissue homogenates. Total free radicals concentration in blood was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR). Total protein, DNA concentration, cell number and cell size in liver tissues were also examined. The rats orally administrated with TCE for ten days indicates hepatic damage changes, an increase in blood total free radicals concentration was observed, serum GGT activity, liver MDA, NO levels, total protein and decreased GSH content, DNA concentration and cell number. This accompanied with an increase in cell size of liver tissues, whereas KT reversed these effects. Furthermore, KT inhibits the concentration of total free radicals in blood and decreasing the increment of MDA and NO concentration. Histological studies reveal partial healing in those rats treated by KT after oral administration with TCE. The present results suggest that KT ameliorates TCE induced hepatic damage in rats probably due to its content of glucuronic, acetic acid and B vitamins via inhibition of oxidative stress and total free radicals

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  12. Infección por Hepatitis No A / No B posterior a accidente biológico en personal de enfermería: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Finol Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes por exposición percutánea, suponen aproximadamente un tercio de los accidentes laborales de los trabajadores de salud. Por categorías profesionales, la enfermería presenta la mayor frecuencia. Los agentes más importantes por su frecuencia y perjuicio son: el VHB, VIH y VHC. En la década de los 60 y 70, los científicos desarrollaron análisis de sangre para identificar hepatitis B (1963 y hepatitis A (1973, pero muchas de las muestras de sangre tomadas para detectar enfermedades producidas tras las transfusiones resultaron negativas tanto para hepatitis A como la hepatitis B. Caso Clínico: Mujer, 27 años de edad, profesional de enfermería en área de Medicina Interna, sufre accidente laboral tipo pinchazo con abbocath durante jornada del día 23/11/1989. Se realiza revisión de historia del paciente fuente y las respectivas pruebas confirmatorias, sin encontrarse datos de enfermedades transmisibles. Así mismo las analíticas realizadas en el enfermo y en la trabajadora resultaron negativos los marcadores virales para Hepatitis. 15 días posteriores, presenta clínica sugestiva de hepatitis. Se realiza analítica y seriado de enzimas hepáticas, evidenciándose hipertransaminemia y serología para hepatitis A y B negativos. Se inicia tratamiento médico; con buena evolución clínica y de laboratorio es dada de alta. Posteriormente en 1996, se realiza reconocimiento médico laboral, encontrándose positividad para VHC. En 2004 por antecedentes de accidente biológico, se localiza el paciente fuente, repitiéndose el control serológico, resultando positivo para el mismo virus, pudiendo ahora ser declarado como accidente laboral y enfermedad profesional, por demostrarse la relación entre paciente fuente y la trabajadora.

  13. PPAR alpha-activation results in enhanced carnitine biosynthesis and OCTN2-mediated hepatic carnitine accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlies, Naomi; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Vaz, Frédéric M.

    2007-01-01

    In fasted rodents hepatic carnitine concentration increases considerably which is not observed in PPAR alpha-/- mice, indicating that PPAR alpha is involved in carnitine homeostasis. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the PPAR alpha-dependent hepatic carnitine accumulation we measured

  14. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  15. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  16. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almatrafi, Manal Mused; Vergara-Jimenez, Marcela; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Norris, Gregory H.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML) modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML), 10% Low Moringa (LM) or 15% High Moringa (HM) diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH) and triglyceride (TG) metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG) with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001), consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005). Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver. PMID:28640194

  17. Moringa Leaves Prevent Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Guinea Pigs by Reducing the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mused Almatrafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms by which Moringa oleifera leaves (ML modulate hepatic lipids, guinea pigs were allocated to either control (0% ML, 10% Low Moringa (LM or 15% High Moringa (HM diets with 0.25% dietary cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. After 6 weeks, guinea pigs were sacrificed and liver and plasma were collected to determine plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, cytokines and the expression of genes involved in hepatic cholesterol (CH and triglyceride (TG metabolism. There were no differences in plasma lipids among groups. A dose-response effect of ML was observed in hepatic lipids (CH and TG with the lowest concentrations in the HM group (p < 0.001, consistent with histological evaluation of lipid droplets. Hepatic gene expression of diglyceride acyltransferase-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, as well as protein concentrations interleukin (IL-1β and interferon-γ, were lowest in the HM group (p < 0.005. Hepatic gene expression of cluster of differentiation-68 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c were 60% lower in both the LM and HM groups compared to controls (p < 0.01. This study demonstrates that ML may prevent hepatic steatosis by affecting gene expression related to hepatic lipids synthesis resulting in lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides and reduced inflammation in the liver.

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of N-type polycrystalline In4Se3-x compounds via thermally induced Se deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Shu, Yu-Tian; Guo, Fu

    2014-03-01

    In4Se3-x compound is considered as a potential thermoelectric material due to its comparably low thermal conductivity among all existing ones. While most studies investigated In4Se3-x thermoelectric properties by controlling selennium or other dopants concentrations, in the current study, it was found that even for a fixed initial In/Se ratio, the resulting In/Se ratio varied significantly with different thermal processing histories (i.e., melting and annealing), which also resulted in varied thermoelectric properties as well as fracture surface morphologies of In4Se3-x polycrystalline specimens. Single phase polycrystalline In4Se3-x compounds were synthesized by combining a sequence of melting, annealing, pulverizing, and spark plasma sintering. The extension of previous thermal history was observed to significantly improve the electrical conductivity (about 121%) and figure of merit (about 53%) of In4Se3-x polycrystalline compounds. The extended thermal history resulted in the increase of Se deficiency (x) from 0.39 to 0.53. This thermally induced Se deficiency was observed to associate with increasing carrier mobility but decreasing concentration, which differs from the general trend observed for the initially adjusted Se deficiency at room temperature. Unusually large dispersed grains with nanosize layers were observed in specimens with the longest thermal history. The mechanism(s) by which previous thermal processing enhances carrier mobility and affect microstructural evolution are briefly discussed.

  19. Optical studies of CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Kamal Kumar; Ramrakhaini, Meera

    2018-05-01

    The nanocomposite films of CdSe nanocrystals in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were synthesized by environmental friendly chemical method. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction which indicates the hexagonal crystalline structure of CdSe with crystal size up to a few nm. The crystal size is found to decrease by increasing PVA Concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of these composite films with varying concentration of PVA as well as Cd2+ content have been investigated. The PL peak of CdSe was observed at 510 nm and higher intensity is observed by increasing PVA concentration without any change in position of PL peak. Due to proper passivation of surface states non-radiative transition are reduced which enhance the PL intensity. By increasing concentration of Cd2+ content in the CdSe/PVA nanocomposite films, smaller CdSe nanocrystals were obtained giving higher intensity and blue shift in the PL peak due to enhanced oscillator strength and quantum confinement effect. The PL peak in green and blue region makes these composite films promising materials for optical display devices. The Refractive index of these composites was also measured at sodium line with the help of Abee's refractometer and was found in the range of 2.20-2.45. It is seen that refractive index varies with polymer concentration. This may be useful for their potential application in anti-reflection coating, display devices and optical sensors.

  20. Diagnostic value of liver scintigraphy in fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Ikeoka, Naoko; Minowa, Takami; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Harihara, Shigeyoshi; Yamamoto, Sukeo; Ochi, Hironobu; Monna, Takeyuki

    1985-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy was performed in 12 cases with fulminant hepatitis, in 8 cases with severe acute hepatitis and in 44 cases with acute hepatitis. Scintiphotoes of severe hepatitis showed reduction of liver size, marked visualization of the bone marrow and the spleen, so this pattern was useful to differentiate from acute hepatitis. Relative size of the liver calculated by A.L.I. (anterior liver index) showed significant reduction in severe hepatitis compared with that of acute hepatitis. Three of five patients with died of severe hepatitis showed high uptake in the lung and ribs, but none of fifteen patients with severe hepatitis who recovered showed the abnormal accumulation in the lung and in the ribs. (author)

  1. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  2. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  3. Immunity to hepatitis A and B persists for at least 15 years after immunisation of adolescents with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Jiri; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Leyssen, Maarten; D'silva, Priya

    2016-05-23

    The exact duration of antibody persistence to hepatitis A and B and the need for booster dosing following primary immunisation remains undefined. A long-term study was designed to follow antibody persistence and immune memory on an annual basis for up to 15 years following vaccination during adolescence. Subjects received a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 12-15 years of age, either as 2-dose of the adult formulation or 3-dose of the paediatric formulation. Blood samples were taken every year thereafter to assess antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis A and B. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were measured at Years 11-15. At Year 15 immune memory was further assessed by measuring the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of the monovalent vaccine, which was administered to subjects whose antibody concentrations fell below the pre-defined cut-offs (anti-HAV: hepatitis B vaccine challenge dose administration to 19 subjects, all except one in the 3-dose group, mounted a robust anamnestic response. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the hepatitis B challenge was consistent with previous experience. Immunity to hepatitis A and B persists 15 years after adolescent vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. Highly effective anamnestic response indicates that a booster dose should not be required for 15 years after primary vaccination. http://www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00875485. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Circulating hyaluronate: concentration in different vascular beds in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Laurent, T C

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous HA in fasting, supine subjects with normal (n = 6) or moderately decreased kidney function (n = 9). In both groups hepatic venous HA was sign......The plasma concentration of hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid; HA) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous HA in fasting, supine subjects with normal (n = 6) or moderately decreased kidney function (n = 9). In both groups hepatic venous HA...

  5. EFECTO DE NIVELES CRECIENTES DE NITRÓGENO NO PROTÉICO DIETARIO SOBRE LA CONCENTRACIÓN DE PRECURSORES GLUCONEOGÉNICOS EN HÍGADO BOVINO EFFECT OF INCREASING LEVELS OF DIETARY NONPROTEIN NITROGEN ON GLUCONEOGENIC PRECURSORS CONCENTRATION IN BOVINE LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Galvis Goez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de niveles crecientes de proteína degradable en rumen (PDR sobre las concentraciones de amonio y piruvato en hígado, se utilizaron 15 vacas Holstein que cursaban los primeros cien días posparto. Estas se asignaron aleatoriamente a tres tratamientos experimentales que consistieron en el suministro de un suplemento alimenticio comercial al que se le adicionó urea de tal manera que se incrementará el consumo de PDR en aproximadamente 0 (T0, 10 (T1 y 15% (T2 respecto a los requerimientos. A estas vacas se les determinaron las concentraciones hepáticas de amonio (Ahep y piruvato (Pihep. Se realizó un balance nutricional de energía neta de lactancia (ENL, proteína metabolizable (PM, PDR y proteína no degradable en rumen (PNDR donde se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (PIn order to test the effect of growing levels of diet rumen degradable protein on hepatic concentrations of ammonia and piruvate, fifteen cows Holstein in their first one hundred post calving days were used. They were assigned at random to three different experimental treatments, which consisted on the supply of a commercial feeding supplement without any addition of urea as a source of NNP (T0; the second treatment (T1 consisted on the supply of the same supplement with an addition of urea, so that the supply of PDR was increased 10% approximately to the requirements;finally, in the third treatment, (T2 the cows were given the same supplement which was added with enough urea so that the supply of PDR was increased 15% approximately to the requirements. In these cows were determined hepatic concentrations of ammonia (Ahep and pyruvate (Pyhep. The concentrations of Ahep were different among treatments, whereas the concentrations of Pihep were similar. Negative relations between Ahep and ENL, Ahep and PNDR, Ahep, and PM, were found it; while Pihep was positively related with Ahep. These results suggest the

  6. High-fat feeding increases hepatic vitamin C synthesis and its circulatory mobilization in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    , glucose and vitC concentrations. Hepatic vitC concentration and gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) capacity, as a measure of vitC de novo biosynthesis, were analyzed in liver homogenates. RESULTS: HF diet significantly increased plasma concentrations of vitC compared with a control diet low in fat (P ... to modulate their vitC homeostasis during high-fat (HF) feeding. METHODS: Twenty-five male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high- or low-fat diets for 14 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 weeks of intervention. Terminal fasting plasma samples were analyzed for insulin.......05). Hepatic de novo biosynthesis of vitC was upregulated (P glucose and insulin concentrations...

  7. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  8. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Kendall B; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical. Dietary 100 ppm PFOS fed to male mice and rats for 4 weeks caused hepatic steatosis through an unknown mechanism. Choline deficient diets can cause hepatic steatosis. A hepatic choline:PFOS ion complex was hypothesized to cause this effect in mice. This study tested whether dietary choline supplementation attenuates PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed control, choline supplemented (CS), 100 ppm PFOS, or 100 ppm PFOS + CS diets for 3 weeks. Male rats fed both PFOS-containing diets had decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) on days 9, 16, and/or 23 and increased hepatic free fatty acids and TG (ie, steatosis). Female rats fed both PFOS diets had decreased serum cholesterol on days 9 and 16 and decreased hepatic free fatty acid and TG at termination (ie, no steatosis). Liver PFOS concentrations were similar for both sexes. Liver choline concentrations were increased in male rats fed PFOS (±CS), but the increase was lower in the PFOS + CS group. Female liver choline concentrations were not altered by any diet. These findings demonstrate a clear sex-related difference in PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in the rat. Additional evaluated mechanisms (ie, nuclear receptor activation, mRNA upregulation, and choline kinase activity inhibition) did not appear to be involved in the hepatic steatosis. Dietary PFOS (100 ppm) induced hepatic steatosis in male, but not female, rats that was not attenuated by choline supplementation. The mechanism of lipid accumulation and the sex-related differences warrant further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  10. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for individuals with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapko, Michael K; Yee, Helen S; Monto, Alexander; Dominitz, Jason A

    2010-02-17

    The incidence of hepatitis A infection in the United States has decreased dramatically in recent years because of childhood immunization programs. A decision analysis of the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination for adults with hepatitis C was conducted. No vaccination strategy is cost-effective for adults with hepatitis C using the recent lower anticipated hepatitis A incidence, private sector costs, and a cost-effectiveness criterion of $100,000/QALY. Vaccination is cost-effective only for individuals who have cleared the hepatitis C virus when Department of Veterans Affairs costs are used. The recommendation to vaccinate adults with hepatitis C against hepatitis A should be reconsidered. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effect of selected natural products, thioproline and pegasys on hepatic platelet activating factor (PAF) in CCL4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badria, Farid A.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate hepatic levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) in liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. A group of selected natural products; boswellic acids, curcumin and glycrrhizin (preparation named OMNI; a drug under clinical trials for treatment of hepatitis C virus), Mirazid (a commercially available schistomicidal drug), Thioproline (a commercially available hepatoprotective agent) and Pegasys (peg interferon alpha-2a; a commercially available therapy for treatment of Hepatitis C virus) were examined for their effect on hepatic PAF groups each comprised 9 rats. Group 1 was treated only with CCl4, group 2 to 5 were treated with OMNI, Mirazid, Thioproline and Pegasys, respectively whereas the 6th group was the normal control group (with no treatment, except an injection of the vehicle). Liver damage was induced in all groups except normal control group (groups 1 to 5) by i.p. injection of 40% CCl4 in corn oil (0.375 ml/kg) 3 times a week for 3 weeks. One week after CCl4 intoxication, all tested drugs were injected i.p. daily for 3 weeks. Hepatic PAF concentration was estimated by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography), while levels of serum transminases (ALT, AST), hepatic hydroxyproline (as marker of liver fibrosis), serum malondialdehyde and catalase (as markers of oxidative stress) were estimated sepctrophotometrically. The hepatic PAF levels were significantly higher in CCl4 group (24.24+-2.01 pmol equiv. /mg) (p<0.001). Treatment with OMNI, Mirazid, Thioproline and Pegasys reduced hepatic PAF significantly to be 11.84+-0.22, 14.5+-1.00, 13.17+-0, 54 and 14.26+-1.09pmol equiv. /mg respectively. This study may add further rational to the anti-fibrotic activity of the tested drugs via reduction of hepatic PAF. (author)

  12. Hepatitis B en el Perú: Revisión 1970-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Mayca P

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La infección por hepatitis B es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. El Perú, ubicado en una zona de endemicidad intermedia, no es ajeno a esta realidad. El propósito del presente artículo es presentar la evolución de las investigaciones sobre dicha enfermedad, se revisaron 60 referencias (1970-2002, no se observó una secuencia en las investigaciones sobre prevalencia, además se usaron distintos marcadores. Los resultados sobre la presencia del HBsAg variaron entre costa (0-4,8%, sierra (13,8-16% y selva (3-17,1%, sin tener investigaciones globales. Sobre los estudios en grupos de riesgo, las guarniciones militares en zona de selva han reportado brotes e identificado al HbsAg hasta en 43,2% de su población. En trabajadoras sexuales, los estudios muestran prevalencia en los marcadores de 51,5 a 89,3%. En personal de salud, se reportó el HBsAg entre 0 y 7,8%, teniendo los servicios de banco de sangre, nefrología, odontología y gastroenterología, mayor número de casos. Las investigaciones sobre respuesta serológica a la aplicación de vacunas se iniciaron en 1987, en comunidades nativas selváticas; posteriormente se aplicó un programa piloto apoyado por OPS/OMS en Abancay. Desde 1996, el MINSA estableció inmunizaciones a menores de un año en zonas de alta y mediana endemicidad, ampliando el 2003 la vacunación de este grupo a todo el país. Se concluye que a pesar de los avances en el control de la hepatitis B, se requiere una visión conjunta de todos los sectores involucrados para establecer acciones concretas y continuas tanto en análisis de costos, epidemiología y educación.

  13. A new technique for labeling of Lipiodol with 188Re in the treatment of hepatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyh-Jen Wang; Wan-Yu Lin; Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Lie-Hang Shen; Ming-Ja Su

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of 188 Re-Lipiodol without using a chelating agent and to evaluate the stability and biodistribution of the new agent in rats with hepatic tumors was attempted. Eighteen male Sprague -Dawley rats with liver tumors were sacrificed at 1, 24, and 48 hours (six rats at each time) after injection of approximately 7.4 MBq (0.2 mCi) of 188 Re Lipiodol via the hepatic artery. Samples of tumor, liver and other organs were collected and tissue concentration (%ID/g) of the markers were calculated. A high level of radioactivity in the hepatic tumors was found at every time of the study. The ratios of tumor to normal liver tissue concentration (T/N ratio) were 7.62 at 1 hour, 8.03 at 24 hours, and 7.70 at 48 hours. Except for the liver, kidneys and lungs, concentrations in other organs were low. The new method for labeling Lipiodol with 188 Re is simple and has potential for the treatment of hepatic tumors. (author)

  14. Persistence of immunity from 1 year of age after one or two doses of hepatitis A vaccine given to children in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espul C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Espul,1 Laura Benedetti,2 Héctor Cuello,3 Guy Houillon,4 Anvar Rasuli41Programa de Lucha Contra las Hepatitis Virales, Ministerio de Salud/Hospital Central de Mendoza, 2Programa Provincial de Inmunizaciones, Ministerio de Salud, 3Laboratorio de Virología, Hospital Central de Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina; 4Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, FranceBackground: This study was done to determine the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine in children, providing needed clinical data on the flexibility of booster administration.Methods: Participants had received one dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim™ 80 U Pediatric at 12–23 months of age or two doses of the same vaccine at 12 and 18 months of age prior to enrolment. Anti-hepatitis A antibody concentrations were measured at the first, second, and third year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A in participant families were assessed and family socioeconomic data were collected.Results: A series of 546 participants were enrolled. Of 467 (85.5% participants completing 3 years of follow-up, 365 had received a single vaccine dose and 94 had received two vaccine doses. Seropositivity (anti-HAV ≥ 10 mIU/mL at 3 years was 99.7% after one dose and 100% after two doses. At one year, geometric mean concentrations were higher after two doses (1433.9 mIU/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1108–1855 than one (209.7 mIU/mL, 95% CI 190.6–230.6. Geometric mean concentrations decreased in both groups during the study, but remained well above 10 mIU/mL through the third year. The geometric mean of 3-year to one-year anti-hepatitis A concentration ratios was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70–0.79 following one dose and 0.57 (95% CI 0.47–0.70 following two doses. The greatest decrease in geometric mean concentrations occurred during the third year, ie, 21.2% in the one-dose group and 40.8% in the two-dose group. Six participants became seronegative during follow-up and responded strongly to a

  15. Hepatitis E virus and fulminant hepatitis--a virus or host-specific pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; Simmonds, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Fulminant hepatitis is a rare outcome of infection with hepatitis E virus. Several recent reports suggest that virus variation is an important determinant of disease progression. To critically examine the evidence that virus-specific factors underlie the development of fulminant hepatitis following hepatitis E virus infection. Published sequence information of hepatitis E virus isolates from patients with and without fulminant hepatitis was collected and analysed using statistical tests to identify associations between virus polymorphisms and disease outcome. Fulminant hepatitis has been reported following infection with all four hepatitis E virus genotypes that infect humans comprising multiple phylogenetic lineages within genotypes 1, 3 and 4. Analysis of virus sequences from individuals infected by a common source did not detect any common substitutions associated with progression to fulminant hepatitis. Re-analysis of previously reported associations between virus substitutions and fulminant hepatitis suggests that these were probably the result of sampling biases. Host-specific factors rather than virus genotype, variants or specific substitutions appear to be responsible for the development of fulminant hepatitis. © 2014 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  18. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  19. Inorganic Nanoparticle as a Carrier for Hepatitis B Viral Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhtyar, Yu.; Romanova, M.; Kachanovska, A.; Skrastiņa, D.; Reinhofa, R.; Pumpens, P.; Patmalnieks, A.

    Virus like particles (VLP) are used to transport immune response-modulating agents to target cells to treat them. In order to deliver a high concentration of VLP to the cell, a number of VLP can be attached to a nanoparticle to be used as a nanolorry. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles were attached to Hepatitis B VLP. Spectrophotometry measurements, electron, and fluorescent microscopy evidence showed that the SiO2 - Hepatitis B VLP complexes were formed.

  20. Incidencia del virus C de la hepatitis en pacientes en hemodiálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Pedro Rodríguez Beyris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 107 pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal, tratados periódicamente con hemodiálisis en el Servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, de enero a junio del 2012, quienes habían recibido al menos 3 transfusiones sanguíneas y además presentaban el virus de la hepatitis C -- confirmado por el método inmunoenzimático de ELISA --, a fin de caracterizarles y determinar en ellos la morbilidad de dicho virus. En la investigación se obtuvo una preponderancia del sexo masculino (53,0 %, el grupo etario de 45-54 años (30,0 % y la nefropatía hipertensiva como causa de insuficiencia renal crónica (50,5 %; además, se realizaron menos de 3 transfusiones en 48 pacientes (51,0 %. El virus de la hepatitis C mantenía una alta morbilidad en los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica terminal que recibieron tratamiento hemodialítico en este Servicio de Hemodiálisis.

  1. How hepatitis D virus can hinder the control of hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Xiridou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D, as evidenced by the decline of hepatitis D in recent years. Since the presence of hepatitis D is associated with suppressed HBV replication and possibly infectivity, it is reasonable to speculate that hepatitis D may facilitate the control of HBV. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduced a mathematical model for the transmission of HBV and hepatitis D, where individuals with dual HBV and hepatitis D infection transmit both viruses. We calculated the reproduction numbers of single HBV infections and dual HBV and hepatitis D infections and examined the endemic prevalences of the two viruses. The results show that hepatitis D virus modulates not only the severity of the HBV epidemic, but also the impact of interventions for HBV. Surprisingly we find that the presence of hepatitis D virus may hamper the eradication of HBV. Interventions that aim to reduce the basic reproduction number of HBV below one may not be sufficient to eradicate the virus, as control of HBV depends also on the reproduction numbers of dual infections. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: For populations where hepatitis D is endemic, plans for control programs ignoring the presence of hepatitis D may underestimate the HBV epidemic and produce overoptimistic results. The current HBV surveillance should be augmented with monitoring of hepatitis D, in order to improve accuracy of the monitoring and the efficacy of control measures.

  2. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  5. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  6. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  8. Comparing the influence of selenite (Se4+) and selenate (Se6+) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to pak choi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Dinh, Quang Toan; Cui, Zeiwei; Huang, Jie; Wang, Dan; Wei, Tianjiao; Liang, Dongli; Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Selenite (Se (IV)) and selenate (Se (IV)) have recently been demonstrated to be equally effective in inhibiting mercury (Hg) phytotoxicity to plants. This assertion is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential effects of Se species (Se 4+ and Se 6+ ) on the inhibition of the mercury (Hg) bioavailability to pak choi in dry land. Pot experiments with exposure to different dosages of mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) or selenate (Na 2 SeO 4 ) were treated. To compare the influence of Se (IV) and Se (VI) on the bioaccumulation and bioavailability of Hg, the levels of total Hg in different pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) tissues (roots and shoots) and the distribution changes of Hg fractions in soil before planting and after harvest were determined as well as the Hg I R values in soils (relative binding intensity) were analyzed. Results showed that application Se (IV) reduced the concentrations of Hg in pak choi roots more than Se (VI). Hg concentrations were also decreased in pak choi shoots in Se (IV) treatments, while which notably increased in Se (VI) treatments. Thus, Se (IV) plays a more important role than Se (VI) in limiting the absorption and bioaccumulation of Hg in pak choi. Moreover, this inhibition may only significantly occur when Se (IV) is at an appropriate level (2.5mg/kg). In addition, the good correlations between the proportions of mobile Hg fractions (soluble and exchangeable fractions), I R values with the Hg concentrations in plants were observed. This affirmed the importance of the Hg fractions transformation and the I R indicator of Hg in the assessment of their bioavailability. Our findings regarding the importance of Se (IV) influence in reducing Hg bioaccumulation not only provided the correct appraisal about the effect of Se species on the inhibition of the Hg phytotoxicity to pak choi in dry land, but also be a good reference for selecting Se fertilizer forms (Se 4+ or Se 6+ ). Copyright © 2017

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  10. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    /tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... at doses previously used as a tracer, it increased VPyr-Cyc/VMito by 20-30-fold, increased hepatic TCA metabolite concentrations 2-3-fold, and increased endogenous glucose production rates by 20-100%. The physiologic stimuli, glucagon and epinephrine, both increased hepatic glucose production, but only...... tracer to assess hepatic glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and mitochondrial metabolism in vivo....

  11. Hepatic enhancement on Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging: comparison between cirrhotic and normal livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2004-01-01

    To compare the enhancement features of hepatic parenchyma between cirrhotic and normal liver, using Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging. The 60 patients (35 with cirrhotic and 25 with normal liver) included in our study underwent Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5T system with a phase-array multicoil. In all cases, T1-weighted in-phase and opposed-phase gradient-echo MR imaging was performed before and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of a bolus of Gd-BOPTA. All images were quantitatively analysed by comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal enhancement (SE) of cirrhotic and normal liver before and after contrast enhancement, and in cirrhotic patients, SNR and SE were also compared in terms of the Child-Pugh classification. For qualitative analysis, the hepatic enhancement patterns of cirrhotic and normal liver were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous according to the consensual findings of two radiologists. At contrast-enhanced imaging, both cirrhotic (p<0.001) and normal liver (p<0.001) showed substantially increased SNR relative to unenhanced images, and the SNR of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal livers at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p<0.001) imaging. The SE of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal liver (in-phase:p=0.002; opposed phase:p=0.011). Both Child-Pugh class A (p<0.001) and B (p<0.001) cirrhotic liver showed a substantial increase in SNR at contrast-enhanced imaging relative to unenhanced imaging and the SNR of Child-Pugh class A was significantly higher than that of Child-Pugh class B at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p=0.022) imaging. In addition, the SE of class A was significantly higher than that of class B at in-phase imaging (p=0.004). Cirrhotic liver showed heterogeneous enhancement in 20 of 35 patients (57%), whereas normal liver showed homogeneous enhancement in all patients. At Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging, cirrhotic liver

  12. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  13. Revisión sistemática de evaluaciones económicas de fármacos antivirales para el tratamiento de la hepatitis B crónica Economic evaluation of antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely Solari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar la evidencia disponible acerca de la costo-efectividad de los regímenes antivirales en el tratamiento de la hepatitis B crónica. Material y Métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de las bases de datos de MEDLINE, LILACS, NICE guidelines y COCHRANE sobre evaluaciones económicas de regímenes antivirales para el tratamiento de hepatitis B crónica. Se incluyó los estudios originales, revisiones sistemáticas y guías de manejo conteniendo información acerca de la costo-efectividad de dicho tratamiento. Se registró las características y resultados de los documentos obtenidos. Resultados. Se obtuvo 29 artículos originales, cuatro artículos de revisión y cuatro guías de manejo clínico. La mayoría de las publicaciones fueron hechas en los cinco últimos años. Los autores tenían conflicto de interés, por trabajar en la industria farmacéutica, en 73% de los artículos originales. El 93% de los artículos que evalúan costo-efectividad de brindar tratamiento para hepatitis B crónica frente a manejo de complicaciones, encuentran que es costo-efectivo el tratamiento antiviral; 3/6 estudios que evalúan lamivudina frente a otros esquemas la encuentran como estrategia dominante, 3/5 encuentran a entecavir como estrategia dominante, 1/1 a tenofovir como dominante, 1/4 a interferón convencional como dominante y ninguno encuentra a adefovir ni interferón pegilado como estrategia dominante. Conclusiones. Consideramos que la evidencia disponible sugiere que brindar tratamiento antiviral para hepatitis B crónica sea una intervención costo-efectiva para muchos sistemas de salud, incluyendo el nuestro, con índices variables de costo-efectividad de acuerdo con los esquemas evaluados. Idealmente, se debe realizar evaluaciones económicas locales en este aspecto.Objective. To revise the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral regimens for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Material and methods. We

  14. Antibodies against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has changed over the last two decades, indicating a declining incidence of HAV and HBV infections. Therefore, vaccinations against HAV and HBV are recommended for unimmunized people before traveling to an endemic area. Unfortunately, primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients can only obtain humoral immunity through intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement and not from vaccination because of a defect in antibody production. However, few studies have analyzed the titers of antibodies against HAV or HBV in IVIG products. In this study, the titers of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies were measured in nineteen lots of IVIG products from five manufacturers from three countries (A, B from Korea; C, D from Japan; and E from the USA), and trough titers in plasma were estimated. Concentrations of anti-HAV antibody ranged from 1,888-8,927 mIU/mL and estimated trough titers exceeded the minimal protective value in all evaluated IVIG products. Concentrations of anti-HBs antibody ranged from 438-965 mIU/mL in products A and B and were 157, 123, and 1,945 mIU/mL in products C, D, and E, respectively. Estimated trough titers in products A, B, and E exceeded the minimal protective value but those in products C and D did not reach this threshold. These data demonstrated that available IVIG products generally provide sufficient antibodies against HAV and HBV to protect patients with PAD, although the trough concentrations of anti-HBs antibody in two IVIG products did not reach the minimum protective value.

  15. Transfusion-associated hepatitis before the screening of blood for hepatitis risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J

    2014-01-01

    %) with HBV alone, and one (3%) with both viruses. Overall, 100% of patients with hepatitis and 39% of those without hepatitis were infected with HBV and/or HCV; one patient was also infected with hepatitis E virus. The donor carrier rate for HBV and/or HCV was estimated to be more than 6%; contemporaneously......%) developed biochemical evidence of hepatitis; of these, 20 (67%) were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) alone, four (13%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) alone, and six (20%) with both viruses. Among the 36 patients who did not develop hepatitis, four (11%) were newly infected with HCV alone, nine (25...... prepared pooled normal human plasma was also contaminated with multiple hepatitis viruses. CONCLUSION: TAH virus infections were a larger problem than perceived 50 years ago and HCV was the predominant agent transmitted. All hepatitis cases could be attributed to HCV and/or HBV and hence...

  16. Work in progress: nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the gallbladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricak, H.; Filly, R.A.; Margulis, A.R.; Moon, K.L.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary study of the relation between food intake and intensity of gallbladder bile on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images was made. Twelve subjects (seven volunteers, five patients) were imaged following a minimum of 14 hours of fasting. Six of seven volunteers were reimaged one hour after stimulation by either a fatty meal or an alcoholic beverage. An additional seven patients were imaged two hours after a hospital breakfast. It was found that concentrated bile emits a high-intensity spin echo signal (SE), while hepatic bile in the gallbladder produces a low-intensity SE signal. Following ingestion of cholecystogogue, dilute hepatic bile settles on top of the concentrated bile, each emitting SE signals of different intensity. The average T1 value of concentrated bile was 594 msec, while the T1 vaue of dilute hepatic bile was 2,646 msec. The average T2 values were 104 msec for concentrated bile and 126 msec for dilute bile. The most likely cause for the different SE intensities of bile is the higher water content, and therefore longer T1 or T2 relaxation times, of hepatic bile. It is suggested that NMR imaging has the ability to provide physiological information about the gallbladder and that it may prove to be a simple and safe clinical test of gallbladder function

  17. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  18. Trace elements in sera of patients with hepatitis B: Determination and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saod, Wahran M.; Darwish, Nadiya T.; Zaidan, Tahseen A.; Alfalujie, Abdul Wahab A.

    2018-04-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B (HBV) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with about 248 million people having HBV infection. Trace elements e.g. copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and iron (Fe) are constituent components of many metal proteins and metalloenzymes in human sera. Therefore, the ratios of these trace elements in human sera are often stated to be a good marker for diagnosing various diseases including HBV. The aims of this study are: to compare the level of trace elements in sera of patients infected with HBV and healthy participants, and to evaluate the efficiency of analytical techniques (e.g. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (hydride generation) (AAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) that are currently used to detect Fe and Se elements in Patients' human sera. The findings of this study show that the concentration range of copper element between (132.80±28.64 µg/dl) to (105.66±23.20 µg/dl) was significantly higher in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (91.27±9.20 µg/dl). Iron concentration range between (206.64±61.60 µg/l) to (170.00±36.71 µg/l) was significantly higher in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (158.00±15.13 µg/l). However, patients with HBV had significantly lower serum concentrations of zinc with a concentration range between (111.64±20.90 µg/dl) to (99.25±24.06 µg/dl) as compared to those in healthy controls (113.44±16.38 µg/dl). While selenium concentration range between (64.39±7.39 µg/l) to (51.10±4.96 µg/l) was significantly lower in HBV infected patients as compared to those in healthy controls (67.68±7.60) (μg/l). Moreover, the results of this study suggest that (AAS) technique was the most accurate method to measure the concentration of selenium element, while (UV and ICP-MS) analytical techniques have the same efficiency in measuring the iron concentration.

  19. Increased hepatic nicotine elimination after phenobarbital induction in the conscious rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foth, H.; Walther, U.I.; Kahl, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Elimination parameters of [14C]nicotine in conscious rats receiving nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) either intravenously or orally were studied. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine, derived by comparison of the respective areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC), was 89%, indicating low hepatic extraction ratios of about 10%. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) markedly increased hepatic first-pass extraction of nicotine. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine in plasma dropped to 1.4% of the corresponding values obtained from PB-treated rats receiving nicotine iv. After PB pretreatment, the clearance of iv nicotine was increased approximately twofold over controls, much less than the observed more than ninefold increase of hepatic first-pass extraction. It is assumed that extrahepatic metabolism contributed significantly to the rapid removal of nicotine from the plasma. The elimination of cotinine, originating from nicotine administered either po or iv, was significantly increased by PB pretreatment, as determined by the ratio of corresponding AUCs. The pattern of nicotine metabolites in urine also indicated an increase in the rate of cotinine metabolic turnover. The amount of norcotinine in the organic extract of urine paralleled PB microsomal enzyme induction. The ratio between urinary concentrations of the normetabolite and cotinine correlated strongly with the PB-induced state of rat liver. This may be a suitable indicator of PB-inducible hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme(s). Since smoking habits in man are feedback-regulated by nicotine plasma concentrations, a similar increase of nicotine elimination by microsomal enzyme induction in man may be of relevance for tobacco consumption

  20. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  1. Genetic and hormonal control of hepatic steatosis in female and male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Frode; Hui, Simon T; Kulahcioglu, Emre; Mehrabian, Margarete; Cantor, Rita M; Pan, Calvin; Parks, Brian W; Lusis, Aldons J

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is complex and influenced by factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and sex. We now report a study on sex difference in hepatic steatosis in the context of genetic variation using a population of inbred strains of mice. While male mice generally exhibited higher concentration of hepatic TG levels on a high-fat high-sucrose diet, sex differences showed extensive interaction with genetic variation. Differences in percentage body fat were the best predictor of hepatic steatosis among the strains and explained about 30% of the variation in both sexes. The difference in percent gonadal fat and HDL explained 9.6% and 6.7% of the difference in hepatic TGs between the sexes, respectively. Genome-wide association mapping of hepatic TG revealed some striking differences in genetic control of hepatic steatosis between females and males. Gonadectomy increased the hepatic TG to body fat percentage ratio among male, but not female, mice. Our data suggest that the difference between the sexes in hepatic TG can be partly explained by differences in body fat distribution, plasma HDL, and genetic regulation. Future studies are required to understand the molecular interactions between sex, genetics, and the environment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Application of Serum Hepatic Fibrosis Indices in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong; Gu Xin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of combined detection of laminin (LN), collagen type IV (CIV), hyaluronic acid (HA) and precollagen type III (PCIII) in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. The serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in 143 patients with hepatic disease and 41 healthy controls were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in patients with hepatic disease were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01), and the serum levels of those markers were related to the severity of the chronic hepatic disease. The highest serum levels were found in serious chronic hepatitis group and hepatic fibrosis group,and the increase of serum HA and PCIII was most remarkable. Combined detection of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII is a sensitive and reliable method in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but the four serum indices can not be used in differentiating serious chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  3. Inmunogenicidad de la vacuna frente al virus de la hepatitis B en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen Rodríguez, Renée

    2017-01-01

    La colitis ulcerosa (CU) y la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) son patologías que se denominan conjuntamente enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII). Su patogenia es poco conocida, pero si se sabe que hay una respuesta inmune frente a estructuras del tubo digestivo. El tratamiento se basa es disminuir esta inmunogenicidad administrando corticoides, inmunosupresores o terapias biológicas. Todas estas circunstancias favorecen las infecciones y reactivaciones por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB). La pr...

  4. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z.; Krąpiec, Marek; Huels, Mathias; Pawlyta, Jacek; Dreves, Alexander; Meadows, John

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ( 14 C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the 14 C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar 14 C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in 14 C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their 14 C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the 14 C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ 14 C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  5. Increase of radiocarbon concentration in tree rings from Kujawy (SE Poland) around AD 774–775

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Andrzej Z., E-mail: arakowski@polsl.pl [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Krąpiec, Marek [AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza Av. 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Huels, Mathias [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Pawlyta, Jacek [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego Str. 22B, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Dreves, Alexander [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Meadows, John [Leibniz-Laboratory for Radiometric Dating and Isotope Research, University Kiel, Max-Eyth-Str. 11-13, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology, Schleswig-Holstein State Museums Foundation, Schloss Gottorf, Schloßinsel, 24837 Schleswig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Evidence of a rapid increase in atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) content in AD 774–775 was presented by Miyake et al. (2012), who observed an increase of about 12‰ in the {sup 14}C content in annual tree rings from Japanese cedar. Usoskin et al. (2013) report a similar {sup 14}C spike in German oak, and attribute it to exceptional solar activity. If this phenomenon is global in character, such rapid changes in {sup 14}C concentration may affect the accuracy of calibrated dates, as the existing calibration curve is composed mainly of decadal samples. Single-year samples of dendro-chronologically dated tree rings of deciduous oak (Quercus robur) from Kujawy, a village near Krakow (SE Poland), spanning the years AD 765–796, were collected and their {sup 14}C content was measured using the AMS system in the Leibniz Laboratory. The results clearly show a rapid increase of 9.2 ± 2.1‰ in the {sup 14}C concentration in tree rings between AD 774 and AD 775, with maximum Δ{sup 14}C = 4.1 ± 2.3‰ noted in AD 776.

  6. Serum hyaluronic acid as a marker of hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, N.A.; Mehmood, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels as biochemical marker of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and correlate it with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study was performed on 100 patients of chronic liver disease whose liver biopsies had been carried out. Fifty healthy controls were also included in the study. Routine liver function tests, hepatitis serology and serum hyaluronic acid levels were carried out on patients and controls. Liver biopsy of 100 patients revealed that 21 were in stage 0 fibrosis, 38 in stage 1 fibrosis, 26 in stage 3 fibrosis and 15 in stage 4 fibrosis. Mean Serum HA (mean +- SD) concentration in patients were 189 +- 98 mg/L vs. 21 +- 10 mg/L of healthy controls. The difference observed was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients in stage 4 fibrosis had significantly higher (p <0.001) mean serum HA concentration as compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. Diagnostic accuracy of serum HA at marginally elevated level of 60 mg/L determined the sensitivity 78.4 %, specificity 80.9%, positive predicted value 93.9% and negative predicted value of 50%. Serum HA is a useful non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. There is a strong positive correlation between serum HA levels and degree of liver fibrosis. The concentration of serum HA rises according to progression of liver fibrosis and levels are highest in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  7. Los criterios de elegibilidad actuales del Seguro Popular para recibir tratamiento para el virus de la hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moctezuma-Velázquez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pocas cosas han avanza­do tanto como el tratamiento contra el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC. Se tienen antivirales de acción direc­ta (AAD con los que se obtienen respuestas virales sostenidas (RVS mayores a 90%, pero el costo de estos medicamentos es prohibitivo para los sistemas de salud…

  8. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Hale T

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine.

  9. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  10. Determination of Trace Elements in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hosseini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major liver disease worldwide and its clinical manifestations are linked to immune response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between selenium, copper, and zinc in comparison with transaminase level in chronic HBV patients. Serum samples of the HBV infected patients were obtained from Tooba medical center, Sari, Iran. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study (36 men and 24 women, mean age: 39.6 ± 12.2 years. The concentration of zinc, selenium, copper and transaminases were determined using an autoanalyzer system. Concentrations of selenium (0.273 ±0.056 μg/dl and zinc (2.1±0.037 was elevated in patients with low transaminase levels as were significantly different in comparison with patients with high transaminase level (P<0.05. Serum copper concentration was similar in two groups of patients. Elevated levels of transaminase concentrations were independently associated with low zinc and selenium concentrations in chronic HBV patients. It is concluded that serum zinc and selenium levels are associated with less hepatic damage in chronic HBV patients and might have a protective role during liver injury.

  11. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  12. Experimental study of CT perfusion in hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Sheng; Zhao Weidong; Zhou Kangrong; Peng Weijun; Mao Jian; Tang Feng; Wang Yong; Cao Guang; Sun Fei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of CT perfusion in the early diagnosis of hepatic diffuse disease. Methods: Fourteen male Wistar rats of control group and 14 of test group at stages of hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic cirrhosis which were induced with diethylnitrosamine (DEN), were studied with CT perfusion respectively. CT perfusion data of different stages were compared and pathologic analysis were performed. Results: Density-time curves of CT perfusion were satisfactory and all perfusion data could be obtained. During the period of hepatitis developing into early stage of hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic artery flow (HAF) trended to increase in test group, mean transmit time (MTT) prolonged obviously, blood flow (BF) and volume (BV) declined. While in control group, HAF declined slightly, MTT, BV and BF increased. Statistic analysis showed the differences of HAF and MTT at different stages between control and test groups were significant (P<0.05 ); the differences of BV and BF between hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of hepatic cirrhosis in test group were significant (P<0.05), but no significant difference between hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. The corresponding pathologic changes at stage of hepatitis was swelling of hepatic cells; sinusoids cap illarization and deposition of collagen in the extravascular Disse's spaces were the main changes relating to hepatic blood perfusion at stage of fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. Conclusion: The method of CT scan can reflect some changes of hepatic blood perfusion in rats with hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and early stage of cirrhosis. The data of CT perfusion, especially the changes should be valuable for clinical early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. (authors)

  13. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  14. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-01-01

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5- + g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state

  15. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  16. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  17. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  18. Thermal analysis of chalcogenide glasses of the system (As/sub/2Se/sub/3)/sub/(1-x):(Tl/sub/2Se)/sub/x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements of chalcogenide glasses of the system (As/sub/2Se/sub/3)/sub/(1-x): (Tl/sub/2Se)/sub/x, with x=0, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50 are reported. The glass-forming tendencies of these materials have been calculated. The glass-forming tendency of As/sub/2Se/sub/3 has been found to be the highest among the member glasses of this family of chalcogenides. It was found that the glass-forming tendency of As/sub/2Se/sub/3 decreasing gradually at the Tl/sub/2/Se concentration increases. Tl/sub/2Se additions lower the glass transition temperature T/sub/q and the area under the endothermic peak for glass transition temperature, suggesting a tendency for relatively weaker bonding and hence less stability of Tl-rich glass compositions. These studies show that Tl/sub/2Se concentrations result in glasses with progressively higher crystallization tendencies. (author)

  19. HEMANGIOMA HEPÁTICO PRIMÁRIO EM GATA PERSA COM DOENÇA RENAL POLICÍSTICA PRIMARY HEPATIC HEMANGIOMA IN PERSIAN CAT WITH POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Júnior

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Hemangiomas primários do fígado são neoplasias benignas que podem comprometer a sobrevivência do animal, em virtude da compressão de vasos, ductos e hepatócitos adjacentes, especialmente pela possibilidade de rupturas e morte por hipovolemia. Por serem raros em felinos, objetiva-se relatar o caso de uma gata Persa, com 10 anos de idade, cujos sinais clínicos eram: aumento de volume abdominal, vômitos intermitentes, apatia e anorexia, além de cios irregulares. No exame radiográfico se observou massa tecidual radiopaca no fígado. Na ultra-sonografia hepática, percebiam-se contornos irregulares, parênquima heterogêneo, hiperecogênico, com áreas cavitárias, sugestivo de neoplasia e cistos. No exame macroscópico, visibilizaram-se ascite sanguinolenta, esteatose hepática e massa neoplásica única com 12 cm de comprimento por 8 cm de largura e diversos cistos. Os ovários e rins se apresentavam policísticos e havia hiperplasia endometrial cística. Microscopicamente foram diagnosticadas no fígado formações císticas limitadas por endotélio e delgada cápsula de tecido conjuntivo, esteatose e hepatite periportal mononuclear-linfocitária com proliferação de ductos bilíferos. A massa tumoral originava-se a partir do tecido conjuntivo da cápsula hepática e se caracterizava pela presença de brotos vasculares oriundos de células endoteliais, com dilatação e anastomose de vasos nas áreas mais superficiais. Os achados observados são compatíveis com o diagnóstico de hemangioma hepático primário do tipo capilar-cavernoso. Nos ovários, no útero, nos rins e fígado, constatou-se doença policística.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fígado, gato, neoplasia vascular.

    Primaries hepatics hemangiomas are benign tumors that may compel limitations to animal survival owing to the compression of blood vessels, ducts and contiguous hepatocytes, especially due a

  20. Voriconazole-Induced Hepatitis via Simvastatin- and Lansoprazole-Mediated Drug Interactions: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose Luis; Tayek, John A

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic voriconazole concentrations have a narrow window of effectiveness before causing cholestatic hepatitis. After undergoing 1 year of voriconazole therapy for pulmonary aspergillosis, a 44-year-old man began treatment with 30 mg lansoprazole for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Within 5 days of starting treatment with lansoprazole, the patient presented with fatigue, jaundice, and cholestatic hepatitis. The hepatitis promptly resolved after stopping lansoprazole treatment. Sixteen months later, the patient was given simvastatin therapy, as recommended by the American Diabetes Association to prevent cardiovascular disease for patients with diabetes who are aged >40 years and have one additional risk factor. Within 2 weeks of taking simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (statin) therapy, the patient redeveloped fatigue, jaundice, and cholestatic hepatitis. He described both episodes of fatigue and jaundice similarly in terms of onset and intensity. Voriconazole is metabolized by both CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes. Lansoprazole is an inhibitor of the CYP2C19 isoenzyme. Competition between voriconazole and lansoprazole likely led to increased voriconazole serum concentration and acute cholestatic hepatitis in this patient. Simvastatin inhibits the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. After the patient took 10 mg simvastatin daily for 2 weeks, cholestatic hepatitis occurred. The voriconazole concentration remained elevated (4.1 μg/ml) when measured 15 days after stopping simvastatin. The patient's Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale score of 7 revealed that the cholestatic hepatitis was probably precipitated by lansoprazole. Likewise, the patient's Naranjo score of 9 also revealed that cholestatic hepatitis was attributable to a definite adverse drug reaction precipitated by the addition of simvastatin to the stable baseline regimen of voriconazole. In a single patient, two different inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 pathway stimulated voriconazole

  1. De novo hepatic steatosis drives atherogenic risk in liver transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, Michael O; Chhatrala, Ravi; Siddiqui, M Bilal; Driscoll, Carolyn; Stravitz, R Todd; Sanyal, Arun J; Bhati, Chandra; Sargeant, Carol; Luketic, Velimir A; Sterling, Richard K; Contos, Melissa; Matherly, Scott; Puri, Puneet; Siddiqui, M Shadab

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Despite a high prevalence of de novo hepatic steatosis after liver transplantation (LT), there are no data exploring the association between hepatic steatosis after LT and atherogenic risk. The aim of the study was to explore the impact of hepatic steatosis on serum atherogenic markers in liver transplantation recipients (LTRs). Biomarkers of CVD risk were compared in 89 LTRs with no known history of dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, or graft cirrhosis. To avoid potential confounders, LTRs on oral hypoglycemic agents, exogenous insulin, corticosteroids, or lipid-lowering therapy were excluded. Only patients for whom histological assessment was available after LT were included in the study. Thirty-five LTRs had de novo hepatic steatosis after LT, whereas 54 did not. Both cohorts were similar with regards to age, sex, ethnicity, and follow-up from LT. Additionally, the traditional lipid profile was similar between the 2 cohorts. LTRs with hepatic steatosis had higher serum concentrations of small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C; 34.8 ± 16.9 versus 22.7 ± 11.2 mg/dL; P hepatic steatosis had higher serum insulin concentrations (27.8 ± 41.8 versus 11.7 ± 7.8 uU/mL; P Steatosis grade was directly related to sdLDL-C, sdLDL-P, insulin, VLDL-P, and VLDL-size. In multivariate analysis, the association between steatosis grade and sdLDL-C (β = 0.03; P = 0.029), VLDL-size (β = 0.316; P = 0.04), and low-density lipoprotein particle size (β = -0.27; P = 0.05) was independent of sex, body mass index, age, diabetes mellitus, time from transplant, and indication for LT. In conclusion, de novo hepatic steatosis after LT is associated with atherogenic lipoproteins and independent of traditional CVD risk factors. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine against antiviral drug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants in the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamili, Saleem; Sozzi, Vitini; Thompson, Geoff; Campbell, Katie; Walker, Christopher M; Locarnini, Stephen; Krawczynski, Krzysztof

    2009-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants resistant to treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogs and those with the ability to escape from HBV-neutralizing antibody have the potential to infect HBV-vaccinated individuals. To address this potential serious public health challenge, we tested the efficacy of immunity induced by a commercial hepatitis B vaccine against a tissue culture-derived, clonal HBV polymerase mutant in HBV seronegative chimpanzees. The polymerase gene mutant contained a combination of three mutations (rtV173L, rtL180M, rtM204V), two of which resulted in changes to the overlapping viral envelope of the hepatitis B surface antigen (sE164D, sI195M). Prior to the HBV mutant challenge of vaccinated chimpanzees, we established virologic, serologic, and pathologic characteristics of infections resulting from intravenous inoculation of the HBV polymerase gene mutant and the sG145R vaccine-escape surface gene mutant. Cloning and sequencing experiments determined that the three mutations in the polymerase gene mutant remained stable and that the single mutation in the surface gene mutant reverted to the wild-type sequence. Immunological evidence of HBV replication was observed in the vaccinated chimpanzees after challenge with the polymerase gene mutant as well as after rechallenge with serum-derived wild-type HBV (5,000 chimpanzee infectious doses administered intravenously), despite robust humoral and cellular anti-HBV immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination. Our data showing successful experimental infection by HBV mutants despite the presence of high anti-HBs levels considered protective in the vaccinated host are consistent with clinical reports on breakthrough infection in anti-HBs-positive patients infected with HBV mutants. In the absence of a protective humoral immunity, adaptive cellular immune responses elicited by infection may limit HBV replication and persistence.

  3. Cytomegalovirus-Driven Adaptive-Like Natural Killer Cell Expansions Are Unaffected by Concurrent Chronic Hepatitis Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. G. Malone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive-like expansions of natural killer (NK cell subsets are known to occur in response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. These expansions are typically made up of NKG2C+ NK cells with particular killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR expression patterns. Such NK cell expansion patterns are also seen in patients with viral hepatitis infection. Yet, it is not known if the viral hepatitis infection promotes the appearance of such expansions or if effects are solely attributed to underlying CMV infection. In sizeable cohorts of CMV seropositive hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and hepatitis delta virus (HDV infected patients, we analyzed NK cells for expression of NKG2A, NKG2C, CD57, and inhibitory KIRs to assess the appearance of NK cell expansions characteristic of what has been seen in CMV seropositive healthy individuals. Adaptive-like NK cell expansions observed in viral hepatitis patients were strongly associated with CMV seropositivity. The number of subjects with these expansions did not differ between CMV seropositive viral hepatitis patients and corresponding healthy controls. Hence, we conclude that adaptive-like NK cell expansions observed in HBV, HCV, and/or HDV infected individuals are not caused by the chronic hepatitis infections per se, but rather are a consequence of underlying CMV infection.

  4. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  5. ¿Es necesario investigar anticuerpos IgM contra el virus de la hepatitis A cuando el enzimograma hepático es normal? Is it necessary to investigate anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV IgM antibodies when the hepatic enzymogram is normal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coitinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis por virus A (VHA es la más frecuente de las hepatitis virales en el mundo, especialmente en los países subdesarrollados. Donde esta enfermedad es endémica, se suelen realizar un gran número de estudios de laboratorio para confirmarla. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la utilidad de investigar anticuerpos IgM anti hepatitis A (IgM anti-VHA para el diagnóstico de la VHA en pacientes con niveles séricos normales de aspartato y alanina aminotransferasas (AST/ALT. Todos los pacientes que concurrieron al laboratorio con solicitud de enzimograma hepático y anticuerpos IgM anti-VHA durante el período octubre 2005-marzo 2006 fueron evaluados en este estudio. Los datos clínicos más frecuentes fueron presunción de hepatitis e ictericia (27,5 y 12,7%. La determinación de IgM anti-VHA se realizó por ensayo inmunoenzimático de micropartículas (MEIA; la de enzimas hepáticas en un multianalizador. De los 158 pacientes estudiados, 84 tenían valores elevados de AST/ALT; dentro de este grupo, el 82% fue reactivo para IgM anti-VHA. Los 74 pacientes restantes mostraron niveles normales de AST/ALT y solo 7 de ellos, bajo control de evolución por VHA ya confirmada, fueron reactivos para IgM anti-VHA. El 49% de los pacientes IgM anti-VHA reactivos correspondió a menores de 10 años. De acuerdo con estas observaciones, sugerimos que los estudios de laboratorio para confirmar infección aguda por VHA deberían realizarse en forma secuencial, ya que es innecesaria la determinación de anticuerpos IgM anti-VHA cuando las aminotransferasas séricas son normales.Type A viral Hepatitis (HAV is the most frequent viral hepatitis around the world, especially in low income countries. In order to confirm this disease, a lot of laboratory tests are annually carried out where HAV is endemic. Our objective was to establish the utility of investigating anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV IgM antibodies for HAV diagnosis in patients with normal

  6. Pharmacokinetics of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment: a single-dose, open-label, parallel group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobalava, Zhanna; Villevalde, Svetlana; Kotovskaya, Yulia; Hinrichsen, Holger; Petersen-Sylla, Marc; Zaehringer, Andreas; Pang, Yinuo; Rajman, Iris; Canadi, Jasna; Dahlke, Marion; Lloyd, Peter; Halabi, Atef

    2015-06-01

    Serelaxin is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2 in development for treatment of acute heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of serelaxin in patients with hepatic impairment. Secondary objectives included evaluation of immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of serelaxin. This was an open-label, parallel group study (NCT01433458) comparing the PK of serelaxin following a single 24 h intravenous (i.v.) infusion (30 μg kg(-1)  day(-1) ) between patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A, B, C) and healthy matched controls. Blood sampling and standard safety assessments were conducted. Primary non-compartmental PK parameters [including area under the serum concentration-time curve AUC(0-48 h) and AUC(0-∞) and serum concentration at 24 h post-dose (C24h )] were compared between each hepatic impairment group and healthy controls. A total of 49 subjects (including 25 patients with hepatic impairment) were enrolled, of which 48 subjects completed the study. In all groups, the serum concentration of serelaxin increased over the first few hours of infusion, reached steady-state at 12-24 h and then declined following completion of infusion, with a mean terminal half-life of 7-8 h. All PK parameter estimates were comparable between each group of patients with hepatic impairment and healthy controls. No serious adverse events, discontinuations due to adverse events or deaths were reported. No serelaxin treatment-related antibodies developed during this study. The PK and safety profile of serelaxin were not affected by hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment is needed for serelaxin treatment of 48 h i.v. infusion in patients with hepatic impairment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. The improving effects on hepatic fibrosis of interferon-γ liposomes targeted to hepatic stellate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Feng; Lu, Weiyue; Wang, Jiyao; Guo, Chuanyong

    2012-07-01

    No satisfactory anti-fibrotic therapies have yet been applied clinically. One of the main reasons is the inability to specifically target the responsible cells to produce an available drug concentration and the side-effects. Exploiting the key role of the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in both hepatic fibrogenesis and over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), we constructed targeted sterically stable liposomes (SSLs) modified by a cyclic peptide (pPB) with affinity for the PDGFR-β to deliver interferon (IFN)-γ to HSCs. The pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed satisfactory size distribution. In vitro pPB-SSL could be taken up by activated HSCs. The study of tissue distribution via living-body animal imaging showed that the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ mostly accumulated in the liver until 24 h. Furthermore, the pPB-SSL-IFN-γ showed more significant remission of hepatic fibrosis. In vivo the histological Ishak stage, the semiquantitative score for collagen in fibrotic liver and the serum levels of collagen type IV-C in fibrotic rats treated with pPB-SSL-IFN-γ were less than those treated with SSL-IFN-γ, IFN-γ and the control group. In vitro pPB-SSL-IFN-γ was also more effective in suppressing activated HSC proliferation and inducing apoptosis of activated HSCs. Thus the data suggest that pPB-SSL-IFN-γ might be a more effective anti-fibrotic agent and a new opportunity for clinical therapy of hepatic fibrosis.

  8. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  10. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG

  11. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Concentrations of trace elements in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Sawako; Itai, Takaaki; Noguchi, Takako; Yasuda, Yusuke; Adachi, Haruki; Hyobu, Yuika; Riyadi, Adi S; Boggs, Ashley S P; Lowers, Russell; Guillette, Louis J; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Concentrations of 28 trace elements (Li, Mg, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl, Hg, Pb, and Bi) in the livers of juvenile and adult American alligators inhabiting two central Florida lakes, Lake Apopka (LA), and Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (LW) and one lagoon population located in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR; NASA), were determined. In juveniles from MINWR, concentrations of nine elements (Li, Fe, Ni, Sr, In, Sb, Hg, Pb and Bi) were significantly higher, whereas six elements (V, Fe, As, Sr, Hg and Bi) were elevated in adults (pLA, LW and MINWR were 1770 μg g(-1) DW, 3690 μg g(-1) DW and 5250 μg g(-1) DW, respectively. More than half of the adult specimens from LW and MINWR exhibited elevated hepatic Fe concentrations that exceed the threshold value for toxic effects in donkey, red deer and human. These results prompted us to express our concern on possible exposure and health effects in American alligators by some trace elements derived from NASA activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute sterol o-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 knockdown rapidly mobilizes hepatic cholesterol for fecal excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE. We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD, the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼ 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.

  14. Expression of the hepatitis B virus genome in chronic hepatitis B carriers and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Dusheiko, G.M.; Schoub, B.D.; Kew, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the methylation status of CCGG sites in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA to determine whether methylation could be responsible for the selective expression of the HBV surface gene in chronic hepatitis B infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. Infected liver tissue from patients with low levels of viral replication was analyzed for HBV DNA copy number per haploid cell genome. Total cellular DNA, with sufficient HBV DNA, was digested with the restriction endonucleases Msp I and Hpa II, to determine whether the HBV DNA was methylated, or HindIII, to determine whether the HBV DNA was integrated or episomal. The cleavage fragments were analyzed by Southern blotting and hybridization to 32 P-labeled HBV DNA. In replicative chronic hepatitis B, hypomethylation of the HBV genome correlated with HBV expression in both virions and infected tissue. In carriers with nonreplicative infection, it was difficult to ascertain the role of methylation as copy number was low. HBV DNA copy number was also low in 17 out of 29 of the rumor tissues tested and as many as 14 out of 16 of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues tested. Integrated sequences were hypermethylated in the PLC/PRF/5 cell line and in six of the tumor tissues suggesting that methylation plays a role in HBV gene repression. However, since DNA from five other tumors was hypomethylated, the belief that methylation per se is an absolute determinant of HBV core gene repression does not hold for human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

  15. How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridiou, M.; Borkent-Raven, B.; Hulshof, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D (or hepatitis delta) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection with hepatitis D can occur only as coinfection with HBV or superinfection of an existing HBV infection. Because of the bond between the two viruses, control

  16. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  17. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  18. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces hepatic steatosis via Sirt1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhai; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanlin; Liu, Shunai; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Cheng, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a common feature of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Previous reports have shown that the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core-encoding sequences (hepatitis C virus genotypes 3a and 1b) significantly induces intracellular triglyceride accumulation. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been revealed. To investigate whether Sirt1 is involved in hepatitis C virus-mediated hepatic steatosis, the overexpression of hepatitis C virus core 1b protein and Sirt1 and the knockdown of Sirt1 in HepG2 cells were performed. To confirm the results of the cellular experiment liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice with lentivirus-mediated hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression were studied. Our results show that hepatitis C virus core 1b protein overexpression led to the accumulation of triglycerides in HepG2 cells. Notably the expression of PPARγ2 was dramatically increased at both the mRNA and protein levels by hepatitis C virus core 1b overexpression. The protein expression of Sirt1 is an upstream regulator of PPARγ2 and was also significantly increased after core 1b overexpression. In addition, the overexpression or knockdown of Sirt1 expression alone was sufficient to modulate p300-mediated PPARγ2 deacetylation. In vivo studies showed that hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis was attenuated in liver-specific Sirt1 KO mice by downregulation of PPARγ2 expression. Sirt1 mediates hepatitis C virus core protein 1b-induced hepatic steatosis by regulation of PPARγ2 expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  20. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  1. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of fulminant viral hepatitis in pregnant women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Grazia; Simeone, Davide; Spera, Anna M; Viceconte, Giulio; Bianco, Vincenzo; Orlando, Raffaele

    2017-10-09

    The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas. However, the rate of maternal mortality due to fulminant E hepatitis may vary inside the endemic areas of India and Africa, likely due to the circulation of HEV genotypes with different degree of virulence. The other hepatitis viruses have not been reported to cause a greater risk for fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women respect to non pregnant ones, except Herpes Simplex Virus, that has been associated to some cases of fatal hepatitis in absence of a prompt antiviral therapy.

  2. Modulation of serum concentrations and hepatic metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone by amitraz in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chen-Ping [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Lu, Shui-Yuan [Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Ueng, Tzuu-Huei [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2008-10-15

    The present study has investigated the ability of amitraz, a widely used formamidine pesticide, to modulate serum concentrations and liver microsomal metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and testosterone in rats. Amitraz was administered intraperitoneally to male rats for 4 days and to intact female rats or ovariectomized (OVX) and 0.5 mg/kg E2-supplemented female rats for 7 days. E2 and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and testosterone and metabolites were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In OVX and E2-supplemented females, 50 mg/kg amitraz caused an 85% decrease of serum E2 concentration and a marked increase of 2-OH-E2 concentration. Amitraz at 25 and 50 mg/kg produced 9.0-fold or greater increases of serum testosterone and 2{beta}-OH-testosterone levels in males. Amitraz at 25 mg/kg resulted in no or minimal increases of liver microsomal formation of E2 or testosterone metabolites. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg produced 1.4- to 3.6-fold increases of 2-OH-E2; estrone; 2{beta}-, 6{beta}-, and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone; and androstenedione formation in males and intact females. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg preferentially increased intact female 16{beta}-OH-testosterone production by 8.6-fold. In OVX females, E2 supplement alone or cotreatment with E2 and 50 mg/kg amitraz produced 1.3- to several-fold increases of 2- and 4-OH-E2 formation and 2{beta}- and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone production. The cotreatment increased 6{beta}- and 16{beta}-OH-testosterone formation by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. The present findings show that amitraz induces hepatic E2 and testosterone metabolism in male and female rats, decreases serum E2 concentration in OVX and E2-supplemented females, but increases serum testosterone in males. (orig.)

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  4. Lower doses venlafaxine-associated toxic hepatitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, I.; Sahin, I.; Ozcetin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis is observed with high doses of Venlafaxine. But toxic hepatitis has not been yet reported at lower doses of Venlafaxine such as 37.5 mg per day. In this case report, a case of Venlafaxine associated toxic hepatitis with lower doses in patient with history of chronic hepatitis is presented. We suggest that liver function should be regularly monitored in patients with history of chronic hepatitis receiving Venlafaxine even at lower doses and even when their liver enzymes are normal. (author)

  5. Evaluación de la fibrosis hepática en la hepatitis crónica por virus C mediante la aplicación prospectiva del Sabadell's NIHCED score: Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C Related-Cirrhosis Early Detection Score Prospective evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis C infection using the Sabadell NIHCED: non-invasive hepatitis C related cirrhosis early detection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bejarano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hepatitis crónica por VHC cursa de forma asintomática desarrollando cirrosis hepática y sus complicaciones en un 20-40% de los casos. En estudios previos se ha demostrado que la fibrosis avanzada es un factor pronóstico fundamental. El método gold standard para la valoración del grado de fibrosis es la biopsia hepática. Nuestro grupo ha validado un índice predictivo, el NIHCED (Sabadell's Non Invasive, Hepatitis C related-Cirrosis Early Detection Score, basado en datos demográficos, analíticos y ecográficos para determinar la presencia de cirrosis. Objetivo: nuestro objetivo es el de evaluar si el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en los pacientes con hepatitis crónica por virus C. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo donde se incluyeron pacientes con hepatitis crónica por VHC. Se les realizó una biopsia hepática y el NIHCED. El grado de fibrosis se correlacionó con el valor del NIHCED mediante curva de ROC y el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: se incluyeron un total de 321 pacientes (ratio hombre/mujer 1,27 con una edad media de 48 ± 14 años. La biopsia hepática mostró que 131 (30,5% no tenían fibrosis o era expansión portal, mientras que 190 (69,5% tenían fibrosis avanzada o cirrosis. Para un punto de corte de 6 puntos, la sensibilidad fue del 72%, especificidad del 76,3%, VPP del 81%, VPN del 63,7% y una precisión diagnóstica del 72,5%, con un área bajo la curva fue de 0,787 y un coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de r = 0,65. Conclusiones: el NIHCED predice la presencia de fibrosis avanzada en un elevado porcentaje de pacientes sin necesidad de realizar biopsia hepática.Introduction: liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection follows an asymptomatic course towards cirrhosis and its complications in 20-40% of cases. Earlier studies demonstrated that advanced fibrosis is a prognostic factor. The "gold standard" for the evaluation

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  7. Concentration of hepatic vitamins A and E in rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodniewska, A; Barski, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of antioxidant vitamins A and E in the liver of rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and/or enrofloxacin. Chlorpyrifos (Group I) was administered at a dose of 0.04 LD50 (6 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days, and enrofloxacin (Group II) at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 5 consecutive days. The animals of group III were given both of the mentioned above compounds at the same manner as groups I and II, but enrofloxacin was applied to rats for the last 5 days of chlorpyrifos exposure (i.e. on day 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28). Chlorpyrifos and enrofloxacin were administered to rats intragastrically via a gastric tube. The quantitative determination of vitamins was made by the HPLC method. The results of this study indicated a reduction in the hepatic concentrations of vitamins A and E, compared to the control, which sustained for the entire period of the experiment. The four-week administration of chlorpyrifos to rats resulted in a significant decrease of vitamins in the initial period of the experiment, i.e. up to 24 hours after exposure. For vitamin A the maximum drop was observed after 24 hours (19.24%) and for vitamin E after 6 hours (23.19%). Enrofloxacin caused a slight (3-9%) reduction in the level of the analysed vitamins. In the chlorpyrifos-enrofloxacin co-exposure group reduced vitamins A and E levels were also noted, but changes in this group were less pronounced in comparison to the animals intoxicated with chlorpyrifos only. The decrease in the antioxidant vitamin levels, particularly noticeable in the chlorpyrifos- and the chlorpyrifos combined with enrofloxacin-treated groups, may result not only from the increase in the concentration of free radicals, but also from the intensification of the secondary stages of lipid peroxidation.

  8. Hepatic angiosarcoma: Presentation of two cases Angiosarcoma hepático: Presentación de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Egea Valenzuela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare primary tumor of the liver with a mesenchymal origin. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical manifestations and imaging studies are inconclusive. In many cases a diagnosis is obtained during necropsy, not being apparent during the course of disease. It is associated with several risk factors, but these contribute to explaining only a few of all reported cases. When clinical manifestations begin progression is often fast, and possibilities for curative treatment are limited. We report two cases of hepatic angiosarcoma. In the first one, our patient had an insidious initial course, and then suddenly presented with hepatic failure followed by acute respiratory distress. A diagnosis was reached during necropsy. In the second case, we initiated the study of a chronic liver disease using fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which showed findings suggestive of hepatic angiosarcoma. In the following weeks the patient started on a torpid clinic course, and died from multiple organ failure.El angiosarcoma hepático es una neoplasia de estirpe mesenquimal de baja frecuencia y difícil diagnóstico por su forma inespecífica de manifestarse clínica y radiológicamente. Tanto es así que muchos diagnósticos se obtienen mediante necropsia, no siendo posible poner de manifiesto la enfermedad durante su curso. Se asocia a diferentes agentes etiológicos, pero en la mayoría de los casos no es posible establecer una exposición concreta a ninguno de ellos. Cuando comienza a manifestarse, la evolución suele ser rápida y las opciones de tratamiento curativo son escasas. Presentamos en nuestro trabajo dos casos de angiosarcoma hepático. En el primero, el paciente sufre en principio una evolución insidiosa, presentando al fin, y de forma abrupta, un cuadro de insuficiencia hepática seguido de distrés respiratorio, falleciendo por este motivo. El diagnóstico se alcanza en la necropsia. En el segundo caso se inicia un estudio de

  9. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Electrodeposition and Thermoelectric Properties of Cu-Se Binary Compound Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengqian; Shen, Zhengwu; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cu-Se binary compound films have been prepared by electrodeposition from solutions containing CuSO4, H2SeO3, and H2SO4 and their composition, structure, and thermoelectric performance analyzed. Moving the depositing potential negatively increased the Cu content in the film, remarkably so for relatively low Cu2+ concentration in the solution. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the phase composition of the films varied with their Cu content. Cu-Se binary compound films electrodeposited from solutions with different concentration ratios of CuSO4 to H2SeO3 showed two different phases: α-Cu2- x Se (monoclinic) with Se content in the range of 33.3 at.% to 33.8 at.%, and β-Cu2Se (cubic) with Se content in the range of 35.3 at.% to 36.0 at.%. The highest power factor for electrodeposited Cu2- x Se film was 0.13 mW/(K2 m) with Seebeck coefficient of 56.0 μV/K.

  11. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  13. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  14. Infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marité Bello-Corredor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B (IOB, se caracteriza por la presencia en suero o plasma del genoma viral (ADN-VHB y anticuerpos contra la proteína de la cápside (anti-HBc en ausencia del antígeno de superficie (HBsAg, marcador que tradicionalmente se emplea para identificar la presencia del virus. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la presencia de IOB en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg, se estudiaron 291 muestras séricas de niños con la condición de ser HBsAg (- y anticuerpos anti-HBsAg (anti-HBs menores de 50 UI/L, conservadas en la seroteca del Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Hepatitis Virales. Se realizaron ensayos para determinar la exposición al virus (anti-HBc, a los sueros anti-HBc (+ se les realizó Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa en Tiempo Real (RCP-TR para determinar y cuantificar el ADN-VHB. La prevalencia de exposición al VHB (anti-HBc fue 16,8% (49/291. El ADN viral se cuantificó en el 14% (6/43 de los casos anti-HBc (+, observándose cargas virales que oscilaban entre 2,15 x 101 hasta 3,42 x 101 UI/mL. La prevalencia de la IOB para el total de los pacientes analizados fue 2,1% (6/291, considerada relativamente baja. No se encontró asociación significativa entre las variables sociodemográficas analizadas tales como: edad, sexo y provincia de procedencia. La IOB está presente en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg, a pesar de la profilaxis contra la hepatitis B. Por lo tanto, se requiere de pesquisajes adecuados para detectar dicha entidad. Las implicaciones clínicas y epidemiológicas de la misma, requieren de un estrecho monitoreo y atención de estos pacientes. Este estudio se realiza por primera vez en Cuba y aporta conocimientos útiles para el diagnóstico, prevención y control de esta enfermedad en niños.

  15. Hepatitis B surface antigen concentrations in patients with HIV/HBV co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Jaroszewicz

    Full Text Available HBsAg clearance is associated with clinical cure of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Quantification of HBsAg may help to predict HBsAg clearance during the natural course of HBV infection and during antiviral therapy. Most studies investigating quantitative HBsAg were performed in HBV mono-infected patients. However, the immune status is considered to be important for HBsAg decline and subsequent HBsAg loss. HIV co-infection unfavorably influences the course of chronic hepatitis B. In this cross-sectional study we investigated quantitative HBsAg in 173 HBV/HIV co-infected patients from 6 centers and evaluated the importance of immunodeficiency and antiretroviral therapy. We also compared 46 untreated HIV/HBV infected patients with 46 well-matched HBV mono-infected patients. HBsAg levels correlated with CD4 T-cell count and were higher in patients with more advanced HIV CDC stage. Patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART including nucleos(tide analogues active against HBV demonstrated significant lower HBsAg levels compared to untreated patients. Importantly, HBsAg levels were significantly lower in patients who had a stronger increase between nadir CD4 and current CD4 T-cell count during cART. Untreated HIV/HBV patients demonstrated higher HBsAg levels than HBV mono-infected patients despite similar HBV DNA levels. In conclusion, HBsAg decline is dependent on an effective immune status. Restoration of CD4 T-cells during treatment with cART including nucleos(tide analogues seems to be important for HBsAg decrease and subsequent HBsAg loss.

  16. Organohalogens in A Whale-Blubber-Supplemented Diet Affects Hepatic Retinol and Renal Tocopherol Concentrations in Greenland Sled Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, M.; Sonne, C.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma, liver, and kidney status of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (-tocopherol) in two groups of Greenland sled dogs (Canis familiaris), with a total number of 16 bitches and 8 pups. The dogs were fed either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata...... polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB]). Retinol was approximately 18% and -tocopherol 22% higher in the diet of the exposed dogs compared to controls. In adipose tissue, mean of sigma OHC was 92 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 5005 ng/g lw for all control (n = 12) and exposed dogs (n = 10), respectively. Hepatic retinol...... correlated negatively with sigma-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (sigma DDT) and and sigma-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (sigma PBDE) for all exposed animals. A negative correlation between kidney -tocopherol and sigma PCB concentrations was observed, whereas two positive significant correlations were...

  17. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  18. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  20. Correlation between melphalan pharmacokinetics and hepatic toxicity following hyperthermic isolated liver perfusion for unresectable metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Pilati, Pierluigi; Da Pian, Pierpaolo; Forlin, Marco; Corazzina, Susanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Innocente, Federico; Ori, Carlo; Casara, Dario; Ujka, Francesca; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2007-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the results of our pilot study of hyperthermic isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan alone for patients with unresectable metastatic liver tumors refractory to conventional treatments, with particular regard to the correlation between pharmacokinetic findings and hepatic toxicity. Inclusion criteria were unresectable liver metastases, hepatic parenchyma replacement concentrations in perfusate and plasma were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty patients with unresectable liver metastases underwent IHP. No intraoperative mortality occurred. Treatment-related systemic toxicity was minimal and reversible. Three patients (15%) experienced grade 4 hepatic toxicity and died due to liver failure and subsequent multiorgan failure. Other six patients had significant (grade 3-4) but transitory hepatic toxicity. Complete and partial responses were observed in three and nine out of 17 evaluable patients, respectively (overall response rate = 70%). The pharmacokinetics study showed a 3% mean perfusate-to-plasma drug leakage (range 1-6%). Logistic regression analysis showed that drug concentration in the perfusate circuit, but not preoperative tests, significantly and independently correlated with hepatic toxicity (P = 0.028). Following melphalan-based IHP, objective tumor regression could be observed in a remarkable percentage of patients refractory to standard treatments. However, hepatic toxicity and related mortality were significant. Our findings suggest that drug dosage personalization based on the measurement of drug distribution volumes might minimize

  1. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-05-12

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy.

  2. Drug-binding ability of human serum albumin at children with chronic virus hepatitis radiochemical definition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The chronic virus hepatitis produces numerous abnormalities of liver function. The viruses of B, C, D, F and G hepatitis possess the ability to cause chronically proceeding diseases. Earlier we have found that binding ability of serum albumin at patients with acute forms of virus hepatitis is authentically reduced in comparison with the given parameters of control group. At an acute virus hepatitis B with middle severity the reducing of binding ability of serum albumin was observed at 70 % of patients. At an acute virus hepatitis A the reduce of binding ability of serum albumin is less expressed than at acute virus hepatitis B. At of chronic virus intoxication in human organism there is a formation and accumulation of toxic compounds in the excessive concentrations, which are not inherent to a normal metabolism. One of universal mechanisms of reaction of an organism on the increasing concentration of metabolism products is formation of complexes of various compounds with blood plasma proteins. The formation in an organism of endo- and exotoxins excessive concentrations results in blocking the binding centers of albumin molecule that causes the change of its complexing ability. The purpose of the present research: investigation of binding ability of serum albumin with use of radiochemical method at children with a chronic virus hepatitis B and C. Materials and methods. Under clinical observation there were 52 children in the age from 3 till 14 years. From them at 32 the chronic virus hepatitis B was confirmed, at 20 chronic virus - hepatitis C. Etiological diagnostics was carried out by definition of specific markers of a hepatitis B and C method IFA and PCR. Binding ability of serum albumin was defined by radiochemical method with use of the tritium labeled no-spa (drotaverine hydrochloride). The control group consists from 10 conditionally health children of similar age. Results and their discussion. The results of investigation have shown, that at a

  3. Acyl/free carnitine ratio is a risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakata, Kohei; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Yoshida, Koji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Hino, Keisuke

    Hepatic steatosis, one of the most frequent long-term complications of pancreatectomy, influences not only hepatic function but also survival rate. However, its risk factors and pathogenesis have not been established. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. In this retrospective study of 21 patients who had undergone pancreatectomy (19 cases of pancreatoduodenectomy and 2 cases of total pancreatectomy), serum carnitine concentrations, fractions of carnitine, and hepatic attenuation on computed tomography images were analyzed with the aim of identifying risk factors for hepatic steatosis. Thirteen (61.9%) of the 21 patients were diagnosed as having hypocarnitinemia after pancreatectomy. Average hepatic attenuation was as low as 42.2HU (±21.3 SD). A high ratio of acyl/free carnitine was associated with less pronounced hepatic attenuation according to both univariate (P pancreatectomy in some patients. The statistical analyses suggest that a high ratio of acyl/free carnitine is an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seguridad de la terapia de interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina en la hepatitis crónica C

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Yoan Antonio; Arús Soler, Enrique; López Saura, Pedro; Nodarse Cuní, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la hepatitis crónica C ha adquirido rango de pandemia. El virus de la hepatitis C se ha convertido en la causa principal de hepatitis crónica, cirrosis hepática, hepatocarcinoma, y trasplante de hígado a nivel mundial. OBJETIVO: identificar los efectos adversos asociados a la terapia combinada interferón alfa 2b recombinante más ribavirina durante la evolución del tratamiento y hasta 8 semanas después de finalizado, así como los principales efectos asociados a salidas temporales...

  5. Synthesis of ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots by a room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach using Na2 SeO3 as Se source and investigating optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafajeh, R; Molaei, M; Karimipour, M

    2017-06-01

    In this study, ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using Na 2 SeO 3 as the Se source by a rapid and room temperature photochemical (UV-assisted) approach. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was employed as the capping agent and UV illumination activated the chemical reactions. Synthesized QDs were successfully characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD analysis demonstrated the cubic zinc blend phase QDs. TEM images indicated that round-shaped particles were formed, most of which had a diameter of about 4 nm. The band gap of the ZnSe QDs was higher than that for ZnSe in bulk. PL spectra indicated an emission with three peaks related to the excitonic, surface trap states and deep level (DL) states. The band gap and QD emission were tunable only by UV illumination time during synthesis. ZnSe:Cu showed green emission due to transition of electrons from the Conduction band (CB) or surface trap states to the 2 T 2 acceptor levels of Cu 2 + . The emission was increased by increasing the Cu 2 + ion concentration, such that the optimal value of PL intensity was obtained for the nominal mole ratio of Cu:Zn 1.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Infección crónica por el VHB Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    C. Carretero; M. Herráiz

    2004-01-01

    Existen muchos factores implicados en la patogénesis de la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB), como por ejemplo características del virus, la ingesta de etanol, la coinfección con otros virus (VHC, VIH, VHD), e intervenciones terapéuticas como el uso de fármacos citotóxicos o inmunosupresores, o agentes antivirales específicos. Las características clínicas, patológicas y serológicas de la hepatitis crónica por VHB, además, son muy heterogéneas. Se puede reconocer la infecc...

  7. Detection of occult hepatitis B virus among chronic hepatitis C patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concurrent infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increasingly recognized in patients with chronic hepatitis. In Egypt, the last decade showed a remarkable decline in HBV infection associated with remarkable rise in HCV infection. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients ...

  8. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-03-03

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.

  9. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  10. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  11. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to ethinyl-estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Williams, Tim D.; Ball, Jonathan S.; Bean, Tim P.; Sanders, Matthew B.; Wu Huifeng; Santos, Eduarda M.; Brown, Margaret M.; Baker, Paul; Ortega, Fernando; Falciani, Francesco; Craft, John A.; Tyler, Charles R.; Viant, Mark R.; Chipman, James K.

    2010-01-01

    An established three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) cDNA array was expanded to 14,496 probes with the addition of hepatic clones derived from subtractive and normalized libraries from control males and males exposed to model toxicants. Microarrays and one-dimensional 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with individual protein and gene biomarkers were employed to investigate the hepatic responses of the stickleback to ethinyl-estradiol (EE 2 ) exposure. Male fish were exposed via the water to EE 2 , including environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1-100 ng/l) for 4 days, and hepatic transcript and metabolite profiles, kidney spiggin protein and serum vitellogenin concentrations were determined in comparison to controls. EE 2 exposure did not significantly affect spiggin concentration but significantly induced serum vitellogenin protein at the threshold concentration of 32 ng/l. 1 H NMR coupled with robust univariate testing revealed only limited changes, but these did support the predicted modulation of the amino acid profile by transcriptomics. Transcriptional induction was found for hepatic vitellogenins and choriogenins as expected, together with a range of other EE 2 -responsive genes. Choriogenins showed the more sensitive responses with statistically significant induction at 10 ng/l. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed transcriptional induction of these genes. Phosvitinless vitellogenin C transcripts were highly expressed and represent a major form of the egg yolk precursors, and this is in contrast to other fish species where it is a minor component of vitellogenic transcripts. Differences in inducibility between the vitellogenins and choriogenins appear to be in accordance with the sequential formation of chorion and yolk during oogenesis in fish.

  12. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed to ethinyl-estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsiadaki, Ioanna, E-mail: ioanna.katsiadaki@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB (United Kingdom); Williams, Tim D. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ball, Jonathan S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QJ (United Kingdom); Bean, Tim P.; Sanders, Matthew B. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB (United Kingdom); Wu Huifeng [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Santos, Eduarda M. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QJ (United Kingdom); Brown, Margaret M.; Baker, Paul [School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Ortega, Fernando; Falciani, Francesco [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Craft, John A. [School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Tyler, Charles R. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QJ (United Kingdom); Viant, Mark R.; Chipman, James K. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-05

    An established three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) cDNA array was expanded to 14,496 probes with the addition of hepatic clones derived from subtractive and normalized libraries from control males and males exposed to model toxicants. Microarrays and one-dimensional {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with individual protein and gene biomarkers were employed to investigate the hepatic responses of the stickleback to ethinyl-estradiol (EE{sub 2}) exposure. Male fish were exposed via the water to EE{sub 2}, including environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1-100 ng/l) for 4 days, and hepatic transcript and metabolite profiles, kidney spiggin protein and serum vitellogenin concentrations were determined in comparison to controls. EE{sub 2} exposure did not significantly affect spiggin concentration but significantly induced serum vitellogenin protein at the threshold concentration of 32 ng/l. {sup 1}H NMR coupled with robust univariate testing revealed only limited changes, but these did support the predicted modulation of the amino acid profile by transcriptomics. Transcriptional induction was found for hepatic vitellogenins and choriogenins as expected, together with a range of other EE{sub 2}-responsive genes. Choriogenins showed the more sensitive responses with statistically significant induction at 10 ng/l. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed transcriptional induction of these genes. Phosvitinless vitellogenin C transcripts were highly expressed and represent a major form of the egg yolk precursors, and this is in contrast to other fish species where it is a minor component of vitellogenic transcripts. Differences in inducibility between the vitellogenins and choriogenins appear to be in accordance with the sequential formation of chorion and yolk during oogenesis in fish.

  13. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films. The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E_g) of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  17. Primary hepatic lymphoma presenting as fulminant hepatic failure with hyperferritinemia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Fyeza S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary hepatic lymphoma is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents with constitutional symptoms, hepatomegaly and signs of cholestatic jaundice. Diffuse hepatic infiltration is uncommon and presentation with acute hepatic failure even more rare. The presence of markedly elevated ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process and suggest alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a middle-aged woman exhibiting pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia and rapidly deteriorating to develop acute hepatic failure. Her initial clinical picture led to a working diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease with probable hemophagocytic syndrome before her worsening liver function necessitated a percutaneous liver biopsy and establishment of the final diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma. Conclusion Primary hepatic lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy and its manifestation as progressive hepatitis or acute fulminant hepatic failure can be difficult to diagnose. The presence of constitutional symptoms, pancytopenia and high ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process. A liver biopsy early in the course of liver dysfunction may establish the diagnosis without a higher risk of bleeding complications seen once liver failure sets in.

  18. Hemin potentiates the anti-hepatitis C virus activity of the antimalarial drug artemisinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Coelmont, Lotte; Vliegen, Inge; Hemel, Johan van; Vandenkerckhove, Jan; Peys, Eric; Sas, Benedikt; Clercq, Erik De; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report that the antimalarial drug artemisinin inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon replication in a dose-dependent manner in two replicon constructs at concentrations that have no effect on the proliferation of the exponentially growing host cells. The 50% effective concentration (EC 5 ) for inhibition of HCV subgenomic replicon replication in Huh 5-2 cells (luciferase assay) by artemisinin was 78 ± 21 μM. Hemin, an iron donor, was recently reported to inhibit HCV replicon replication [mediated by inhibition of the viral polymerase (C. Fillebeen, A.M. Rivas-Estilla, M. Bisaillon, P. Ponka, M. Muckenthaler, M.W. Hentze, A.E. Koromilas, K. Pantopoulos, Iron inactivates the RNA polymerase NS5B and suppresses subgenomic replication of hepatitis C virus, J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 9049-9057.)] at a concentration that had no adverse effect on the host cells. When combined, artemisinin and hemin resulted, over a broad concentration range, in a pronounced synergistic antiviral activity. Also at a concentration (2 μM) that alone had no effect on HCV replication, hemin still potentiated the anti-HCV activity of artemisinin

  19. Hemin potentiates the anti-hepatitis C virus activity of the antimalarial drug artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeshuyse, Jan [Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, KULeuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Coelmont, Lotte [Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, KULeuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vliegen, Inge [Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, KULeuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hemel, Johan van [Kemin Pharma, Atealaan 4H, B-2200 Herentals (Belgium); Vandenkerckhove, Jan [Kemin Pharma, Atealaan 4H, B-2200 Herentals (Belgium); Peys, Eric [Kemin Pharma, Atealaan 4H, B-2200 Herentals (Belgium); Sas, Benedikt [Kemin Pharma, Atealaan 4H, B-2200 Herentals (Belgium); Clercq, Erik De [Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, KULeuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Neyts, Johan [Rega Institute for Medical Research, Minderbroedersstraat 10, KULeuven, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    We report that the antimalarial drug artemisinin inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon replication in a dose-dependent manner in two replicon constructs at concentrations that have no effect on the proliferation of the exponentially growing host cells. The 50% effective concentration (EC{sub 5}) for inhibition of HCV subgenomic replicon replication in Huh 5-2 cells (luciferase assay) by artemisinin was 78 {+-} 21 {mu}M. Hemin, an iron donor, was recently reported to inhibit HCV replicon replication [mediated by inhibition of the viral polymerase (C. Fillebeen, A.M. Rivas-Estilla, M. Bisaillon, P. Ponka, M. Muckenthaler, M.W. Hentze, A.E. Koromilas, K. Pantopoulos, Iron inactivates the RNA polymerase NS5B and suppresses subgenomic replication of hepatitis C virus, J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 9049-9057.)] at a concentration that had no adverse effect on the host cells. When combined, artemisinin and hemin resulted, over a broad concentration range, in a pronounced synergistic antiviral activity. Also at a concentration (2 {mu}M) that alone had no effect on HCV replication, hemin still potentiated the anti-HCV activity of artemisinin.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  1. Risk factors of hepatic dysfunction in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and the efficacy of 131iodine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfei; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Zheng, Wei; Li, Chengxia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic dysfunction is often observed in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. The aims of this study were to investigate the risk factors for hepatic dysfunction and to analyze the efficacy of 131I (radioactive iodine-131) treatment. In total, 2385 patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (478 males, 1907 females; age 42.8 ± 13.5 years) were involved in our study. Of these, 1552 cases with hepatic dysfunction received 131I treatment. All clinical data were retrospectively reviewed to explore the risk factors associated with hepatic dysfunction using logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we observed thyroid and liver function indices for the 1552 subjects at 3, 6 and 12 months after 131I treatment, in order to evaluate efficacy. Overall, 65% patients were affected by hepatic dysfunction. The most common abnormality was elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), of which the prevalence was 52.3%. The percentages of hepatocellular injury type, bile stasis, and mixed type were 45.8%, 32.4%, and 21.8%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that age, duration of Graves hyperthyroidism, free triiodothyronine (FT3)level, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) concentration were the most significant risk factors predicting hepatic dysfunction. Additionally, the patients with mild hepatic dysfunction, or hepatocellular injury type were more likely to attain normal liver function after 131I treatment. Furthermore, after 131I treatment, liver function was more likely to return to normal in the cured group of patients compared with the uncured group. Older patients and cases with a longer history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, higher FT3 or TRAb concentration were more likely to be associated with hepatic dysfunction, and the prognosis of hepatic dysfunction was closely associated with the outcomes of Graves’ hyperthyroidism after 131I treatment. PMID:28151911

  2. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  3. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Karimi

    Full Text Available Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15N and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13C. Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

  4. Results of steroid-based therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, T D; Te, H S; Thomas, R M; Hussain, H; Bond, K; Black, M

    2001-10-01

    Overlap syndromes in which persons manifest clinical, histological, or immunological features of both hepatitis C infection and autoimmune hepatitis are well described. The discordant forms of treatment for hepatitis C and autoimmune hepatitis have made medical management of these patients difficult. We report our experience in using corticosteroids as first line therapy for the hepatitis C-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Seven patients with this overlap syndrome (diagnosis based on the presence of serum hepatitis C antibody by RIBA and serum hepatitis C RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and serum hypergammaglobulinemia, elevated ANA or ASMA titers, or histological findings consistent with autoimmune hepatitis) were treated with prednisone with or without azathioprine or cyclosporine, and followed for a median duration of 44.5 months. Five patients (71%) showed improvement of median serum ALT level from 162 U/L to 38 U/L (p = 0.04) and median serum gamma-globulin from 2.1 g/dl to 1.4 g/dl (p = 0.04) by 6 months of therapy. The mean modified histological activity index score also decreased from 11.4 +/- 2.5 to 6.6 +/- 2.6 (p = 0.04) by at least 1 yr of therapy. One patient discontinued prednisone while taking azathioprine and experienced a rebound elevation of serum ALT that did not respond to retreatment with prednisone. Antiviral therapy was subsequently administered and resulted in biochemical and virologic response. Hepatitis C virus RNA remained detectable in all other patients. Corticosteroids are beneficial as a first line therapy for some patients with the hepatitis C-autoimmune overlap syndrome, resulting in appreciable biochemical and histological response but without viral eradication.

  5. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  7. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  8. Coinfection of hepatitis E virus and other hepatitis virus in Colombia and its genotypic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Dioselina; Martínez-Vargas, Daniel; Escalante-Mora, Martha; Palacios-Vivero, Mariel; Contreras-Gómez, Lady

    2015-12-04

    Hepatitis E virus has emerged as a public health problem, particularly in developing countries. The four genotypes identified in mammals include the G3 found in indigenous hepatitis in countries and regions with high porcine population, and the G1, associated with maternal deaths.  To determine coinfection by hepatitis E virus and the circulating genotypes in Colombia in 1,097 samples using serological markers for hepatitis A, B and C.  Serum samples of 1,097 patients from different regions of Colombia stored at the Laboratorio de Virología of the Instituto Nacional de Salud were selected to detect IgG and IgM anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies. The viral genomes of positive samples were amplified by RT-PCR, and the products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed by comparing ORF2 sequences deposited in the GenBank.  IgG anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies were found in 278 samples, IgM in 62, and both markers in 64. Hepatitis E virus and hepatitis A virus coinfection determined by IgG anti-hepatitis E virus was 33.6% and 16.1% by IgM; hepatitis E virus and hepatitis B virus coinfection was 23.4% and 8.1%, and hepatitis E virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection was 35.4% and 5.83%, respectively. Among the 52 positive samples by PCR nine were sequenced and grouped within genotype 3A of the American porcine strain.  The highest seropositivity was observed for hepatitis A and E. The incidence of hepatitis E virus coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses indicated that this pathogen is more frequent than expected. The circulation of genotype 3A implies that this disease may occur in outbreaks and as zoonosis in Colombia.

  9. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  10. Hopping conduction in gamma-irradiated InSe and InSe:Sn single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUSTAFAEVA, S.N.; ISMAILOV, A.A.; ASADOV, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The semiconductive InSe layer compound is characterized by a strong covalent bond inside the layers and a weak Van der Waals bonding between them. It was shown that across the layers of InSe single crystals at low temperatures (T ≤ 200 K) at direct current (dc) hopping conduction through localized states near the Fermi level takes place. The results of dc-conductivity of gamma-irradiated p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn layer single crystals have been presented in this work. ρ-InSe single crystal specimens grown by the Bridgman method were used in the experiments. Plates of the crystals under study were obtained by cleaving along the layers of single crystal ingots. The single-crystal InSe samples for electric measurements had the form of planar capacitors normal to the C axis of the crystals, with silver-paste electrodes. The thickness of the InSe samples was 300 mkm. Co 60 serves as the source of irradiation with energy of gamma-quantum equal to 1.3 MeV. The electric properties of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated InSe crystals were measured under the same conditions. It is revealed that InSe and InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals exhibit a variable range hopping conduction along a normal to their natural layers at temperatures T≤200 K in a dc electric field. From experimental data the parameters of localized states of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn were calculated before and after gamma-irradiation. It is revealed that gamma-irradiation of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals leads to significant change of localized states parameters. After gamma-irradiation the density of states near the Fermi level increased, but their energy spread and the average jump distance decreased. The concentrations of radiated defects were estimated in p-InSe (5.18*10 1 7 sm - 3) and n-InSe : Sn (2.5*10 1 7 - 2.7*10 1 8 sm - 3) single crystals. The present results demonstrate that gamma-irradiation offers the possibility of tuning

  11. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Necla; Ozsoy, Metin; Moroglu, Cigdem; Cagla Sonmezer, Meliha; Temocin, Fatih; Tuncer Ertem, Gunay; Sebnem Erdinc, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause significant pathology in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), however, HAV can be prevented by vaccination. The aim of this study was to determine the implication of vaccination against HAV vaccine in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG antibodies was investigated in the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected by commercially available ELISA kit. A total of 673 patients (354 males, 319 females with age range of 17-78 years) with chronic hepatitis B were included the study. Hepatitis A virus seropositivity rate was 34% in the patients younger than 20 years, 79% in the age group of 20 to 29 years, and 100% after 35 years of age. Hepatitis A virus vaccination may be recommended for young adult patients with chronic hepatitis B in Turkey. Tulek N, Ozsoy M, Moroglu C, Sonmezer MC, Temocin F, Ertem GT, Erdinc FS. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibodies among the Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B in Turkey. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(2):95-97.

  12. Maraviroc attenuates trauma-hemorrhage-induced hepatic injury through PPAR gamma-dependent pathway in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Maraviroc is a CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 antagonist with potent antiviral and cancer preventive effects. Recent evidence suggests that the co-existence of CCR5 in various cell types is involved in inflammation. However, the effects that CCR5 antagonists produce in trauma-hemorrhage remain unknown. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR(γ pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. In this study, we hypothesized that maraviroc administration in male rats, after trauma-hemorrhage, decreases cytokine production and protects against hepatic injury through a PPAR(γ-dependent pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes, followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of maraviroc (3 mg/kg, intravenously with and without a PPAR(γ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg, intravenously, GW9662 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT with aspartate aminotransferase (AST concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n=8 rats/group at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the maraviroc-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Maraviroc treatment also increased hepatic PPAR(γ expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of GW9662 with maraviroc abolished the maraviroc-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of maraviroc administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through PPAR(γ-dependent pathway.

  13. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  14. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  15. Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) presenting as subfulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Z; Broida, E; Monselise, Y; Kazatsker, A; Baruch, J; Pappo, O; Skappa, E; Tur-Kaspa, R

    2000-03-01

    Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in adults is a rare event. The diagnosis of GCH is based on findings of syncytial giant hepatocytes. It is commonly associated with either viral infection or autoimmune hepatitis type I. A patient with GCH due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) is described, a combination that has not been previously reported. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in decreasing serum liver enzymes; however, the patient deteriorated rapidly and developed subfulminant hepatic failure. Although an emergency orthotopic liver transplantation was performed, the patient died because of reperfusion injury. Interestingly, only a few giant hepatocytes were noted in the explanted liver. This case stresses the association of GCH with autoimmune disorders, the possible immune mechanism involved in the formation of giant cell hepatocytes, and illustrates the rapidly progressive course and unfavorable prognosis that these patients can develop.

  16. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  17. Impairments of hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in PPARα-deficient neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Ercal, Baris; d'Avignon, D André; Dietzen, Dennis J; Crawford, Peter A

    2014-07-15

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a master transcriptional regulator of hepatic metabolism and mediates the adaptive response to fasting. Here, we demonstrate the roles for PPARα in hepatic metabolic adaptations to birth. Like fasting, nutrient supply is abruptly altered at birth when a transplacental source of carbohydrates is replaced by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate milk diet. PPARα-knockout (KO) neonatal mice exhibit relative hypoglycemia due to impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose. Although hepatic expression of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenases is imparied in PPARα neonates, these animals exhibit normal blood acylcarnitine profiles. Furthermore, quantitative metabolic fate mapping of the medium-chain fatty acid [(13)C]octanoate in neonatal mouse livers revealed normal contribution of this fatty acid to the hepatic TCA cycle. Interestingly, octanoate-derived carbon labeled glucose uniquely in livers of PPARα-KO neonates. Relative hypoketonemia in newborn PPARα-KO animals could be mechanistically linked to a 50% decrease in de novo hepatic ketogenesis from labeled octanoate. Decreased ketogenesis was associated with diminished mRNA and protein abundance of the fate-committing ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) and decreased protein abundance of the ketogenic enzyme β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1). Finally, hepatic triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations were increased 6.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, in suckling PPARα-KO neonates. Together, these findings indicate a primary defect of gluconeogenesis from glycerol and an important role for PPARα-dependent ketogenesis in the disposal of hepatic fatty acids during the neonatal period. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Dietary Mung Bean Protein Reduces Hepatic Steatosis, Fibrosis, and Inflammation in Male Mice with Diet-Induced, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Inaba, Yuka; Kimura, Kumi; Asahara, Shun-Ichiro; Kido, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Michihiro; Motoyama, Takayasu; Tachibana, Nobuhiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kohno, Mitsutaka; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    As the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, is increasing, novel dietary approaches are required for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We evaluated the potential of mung bean protein isolate (MuPI) to prevent NAFLD progression. In Expts. 1 and 2, the hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentration was compared between 8-wk-old male mice fed a high-fat diet (61% of energy from fat) containing casein, MuPI, and soy protein isolate and an MuPI-constituent amino acid mixture as a source of amino acids (18% of energy) for 4 wk. In Expt. 3, hepatic fatty acid synthase (Fasn) expression was evaluated in 8-wk-old male Fasn-promoter-reporter mice fed a casein- or MuPI-containing high-fat diet for 20 wk. In Expt. 4, hepatic fibrosis was examined in 8-wk-old male mice fed an atherogenic diet (61% of energy from fat, containing 1.3 g cholesterol/100 g diet) containing casein or MuPI (18% of energy) as a protein source for 20 wk. In the high fat-diet mice, the hepatic TG concentration in the MuPI group decreased by 66% and 47% in Expt. 1 compared with the casein group (P hepatic TG concentration were lower in the MuPI group than in those fed casein (P hepatic fibrosis was not induced in the MuPI group, whereas it developed overtly in the casein group. MuPI potently reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice and may be a potential foodstuff to prevent NAFLD onset and progression. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  20. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  2. Editor's Highlight: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Choline Ion Pair Formation: A Potential Mechanism Modulating Hepatic Steatosis and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Smith, Philip B; Dutta, Mainak; Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Patterson, Andrew D; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induced steatosis remain unclear. The hypothesis that PFOS causes steatosis and other hepatic effects by forming an ion pair with choline was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a marginal methionine/choline-deficient (mMCD) diet, with and without 0.003, 0.006, or 0.012% potassium PFOS. Dietary PFOS caused a dose-dependent decrease in body weight, and increases in the relative liver weight, hepatic triglyceride concentration and serum markers of liver toxicity and oxidative stress. Some of these effects were exacerbated in mice fed the mMCD diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS compared with those fed the control diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS. Surprisingly, serum PFOS concentrations were higher while liver PFOS concentrations were lower in mMCD-fed mice compared with corresponding control-fed mice. To determine if supplemental dietary choline could prevent PFOS-induced hepatic effects, C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, or a choline supplemental diet (1.2%) with or without 0.003% PFOS. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that PFOS caused alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the PFOS-fed mice compared with controls, and supplemental dietary choline prevented these PFOS-induced changes. Interestingly, dietary choline supplementation also prevented PFOS-induced oxidative damage. These studies are the first to suggest that PFOS may cause hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by effectively reducing the choline required for hepatic VLDL production and export by forming an ion pair with choline, and suggest that choline supplementation may prevent and/or treat PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  4. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  5. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  6. Comparison of autochthonous and imported cases of hepatitis A or hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, J; Kreuels, B; Polywka, S; Addo, M; Luethgehetmann, M; Dandri, M; Dammermann, W; Sterneck, M; Lohse, A W; Pischke, S

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis A and hepatitis E are not limited to tropical countries but are also present in industrialized countries. Both infections share similar clinical features. There is no comparative study evaluating the clinical parameters of autochthonous and imported hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine differences between autochthonous and imported hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections. Medical charts of all patients at our center with acute HAV and HEV infections were analyzed retrospectively (n = 50, study period 01/2009 - 08/2013). Peak bilirubin (median 8.6 vs. 4.4 mg/dL, p = 0.008) and ALT levels (median 2998 vs. 1666 IU/mL, p = 0.04) were higher in patients with hepatitis A compared to hepatitis E. In comparison to autochthones hepatitis E cases, patients with imported infections had significantly higher peak values for AST, ALT, bilirubin and INR (p = 0.009, p = 0.002, p = 0.04 and p = 0.049, respectively). In HAV infection, AST levels tended to be higher in imported infections (p = 0.08). (i) It is not possible to differentiate certainly between acute HAV and HEV infections by clinical or biochemical parameters, however, HAV infections might be associated with more cholestasis and higher ALT values. (ii) Imported HEV infections are associated with higher transaminases, INR and bilirubin levels compared to autochthonous cases and (iii) imported HAV infections tend to be associated with higher transaminases in comparison to autochthonous cases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Relation between laboratory test results and histological hepatitis activity in individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Borg, F.; ten Kate, F. J.; Cuypers, H. T.; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A.; Oosting, J.; Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M.; Honkoop, P.; Rasch, M. C.; de Man, R. A.; van Hattum, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Reesink, H. W.; Jones, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) commonly coexist, and laboratory tests are often requested to assess histological hepatitis activity. An optimum panel of tests has not been found and the usefulness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA

  8. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.O.; Khokhar, N.; Shafqat, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  9. Detection of hepatitis G virus-RNA (HGV-RNA) in serum of patients with HBV hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingfei; Hang Shangrong; Chen Min; Pu Xiangke; Wang Yongzhong; Zhou Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of HGV infection in patients with HBV hepatitis and any possible adverse effect of the superinfection. Methods: Serum HGV-RNA expression was examined with PCR in 1104 patients with HBV hepatitis and 251 controls. Results: The positive rate of HGV-RNA in HBV hepatitis patients was not significantly different from that in controls (3.17% vs 2.79%, P>0.05). Among the patients with HBV hepatitis, HGV-RNA positive rate in patients with chronic hepatitis was significantly higher than that in patients with acute hepatitis (4.78% vs 0.96, P<0.05). Conclusion: HGV infection might be presented as non-symptomatic carriers or other mild form of hepatitis. The incidence of HGV infection was not especially high in HBV hepatitis patients, however, concomitant HGV and HBV infection might predispose to development of chronicity. (authors)

  10. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.; Gilijamse, Pim W.; Versteeg, Ruth I.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Nederveen, Aart J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Zhang, Dongyan; Samuel, Varman T.; Vatner, Daniel F.; Petersen, Kitt F.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in

  11. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  12. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  13. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  14. Molecular structure of virgin and Tg cycled (Ag2Se)x (AsSe)1-x bulk glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtman, Jacob; Chen, Ping; Boochand, P.

    2009-03-01

    AsSe, the base glass (x = 0) in the titled ternary, is an interesting example of a chalcogenide that is partially de-mixed into As4Se4 molecules segregated from a connected AsSe network, with the latter determining glass network properties. Raman scattering reveals sharp modes of the Realgar molecules that are superimposed on broad modes coming from of the backbone. Upon Tg cycling virgin samples (as quenched melts), the concentration of de-mixed As4Se4 molecules decreases, suggesting that thermally induced polymerization occurs; molecules break up to form part of the connective tissue. Modulated DSC experiments reveal a broad exotherm near 140 ^oC in virgin samples, which becomes nearly extinct in Tg cycled samples. The exotherm may represent Realgar molecules nano-crystallizing as the temperature approaches Tg. Compositional trends in thermal parameters such as Tg(x), δCp(x), and the δHnr(x) as a function of Ag2Se content `x' of the glasses will be reported.

  15. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  16. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  17. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  18. Variation of hepatic artery on arteriogram and its clinical significance in interventional therapy for hepatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Yang Renjie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variations of hepatic artery and its extrahepatic arteries on hepatic arteriogram and to provide benefit for transhepatic arterical chemoemblization. Methods: The hepatic arteriograms of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic malignant tumor before interventional therapy were analysed. Two interventional radiologists in common reviewed the incidences of various types according to Michels' classification, the absence of proper hepatic artery, and the variations of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic artery. Results: The most common hepatic artery variation was Michels type III(n=17,8.5%), followed by type II(n=10,5.0%) and V(n=9,4.5%). Proper hepatic absence was found in 25 cases and appeared as 5 subtypes. 5 kinds of extrahepatic arteries were found. The most common extrahepatic artery was the right gastric artery (n=156,78.0%), followed by cystic artery (n=126,63.0%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19,9.5%), the hepatic falciform artery (n=5,2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4,2.0%). Conclusion: There are some other variations of hepatic artery beside Michels' classification,and there are many variations of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic artery, it is important to assure interventional therapy effect for hepatic cancer and prevent complication. (authors)

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients with acute hepatitis and characterization of the detected genotype 4 hepatitis E virus sequences in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E is considered to be a worldwide public health problem. Although the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies in healthy individuals is noted to be 11%, no patients with acute hepatitis E have previously been identified in Mongolia. Three hundred two consecutive patients (183 males and 119 females; median age of 22.0 [Interquartile range: 18.3-25.0] years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis during 2012-2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. By serological and/or molecular approaches, 77 (25.5%), 93 (30.8%), 19 (6.3%), 48 (15.9%), and 12 (4.0%) of the patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis of types A, B, C, D (superinfection of hepatitis delta virus on a background of chronic hepatitis B virus infection) and E, respectively, while the cause of hepatitis was unknown in the remaining 53 patients (17.5%). The 12 hepatitis E patients had no history of travel abroad in the 3 months before the onset of disease, and lived separately in fixed or movable houses with water supplied via pipe, tank or well, denying transmission from a common water supply. The 12 HEV isolates obtained from the patients showed high nucleotide identities of 99.7-100%, and a representative HEV isolate, MNE13-227, was closest to the Chinese isolates of genotype 4, with the highest identity of 97.3% in the 304-nt ORF2 sequence and 92.1% over the entire genome. The present study revealed the occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Mongolia, caused by a monophyletic genotype 4 HEV strain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  1. Information from teachers on viral hepatitis transmission and prevention in Brazil Información de los maestros sobre la transmisión y la prevención de las hepatitis virales en el Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Gaze

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess school teachers' level of knowledge on prevention of viral hepatitis (VH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Brazil, from August to November of 1999. The sample was composed of 360 subjects: 334 women and 26 men, 81 (22.5% from Belém, 123 (34.2% from Natal and 156 (43.3% from Rio de Janeiro. Cultural differences in knowledge were identified using a questionnaire to classify, according to semantic content, categories of transmission and preventive practices. Responses were scored as right or wrong. Data were tabulated and analyzed using EPIINFO 6.04 and open answers were classified according to semantic content. Comparison of the answer frequencies between cities was done through the chi-square test. RESULTS: Transmission category (TC (n=837 answers and prevention category (PC (n=771 answers "food-and waterborne" transmission items were the most frequently mentioned (40%. For TC, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "bloodborne" (16%, "inadequate knowledge" (9%, "possible causes of hepatic disease" (9%, and "sexual transmission" (7% answers. For PC items, "food-and waterborne" answers were followed by "general aspects of prevention" (13%, "immunization" (9%, "quality of health services" (8% and "sexual prevention" (5% items. "Right" scores for transmission mechanisms and prevention practices varied from zero to 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that investments should be made to disseminate appropriate knowledge on VH prevention, mainly addressing sexual transmission and intravenous drug use.OBJETIVO: Evaluar los conocimientos y prácticas de profesores escolares en la prevención de hepatitis viral. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en tres ciudades de Brasil, de agosto a noviembre de 1999. La muestra estuvo constituida por 360 sujetos: 334 mujeres y 26 hombres, 81 (22.5% de Belém, 123 (34.2% de Nataly 156 (43.3% de Río de Janeiro. Se

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafashan, Hosein, E-mail: hosein840521@gmail.com; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} thin films. The PL spectra of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) of SnS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  3. [Latest Treatment of Viral Hepatitis--Overcoming Hepatitis C and Reactivation of Hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), discovered as causative viruses of post-transfusion hepatitis, become persistent infections, leading to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For HCV, recent IFN-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies have increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates and reduced adverse events. IFN-based therapies, still the standard of care in Asian countries, are influenced by IL28B genetic variants and the liver fibrosis stage, but the DAA combinations obscure the influence of these factors. These new therapies can eradicate HCV and prevent HCC development. On the other hand, it is difficult to eradicate HBV completely. Although HBV infection can be prevented by vaccination, reactivation of HBV following anti-cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy is a well-known complication. HBV reactivation has been reported to be associated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab-containing chemotherapy and TNF-α inhibitor-containing immunosuppressive therapy in HBV-resolved patients. Our prospective observational study revealed that monthly monitoring of HBV DNA was useful for preventing HBV reactivation-related hepatitis among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with resolved HBV infection following rituximab-steroid-chemo, suggesting that preemptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring should be recommended. Recently, highly sensitive HBsAg detection by Lumipulse HBsAg-HQ may be useful for several clinical applications. The sensitivity of this assay (5 mIU/mL) was approximately 10-fold higher than Abbott ARCHITECT, but still lower than HBV-DNA assays. The convenient HBsAg-HQ may be useful for detecting occult HBV infection and HBV reactivation in relatively low-risk groups except for those receiving rituximab-steroid-chemo. [

  4. Analysis of branching patterns of middle hepatic artery using A-P and oblique view hepatic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kun Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan

    1992-01-01

    A study on branching patterns of middle hepatic artery was performed in 109 patients with A-P and oblique view hepatic angiogram, which refereed to size and location of quadrate lobe in CT and SMA photography. We could analyze the branching patterns of middle hepatic artery (MHA) in 100 among 109 patients. MHA arising as a first branch of left hepatic artery was the most common pattern (50%), and MHA arising from proper hepatic artery separately on from left hepatic artery was the next common pattern (35%). MHA originating from left gastric artery, or from anterior or posterior of the right hepatic artery was not seen. MHA was not found as an accessory or replaced artery except as replaced common hepatic artery

  5. Frecuencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis en pacientes con cirrosis hepática en Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Biachi Renán A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En este estudio reportamos la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus C de la hepatitis (Ac-VCH en un grupo de pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio prospectivo, transversal y descriptivo, de marzo de 1998 a mayo de 1999. Se estudiaron a 153 pacientes (117 (76% hombres y 36 (24% mujeres con diagnóstico de CH, que eran atendidos en el Hospital General Agustín O' Horan y en el Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Doctor Hideyo Noguchi, en la ciudad de Mérida, Yucatán, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario con datos clínico-epidemiológicos y se determinó la presencia de Ac-VCH (ELISA de 2ª generación y RIBA-2 para confirmar el diagnóstico a cada paciente. Se determinó también el antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B (AgsHB y anticuerpos contra el antígeno central de la hepatitis B (Anti-HBc mediante el método de ELISA. La presencia de Ac-VCH fue relacionada con las variables epidemiológicas de los sujetos. La prevalencia de anti-HCV y la frecuencia de características se compararon entre los pacientes positivos y negativos con las pruebas de c² y exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: El 32% de los pacientes con CH (35/117 (30% hombres y 14/36 (39% mujeres fueron positivos para los Ac-VCH. El alcoholismo estuvo presente en todos los hombres serorreactivos y en ninguna de las mujeres positivas (p< 0.001. Ninguna de las variables epidemiológicas analizadas estuvo asociada con la seropositividad. Los anti-HBc se encontraron en 16% de los pacientes positivos para Ac-VCH y en 12% de los seronegativos (p=0.69. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia encontrada fue mayor a los reportes previos realizados en población general de la Península de Yucatán (1.3%. La alta prevalencia de Ac-VCH en este grupo de pacientes sugiere que la CH está más frecuentemente asociada con el VCH en Yucatán, México, que con el virus B de la hepatitis. El alcoholismo probablemente actúa como un cofactor en el

  6. Dietary fish oil stimulates hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M A; Woollett, L A; Spady, D K

    1989-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to examine the effect of fish oil, safflower oil, and hydrogenated coconut oil on the major processes that determine the concentration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in plasma, i.e., the rate of LDL production and the rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL uptake in the various organs of the body. When fed at the 20% level, fish oil reduced plasma LDL-cholesterol levels by 38% primarily by increasing LDL receptor activity in the liver. Dietary safflower oil also increased hepatic LDL receptor activity; however, since the rate of LDL production also increased, plasma LDL-cholesterol levels remained essentially unchanged. Hydrogenated coconut oil had no effect on LDL receptor activity but increased the rate of LDL-cholesterol production causing plasma LDL-cholesterol levels to increase 46%. Dietary fish oil had no effect on the receptor-dependent transport of asialofetuin by the liver, suggesting that the effect of fish oil on hepatic LDL receptor activity was specific and not due to a generalized alteration in the physical properties of hepatic membranes. Finally, dietary fish oil increased hepatic cholesteryl ester levels and suppressed hepatic cholesterol synthesis rates, suggesting that the up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor activity in these animals was not simply a response to diminished cholesterol availability in the liver. PMID:2760200

  7. Grave’s Disease with Severe Hepatic Dysfunction: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, Ashok Krishna; Sarma, Dipti; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Choudhury, Bipul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic dysfunction in a patient with thyrotoxicosis may result from hyperthyroidism per se, as a side effect of antithyroid drugs, and causes unrelated to hyperthyroidism which sometimes causes diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. A young female patient was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiter and ophthalmopathy along with cholestatic pattern of jaundice, and proximal muscle weakness. She was treated with propylthiouracil with gradual recovery. She was...

  8. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rached, Antoine; Abou Kheir, Selim; Saba, Jowana; Ammar, Walid

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex. This national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests. Of 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6-1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16-0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%). The prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with von Recklinghausen's disease Fibrosis hepática congénita asociada a enfermedad de von Recklinghausen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Jorge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a ductal plate malformation with duct-like structures and fibrosis. It manifests clinically with portal hypertension and may be associated with multiple congenital defects. We present the case of a 16-year-old male with splenomegaly, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, esophageal varices, and a histopathological diagnosis of congenital hepatic fibrosis. He exhibits "café au lait' spots and "Lisch' nodules, with a diagnosis of von Recklinghausen's disease. Congenital hepatic fibrosis belongs to the so-called fibropolycystic diseases, in which there is a disordered interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix. Von Recklinghausen's disease affects tissues derived from the neural crest and its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. It is associated with multiple diseases. We describe its association with congenital hepatic fibrosis for the first time.La fibrosis hepática congénita se origina como consecuencia de una malformación de la placa ductal con estructuras tipo ductales acompañadas de fibrosis. Se manifiesta con hipertensión portal y puede asociarse a múltiples defectos congénitos. Presentamos un varón de 16 años con esplenomegalia, leuco- y plaquetopenia, varices esofágicas y diagnóstico histopatológico de fibrosis hepática congénita. La exploración física mostraba la existencia de manchas de "café con leche' y nódulos de "Lisch' con diagnóstico de enfermedad de von Recklinghausen. La fibrosis hepática congénita forma parte de las enfermedades fibropoliquísticas donde existiría una alteración en la interacción entre las células y la matriz extracelular. La enfermedad de von Recklinghausen afecta a los tejidos derivados de la cresta neural y su diagnóstico se basa en criterios clínicos. Se asocia a múltiples patologías. Presentamos por primera vez su asociación con fibrosis hepática congénita.

  10. Evaluación de la seroprotección contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B en niños menores de cinco años del Perú, 2011 Evaluation of the seroprotection against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children under 5 years of age in Peru, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fiestas Solórzano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B en niños de 1 a 4 años del Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta nacional basada en la aplicación de un cuestionario y obtención de muestra de sangre capilar en papel de filtro para el estudio de anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B en niños de 1 a 4 años. Se utilizó un muestreo probabilístico, estratificado y multietápico con inferencia a nivel nacional y siete ámbitos de estudio: Lima metropolitana, resto de costa urbana, costa rural, sierra urbana, sierra rural, selva urbana y selva rural. Las muestras de sangre capilar fueron procesadas siguiendo protocolos estandarizados para la determinación de anticuerpos mediante técnica de ELISA utilizando reactivos comerciales. Resultados. Se encontró una prevalencia nacional de 91,6% (IC95%: 90,6-92,7%, 91,3% (IC 95%: 90,3-92,4% y 95,9% (IC 95%: 95,0-96,8% para anticuerpos contra sarampión, rubéola y hepatitis B respectivamente. No se evidenció diferencias significativas de las prevalencias entre los diferentes ámbitos de estudio y en los diferentes estratos socioeconómicos de los conglomerados. Conclusiones. En niños de 1 a 4 años se ha estimado una prevalencia nacional de anticuerpos contra sarampión y rubéola entre 90-93%, mientras que para anticuerpos contra hepatitis B (anti-HBsAg entre 95-97%.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children aged between 1 and 4 years in Peru. Materials and methods. A national survey was conducted based on a questionnaire and capillary blood sample taken on filter paper in order to study antibodies against measles, rubella and hepatitis B in children from 1 to 4 years of age. A stratified, multistage, probability sampling design was used to be representative at the national level and at level of seven ambits, including the Metropolitan Lima Area, the rest of the

  11. Analysis of the repaglinide concentration increase produced by gemfibrozil and itraconazole based on the inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Hisaka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2013-02-01

    The plasma concentration of repaglinide is reported to increase greatly when given after repeated oral administration of itraconazole and gemfibrozil. The present study analyzed this interaction based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model incorporating inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter and metabolic enzymes involved in repaglinide disposition. Firstly, the plasma concentration profiles of inhibitors (itraconazole, gemfibrozil, and gemfibrozil glucuronide) were reproduced by a PBPK model to obtain their pharmacokinetic parameters. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were then analyzed by a PBPK model, together with those of the inhibitors, assuming a competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 by itraconazole, mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil glucuronide, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 by gemfibrozil and its glucuronide. The plasma concentration profiles of repaglinide were well reproduced by the PBPK model based on the above assumptions, and the optimized values for the inhibition constants (0.0676 nM for itraconazole against CYP3A4; 14.2 μM for gemfibrozil against OATP1B1; and 5.48 μM for gemfibrozil glucuronide against OATP1B1) and the fraction of repaglinide metabolized by CYP2C8 (0.801) were consistent with the reported values. The validity of the obtained parameters was further confirmed by sensitivity analyses and by reproducing the repaglinide concentration increase produced by concomitant gemfibrozil administration at various timings/doses. The present findings suggested that the reported concentration increase of repaglinide, suggestive of synergistic effects of the coadministered inhibitors, can be quantitatively explained by the simultaneous inhibition of the multiple clearance pathways of repaglinide.

  12. Counter-attack on virol hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozesky, O.W.; Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-01-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B

  13. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Yoshiki [School of Medicine, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan; Nakajim, Syo [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Ohash, Hirofumi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicinal Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwami, Shingo [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan: PRESTO, JST, Saitama, Japan: CREST, JST, Saitama, Japan; Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  14. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  15. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  16. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  17. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  18. The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Samuel, Varman T.; Petersen, Kitt Mia Falck

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its downstream sequelae, hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, are rapidly growing epidemics, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates, and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions requires a comprehensive understanding...... of the mechanisms by which excess hepatic lipid develops and causes hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Proposed mechanisms implicate various lipid species, inflammatory signalling and other cellular modifications. Studies in mice and humans have elucidated a key role for hepatic diacylglycerol...... activation of protein kinase Cε in triggering hepatic insulin resistance. Therapeutic approaches based on this mechanism could alleviate the related epidemics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes....

  19. General seroprevalence of hepatitis and hepatitis B virus infections in population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokar, N.; Gill, M.L.; Malik, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by detection of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) in general population of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Sera of healthy adult individuals who presented for medical evaluation as a pre-employment criteria in the Gulf region were examined for presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody. Alanine aminotransferase levels were also determined. Results: A total of 47,538 individuals were examined. Out of these, 2528 (5.31%) were positive for anti-HCV and 1221 (2.56%) individuals had positive HBsAg. Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV both were found in 92 (0.19%) individuals. Mean age of subjects, positive for HCV antibody was 44 years and 40.5 years for HBV. Ninety-four percent individuals were males and 6% were females. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was normal in 56% of subjects with positive HCV and 84% of individuals with HBV. Conclusion: This study which evaluated predominantly a healthy male population, showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV and average seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. A large majority of these patients was young and had normal ALT. (author)

  20. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  1. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ampuero

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of metformin use on liver dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in a retrospective cohort of diabetic cirrhotic patients. To analyze the impact of metformin on glutaminase activity and ammonia production in vitro. METHODS: Eighty-two cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Forty-one patients were classified as insulin sensitizers experienced (metformin and 41 as controls (cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin treatment. Baseline analysis included: insulin, glucose, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, TNFr2, AST, ALT. HOMA-IR was calculated. Baseline HE risk was calculated according to minimal hepatic encephalopathy, oral glutamine challenge and mutations in glutaminase gene. We performed an experimental study in vitro including an enzymatic activity assay where glutaminase inhibition was measured according to different metformin concentrations. In Caco2 cells, glutaminase activity inhibition was evaluated by ammonia production at 24, 48 and 72 hours after metformina treatment. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed during follow-up in 23.2% (19/82: 4.9% (2/41 in patients receiving metformin and 41.5% (17/41 in patients without metformin treatment (logRank 9.81; p=0.002. In multivariate analysis, metformin use [H.R.11.4 (95% CI: 1.2-108.8; p=0.034], age at diagnosis [H.R.1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.2; p=0.002], female sex [H.R.10.4 (95% CI: 1.5-71.6; p=0.017] and HE risk [H.R.21.3 (95% CI: 2.8-163.4; p=0.003] were found independently associated with hepatic encephalopathy. In the enzymatic assay, glutaminase activity inhibition reached 68% with metformin 100 mM. In Caco2 cells, metformin (20 mM decreased glutaminase activity up to 24% at 72 hours post-treatment (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin was found independently related to overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Metformin inhibits glutaminase

  2. Low concentrations of selenium in stream food webs of eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Kidd, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates and two species of fish (brook trout and blacknose dace) were collected from 49 streams in New Brunswick, Canada to determine whether concentrations of selenium (Se) in the biota were affected by a point source (a coal-fired power plant), and stream water chemistry (pH, sulphate, conductivity, and total organic carbon), and to determine the trophic transfer of Se through these food webs. Total Se concentrations in the biota were generally low (0.2 to 4.8 μg g -1 dry weight) across sites and there was no relationship between distance from the coal-fired power plant and Se concentrations in invertebrates or fishes. Water chemistry was an equally poor predictor of Se concentrations in invertebrates and fish. Trophic position (determined using δ 15 N) was a significant predictor of Se concentrations in only five of the stream food webs, and two of these had negative slopes, indicating little or no trophic magnification across most systems; many fishes had lower concentrations than their invertebrate prey and trophic transfer was higher at sites with low invertebrate Se concentrations. Variability in Se concentrations in fishes was explained more by site of capture than microhabitat use within the site (as measured with δ 13 C), suggesting among-site differences in geological sources of Se. Because concentrations were below known toxicity thresholds for fish and other consumers, these results suggest that Se is not an environmental issue in New Brunswick streams that do not receive direct inputs from mining activities. - Research Highlights: → Se concentrations in stream invertebrates and fishes in eastern Canada are low. → Concentrations were not related to water chemistry or distance from a point source. → Se did not biomagnify in the food web, yet was almost always in excess of Hg.

  3. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  4. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  5. Expressions of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone in patients with viral hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Ying; Zhu Yalin; Liu Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of renin, angiotensin and aldosterone system in patients with hepatic disorders. Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA), AT-II and Ald levels were measured with RIA in 31 patients with viral hepatitis, 35 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 38 controls. Results: The levels of PRA, AT-II and Ald in patients with viral hepatitis were slightly but non-significantly higher than those in controls (P>0.05). The levels of PRA, AT-II and Ald in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: RAAS was activated during progression of hepatic disorders and participated in the development of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  6. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  7. Refractory hepatic hydrothorax: successful treatment with octreotide Hidrotórax hepático refractario: tratamiento eficaz con octreótido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barreales

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient that developed hepatic hydrothorax as the first complication of liver cirrhosis. Due to the lack of response to diuretics, pleurodesis and TIPS, treatment with octreotide was started with resolution of hydrothorax. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of refractory hepatic hydrothorax with complete and sustained response to octreotide.Describimos el caso de una paciente que presentó un hidrotórax como primera manifestación de una cirrosis hepática. Ante la ausencia de respuesta al tratamiento diurético, a la realización de una pleurodesis y a la colocación de una derivación portosistémica percutánea intrahepática, se inició tratamiento con octreótido con lo que se obtuvo la resolución del mismo. Se trata del tercer caso publicado en la literatura de hidrotórax hepático refractario con respuesta completa y mantenida al tratamiento con octreótido.

  8. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  9. Liver mortality attributable to chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Denmark and Scotland - using spontaneous resolvers as the benchmark comparator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, H; Hutchinson, S J; Obel, N

    2016-01-01

    Liver mortality among individuals with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is common, but the relative contribution of CHC per se versus adverse health behaviours is uncertain. We explored data on spontaneous resolvers of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a benchmark group, to uncover the independent...... contribution of CHC on liver mortality. Using national HCV diagnosis and mortality registers from Denmark and Scotland, we calculated the liver mortality rate (LMR) for persons diagnosed with CHC infection (LMRchronic ) and spontaneously resolved infection (LMRresolved ), according to subgroups defined by: age...

  10. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Pathophysiological aspects of acute hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutz, N.E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to elucidate the pathogenesis of acute hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In order to study acute HE, plasma and brain concentrations were measured of ammonia, aminoacids, lactate and polyamines as well as brain energy rich phosphates. In addition new techniques of brain research were developed and applied. 277 refs.; 29 figs.; 18 tabs

  12. Factores asociados a una respuesta inadecuada a la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en personal sanitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolosa Martínez Natividad

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La vacuna recombinante contra la hepatitis B confiere inmunidad aproximadamente en el 95 % de los casos, pero existe un porcentaje que responde insuficientemente. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los factores que se asocian con una inadecuada respuesta inmunitaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio observacional y analítico en el que se sigue retrospectivamente una cohorte de sujetos vacunados frente al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB. Se recogieron las variables de interés del personal sanitario que cumplía los criterios de inclusión, del Área de Salud 9 de la Comunidad Valenciana (n=827. Tras la vacunación se determinó la titulación de anticuerpos de superficie (antiHBs para comprobar la respuesta, considerándose niveles protectores los superiores a 10 mUI/ml. RESULTADOS: Se produjo una adecuada seroconversión en el 94,4% de los vacunados. La baja o nula respuesta a la vacuna se asoció significativamente y de forma independiente con variables como el sexo masculino, la edad, el índice de masa corporal (IMC y el tabaquismo. El consumo de alcohol y los niveles de GPT, aunque no se relacionaron de forma significativa con la respuesta a la vacuna, actuaron como posibles factores de confusión. CONCLUSIONES: La inmunogenicidad de la vacuna es satisfactoria. Es importante cuantificar los niveles de antiHBs, sobretodo cuando hay factores predictivos de mala respuesta. De esta manera, es posible identificar a aquellos que precisan dosis de recuerdo y a los no respondedores, evitándose así situaciones de falsa sensación de protección frente al VHB.

  13. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  15. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  16. Multi-detector row helical CT of the liver. Quantitative assessment of iodine concentration of intravenous contrast material on multiphasic CT. A prospective randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative effects of contrast material concentration on hepatic parenchymal and vascular enhancement in multiphasic computed tomography (CT), using multi-detector row helical CT. We designed a prospective randomized study to test two different concentrations of contrast material on five phasic scans of the liver. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to two groups: an iodine concentration of 300 mg/mL in group A and 370 mg/mL in group B. All patients received a fixed volume of 100 mL at a 4 mL/sec injection rate. Enhancement values for the hepatic parenchyma and aorta at three levels (upper, middle, and lower level of the liver), and values for portal and hepatic veins were statistically compared between the two groups. Hepatic parenchymal enhancement values at all levels of the liver in portal phase (PP) and equilibrium phase (EP) were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p<0.01). Aortic enhancement values at two levels of the liver (middle and lower) in early hepatic arterial phase (EAP) were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p<0.05), however, there was no significant difference between groups A and B in aortic enhancement during the delayed hepatic arterial phase (DAP). Portal and hepatic venous enhancement values in PP and EP were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p<0.01). On multiphasic dynamic CT, the use of a higher iodine concentration of contrast material results in higher hepatic parenchymal enhancement and aortic enhancement, as well as higher portal and hepatic venous enhancement. (author)

  17. Transient diffuse hepatic uptake of 99mTc-MDP after hepatitis B vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Young Ha; Hwang, Seong Su; Chung, Soo Kyo; Kim, Sang Heum

    2006-01-01

    A 38-year-old female with arthralgia in right elbow joint for 6 months was referred for a bone scan which showed diffuse uptakes of 99m Tc-MDP in the liver and spleen without hepatosplenomegaly. She had a history of hepatitis B vaccination 3 days ago. These uptakes were disappeared on the follow-up bone scan after 4 months. We suggest this transient diffuse hepatic uptake after vaccination of hepatitis B might be due to aluminum component within the hepatitis B vaccine as adjuvant

  18. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A.; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A.; Seixas, Tercia G.; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hg inorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hg inorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. - Highlights: • Se aids in MeHg detoxification in dolphin liver, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals. • MT was involved in liver Hg inorg detoxification and GSH was associated to muscle Hg. • Feeding habits seem to influence muscle GSH, suggesting different diving capacities. • MT, GSH and Se and Hg in different forms were investigated in two dolphin species. • Hepatic Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg increased with higher Se concentrations. - “Coastal dolphins showed Se-mediated detoxification of MeHg and MT-mediated detoxification of Hg inorg , while GSH suggests different diving capacities”.

  19. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measured by spatial photon migration in CdSe-ZnS quantum dots colloidal systems as a function of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, G.; Monte, A. F. G.; Reis, A. F.; Messias, D. N. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Óptica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil)

    2014-11-17

    The study of the spatial photon migration as a function of the concentration brings into attention the problem of the energy transfer in quantum dot embedded systems. By measuring the photon propagation and its spatial dependence, it is possible to understand the whole dynamics in a quantum dot system, and also improve their concentration dependence to maximize energy propagation due to radiative and non-radiative processes. In this work, a confocal microscope was adapted to scan the spatial distribution of photoluminescence from CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots in colloidal solutions. The energy migration between the quantum dots was monitored by the direct measurement of the photon diffusion length, according to the diffusion theory. We observed that the photon migration length decreases by increasing the quantum dot concentration, this kind of behavior has been regarded as a signature of Förster resonance energy transfer in the system.

  20. Electro chemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped Cd Se QDs for Sensing Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, E. Y.; Ye, J. H.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electro chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se quantum dots (QDs) was fabricated by the immobilization of Cd Se QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 4-amino thiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the fabricated Cd Se QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer (PL), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  1. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  2. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  3. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content: Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. The study included 420 children and adolescents (91 normal-weight, 99 overweight, and 230 obese) 8-18 years of age. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed with a 3T MR system using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series echo times. The mean absolute mass concentration of liver fat was obtained: 0.5 ± 0.04% in normal-weight boys; 0.5 ± 0.03% in normal-weight girls; 0.9 ± 0.16% in boys with overweight; 1.1 ± 0.24% in girls with overweight; 1.7 ± 0.24% in boys with obesity; and 1.4 ± 0.21% in girls with obesity. The cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for hepatic steatosis was found to be 1.5%. Based on this cutoff value, hepatic steatosis was diagnosed in 16% of boys with overweight, 11% of girls with overweight, 32% of boys with obesity, and 27% of girls with obesity. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was successfully applied to obtain the cutoff value of absolute mass concentration of liver fat for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with obesity have higher risk of hepatic steatosis than their peers with overweight. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  5. Optical studies of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag2Se core/shell nanoparticles embedded in gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhniuk, Yu M; Dzhagan, V M; Valakh, M Ya; Raevskaya, A E; Stroyuk, A L; Kuchmiy, S Ya; Zahn, D R T

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles are obtained by colloidal synthesis from aqueous solutions in the presence of gelatin. Optical absorption, luminescence, and Raman spectra of the nanoparticles obtained are measured. The variation of the optical spectra of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles with the shell thickness is discussed. Sharp non-monotonous variation of the photoluminescence spectra at low shell coverage is observed.

  6. Hepatic and cerebral energy metabolism after neonatal canine alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegman, R M; Miettinen, E L; Morton, S K

    1983-04-01

    Intrahepatic and intracerebral metabolic responses to neonatal fasting or enteric carbohydrate alimentation were investigated among newborn dogs. Pups were either fasted or given an intravenous glucose infusion (alimented) before an enteric feeding of physiologic quantities of either glucose or galactose. These pups were also compared to another group which was completely starved throughout the study period. Gastrointestinal carbohydrate feeding resulted in enhanced hepatic glycogen content among pups after a prior state of fasting. Though there were no differences of glycogen content between glucose or galactose feeding in this previously fasted group, combined intravenous glucose and enteric galactose administration produced the greatest effect on hepatic glycogen synthesis. Intrahepatic fructose 1, 6-diphosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate levels were increased among previously fasted pups fed enteric monosaccharides compared to completely starved control pups, whereas intrahepatic phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate levels were elevated after combined intravenous and enteric carbohydrate administration. Of greater interest was the observation that hepatic levels of ATP were significantly elevated among all groups given exogenous carbohydrates compared to the completely starved control group. In contrast to the augmented hepatic glycogen and ATP levels, there were no alterations of cerebral glycogen or ATP after alimentation. Nevertheless, cerebral pyruvate and/or phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations were elevated after enteric or combined intravenous and enteric alimentation compared to the totally starved control pups.

  7. Raman spectroscopy-based screening of hepatitis C and associated molecular changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Maria; Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Fatima, Kiran; Ahmed, M.; Hayat, Abbas; Shahzada, Shaista; Ullah Khan, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    This study presents the optical screening of hepatitis C and its associated molecular changes in human blood sera using a partial least-squares regression model based on their Raman spectra. In total, 152 samples were tested through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for confirmation. This model utilizes minor spectral variations in the Raman spectra of the positive and control groups. Regression coefficients of this model were analyzed with reference to the variations in concentration of associated molecules in these two groups. It was found that trehalose, chitin, ammonia, and cytokines are positively correlated while lipids, beta structures of proteins, and carbohydrate-binding proteins are negatively correlated with hepatitis C. The regression vector yielded by this model is utilized to predict hepatitis C in unknown samples. This model has been evaluated by a cross-validation method, which yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.91. Moreover, 30 unknown samples were screened for hepatitis C infection using this model to test its performance. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from these predictions were found to be 93.3%, 100%, 96.7%, and 1, respectively.

  8. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objective of the experiment was to study hepatic metabolism during infusion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) differing in amounts and composition or infusion of HMB. Three fasted (20 h) pigs (mean BW ± SE; 58 kg ± 1) were fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...

  9. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  10. Probiotics for people with hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Rohan; McGee, Richard G; Riordan, Stephen M; Webster, Angela C

    2017-02-23

    ranged from 10 days to 180 days. Eight trials declared their funding source, of which six were independently funded and two were industry funded. The remaining 13 trials did not disclose their funding source. We classified 19 of the 21 trials at high risk of bias.We found no effect on all-cause mortality when probiotics were compared with placebo or no treatment (7 trials; 404 participants; RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.44; low-quality evidence). No-recovery (as measured by incomplete resolution of symptoms) was lower for participants treated with probiotic (10 trials; 574 participants; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.79; moderate-quality evidence). Adverse events were lower for participants treated with probiotic than with no intervention when considering the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy (10 trials; 585 participants; RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.51; low-quality evidence), but effects on hospitalisation and change of/or withdrawal from treatment were uncertain (hospitalisation: 3 trials, 163 participants; RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.11 to 4.00; very low-quality evidence; change of/or withdrawal from treatment: 9 trials, 551 participants; RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.07; very low-quality evidence). Probiotics may slightly improve quality of life compared with no intervention (3 trials; 115 participants; results not meta-analysed; low-quality evidence). Plasma ammonia concentration was lower for participants treated with probiotic (10 trials; 705 participants; MD -8.29 μmol/L, 95% CI -13.17 to -3.41; low-quality evidence). There were no reports of septicaemia attributable to probiotic in any trial.When probiotics were compared with lactulose, the effects on all-cause mortality were uncertain (2 trials; 200 participants; RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 102.00; very low-quality evidence); lack of recovery (7 trials; 430 participants; RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.21; very low-quality evidence); adverse events considering the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy (6 trials; 420 participants

  11. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, A; Haudum, A; Weijers, G; Herzog, K; Wohlsein, P; Beyerbach, M; de Korte, C L; Thijssen, J M; Rehage, J

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies a set of pre- and postprocessing steps to normalize and correct the transcutaneous ultrasonographic images. Transcutaneous hepatic ultrasonography was performed before surgical correction on 151 German Holstein dairy cows (mean +/- standard error of the means; body weight: 571+/-7 kg; age: 4.9+/-0.2 yr; DIM: 35+/-5) with left-sided abomasal displacement. Concentration of triacylglycerol (TAG) was biochemically determined in liver samples collected via biopsy and values were considered the gold standard to which ultrasound estimates were compared. According to histopathologic examination of biopsies, none of the cows suffered from hepatic disorders other than hepatic lipidosis. Hepatic TAG concentrations ranged from 4.6 to 292.4 mg/g of liver fresh weight (FW). High correlations were found between the hepatic TAG and mean echo level (r=0.59) and residual attenuation (ResAtt; r=0.80) obtained in ultrasonographic imaging. High correlation existed between ResAtt and mean echo level (r=0.76). The 151 studied cows were split randomly into a training set of 76 cows and a test set of 75 cows. Based on the data from the training set, ResAtt was statistically selected by means of stepwise multiple regression analysis for hepatic TAG prediction (R(2)=0.69). Then, using the predicted TAG data of the test set, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to summarize the accuracy and predictive potential of the differentiation between various measured hepatic TAG values, based on TAG predicted from the regression formula. The area under the curve values of the receiver operating characteristic based on the regression equation were 0.94 (or=50mg of TAG/g of FW), 0.83 (or

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  13. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  14. Correlation between malnutrition and prognosis of hepatitis A in Uygur children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the correlation between malnutrition and prognosis in Uyghur pediatric patients with hepatitis A in Hetian of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Methods The clinical data of 342 children with hepatitis A admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital of Hetian from January 2014 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and the patients were divided into malnutrition group with 136 patients and normal nutrition group with 206 patients according to the Z-scores. The data of complete blood count, liver function test, biochemical indices, blood lipids, blood coagulation, and hospitalization days and costs were compared between the two groups. Comparison of categorical data between the two groups was made by chi-square test and comparison of continuous data between the two groups was made by t test. Results Compared with the normal nutrition group, the malnutrition group had significantly lower values of breastfeeding rate, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum ferritin, glucose, serum albumin, and plasma thromboplastin antecedent but higher values of alanine transaminase, total bilirubin, total bile acid, cholesterol, and hospitalization days and costs (P<0.05. Conclusion Compared with the normal nutrition pediatric patients with hepatitis A, the malnutrition pediatric patients with hepatitis A have more severe iron deficiency anemia, hepatic damage, and abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, so their recovery time is longer and the hospitalization costs are higher. To effectively protect Uygur children, hepatitis A vaccination in due course and the children′s growth and development monitoring are recommended.

  15. Nanovaccine for immunotherapy and reduced hepatitis-B virus in humanized model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Hitesh Kumar; Pandey, Tarun; Singh, Sanjay

    2017-11-27

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are severe with weak antiviral immune responses. The lack of an appropriate small animal model for chronic hepatitis, a major hurdle for studying the immunotolerance and immunopathogenesis induced by hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection. In this study, for enhancing the antibody production efficiency the prepared polymeric HBsAg-loaded nanoparticles (nanovaccine) will be tested in immune-deficit mice, which suffer from chronic Hepatitis B virus. Vaccination of Balb/c mice by this prepared nanoparticles that were engrafted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which was already lethally irradiated and transplanted by the bone marrow of NOD (knockout mice) mice. In the present study, after the vaccination detected the high frequencies of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-secreting B cells and mitogen-responsive interferon-Y (IFN-Y) secreting T cells in serum, determined by specific ELISA technique. During the entire observation period, unvaccinated animals showed lower concentration of specific IgG secreting B cells and IFN-Y secreting T cells found in comparison to vaccinated mice group. Chronic HBV carrier PBMCs transplanted into the chimera failed to produce antigen and increased the antibodies production due to vaccination. Furthermore, another advantage was that the viral gene expression and viral DNA replication was no longer observed in vaccinated group. This prepared nanovaccine formulations is better for the cure of Hepatitis B viral infection carrier. Therefore, specific memory responses were elicited by vaccination with Hepatitis B virus surface (HBsAg) antigen of chimeric mice transplanted with PBMCs derived from HBV donors.

  16. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  18. Natural history and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeffe Emmet B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection is not uncommon as a result of similar routes of infection. Patients who are coinfected represent a unique group with diverse serologic profiles. Combined chronic hepatitis B and C leads to more severe liver disease and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, coinfected patients represent a treatment challenge. No standard recommendations exist for treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection, and therefore treatment must be individualized based on patient variables such as serologic and virologic profiles, patient's prior exposure to antiviral treatment, and the presence of other parenterally transmitted viruses such as hepatitis D virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The natural history and treatment of patients with HBV and HCV coinfection is reviewed.

  19. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  20. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  1. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  2. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  3. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  4. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  5. Correlation of hyponatremia with hepatic encephalopathy and severity of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Omar; Khokhar, Nasir; Saleem, Atif; Niazi, Tariq Khan

    2014-02-01

    To assess the frequency of low serum sodium levels and to correlate it with the severity of liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients coming to the tertiary care hospital. Observational study. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2011 to January 2012. A total of 202 patients with hepatic encephalopathy and chronic liver disease had serum sodium measured. The HE was graded according to the West Haven classification (4 grades). Relationship of hyponatremia was correlated with severity grade of encephalopathy using Spearman rank correlation test. Out of 202 patients, 62 (30.7%) patients had serum sodium less than 130 meq/l. Out of 202, HE was present in 69 (34.15%) patients and out of these, 38 had grade III-IV HE and 31 had grade I - II HE. Out of 69 patients with HE 57 had sodium less than 135 (p liver disease. The existence of serum sodium concentration encephalopathy compared with patients with serum sodium concentration > 135 mmol/L.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  7. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  8. Rare earth contrast agents in hepatic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Materials with atomic numbers ranging from the upper 50's to the lower 70's proved to have the highest computed tomography (CT) numbers when scanned at 120 kVp. Therefore, to produce particulate contrast agents possessing maximum radiopacity, suspensions of cerium oxide, gadolinium, and dysprosium oxides as well as silver iodide colloid were prepared. All 4 agents were selectively concentrated in the reticulo-endothelial system. The agents produced greater and longer opacification of the normal liver and larger liver-to-tumor differences in rabbits with hepatic tumors than did equivalent amounts of standard intravenous iodinated agents. Lesions as small as 5 mm were visible with CT. These materials have favorable characteristics as hepatic contrast agents, but their toxicity (LD 50 in mice = 5.4 g/kg for Ce) and long-term retention may limit clinical use. (Auth.)

  9. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  10. Clinical And Epidemiological Aspects Of Hepatitis B Virus And Hepatitis C Virus In Fortaleza-Ceara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizelly Castelo Branco Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral hepatitis is among the main problems that affect public health globally. The knowledge of the clinical and epidemiological situation of hepatitis B and hepatitis C is necessary for the establishment of prevention and control strategies together with individuals and communities in vulnerable situations. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the population affected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C from 2007 to 2014, in Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. Methodology: Descriptive, retrospective study involving data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System, with analysis of gender, age, race, illicit drug use, sex partnerships, tattoo/piercing, transfusion, dialysis and transplantation. Chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis of the variables. Results: It was reported 779 cases of hepatitis B and 756 of hepatitis C. Regarding the HBV, 69.7% were male, 77.5% of brown color, and a median age of 36 years. Regarding risk factors, there was highlight for sexual practice and number of sex partners (p = 0.001, blood transfusion (p = 0.011 and use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.011. As for HCV, 57.7% were male and the mean age was 46 years. As for risk factors, the injecting drug use (p = 0.001, the presence of three or more partners (p = 0.001 and the use of tattoo/piercing (p = 0.021 stood out. Regardless of gender, age or race and drug use, transfusions and age over 40 years increased the risk for hepatitis. There were still high percentages of missing data in several variables. Conclusion: This study contributes to alert the Brazilian health authorities on the importance of these infections and the need to expand and strengthen current health policies, and allows reflection on control strategies for hepatitis. Keywords: Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Risk factors.

  11. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  12. Hepatic glucose utilization in hepatic steatosis and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien?Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilization rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30?min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak?Rutland graphical analysis of the liver us...

  13. Hepatitis A virus infection suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and may lead to clearance of HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterding, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Björn; Cornberg, Markus; Hadem, Johannes; Potthoff, Andrej; Böker, Klaus H W; Tillmann, Hans L; Manns, Michael P; Wedemeyer, Heiner

    2006-12-01

    The significance of hepatitis A virus (HAV) super-infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C had been a matter of debate. While some studies suggested an incidence of fulminant hepatitis A of up to 35%, this could not be confirmed by others. We identified 17 anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A from a cohort of 3170 anti-HCV-positive patients recruited at a single center over a period of 12 years. Importantly, none of the anti-HCV-positive patients had a fulminant course of hepatitis A. HCV-RNA was detected by PCR in 84% of the anti-HCV-positive/anti-HAV-IgM-negative patients but only in 65% of anti-HCV-positive patients with acute hepatitis A (p=0.03), indicating suppression of HCV replication during hepatitis A. Previous HAV infection had no effect on HCV replication. After recovery from hepatitis A, an increased HCV replication could be demonstrated for 6 out of 9 patients with serial quantitative HCV-RNA values available while 2 patients remained HCV-RNA negative after clearance of HAV throughout follow-up of at least 2 years. HAV super-infection is associated with decreased HCV-RNA replication which may lead to recovery from HCV in some individuals. Fulminant hepatitis A is not frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C recruited at a tertiary referral center.

  14. Quantification of human hepatic binding protein (HBP) via sup 99m Tc-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgolini, I; Hoebart, J; Bergmann, H; Sinzinger, H [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mueller, C [Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie; Angelberger, P [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH (Austria). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1991-01-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ({sup 99m}Tc-NGA) was synthesized by covalent coupling of 2-imino-2-methoxyethyl-1-thio-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside to the primary amino groups of human serum albumin. Injections of {sup 99m}Tc-NGA (150 MBq; 3.5 mg (=50 nmol)/ml) demonstrated the liver to be the exclusive site of tracer-uptake. Simulation of {sup 99m}Tc-NGA-kinetics allowed quantification of binding to the hepatic binding protein (HBP). Using this model we studied 250 patients with various liver disease. In alcoholic liver cirrhosis such patients with Child B and Child C stage cirrhosis had a lower HBP-concentration in the liver compared to control individuals. The group with the most advanced cirrhosis had a significantly lower HBP-concentration (0.20-0.45 {mu}mol/l) than Child A patients (0.60-0.85 {mu}mol/l; p<0.01) and Child B patients (0.45-0.60 {mu}mol/l; p<0.05). In patients with biopsy proven liver fibrosis (0.80-1.22 {mu}mol/l) no difference in receptor concentration to normal individuals was estimated. Patients with recently diagnosed acute viral hepatitis underwent repeated {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) scanning of the liver during the course of the disease. Return of liver function tests to normal values was associated with an increased hepatic imaging size as well as increase in HBP-concentration. In patients exhibiting a prolonged course of the disease changes in NGA-kinetic data were borderline and the hepatic image size unchanged. The values obtained for HBP-concentration in the liver amounted to 0.30-0.50 {mu}mol/l liver for patients with hepatoma, to 0.40-0.60 {mu}mol/l in patients with liver metastasis and to 0.90-1.20 {mu}mol/l in cancer patients without liver malignancy. It is concluded that scintigraphic evaluation of functional hepatic cell mass using the new receptor-tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NGA provides an in vivo diagnostic mean allowing quantitative data on liver function beside assessment of liver morphology.

  15. Hepatitis A and B immunity and vaccination in chronic hepatitis B and C patients in a large United States cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkle, Emily; Lu, Mei; Rupp, Lora B; Boscarino, Joseph A; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Schmidt, Mark A; Gordon, Stuart C

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis A and B vaccines are effective in preventing superinfection and sequelae in patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. We describe immunity and vaccination against hepatitis A and B in chronic hepatitis patients from the US Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study. We identified chronic hepatitis B and C patients with healthcare utilization during 2006-2008 and 12 months of enrollment. We used electronic laboratory records to determine immunity and medical and billing records for vaccination history. Immunity against hepatitis A was defined by positive hepatitis A antibody or documented vaccination. Immunity against hepatitis B was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥10 mIU/mL or core antibody positive, or by documented vaccination. Among 1635 chronic hepatitis B patients, 978 (59.8%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 122 (7.5%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 535 (32.7%) had no testing or vaccination record. Among 5328 chronic hepatitis C patients, 2998 (56.3%) were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis A, 659 (12.4%) had negative hepatitis A antibody tests, and 1671 (31.4%) had no testing or vaccination record. Additionally, 3150 (59.1%) chronic hepatitis C patients were immune or vaccinated against hepatitis B, 1003 (18.8%) had a negative test result, and 1175 (22.1%) were neither tested for nor vaccinated against hepatitis B. Approximately 40% of chronic hepatitis B and C patients are susceptible to or have no documented immunity or vaccination against hepatitis A or hepatitis B. Clinicians should consider antibody testing and vaccination for this vulnerable population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsany Mubarak S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no proper published data are available in Sudan. Aim The study aimed to investigate the sero-prevalance and the possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV among antenatal care attendants in central Sudan. Methods During 3 months from March–June 2006, sera were collected from pregnant women at Umdurman Maternity Hospital in Sudan, and they were tested for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBVsAg and HCV. Results HBVsAg was detected in 41 (5.6% out 728 women, Anti-HCV was detected in 3 (0.6% out of 423 women, all of them were not aware of their condition. Age, parity, gestational age, residence, history of blood transfusion, dental manipulations, tattooing and circumcision did not contribute significantly to increased HBVsAg sero-positivity. Conclusion Thus 5.6% of pregnant women were positive for HBVsAg irrespective of their age, parity and socio-demographic characteristics. There was low prevalence of Anti-HCV.

  17. Heavy metal contamination and hepatic toxicological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta from the Kerguelen Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jaffal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kerguelen Islands include various species of freshwater fish such as brown trout (Salmo trutta. These trout are among the most isolated from direct anthropogenic impact worldwide. This study was designed to analyse cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu concentrations in the liver of Kerguelen brown trout, and to assess the possible impacts of these metals on hepatic histopathology and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and glutathione levels. Trout were caught in the Château River, the Studer Lakes and the Ferme Pond, close to the scientific station of the Kerguelen Islands, corresponding to three morphotypes (river, lake and station. Kerguelen trouts’ hepatic concentrations of Cd and Cur were similar to those reported in previous studies in salmonids populations from areas under anthropological impacts. Clear hepatic disturbances (fibrosis, nuclear alteration, increased immune response, melanomacrophage centres [MMCs] were observed in all tested trout. A similar histo-pathological trend was observed among the trout from the three morphotypes but anti-oxidative responses were higher in the trout from the “station” morphotype. Hepatic alterations and the presence of MMCs in the livers of Kerguelen brown trout may be related to the high levels of Cd and Cu measured in this fish at all sampling sites.

  18. Dinámica del virus de la hepatitis C con carga viral y ALT y monitoreo del daño hepático libre de biopsias Dinámica del virus de la hepatitis C con carga viral y ALT y monitoreo del daño hepático libre de biopsias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justino Alavez Domínguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compara el modelo estándar reducido de tres poblaciones (hepatocitos sanos y enfermos, y carga viral para el estudio de la dinámica del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC, con el modelo de la dinámica viral con alanina aminotransferasa (ALT. En términos del parámetro umbral que es el mismo para ambos modelos, se determina la existencia y estabilidad del estado de equilibrio endémico, así como la estabilidad global del estado de equilibrio del individuo sano. Por otro lado, se presenta un estudio experimental que muestra que es posible monitorear el daño hepático sin biopsias, mediante la estimación numérica de los parámetros de los modelos, considerando solamente mediciones de la carga viral, de los niveles de ALT y una valoración razonable del daño hepático pretratamiento.aThe standard model of three populations (healthy and unhealthy hepatocytes, and viral load for the study of the dynamics of hepatitis C virus (HCV, is compared with viral dynamic model with alanine aminotransferase (ALT. In terms of the threshold parameter that it’s the same for both models, the existence and local asymptotic stability of the endemically infected equilibrium steady state, and the global stability of the healthy individual equilibrium steady state are established. Furthermore, an experimental study is presented showing that it’s possible to carry out the monitoring of hepatic damage biopsies free by numerical parameter estimation, considering only viral load and ALT levels measurements and a reasonable assessment of pretreatment hepatic damage.

  19. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  20. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  1. Comparison of association of diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Bukhari, M.H.; Khokhar, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: The presented study was aimed to study and determine a relationship between the relative proportions of Diabetes Mellitus in patients suffering from HCV infection. Study Design: This cross sectional study. Study Settings: Patients were registered from outdoor as well as indoor departments of different teaching hospitals (Services hospital Lahore and medical departments in Jinnah hospital, Mayo hospital, Sir Ganga Ram hospital) in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was comprised of age and sex matched 258 patients of viral hepatitis B infection and viral hepatitis C infection, conducted at Hepatitis Clinic Services Hospital, affiliated with Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Diagnosis of HBV was made with evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV infection was diagnosed if patient was sero positive for anti HCV (ELISA methods) and HCV - RNA (By PCR). Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed after fulfilling the American Diabetic Association Criteria, from November, 2000 to September, 2002. Results: A total of 318 patients were registered, out of which 258 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 164 hepatitis C infected and 94 hepatitis B infected cases, 16.46% hepatitis C infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics while 4.25% hepatitis B infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is high Association and relationship of Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatitis C virus infection as compared with Hepatitis B virus infection. (author)

  2. Plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/ metronidazole ratio in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Marchioretto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the measurement of metronidazole clearance is a sensitive method for evaluating liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratios as indicators of dynamic liver function to detect changes resulting from the various forms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. A total of 139 individuals were studied: 14 healthy volunteers, 22 healthy, asymptomatic, consecutive anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA negative subjects, 81 patients with chronic hepatitis C (49 with moderate/severe chronic hepatitis and 34 with mild hepatitis, and 20 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. HCV status was determined by the polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy-metabolite were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in a blood sample collected 10 min after the end of a metronidazole infusion. Anti-HCV-positive HCV-RNA-negative individuals demonstrated a significantly reduced capacity to metabolize intravenously infused metronidazole compared to healthy individuals (0.0478 ± 0.0044 vs 0.0742 ± 0.0232. Liver cirrhosis patients also had a reduced plasma hydroxy-metronidazole/metronidazole ratio when compared to the other groups of anti-HCV-positive individuals (0.0300 ± 0.0032 vs 0.0438 ± 0.0027 (moderate/severe chronic hepatitis vs 0.0455 ± 0.0026 (mild chronic hepatitis and vs 0.0478 ± 0.0044 (anti-HCV-positive, HCV-RNA-negative individuals. These results suggest an impairment of the metronidazole metabolizing system induced by HCV infection that lasts after viral clearance. In those patients with chronic hepatitis C, this impairment is paralleled by progression of the disease to liver cirrhosis.

  3. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  4. Auto-immune hepatitis following delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vandana; Gupta, Mamta; Mishra, S K

    2013-05-01

    Auto-immune hepatitis first presenting in the early postpartum period is rare. Immunosuppressive effects of pregnancy result in delayed manifestation of auto-immune hepatitis, and in established cases, the spontaneous improvements are there. Auto-immune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver dysfunction first presenting in the early postpartum period. A case of postpartum hepatitis of auto-immune aetiology is being presented here. It is disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by inflammation of liver (as evidenced by raised serum transaminases, presence of interface hepatitis on histological examination), hypergammaglobulinaemia (> 1.5 times normal), presence of auto-antibodies [(antinuclear antibodies (ANA)], smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and antibody to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) in the absence of viral markers ie, hepatitis B (HBsAg) and C (AntiHCV) and excellent response to corticosteroid therapy.

  5. Hepatic and renal histology and mercury concentrations of North West and North East Greenland narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Sondergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males). The zoological length was significantly larger and hepatic and renal...... of glomerular lesions (capillary dilatation [0–100%], membrane thickening [0–100%], dilatation of space [0–80%], and sclerosis [0–70%]) and two tubular lesions (atrophy/hyalinization [0–40%] and casts [0–60%]). Hepatic tissues exhibited three portal lesions (fibrosis [0–33%], cell infiltrates [0–40%], and bile...... duct proliferation [0–40%]) and two parenchymal lesions (steatosis [83–100%] and lipid-filled Ito cells [0–33%]). All 12 lesions were found in adult whales from North West Greenland while eight were present in adult whales from North East Greenland. Six lesions were detected in subadults from North...

  6. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merican, I; Guan, R; Amarapuka, D; Alexander, M J; Chutaputti, A; Chien, R N; Hasnian, S S; Leung, N; Lesmana, L; Phiet, P H; Sjalfoellah Noer, H M; Sollano, J; Sun, H S; Xu, D Z

    2000-12-01

    Of the estimated 50 million new cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection diagnosed annually, 5-10% of adults and up to 90% of infants will become chronically infected, 75% of these in Asia where hepatitis B is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Indonesia, 4.6% of the population was positive for HBsAg in 1994 and of these, 21% were positive for HBeAg and 73% for anti-HBe; 44% and 45% of Indonesian patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, were HBsAg positive. In the Philippines, there appear to be two types of age-specific HBsAg prevalence, suggesting different modes of transmission. In Thailand, 8-10% of males and 6-8% of females are HBsAg positive, with HBsAg also found in 30% of patients with cirrhosis and 50-75% of those with HCC. In Taiwan, 75-80% of patients with chronic liver disease are HBsAg positive, and HBsAg is found in 34% and 72% of patients with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively. In China, 73% of patients with chronic hepatitis and 78% and 71% of those with cirrhosis and HCC, respectively, are HBsAg positive. In Singapore, the prevalence of HBsAg has dropped since the introduction of HBV vaccination and the HBsAg seroprevalence of unvaccinated individuals over 5 years of age is 4.5%. In Malaysia, 5.24% of healthy volunteers, with a mean age of 34 years, were positive for HBsAg in 1997. In the highly endemic countries in Asia, the majority of infections are contracted postnatally or perinatally. Three phases of chronic HBV infection are recognized: phase 1 patients are HBeAg positive with high levels of virus in the serum and minimal hepatic inflammation; phase 2 patients have intermittent or continuous hepatitis of varying degrees of severity; phase 3 is the inactive phase during which viral concentrations are low and there is minimal inflammatory activity in the liver. In general, patients who clear HBeAg have a better prognosis than patients who remain HBeAg-positive for prolonged periods of

  7. epidemiology of hepatitis b and hepatitis c virus infections among hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic .... for HIV counseling and testing on a daily basis. .... The Genetic and Molecular ... Among Patients with Hemophilia in.