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Sample records for hepatic retinyl palmitate

  1. Efficient dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate: Progressive polarimetry and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the structure and efficacy.

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    Lee, Jun Bae; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Nak Cho; Jang, Jihui; Park, Chun Ho; Yoon, Moung Seok; Lee, Miyoung; Won, Kyoungae; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, B Moon

    2015-10-12

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in dermal drug delivery. Although various novel delivery devices and methods have been developed, dermal delivery is still challenging because of problems such as poor drug permeation, instability of vesicles and drug leakage from vesicles induced by fusion of vesicles. To solve the vesicle instability problems in current dermal delivery systems, we developed materials comprised of liquid crystals as a new delivery vehicle of retinyl palmitate and report the characterization of the liquid crystals using a Mueller matrix polarimetry. The stability of the liquid-crystal materials was evaluated using the polarimeter as a novel evaluation tool along with other conventional methods. The dermal delivery of retinyl palmitate was investigated through the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the permeation of retinyl palmitate was enhanced by up to 106% compared to that using an ordinary emulsion with retinyl palmitate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple and robust quantitative analysis of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a liquid chromatographic isocratic method

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    Satoshi Yokota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is a vital nutritional substances that regulates biological activities including development, but is also associated with disease onset. The extent of vitamin A intake influences the retinoid content in the liver, the most important organ for the storage of vitamin A. Measurement of endogenous retinoid in biological samples is important to understand retinoid homeostasis. Here we present a reliable, highly sensitive, and robust method for the quantification of retinol and retinyl palmitate using a reverse-phase HPLC/UV isocratic method. We determined the impact of chronic dietary vitamin A on retinoid levels in livers of mice fed an AIN-93G semi-purified diet (4 IU/g compared with an excess vitamin A diet (1000 IU/g over a period from birth to 10 weeks of age. Coefficients of variation for intra-assays for both retinoids were less than 5%, suggesting a higher reproducibility than any other HPLC/UV gradient method. Limits of detection and quantification for retinol were 0.08 pmol, and 0.27 pmol, respectively, which are remarkably higher than previous results. Supplementation with higher doses of vitamin A over the study period significantly increased liver retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations in adult mice. The assays described here provide a sensitive and rigorous quantification of endogenous retinol and retinyl palmitate, which can be used to help determine retinoid homeostasis in disease states, such as toxic hepatitis and liver cancer. Keywords: Vitamin A excess, Retinol, Retinyl palmitate, Liver

  3. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

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    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Topical Application of Retinyl Palmitate-Loaded Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for the Treatment of Skin Aging

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    Marcela B. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to perform a structural characterization and evaluate the in vitro safety profile and in vitro antioxidant activity of liquid crystalline systems (LCS with and without retinyl palmitate (RP. LCS containing polyether functional siloxane (PFS as a surfactant, silicon glycol copolymer (SGC as oil phase, and water in the ratios 30 : 25 : 45 and 40 : 50 : 10 with (OLSv = RP-loaded opaque liquid system and TLSv = RP-loaded transparent liquid system, respectively and without (OLS and TLS, respectively RP were studied. Samples were characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM and rheology analysis. In vitro safety profile was evaluated using red cell hemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. In vitro antioxidant activity was performed by the DPPH method. PLM analysis showed the presence of lamellar LCS just to TLS. Regardless of the presence of RP, the rheological studies showed the pseudoplastic behavior of the formulations. The results showed that the incorporation of RP in LCS improved the safety profile of the drug. In vitro antioxidant activity suggests that LCS presented a higher capacity to maintain the antioxidant activity of RP. PFS-based systems may be a promising platform for RP topical application for the treatment of skin aging.

  5. Replacement of Retinyl Esters by Polyunsaturated Triacylglycerol Species in Lipid Droplets of Hepatic Stellate Cells during Activation

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    Testerink, Nicole; Ajat, Mokrish; Houweling, Martin; Brouwers, Jos F.; Pully, Vishnu V.; van Manen, Henk-Jan; Otto, Cees; Helms, J. Bernd; Vaandrager, Arie B.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs) and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed to obtain more insight in the dynamics and mechanism of LD loss. We have investigated the LD degradation processes in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro with a combined approach of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis of lipids (lipidomics). Upon activation of the hepatic stellate cells, LDs reduce in size, but increase in number during the first 7 days, but the total volume of neutral lipids did not decrease. The LDs also migrate to cellular extensions in the first 7 days, before they disappear. In individual hepatic stellate cells. all LDs have a similar Raman spectrum, suggesting a similar lipid profile. However, Raman studies also showed that the retinyl esters are degraded more rapidly than the triacylglycerols upon activation. Lipidomic analyses confirmed that after 7 days in culture hepatic stellate cells have lost most of their retinyl esters, but not their triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. Furthermore, we specifically observed a large increase in triacylglycerol-species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, partly caused by an enhanced incorporation of exogenous arachidonic acid. These results reveal that lipid droplet degradation in activated hepatic stellate cells is a highly dynamic and regulated process. The rapid replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated fatty acids in LDs suggests a role for both lipids or their derivatives like eicosanoids during hepatic stellate cell activation. PMID:22536341

  6. Replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated triacylglycerol species in lipid droplets of hepatic stellate cells during activation.

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    Nicole Testerink

    Full Text Available Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed to obtain more insight in the dynamics and mechanism of LD loss. We have investigated the LD degradation processes in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro with a combined approach of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis of lipids (lipidomics. Upon activation of the hepatic stellate cells, LDs reduce in size, but increase in number during the first 7 days, but the total volume of neutral lipids did not decrease. The LDs also migrate to cellular extensions in the first 7 days, before they disappear. In individual hepatic stellate cells. all LDs have a similar Raman spectrum, suggesting a similar lipid profile. However, Raman studies also showed that the retinyl esters are degraded more rapidly than the triacylglycerols upon activation. Lipidomic analyses confirmed that after 7 days in culture hepatic stellate cells have lost most of their retinyl esters, but not their triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. Furthermore, we specifically observed a large increase in triacylglycerol-species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, partly caused by an enhanced incorporation of exogenous arachidonic acid. These results reveal that lipid droplet degradation in activated hepatic stellate cells is a highly dynamic and regulated process. The rapid replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated fatty acids in LDs suggests a role for both lipids or their derivatives like eicosanoids during hepatic stellate cell activation.

  7. Osteotoxicity after chronic dietary administration of 13-CIS-retinoic acid, retinyl palmitate or selenium in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, K.S.; Gensler, H.L.; Watson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the clinical trials of retinoids as therapeutic agents for premalignant skin lesions, a radiographic study was undertaken to measure skeletal toxicities after chronic dietary administration of retinoids in mice exposed to tumor initiation and promotion. CD-1 mice were initiated with 0.15 moles of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and promoted twice daily with 8 nmoles of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 23 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 60 IU, 200 IU, or 700 IU or retinyl palmitate (RP) per g diet. After 5 weeks, the 700 IU of RP/g diet was lowered to 350 IU/g diet. Administration of these diets to mice during the 23 weeks of tumor promotion results in a 0-fold, 2-fold, or 10-fold increase in bone fractures, respectively. Osteoporotic bone lesions identified on radiographs rose 0-fold, 0-fold, and 10-fold at the respective doses, whereas metaphyseal flares increased O-fold, 1.4-fold, and 3.6-fold. Bone deformities was augmented O-fold, 1.8-fold and 2.9-fold at the respective doses. Addition of selenium did not alter the bone toxicity of RP. 13-cis-retionic acid (CRA) was less toxic at 700 IU/g diet than was RP at that dose, as evidence by the death of 12 of 70 mice by the 6th week of dietary RP and no deaths in the 35 mice fed 700 IU CRA/g diet for 23 weeks. CRA at 700 IU/g diet resulted in 3/4 as many osteoporotic bones, 1/3 as many bone fractures, 4/5 as many metaphyseal flares, and a similar number of bone deformities as mice fed 700/350 IU/g diet. At the dose of 200 IU/g food, osterotoxicities were similar in the mice fed diets supplemented with RP and CRA

  8. Impacto da suplementação com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato sobre os níveis de retinol do colostro Impact on colostrum retinol levels of immediate postpartum supplementation with retinyl palmitate

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    Roberto Dimenstein

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação com retinil palmitato sobre os níveis de retinol no colostro, investigando a influência de variáveis maternas (idade, tipo de parto e estado nutricional bioquímico sobre esses níveis. MÉTODO:Participaram do estudo 33 nutrizes atendidas na Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram coletadas, nas primeiras horas após o parto, uma amostra de sangue e uma de colostro. Uma nova amostra de colostro foi coletada 6 horas após suplementação materna com 200 000 UI de retinil palmitato. O retinol no sangue e colostro foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. RESULTADOS: Os níveis médios de retinol no colostro antes da suplementação foram de 110,8 ± 82,3 µg/dL, tendo atingido 164,4 ± 106,5 µg/dL após a suplementação (P OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of retinyl palmitate supplementation on colostrum retinol levels, investigating the influence of maternal variables (age, type of delivery, and biochemical nutritional status on these levels. METHOD: The study included 33 mothers receiving care at the Januário Cicco Maternity School, in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. In the first hours after delivery, blood and colostrum samples were collected. Another colostrum sample was collected six hours after maternal supplementation with 200 000 IU of retinyl palmitate. Serum and colostrum retinol levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean retinol level in colostrum before the supplementation was 110.8 ± 82.3 µg/dL, and after supplementation it was 164.4 ± 106.5 µg/dL (P < 0.025. Of the 33 mothers, 12 of them either did not respond to supplementation or had an increase of less than 10% in colostrum retinol levels; serum retinol in these women was significantly lower as compared to the responders (P = 0.024. In comparison to women with a normal delivery, the mothers who underwent

  9. [11C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiducci, Letizia; Jaervisalo, Mikko; Kiss, Jan; Nagren, Kjell; Viljanen, Antti; Naum, Alexandru G.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Savunen, Timo; Knuuti, Juhani; Salvadori, Piero A.; Ferrannini, Ele; Nuutila, Pirjo; Iozzo, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [ 11 C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [ 11 C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [ 11 C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P≤.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [ 11 C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [ 11 C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92±1% and 82±6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [ 11 C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG constitute an additional

  10. [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics across the splanchnic bed in arterial, portal and hepatic venous plasma during fasting and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia

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    Guiducci, Letizia [SSSUP Medical Sciences Branch, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Jaervisalo, Mikko [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Kiss, Jan [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Nagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Viljanen, Antti [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Naum, Alexandru G. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Gastaldelli, Amalia [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Savunen, Timo [Department of Surgery, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Knuuti, Juhani [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Salvadori, Piero A. [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Ferrannini, Ele [PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa 56100 (Italy); Nuutila, Pirjo [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland); Iozzo, Patricia [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku 20520 (Finland) and PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR National Research Council, 56100 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: patricia.iozzo@ifc.cnr.it

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The liver is fundamental in regulating lipid metabolism, and it supplies fatty acids (FA) to the rest of the body in the form of triglycerides (TG); the time-related relevance of this process is incompletely defined. The aim of the study was to investigate the appearance of labeled TG in the hepatic vascular bed after [{sup 11}C]palmitate injection during fasting and insulin stimulation. Methods: Plasma [{sup 11}C]palmitate kinetics in arterial, portal and hepatic venous lipid fractions was studied in eight anesthetized pigs during fasting or euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Plasma analyses were conducted at 10 and 40 min after tracer injection. Corresponding liver positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired for the semiquantitative determination of hepatic FA uptake. Results: At 10 min, plasma levels of unchanged [{sup 11}C]palmitate were lower in hyperinsulinemic than in fasting experiments in the artery and in the portal vein (P{<=}.03), suggesting faster clearance. Levels of unmetabolized [{sup 11}C]palmitate did not differ between portal and arterial plasma. In the fasting state, a tendency to a positive arterial and portal vs. hepatic venous gradient was observed, indicative of net hepatic [{sup 11}C]palmitate extraction. Labeled TG were already detectable at 10 min (fasting vs. hyperinsulinemia, ns) and were higher in fasting than in hyperinsulinemic animals at 40 min (92{+-}1% and 82{+-}6% of arterial plasma radioactivity). Higher proportions of labeled TG were recovered in portal vein plasma, suggesting release by the gut. The portal and the arterial-portal vs. hepatic venous TG gradient tended to be positive. Accordingly, hepatic FA uptake was higher, but declined more rapidly during fasting than during hyperinsulinemia. Conclusion: The study indicates that the redistribution of [{sup 11}C]palmitate between different lipid pools occurs within the short time interval of most PET experiments and is strongly influenced by insulin. Labeled TG

  11. Suplementação materna com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato: consumo potencial por lactentes Suplementación materna con retinil palmitato en el post-parto inmediato: consumo potencial por lactantes Maternal supplementation with retinyl palmitate during immediate postpartum period: potential consumption by infants

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    Danielle Soares Bezerra

    2009-08-01

    (grupo control. La cuantificación del nivel de retinol en la leche fue obtenida por el método de cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Con base en las concentraciones de retinol obtenidas en la leche materna y por medio de simulaciones, fue calculado el consumo de vitamina A de los lactantes en los momentos 24h y 30 días post-parto. RESULTADOS: En el momento 24h post-parto, el suministro diario de retinol al recién nacido vía colostro fue de 1,63 mmol para el grupo control y 2,9 mmol para el grupo experimento, considerando ingesta adecuada de 1,40 µmol/día y volumen de leche consumido de 500 mL/día. Treinta días post-parto, esos valores correspondieron a 0,64 µmol/día (control y 0,89 µmol/día (experimento, un aumento de 39% en la concentración de retinol en el grupo experimento con relación al grupo control o 64% de la recomendación para lactantes de cero a seis meses de edad. CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación materna con 200.000 UI de retinil palmitato en el post-parto inmediato y la promoción de prácticas de amamantamiento materno son eficientes para mejorar el estado nutricional en vitamina A del binomio madre-hijo.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal supplementation with a single doe of retinyl palmitate during the postpartum period, in order to provide vitamin A for the infant. METHODS: A clinical trial was conducted in Natal (Northern Brazil, between March and December 2007, on 85 women distributed randomly into two groups. The postpartum supplements of retinyl palmitate consisted of a single dose of 200,000 IU (experimental group and zero IU (control group. The retinol levels in milk were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the retinol concentrations obtained in breast milk and through simulations, vitamin A consumption among infants 24 hours and 30 days postpartum was calculated. RESULTS: The daily provision of retinol to newborns through colostrum, 24 hours postpartum, was 1.63 µmol for the controls

  12. Incorporation of [14C]-L-leucine in splenic and hepatic tissue of rats 'chemically splenectomized' by ethyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebestik, V.; Kselikova, M.; Freiova, M.; Potmesilova, I.

    1978-01-01

    In experiments with 'chemically splenectomized' rats by an i.v. application of ethyl palmitate (EP) emulsion and using [ 14 C]-L-leucine, the protein synthesis in spleen and liver was followed. Two hours following EP application protein synthesis in the spleen was significantly decreased; after 24 hrs and 4 days the incorporation increased moderately above normal values, and in the subsequent intervals protein synthesis was again lowered. In the liver a significant increase of protein synthesis 24 hrs and 4 days after EP injection was observed. Changes of proteins synthesis in the spleen are evidently related to damage of the tissue and its subsequent regeneration. Changes in the liver are manifestations rather of an increased metabolic load during EP degradation. (author)

  13. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  14. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

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    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  15. Prolonged Treatment with Free Fatty Acids has Post Receptor Effect in Hepatic Insulin Resistance: Evidence that Fatty Acids, Oleate and Palmitate have Insignificant Effect on the Insulin Receptor Beta In Vivo and Ex Vivo Primary Hepatocytes

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    Rafik Ragheb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we used immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting to examine the levels and phosphorylation status of the insulin receptor-beta subunit (IR-β, as well as the down stream target in PI3K pathway, total PKB/Akt as well as their phosphorylated forms. The assessment of FFAs treatment showed no direct and significant effect on the PI3K stimulation, specifically the IR-β in primary hepatic control cells treated with insulin. Cells treated with either oleate or palmitate (360 µM showed no statistically significant values following insulin stimulation (P > 0.05. To further investigate the effect of both FFAs and high insulin (1 µg, we examined the effects of oleate and palmitate at 360 µM concentration on IR-β as well as PKB. There was no significant difference in the total protein levels and their phosphorylated forms in cells treated with or without oleate or plamitate. Interestingly, IR-β tyrosine phosphorylation showed a similar insignificant effect in vivo and ex vivo hepatic cells treated with oleate or palmitate in comparison to their controls in the fructose fed hamsters.

  16. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, M.; Lanata, C.; Butron, B.; Haskell, M.; Brown, K.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author)

  17. Application of the deuterated retinol dilution technique to detect changes in hepatic retinol reserves in infants who receive high dose vitamin A supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, M; Lanata, C; Butron, B [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, Lima (Peru); Haskell, M; Brown, K [Programme in International Nutrition, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine whether the deuterated retinol dilution technique can detect changes in hepatic vitamin A reserves in Peruvian infants in response to supplementation with vitamin A palmitate. Approximately 40 infants, 9 months of age, will be recruited for the study and randomly assigned to four treatment groups. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be estimated using the deuterated retinol dilution technique before and after administration of a single supplement containing either 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg RE as retinyl palmitate in corn oil. Mean hepatic vitamin A reserves will be calculated based on the plasma isotopic ratio of d4-retinol:retinol as per Furr, et. al. Hepatic vitamin A reserves will be compared within groups before and after supplementation, and among the four groups. The mean change in hepatic vitamin A reserves across the four treatment groups will be examined in relation to the amount of vitamin A supplement administered, using regression analysis. The results of the pilot study will provide information on the size and variation of hepatic vitamin A reserves in 9-month old Peruvian infants. This information will be useful for calculating samples sizes to evaluate vitamin A intervention strategies by estimating changes in hepatic vitamin A stores in this age group, using the DRD technique. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  18. Retinol and retinyl esters in parenchymal and nonparenchymal rat liver cell fractions after long-term administration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, M.; Blomhoff, R.; Helgerud, P.; Solberg, L.A.; Berg, T.; Norum, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption reduces the liver retinoid store in man and rat. We have studied the effect of ethanol on some aspects of retinoid metabolism in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Rats fed 36% of total energy intake as ethanol for 5-6 weeks had the liver retinoid concentration reduced to about one-third, as compared to pair-fed controls. The reduction in liver retinoid affected both the parenchymal and the nonparenchymal cell fractions. Plasma retinol level was normal. Liver uptake of injected chylomicron [3H]retinyl ester was similar in the experimental and control group. The transport of retinoid from the parenchymal to the nonparenchymal cells was not found to be significantly retarded in the ethanol-fed rats. Despite the reduction in total retinoid level in liver, the concentrations of unesterified retinol and retinyl oleate were increased in the ethanol fed rats. Hepatic retinol esterification was not significantly affected in the ethanol-fed rats. Since our study has demonstrated that liver uptake of chylomicron retinyl ester is not impaired in the ethanol-fed rat, we suggest that liver retinoid metabolism may be increased

  19. Hepatic retinoid levels in seven fish species (teleosts) from a tropical coastal lagoon receiving effluents from iron-ore mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana A; van Hattum, Bert; Brouwer, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of Fe and trace element exposure on hepatic levels of retinoids in seven fish species. Concentrations of retinoids were measured in fish collected from a coastal lagoon in Brazil that receives effluents from an iron-ore mining and processing plant. Fish from nearby coastal lagoons were also included to assess possible differences related to chemical exposure. Results indicated considerable differences in hepatic retinoid composition among the various species investigated. The most striking differences were in retinol and derivative-specific profiles and in didehydro retinol and derivative-specific profiles. The Perciformes species Geophagus brasiliensis, Tilapia rendalli, Mugil liza, and Cichla ocellaris and the Characiforme Hoplias malabaricus were characterized as retinol and derivative-specific, while the Siluriformes species Hoplosternum littorale and Rhamdia quelen were didehydro retinol and derivative-specific fish species. A negative association was observed between Al, Pb, As, and Cd and hepatic didehydro retinoid levels. Fish with higher levels of hepatic Fe, Cu, and Zn showed unexpectedly significant positive correlations with increased hepatic retinol levels. This finding, associated with the positive relationships between retinol and retinyl palmitate with lipid peroxidation, may suggest that vitamin A is mobilized from other tissues to increase hepatic antioxidant levels for protection against oxidative damage. These data show significant but dissimilar associations between trace element exposure and hepatic retinoid levels in fish species exposed to iron-ore mining and processing effluents, without apparent major impacts on fish health and condition. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Berberine Attenuates Development of the Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Type 2 Diabetic Mice and in Palmitate-Incubated HepG2 Cells through Suppression of the HNF-4α miR122 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Yao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Chen, Li; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been shown to exhibit protective effects against diabetes and dyslipidemia. Previous studies have indicated that BBR modulates lipid metabolism and inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis by decreasing expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α). However, the mechanism involved in this process was unknown. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and the lipid metabolism alterations observed in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and in palmitate (PA)-incubated HepG2 cells. Treatment with BBR for 4 weeks improve all biochemical parameters compared to T2D mice. Treatment of T2D mice for 4 weeks or treatment of PA-incubated HepG2 cells for 24 h with BBR decreased expression of HNF-4α and the microRNA miR122, the key gluconeogenesis enzymes Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the key lipid metabolism proteins Sterol response element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), Fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCα) and increased Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1(CPT-1) compared to T2D mice or PA-incubated HepG2 cells. Expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes and BBR treatment or knock down of miR122 attenuated the effect of HNF-4α expression. In contrast, BBR treatment did not alter expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. In addition, miR122 mimic increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. These data indicate that miR122 is a critical regulator in the downstream pathway of HNF-4α in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. The effect of BBR on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism is mediated through HNF-4α and is regulated downstream of miR122. Our data provide new evidence to support HNF-4α and miR122

  1. The majority of vitamin A is transported as retinyl esters in the blood of most carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Ryder, O A; Rambeck, W A; Zucker, H

    1990-01-01

    1. In canines and mustelides total vitamin A was 10-50 times higher compared to other species due to a high amount of retinyl esters (40-99% of total vitamin A) in blood plasma. The dominant vitamin A ester was in most species retinyl stearate. 2. In Ursidae, Procyonidae, Viveridae and Felidae, total vitamin A was much lower. When present, however, retinyl esters also represented 10-65% of total vitamin A in plasma. 3. Only retinol was detected in plasma of the family, Hyaenidae, and the suborder, Pinnipedia. 4. In maned wolf cubs it was found that retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol increased with the age of the animals, reaching values comparable to adult animals at the age of 5 months.

  2. Paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Cengisiz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrapyramidal, metabolic, and cardiac side effects were reported for atypical antipsychotics; although a few resources show paliperidone-induced sialorrhea, there are no resources that show paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea. In this paper, we present the paliperidone palmitate-induced sialorrhea side effects of a patient who applied on our clinic [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 8-13

  3. Retinyl β-glucoronide: its occurrence in human serum, chemical synthesis and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, A.B.; Batres, R.O.; Olson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    When retinol is administered to rats, retinyl and retinoyl β-glucuronides appear in the bile. Retinyl or retinoyl β-glucuronide is also synthesized in vitro when rat liver microsomes are incubated with uridinediphosphoglucuronic acid and either retinol or retinoic acid. Retinoyl β-glucuronide, a major metabolite of retinoic acid in a number of tissues, is highly active biologically, has been chemically synthesized, and is found in human blood. The physiological significance of the glucuronides of vitamin A are not known yet. To investigate further its metabolism and possible physiological role, retinyl β-glucuronide was chemically synthesized from retinol and characterized by study of its ultra-violet spectrum (γ/sub max/ 325 nm in methanol, 329 nm in water), 1 H-NMR and mass spectra. Retinyl β-glucuronide was extensively hydrolyzed by bacterial β-glucuronidase to retinol. Retinyl β-glucuronide is soluble in water and was detected in significant amounts in the serum of healthy human adults. The biological activity of synthetic retinyl β-glucuronide was determined in rats by the rat growth bioassay method

  4. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  5. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection for the quantitation of carotenoids, retinyl esters, α-tocopherol and phylloquinone in chylomicron-rich fractions of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Riedl, Ken M; Carle, Reinhold; Schwartz, Steven J

    2013-06-30

    Bioavailability of essential lipophilic micronutrients and carotenoids is of utmost interest for human health, as the consumption of these compounds may help alleviate major nutritional deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. High-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) were compared for the quantitative analysis of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and several retinyl esters from chylomicron-containing triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions of human plasma obtained from two clinical trials. After selecting an efficient extraction method for the analytes, both the HPLC/PDA and the HPLC/MS/MS methods were developed and several parameters validated using an HP 1200 series HPLC system interfaced with a HP 1200 series diode-array detector (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and a QTRAP 5500 (AB Sciex, Foster City, CA, USA) via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe operated in positive ion mode. For lycopene, α- and β-carotene, HPLC/MS/MS was up to 37 times more sensitive than HPLC-PDA. PDA detection was shown to be up to 8 times more sensitive for lutein. MS/MS signals were enhanced by matrix components for lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, as determined by referencing to the matrix-independent PDA signal. In contrast, matrix suppression was observed for retinyl palmitate, α-carotene, and β-carotene. Both detectors showed similar suitability for α-tocopherol, lycopene and retinyl palmitate (representing ~73% of total retinyl esters). MS/MS exclusively allowed the quantitation of minor retinyl esters, phylloquinone, and (Z)-lycopene isomers. HPLC/MS/MS was more sensitive than HPLC-PDA for six of the eight analytes and represents a powerful tool for the analysis of chylomicron samples and potentially other biological samples of limited sample size. When internal

  6. Enzymatic Cellulose Palmitate Synthesis Using Immobilized Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose can be modified by esterification using palmitic acid and Mucor miehei  lipase  as catalyst. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid . The esterification reaction was carried out at the time variation  of  6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid (1: 11: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 1: 5,1:6 at 50 °C. The   cellulose palmitate  was examined  its  physical and chemical properties by using FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, bubble point test and saponification  apparatus. The results showed that the optimum reaction time of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid occurred within 24 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid was 1: 3 resulting in DS of  0.376 with  swelling index of 187 %, crystallinity index of 61.95%,  and Φ porous of 2.40 μm. Identification of functional groups using FTIR spectrophotometer showed that C=O ester group  was observed at 1737.74 cm-1 and strengthened  by  the appearance of C-O ester peak at 1280 cm-1. The conclusion of this study is reaction time and reactant ratio influence significantly the DS of cellulose ester.

  7. The role of 11-cis-retinyl esters in vertebrate cone vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, Darwin; Perkins, Brian D; Kindermann, Aljoscha; Oberhauser, Vitus; von Lintig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A cycle of cis-to-trans isomerization of the chromophore is intrinsic to vertebrate vision where rod and cone photoreceptors mediate dim- and bright-light vision, respectively. Daylight illumination can greatly exceed the rate at which the photoproduct can be recycled back to the chromophore by the canonical visual cycle. Thus, an additional supply pathway(s) must exist to sustain cone-dependent vision. Two-photon microscopy revealed that the eyes of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) contain high levels of 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-REs) within the retinal pigment epithelium. HPLC analyses demonstrate that 11-REs are bleached by bright light and regenerated in the dark. Pharmacologic treatment with all-trans-retinylamine (Ret-NH2), a potent and specific inhibitor of the trans-to-cis reisomerization reaction of the canonical visual cycle, impeded the regeneration of 11-REs. Intervention with 11-cis-retinol restored the regeneration of 11-REs in the presence of all-trans-Ret-NH2. We used the XOPS:mCFP transgenic zebrafish line with a functional cone-only retina to directly demonstrate that this 11-RE cycle is critical to maintain vision under bright-light conditions. Thus, our analyses reveal that a dark-generated pool of 11-REs helps to supply photoreceptors with the chromophore under the varying light conditions present in natural environments. © FASEB.

  8. Covalent modification of platelet proteins by palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszbek, L.; Laposata, M.

    1989-01-01

    Covalent attachment of fatty acid to proteins plays an important role in association of certain proteins with hydrophobic membrane structures. In platelets, the structure of many membrane glycoproteins (GPs) has been examined in detail, but the question of fatty acid acylation of platelet proteins has not been addressed. In this study, we wished to determine (a) whether platelet proteins could be fatty acid acylated; and, if so, (b) whether these modified proteins were present in isolated platelet membranes and cytoskeletal fractions; and (c) if the pattern of fatty acid acylated proteins changed on stimulation of the platelets with the agonist thrombin. We observed that in platelets allowed to incorporate 3H-palmitate, a small percentage (1.37%) of radioactivity incorporated into the cells became covalently bound to protein. Selective cleavage of thioester, thioester plus O-ester, and amide-linked 3H-fatty acids from proteins, and their subsequent analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the greatest part of 3H-fatty acid covalently bound to protein was thioester-linked 3H-palmitate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, at least ten major radiolabeled proteins were detected. Activation of platelets by thrombin greatly increased the quantity of 3H-palmitoylated proteins associated with the cytoskeleton. Nearly all radiolabeled proteins were recovered in the membrane fraction, indicating that these proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins or proteins tightly associated to membrane constituents. Components of the GPIIb-IIIa complex were not palmitoylated. Thus, platelet proteins are significantly modified posttranslationally by 3H-palmitate, and incorporation of palmitoylated proteins into the cytoskeleton is a prominent component of the platelet response to thrombin stimulation

  9. Effect of α-linolenic acid on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of palmitic acid lipotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic inflammation and degeneration induced by lipid depositions may be the major cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In this study, we investigated the effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA on apoptosis in primary rat hepatocytes. Methods The primary rat hepatocytes were treated with palmitic acid and/or α-linolenic acid in vitro. The expression of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, caspase-3 levels were detected after the treatment. Results The treatment with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in cell death. The unfolded protein response (UPR-associated genes CHOP, GRP78, and GRP94 were induced to higher expression levels by palmitic acid. Co-treatment with α-linolenic acid reversed the apoptotic effect and levels of all three indicators of ER stress exerted by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were also reversed by α-linolenic acid. Conclusions α-Linolenic acid may provide a useful strategy to avoid the lipotoxicity of dietary palmitic acid and nutrient overload accompanied with obesity and NAFLD.

  10. ORIGIN OF PALMITIC ACID CARBON IN PALMITATES FORMED FROM HEXADECANE-1-C14 AND TETRADECANE-1-C14 BY MICROCOCCUS CERIFICANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, W. R.; Kallio, R. E.

    1964-01-01

    Finnerty, W. R. (University of Iowa, Iowa City), and R. E. Kallio. Origin of palmitic acid carbon in palmitates formed from hexadecane-1-C14 and tetradecane-1-C14 by Micrococcus cerificans. J. Bacteriol. 87:1261–1265. 1964.—Degradation of the palmitic acid moiety of cetyl palmitate and myristyl palmitate formed from hexadecane-1-C14 and tetradecane-1-C14 by Micrococcus cerificans was carried out. The patterns of C14 labeling in palmitic acid from cetyl palmitate showed that hexadecane is oxidized at the C1 position, and cetyl alcohol and palmitic acid thus formed are directly esterified. Palmitic acid arising from tetradecane and esterified to tetradecanol appeared to have been synthesized by the addition of two carbon atoms to an existing 14-carbon atom skeleton. Considerable mixing of C14 occurred in the C1 and C2 positions of palmitic acid thus synthesized. PMID:14188700

  11. Fabrication of shape memory natural rubber using palmitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Sze-Hua Wee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the practicability of fabricating a shape memory natural rubber with the use of palmitic acid as the swelling agent. Strips of natural rubber samples were swollen in molten palmitic acid at 75 °C. Equilibrium swelling of natural rubber with palmitic acid was found to occur at approximately 50 min of swelling time. Under cooling effect, the palmitic acid crystallized to form a percolated crystalline platelet network. These networks allow fabricated shape memory natural rubber (SMNR to deform and recover its shape at a temperature above the melting point of palmitic acid. Under controlled uniaxial stress, the natural rubber sample with 0 parts per hundred rubber (phr carbon black loading exhibits fixity and recovery of 80 ± 10%. Motivation of this research is primarily on practicability of palmitic acid to be used as a swelling agent for shape memory properties. Results show that palmitic acid is a relatively good swelling agent to induce shape memory properties into natural rubber.

  12. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C; Ford, Jeffery J; Lee, John C; Adamo, Martin L

    2014-07-18

    Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  14. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  15. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  16. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  18. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Feras Ali

    2017-01-01

    In March 2015, pipotiazine palmitate depot antipsychotic was globally withdrawn due to the shortage of its active ingredient. Thus, all patients receiving this medication had to be switched to an alternative antipsychotic drug. In this study we set to evaluate the process of switching away from pipotiazine palmitate within our clinical service, and its impact on hospitalization. Demographic and clinical data on patients who were receiving pipotiazine palmitate in Northamptonshire at the time of its withdrawal were anonymously extracted from their electronic records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 17 patients were switched away from pipotiazine palmitate at the time of its withdrawal, all of whom had a prior history of nonadherence with oral treatment. A total of 14 patients were switched to another depot antipsychotic drug, while three patients chose an oral alternative which they subsequently discontinued resulting in relapse and hospitalization. There was a five-fold increase in mean hospitalization among patients who completed a year after the switch. Switching away from pipotiazine palmitate was associated with significant clinical deterioration in patients who switched to an oral antipsychotic, whereas most patients who switched to another depot treatment maintained stability. Clinicians should exercise caution when switching patients with schizophrenia away from depot antipsychotic drugs, especially in cases of patients with a history of treatment nonadherence who prefer to switch to oral antipsychotics.

  19. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  20. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  1. Practical guidelines on the use of paliperidone palmitate in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard; Hustig, Harry; Lakshmana, Raju; Lee, Joseph; Motamarri, Balaji; Norrie, Peter; Parker, Robert; Schreiner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Paliperidone palmitate is an atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic that has been approved for use in the US, EU, Australia and numerous other countries for acute and maintenance therapy of schizophrenia. LAI antipsychotics are often viewed as a 'last-resort' treatment for difficult-to-treat patients, however this article considers their role more broadly in the management of partial or non-adherence in schizophrenia. A search of MedLine, CTR and PsychInfo was conducted to identify relevant publications and clinical trials (search term 'paliperidone palmitate', up to December 2010). The findings were discussed in a number of teleconferences and the manuscript was finalized with a face-to-face meeting of the authors group. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia requires a comprehensive approach to treatment, which includes antipsychotic medication and psychosocial measures as well as family and/or carer involvement. Good symptom control and the interconnected issue of treatment adherence are arguably the most crucial factors for success. Carer and patient feedback should be carefully considered. Negotiation about commencing LAI therapy done early in course of disease is easier than many clinicians believe, although it is not often attempted in practice. Paliperidone palmitate is useful in both the acute and maintenance phases of treatment. A case-based approach is presented to suggest various opportunities where use of paliperidone palmitate could be considered within the disease course of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate offers some advantages in terms of tolerability, simplicity of treatment initiation and long duration between injections. The consensus of the authors is that rather than reserving paliperidone palmitate for use in difficult-to-treat or refractory patients, it could be used to promote adherence and prevent relapse earlier in the course of the illness.

  2. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  3. Defective (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.E.; Norris, B.J.; Brooke, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased (U-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation. (1-14 C) palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

  4. Vitamin A and contaminant concentrations in surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Trudeau, S.F.; Elliott, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Surf scoters are part of a community of sea ducks on the western coast of North America that have shown signs of long-term, unexplained declines in breeding bird numbers. Substantial numbers of scoters winter in the major harbours on the west coast, after breeding in the west-central northern boreal forest. To address the potential for contaminants to impact the health and survival of those birds, we investigated the condition and contamination of surf scoters during the winters of 1998-2001 at four foraging locations in the Strait of Georgia region of the Pacific coast of Canada. Vitamin A status was evaluated in liver and plasma samples collected from adults and juveniles, as part of a larger assessment of tissue contamination, body condition and biomarker responses. Individuals collected from a relatively contaminated site, Howe Sound, showed consistently low hepatic concentrations of retinol and retinyl palmitate forms of vitamin A, and gender-specific associations of retinyl palmitate with hepatic EROD activity. The relationship of hepatic retinol to retinyl palmitate was not constant across geographic locations, and a clear, linear relationship between the two forms of vitamin A was only evident in birds from the relatively uncontaminated site. This study also identified strong positive relationships between vitamin A and tissue burdens of cadmium and zinc. The positive association between hepatic retinyl palmitate and renal cadmium is similar to one observed in laboratory rats, in which a mechanism of interference with the controlled release of retinol from the liver was suggested

  5. Some Lipid Droplets Are More Equal Than Others: Different Metabolic Lipid Droplet Pools in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Martijn R; Vaandrager, Arie B; Helms, J Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are professional lipid-storing cells and are unique in their property to store most of the retinol (vitamin A) as retinyl esters in large-sized lipid droplets. Hepatic stellate cell activation is a critical step in the development of chronic liver disease, as activated HSCs cause fibrosis. During activation, HSCs lose their lipid droplets containing triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters, and retinyl esters. Lipidomic analysis revealed that the dynamics of disappearance of these different classes of neutral lipids are, however, very different from each other. Although retinyl esters steadily decrease during HSC activation, triacylglycerols have multiple pools one of which becomes transiently enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids before disappearing. These observations are consistent with the existence of preexisting "original" lipid droplets with relatively slow turnover and rapidly recycling lipid droplets that transiently appear during activation of HSCs. Elucidation of the molecular machinery involved in the regulation of these distinct lipid droplet pools may open new avenues for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  6. Intestinal absorption and distribution of 14C-palmitic acid in an young Indian freshwater major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, G.M.; Chakrabarti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of absorption and distribution of radioactive lipids in the various regions of the intestine and hepatopancreas of young Labeo rohita (Ham.) was investigated after feeding with small-sized earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), preinjected with 14 C-Palmitic acid. Dietary free fatty acids were mainly absorbed in the various regions (anterior, middle and posterior) of the intestine-the absorption capacity, however, varying greatly from region to region. The absorption of free fatty acids through the luminal brush border of the various regions of the intestine started at 24 hr of post-feeding (h.p.f.) with labelled diet and recorded its peak during 32 +- 2 h.p.f. However, middle intestine was found to be more active for such absorption than the other two regions (anterior and posterior). Incorporation of labelled Palmitic acid in the columnar epithelial cells and its subsequent transportation in the hepatic tissues, via lymphatic systems took place with in a short interval after absorption. However, absorption was completed within 40 h.p.f. when deposition of radioactive lipids was found to be maximum in the columnar epithelial cells of the various regions of the intestine and hepatic tissues. (author)

  7. Mechanisms of palmitate-induced cell death in human osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Vidal, Christopher; Boadle, Ross; Thekkedam, Chris; Duque, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lipotoxicity is an overload of lipids in non-adipose tissues that affects function and induces cell death. Lipotoxicity has been demonstrated in bone cells in vitro using osteoblasts and adipocytes in coculture. In this condition, lipotoxicity was induced by high levels of saturated fatty acids (mostly palmitate) secreted by cultured adipocytes acting in a paracrine manner. In the present study, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of lipotoxicity in human osteoblasts. Palmitate induced autophagy in cultured osteoblasts, which was preceded by the activation of autophagosomes that surround palmitate droplets. Palmitate also induced apoptosis though the activation of the Fas/Jun kinase (JNK) apoptotic pathway. In addition, osteoblasts could be protected from lipotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy with the phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by inhibiting apoptosis with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In summary, we have identified two major molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity in osteoblasts and in doing so we have identified a new potential therapeutic approach to prevent osteoblast dysfunction and death, which are common features of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:24285710

  8. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  9. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  10. Identification of the 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in retinal Müller cells as multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Joanna J.; Cook, Jeremy D.; Makshanoff, Jacob; Bischoff, Nicholas; Yong, Jennifer; Travis, Gabriel H.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption of a photon by a rhodopsin or cone-opsin pigment isomerizes its 11-cis-retinaldehyde (11-cis-RAL) chromophore to all-trans-retinaldehyde (all-trans-RAL), which dissociates after a brief period of activation. Light sensitivity is restored to the resulting apo-opsin when it recombines with another 11-cis-RAL. Conversion of all-trans-RAL to 11-cis-RAL is carried out by an enzyme pathway called the visual cycle in cells of the retinal pigment epithelium. A second visual cycle is present in Müller cells of the retina. The retinol isomerase for this noncanonical pathway is dihydroceramide desaturase (DES1), which catalyzes equilibrium isomerization of retinol. Because 11-cis-retinol (11-cis-ROL) constitutes only a small fraction of total retinols in an equilibrium mixture, a subsequent step involving selective removal of 11-cis-ROL is required to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids for production of visual chromophore. Selective esterification of 11-cis-ROL is one possibility. Crude homogenates of chicken retinas rapidly convert all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-retinyl esters (11-cis-REs) with minimal formation of other retinyl-ester isomers. This enzymatic activity implies the existence of an 11-cis-specific retinyl-ester synthase in Müller cells. Here, we evaluated multifunctional O-acyltransferase (MFAT) as a candidate for this 11-cis-RE-synthase. MFAT exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency as a synthase of 11-cis-REs versus other retinyl-ester isomers. Further, we show that MFAT is expressed in Müller cells. Finally, homogenates of cells coexpressing DES1 and MFAT catalyzed the conversion of all-trans-ROL to 11-cis-RP, similar to what we observed with chicken-retina homogenates. MFAT is therefore an excellent candidate for the retinyl-ester synthase that cooperates with DES1 to drive synthesis of 11-cis-retinoids by mass action. PMID:24799687

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  13. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  14. Metabolism of methyl-branched iodo palmitic acids in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.; Pepin, D.; Loriette, C.; Chambaz, J.; Bereziat, G.; Vidal, M.; Apparu, M.; Coornaert, S.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic fate of methyl-branched iodo fatty acids was studied in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. We compared 16-iodo-2-R,S-methyl palmitic acid (2-Me), which can be β oxidized, with 16-iodo-3-R,S-methyl palmitic acid (3-Me) which can be β oxidized only after an initial α oxydation and with 16-iodo-2,2-dimethyl palmitic acid (2,2-Me 2 ) and 16-iodo-3,3-dimethyl palmitic acid (3,3-Me 2 ) which cannot be β oxidized at all. The normal fate of natural fatty acids was given by comparative experiments with [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Monomethyl-branched iodo fatty acids were taken up in the same range as palmitic acid but more than dimethyl-branched iodo fatty acids. After a 15-h incubation, acido-soluble products (ASP) accounted for 75% of the radioactivity taken up as 16-iodo-2-methyl palmitic acid, 50% as other methyl-branched iodo fatty acids and only 30% as palmitic acid. Cultured hepatocytes, labelled for 3 h with the various fatty acids and reincubated for 12 h without fatty acid, secreted large amounts of free dimethyl-branched iodo fatty acids as compared to the monomethyl ones and palmitic acid. Only hepatocytes prelabelled with 16-[ 125 I]iodo-2,2-dimethyl palmitic acid exhibited an appreciable secretion of labeled triglycerides, but at a lower rate than with [1- 14 C] palmitic acid. Conversely, the 16-iodo-monomethyl palmitic acids remained chiefly in hepatocyte triglycerides. Minute amounts of 16-iodo-methyl-branched palmitic acids were found in hepatocyte or secreted phospholipids as compared with palmitic acid. (orig.)

  15. High Beta-Palmitate Fat Controls the Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Limits Intestinal Damage in Mucin Muc2 Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Peng; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Korteland-van Male, Anita M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Renes, Ingrid B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position

  16. High Beta-Palmitate Fat Controls the Intestinal Inflammatory Response and Limits Intestinal Damage in Mucin Muc2 Deficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lu (Peng); F. Bar-Yoseph (Fabiana); L. Levi (Liora); Y. Lifshitz (Yael); J. Witte-Bouma (Janneke); A.C.J.M. de Bruijn (Adrianus); A.M. Korteland-van Male (Anita); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); I.B. Renes (Ingrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the

  17. A case of paliperidone-palmitate-induced tardive dyskinesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lally, John

    2012-06-13

    OBJECTIVES: This is one of the first cases reported in the literature of paliperidone-palmitate-induced prolonged dyskinesia. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia who developed orofacial dyskinesia some 4 months after the commencement of paliperidone long-acting injection. CONCLUSION: This case serves as a clinical reminder that dyskinesia can occur with all antipsychotic medications.

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  19. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  20. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  1. An Efficient Approach for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Retinyl Laurate Nutraceutical by Combining Ultrasound Assistance and Artificial Neural Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ming Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN. First, a three-level-four-factor central composite design (CCD was employed to design 27 experiments, which the highest relative conversion was 82.64%. Further, the optimal architecture of the CCD-employing ANN was developed, including the learning Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, the transfer function (hyperbolic tangent, iterations (10,000, and the nodes of the hidden layer (6. The best performance of the ANN was evaluated by the root mean squared error (RMSE and the coefficient of determination (R2 from predicting and observed data, which displayed a good data-fitting property. Finally, the process performed with optimal parameters actually obtained a relative conversion of 88.31% without long-term reactions, and the lipase showed great reusability for biosynthesis. Thus, this study utilizes green technology to efficiently produce retinyl laurate, and the bioprocess is well established by ANN-mediated modeling and optimization.

  2. An Efficient Approach for Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Retinyl Laurate Nutraceutical by Combining Ultrasound Assistance and Artificial Neural Network Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Ming; Li, Hsin-Ju; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2017-11-15

    Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN). First, a three-level-four-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to design 27 experiments, which the highest relative conversion was 82.64%. Further, the optimal architecture of the CCD-employing ANN was developed, including the learning Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, the transfer function (hyperbolic tangent), iterations (10,000), and the nodes of the hidden layer (6). The best performance of the ANN was evaluated by the root mean squared error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination ( R ²) from predicting and observed data, which displayed a good data-fitting property. Finally, the process performed with optimal parameters actually obtained a relative conversion of 88.31% without long-term reactions, and the lipase showed great reusability for biosynthesis. Thus, this study utilizes green technology to efficiently produce retinyl laurate, and the bioprocess is well established by ANN-mediated modeling and optimization.

  3. Identification of Lipoproteins Using Globomycin and Radioactive Palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddelmeijer, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are characterized by fatty acids that are covalently attached to their amino terminus via posttranslational modification in the cytoplasmic membrane. Three enzymatic steps are involved in the synthesis of mature triacylated lipoprotein: prolipoprotein converts into diacylglyceryl-prolipoprotein that in turn converts into apolipoprotein, which is finally converted into mature triacylated lipoprotein. Here we describe the detection of one of these intermediate forms of lipoprotein, diacylglyceryl-prolipoprotein, using 3 H-palmitate labeling and inhibition by globomycin and detection by fluorography.

  4. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  5. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  7. Estimation of transcapillary transport of palmitate by the multiple indicator dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, S.E.; van der Vusse, G.J.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    From the outflow concentration-time curves for 14 C-palmitate, intravascular ( 131 I-albumin) and extracellular ( 3 H-sucrose) tracers, palmitate extraction was estimated in rabbit hearts Langendorff-perfused at a constant flow with nonrecirculated palmitate-albumin Kreb's Ringer buffer. Contamination of 131 I-albumin with free 13 $ 1 I - (typically 1%) or aggregated albumin (typically 0.1 to 0.5%) greatly alters the shapes of the tails of the curves after 2 albumin transit times, vitiating accurate estimation of cellular permeability or reactions. Buffers were prepared by adding K + -palmitate (made using K 2 CO 3 ) to albumin solutions. The final concentrations (after dialysing twice and filtering through a 1.2 μ filter) of K + , HCO 3 , and CO 3 were 5.0 mM, 23.5 mM and 0.5 mM respectively, pH was between 7.35 and 7.40 for several hours. The bolus of tracers was prepared by mixing 131 I-albumin (dialysed to remove I - , and filtered through a 0.2 μM filter to remove aggregates), K + [U- 14 C]palmitate (high specific activity) and 3 H-sucrose. Before injection the radioactive bolus is preequilibrated with the perfusate at bolus:perfusate ratio of 1:10. Glacial acetic acid is added to the outflow samples to remove the 14 CO 2 which, if present in the sample, would be interpreted as increased palmitate back diffusion. The peak extractions of palmitate were about 40% at perfusate palmitate concentrations of 0.02 to 1.0 mM, 0.4 mM albumin, at a flow of 5 mlg -1 2] 1 , showing capillary permeability-surface area product to be roughly constant. This suggests either than transcapillary palmitate transport is passive or that a transporter interacts with the albumin-palmitate complex

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  10. Distinct populations of hepatic stellate cells in the mouse liver have different capacities for retinoid and lipid storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cell (HSC lipid droplets are specialized organelles for the storage of retinoid, accounting for 50-60% of all retinoid present in the body. When HSCs activate, retinyl ester levels progressively decrease and the lipid droplets are lost. The objective of this study was to determine if the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver demonstrates heterogeneity in its capacity for retinoid and lipid storage in lipid droplets. To this end, we utilized two methods of HSC isolation, which leverage distinct properties of these cells, including their vitamin A content and collagen expression. HSCs were isolated either from wild type (WT mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background by flotation in a Nycodenz density gradient, followed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS based on vitamin A autofluorescence, or from collagen-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice by FACS based on GFP expression from a GFP transgene driven by the collagen I promoter. We show that GFP-HSCs have: (i increased expression of typical markers of HSC activation; (ii decreased retinyl ester levels, accompanied by reduced expression of the enzyme needed for hepatic retinyl ester synthesis (LRAT; (iii decreased triglyceride levels; (iv increased expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism; and (v an increase in expression of the retinoid-catabolizing cytochrome, CYP2S1.Our observations suggest that the HSC population in a healthy, uninjured liver is heterogeneous. One subset of the total HSC population, which expresses early markers of HSC activation, may be "primed" and ready for rapid response to acute liver injury.

  11. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of methyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2011-01-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) has been shown earlier to inhibit Kupffer cells and rat peritoneal macrophages. To evaluate the potential of MP to inhibit the activation of other macrophages, RAW cells (macrophages of alveolar origin) were treated with varying concentrations of MP (0.25, 0.5, 1 mM). Assessment of cytotoxicity using MTT assay revealed that 0.25 and 0.5 mM are not toxic to RAW cells. MP was able to inhibit the phagocytic function of RAW cells. Treatment of cells with MP 24 hours prior to LPS stimulation significantly decreased nitric oxide release and altered the pattern of cytokines release; there was a significant decrease in TNF-α and a significant increase in IL-10 compared to the controls. However, there is a non-significant change in IL-6 level. Furthermore, phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα) protein was significantly decreased in RAW cells treated with 0.5 mM MP after LPS stimulation. Based upon the in-vitro results, it was examined whether MP treatment will be effective in preventing bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in-vivo. Bleomycin given by itself caused destruction of the lung architecture characterized by pulmonary fibrosis with collapse of air alveoli and emphysematous. Bleomycin induced a significant increase in hydroxyproline level and activated NF-κB, p65 expression in the lung. MP co-treatment significantly ameliorated bleomycin effects. These results suggest that MP has a potential of inhibiting macrophages in general. The present study demonstrated for the first time that MP has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effect that could be through NF-kB inhibition. Thus MP like molecule could be a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drug. - Research highlights: →Methyl palmitate is a universal macrophage inhibitor. →It could be a promising nucleus of anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic drugs. →The underlying mechanism of these effects could be through NF-kB inhibition.

  13. Molecular dynamics of palmitic acid and lead palmitate in cross-linked linseed oil films: Implications from deuterium magnetic resonance for lead soap formation in traditional oil paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Jaclyn; Murphy, Anna; Yao, Yao; Zumbulyadis, Nicholas; Centeno, Silvia A; Dybowski, Cecil

    2018-02-01

    Many oil paintings, dating from the 15th century to the present, are affected by the formation of heavy-metal carboxylates (soaps) that alter the structural integrity and appearance of the works. Through transport phenomena not yet understood, free fatty acids formed from oils used as binders migrate through the paint film and react with heavy-metal ions that are constituents of pigments and/or driers, forming metal carboxylates. The local molecular dynamics of fatty acids and metal carboxylates are factors influencing material transport in these systems. We report temperature-dependent 2 H NMR spectra of palmitic acid and lead palmitate as pure materials, in cross-linked linseed oil films, and in a lead white linseed oil paint film as part of our broader research into metal soap formation. Local dynamics at the α carbon, at the terminal methyl group, and at the middle of the fatty acid chain were observed in specifically deuterated materials. Changes in the dynamic behavior with temperature were observed by the appearance of two species, a solid-like material and a liquid-like material. The relative amounts of the two phases and their deuterium NMR parameters indicate that the amount of liquid-like material and the local dynamics at that site increase with temperature. At the three locations along the chain and at all temperatures, there is a larger percentage of acyl chains of both palmitic acid and lead palmitate that are "mobile" or liquid-like in linseed oil films than there are in the pure materials. However, the percentage of liquid-like species is decreased in a lead white paint film, as compared to a linseed oil matrix. In addition, these experiments indicate that there is a larger percentage of liquid-like acyl chains of palmitic acid than of lead palmitate under identical conditions in these model paint systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological and Nutritional Properties of Palm Oil and Palmitic Acid: Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Annamaria; Imperlini, Esther; Nigro, Ersilia; Montagnese, Concetta; Daniele, Aurora; Orrù, Stefania; Buono, Pasqualina

    2015-09-18

    A growing body of evidence highlights the close association between nutrition and human health. Fat is an essential macronutrient, and vegetable oils, such as palm oil, are widely used in the food industry and highly represented in the human diet. Palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid, is the principal constituent of refined palm oil. In the last few decades, controversial studies have reported potential unhealthy effects of palm oil due to the high palmitic acid content. In this review we provide a concise and comprehensive update on the functional role of palm oil and palmitic acid in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The atherogenic potential of palmitic acid and its stereospecific position in triacylglycerols are also discussed.

  15. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  16. Isosteviol has beneficial effects on palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  2. Metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Demonstration of common physiological metabolites in rat small intestinal mucosa and circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics and metabolism of physiological doses of all-trans-retinoic acid were examined in blood and small intestinal mucosa of vitamin A-depleted rats. A major portion of intrajugularly injected retinoic acid is rapidly (within 2 min) sequestered by tissues; subsequently 13-cis-retinoic acid and polar metabolites are released into circulation. All-trans-retinoic acid appears in small intestinal epithelium within 2 min after dosing and is the major radioactive compound there for at least 2 h. Retinoyl glucuronide and 13-cis-retinoic acid are early metabolites of all-trans-retinoic acid in the small intestine of bile duct-cannulated rats. Retinoyl glucuronide, the major metabolite of retinoic acid intestinal epithelium, in contrast to other polar metabolites, was not detected in circulation. An examination of [ 3 H]retinyl acetate metabolites under steady state conditions in vitamin A-repleted rats demonstrates the occurrence of all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid in circulation and in intestinal epithelium, in a pattern similar to that found after injection of retinoic acid into vitamin A-depleted rats. These data establish that all-trans-retinoic acid, 13-cis-retinoic acid, and retinoyl glucuronide are physiological metabolites of vitamin A in target tissues, and therefore are important candidates as mediators of the biological effect of the vitamin

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  6. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  7. Palmitate induces VSMC apoptosis via toll like receptor (TLR)4/ROS/p53 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjun; Xia, Guanghao; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Juxiang; Liu, Xiaowei; Li, Weihua; Lv, Yaya; Wei, Suhong; Liu, Jing; Quan, Jinxing

    2017-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in vascular inflammation, as well as in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetes. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis has been shown to induce plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis. Previous studies reported that palmitate induced apoptosis in VSMCs; however, the role of TLR4 in palmitate-induced apoptosis in VSMCs has not yet been defined. In this study, we investigated whether or not palmitate-induced apoptosis depended on the activation of the TLR4 pathway. VSMCs were treated with or without palmitate, CRISPR/Cas9z-mediated genome editing methods were used to deplete TLR4 expression, while NADPH oxidase inhibitors were used to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Cell apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, ROS was measured using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method, the mRNA and protein expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, BCL-2 and p53 were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and ELISA. Palmitate significantly promotes VSMC apoptosis, ROS generation, and expression of caspase 3, caspase 9 and p53; while NADPH oxidase inhibitor pretreatment markedly attenuated these effects. Moreover, knockdown of TLR4 significantly blocked palmitate-induced ROS generation and VSMC apoptosis accompanied by inhibition of caspase 3, caspase 9, p53 expression and restoration of BCL-2 expression. Our results suggest that palmitate-induced apoptosis depends on the activation of the TLR4/ROS/p53 signaling pathway, and that TLR4 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of Palmitic Acid with Metoprolol Succinate at the Binding Sites of Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the binding profile as well as to notify the interaction of palmitic acid with metoprolol succinate at its binding site on albumin. Methods: The binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin (BSA was studied by equilibrium dialysis method (ED at 27°C and pH 7.4, in order to have an insight in the binding chemistry of the drug to BSA in presence and absence of palmitic acid. The study was carried out using ranitidine as site-1 and diazepam as site-2 specific probe. Results: Different analysis of binding of metoprolol succinate to bovine serum albumin suggested two sets of association constants: high affinity association constant (k1 = 11.0 x 105 M-1 with low capacity (n1 = 2 and low affinity association (k2 = 4.0×105 M-1 constant with high capacity (n2 = 8 at pH 7.4 and 27°C. During concurrent administration of palmitic acid and metoprolol succinate in presence or absence of ranitidine or diazepam, it was found that palmitic acid displaced metoprolol succinate from its binding site on BSA resulting reduced binding of metoprolol succinate to BSA. The increment in free fraction of metoprolol succinate was from 26.27% to 55.08% upon the addition of increased concentration of palmitic acid at a concentration of 0×10-5 M to 16×10-5 M. In presence of ranitidine and diazepam, palmitic acid further increases the free fraction of metoprolol succinate from 33.05% to 66.95% and 40.68% to 72.88%, respectively. Conclusion: This data provided the evidence of interaction at higher concentration of palmitic acid at the binding sites on BSA, which might change the pharmacokinetic properties of metoprolol succinate.

  9. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  10. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  11. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  13. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-03-05

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of (1-/sup 14/C) palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat.

  14. The Effects of plasticizers and palmitic acid toward the properties of the carrageenan Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru Wibowo, Atmanto; Listiyawati, Oktaviana; Purnawan, Candra

    2016-02-01

    Varied plasticizers and palmitic acid additive have been added in the carrageenan film. The film was made by mixing of the carrageenan and plasticizers (glycerol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol) with composition of 92:3, 90:6, 87:9, 84:12, 81:15(%w/w) and in the presence of palmitic acid as additive with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of total weight. Casting method was used for the film molding and drying at 60oC with the oven for 12 hours. To investigate the effects of plasticizers and additive, some mechanical tests on film were performed. The test result concludes that plasticizers in the film decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation break of the carrageenan film. The additive of palmitic acid decreased the tensile strength of the carrageenan film and also decreased the-the water absorbance of the film. The highest tensile strength of films made was with the formulation of carrageenan: PEG with composition of 92:3 (% w/w). The highest elongation break of the film was for carrageenan:PVA with the composition of 81: 15 (%w/w) and carrageenan:palmitic acid:PEG with the composition of 92: 3: 1 (%w/w). The lowest water absorption of the film was achieved for carrageenan:PVA:palmitic acid with the composition of 87: 3: 5 (%w/w).

  15. Comparison of palmitic acid kinetics during glucose or ketone body infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhahn, R.H.; Block, D.J.; Birkhahn, G.C.; Thomford, N.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ketone body interactions can be observed for extended ketosis by infusion by monoacetoacetin (the monoglyceride of acetoacetic acid). Palmitic acid kinetics were compared on the 5th day of glucose or ketone body-glucose infusions. 20 rats were fed complete diets intravenously at the rate of 50 ml/day. All diets contained vitamins, trace minerals, electrolytes, amino acids and 1 kcal/ml of non-protein energy. Rats were divided by energy source: Group A (n = 10) received energy from glucose and Group B (n = 10) from 72% monoacetoacetin plus 28% glucose. Diets were given at 1/2 and 3/4 rats on days 1 and 2, respectively and at full rate for days 3-5. Urinary nitrogen losses, body weight and dietary intake were measured daily. Palmitate kinetics was measured on day 5 using a continuous infusion of [1- 14 C] palmitate and measuring C-14 in breath and plasma and plasma palmitate by GC. The two groups had similar body weight changes and urinary nitrogen losses over the 3 days of full intake Group A had lower plasma palmitate (88 +/- 7 vs 105 +/- 6 micromol/l) but similar turnover (17.1 +/- 2.4 vs 15.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/hr) and oxidation 2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 2.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/hr) compared to Group B. These data show that feeding monoacetoacetin intravenously does not stimulate fatty acid metabolism in the well nourished rat

  16. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

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    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  19. Stevioside counteracts the alpha cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We......-activated receptor-gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expressions in the presence of palmitate (Pacids leads to a hypersecretion of glucagon and an accumulation of TG content in clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells. Stevioside was able to counteract the alpha......-cell hypersecretion caused by palmitate and enhanced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  20. Free fatty acid palmitate activates unfolded protein response pathway and promotes apoptosis in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, J; Yammani, R R

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA); however, the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Obesity is associated with increased production of adipokine and elevated levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA). A recent study has shown that saturated fatty acid palmitate induced pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways in chondrocytes. Meniscus has been shown to be more susceptible than articular cartilage to catabolic stimuli. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of FFA (specifically, palmitate) on meniscus cells. Cultured primary porcine meniscus cells were stimulated with 500 μM FFA (palmitate and oleate) for 24 h to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. After treatment, cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted for C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). To determine the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, cell lysates were probed for cJun n-terminal kinase (JNK), cleaved caspase -3 and Xbp-1s, an alternative mRNA splicing product generated due to Ire1α activation. Treatment of isolated primary meniscus cells with palmitate but not oleate induced expression of CHOP and Xbp-1s. Palmitate treatment of meniscus cells also activated JNK and increased expression of caspase-3, thus promoting apoptosis in meniscus cells. Palmitate induces ER stress and promotes apoptotic pathways in meniscus cells. This is the first study to establish ER stress as a key metabolic mechanistic link between obesity and OA, in addition to (or operating with) biomechanical factors. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

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    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

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    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

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    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  5. Hepatitis (For Parents)

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    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

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    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

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    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

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    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  9. Saturated fatty acid palmitate negatively regulates autophagy by promoting ATG5 protein degradation in meniscus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Aritra; Yammani, Raghunatha R

    2018-07-20

    Obesity and associated metabolic factors are major risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Previously, we have shown that the free fatty acid palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induces apoptosis in meniscus cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these effects are not clearly understood. In our current study, we found that palmitate inhibits autophagy by modulating the protein levels of autophagy-related genes-5 (ATG5) that is associated with decreased lipidation of LC3 and increased activation of cleaved caspase 3. Pretreatment of meniscus cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress, or with MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, restored normal levels of ATG5 and autophagosome formation, and decreased expression of cleaved caspase 3. Thus, our data suggest that palmitate downregulates autophagy in meniscus cells by degrading ATG5 protein via ER-associated protein degradation, and thus promotes apoptosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress negatively regulates autophagy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Palmitate and stearate binding to human serum albumin. Determination of relative binding constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Fisker, K; Honoré, B

    1997-01-01

    Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions. The expe...

  11. The effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on ocular surface recovery after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on ocular surface reconstruction after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients(240 eyesperforming LASIK were enrolled in this study. The right and left eyes were randomly divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye gel for 1 month, four times a day after LASIK, and the same as control group in other treatments. The SchirmerⅠ test, break-up time(BUTand corneal sensation were detect at preoperation and the postoperative 1st day, 1st month, 3rd month in two groups. RESULTS: There were significant difference in BUT and tear secretion quantity between the experimental group and the control group at the postoperative 1st month and 3rd month(P0.05, which revealed that vitamin A palmitate eye gel had no obvious effect on recovery of corneal sensation after LASIK. During the treatment, there was no adverse drug event occurred. CONCLUSION: Early use of vitamin A palmitate eye gel postoperatively is applicable for ocular surface reconstruction, but has no obvious effect on the regeneration of corneal sensation.

  12. Regional cerebral palmitate incorporation following transient bilateral carotid occlusion in awake gerbils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, O.; Miller, J.C.; Bell, J.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 14/C)Palmitate was injected intravenously in awake gerbils at various times after 5 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion or a sham operation. Regional rates of incorporation of plasma palmitate into the hippocampus and other regions of the anterior circulation were determined relative to the mean rate of incorporation into regions of the posterior circulation using quantitative autoradiography and a ratio method of analysis. One day after bilateral carotid occlusion, relative palmitate incorporation was elevated significantly by 16% in the CA4 pyramidal cell layer and by 20% in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared with sham-operated gerbils. At 3 days, significant elevations of this magnitude were found in the CA3 and CA4 cell layers, whereas relative incorporation was reduced by 26% in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. At 7 days, the only significant difference from control was a 15% elevated incorporation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. Histologic examination indicated substantial cell death in the CA1 pyramidal layer at 3 days, with extensive glial reaction and phagocytic invasion at 7 days. Our results suggest that the turnover of palmitate-containing lipids is reduced in the CA1 layer of the gerbil hippocampus but that lipid synthesis is stimulated in hippocampal regions (CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus) affected by but recovering from transient bilateral carotid occlusion.

  13. Regional cerebral palmitate incorporation following transient bilateral carotid occlusion in awake gerbils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, O.; Miller, J.C.; Bell, J.M.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    [ 14 C]Palmitate was injected intravenously in awake gerbils at various times after 5 minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion or a sham operation. Regional rates of incorporation of plasma palmitate into the hippocampus and other regions of the anterior circulation were determined relative to the mean rate of incorporation into regions of the posterior circulation using quantitative autoradiography and a ratio method of analysis. One day after bilateral carotid occlusion, relative palmitate incorporation was elevated significantly by 16% in the CA4 pyramidal cell layer and by 20% in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared with sham-operated gerbils. At 3 days, significant elevations of this magnitude were found in the CA3 and CA4 cell layers, whereas relative incorporation was reduced by 26% in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. At 7 days, the only significant difference from control was a 15% elevated incorporation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. Histologic examination indicated substantial cell death in the CA1 pyramidal layer at 3 days, with extensive glial reaction and phagocytic invasion at 7 days. Our results suggest that the turnover of palmitate-containing lipids is reduced in the CA1 layer of the gerbil hippocampus but that lipid synthesis is stimulated in hippocampal regions (CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus) affected by but recovering from transient bilateral carotid occlusion

  14. Synthesis and characterization of arabinose-palmitic acid esters by enzymatic esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappalardo, Valeria M.; Boeriu, Carmen G.; Zaccheria, Federica; Ravasio, Nicoletta

    2017-01-01

    The direct esterification of palmitic acid with L-(+)-arabinose has been carried out. The use of Candida antartica lipase B as the catalyst and the choice of suitable solvent and experimental conditions allowed carrying out the reaction successfully. In particular 10% dimethyl-sulfoxide in

  15. HDO of Methyl Palmitate over Silica-Supported Ni Phosphides: Insight into Ni/P Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Deliy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of silica-supported nickel phosphide catalysts with a nickel content of about 2.5 and 10 wt % and Ni/P molar ratio 2/1, 1/1 and 1/2 in each set, were prepared by way of a temperature-programmed reduction method using (Ni(CH3COO2 and ((NH42HPO4 as a precursor. The NixPy/SiO2 catalysts were characterized using chemical analysis N2 physisorption, XRD, TEM, 31P MAS NMR. Methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO was performed in a trickle-bed reactor at 3 MPa and 290 °C with LHSV ranging from 0.3 to 16 h−1. The Ni/P ratio was found to affect the nickel phosphide phase composition, POx groups content and catalytic properties in methyl palmitate HDO with the TOF increased along with a decline of Ni/P ratio and a growth of POx groups’ content. Taking into account the possible routes of methyl palmitate conversion (metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis or acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, we proposed that the enhancement of acid POx groups’ content with the Ni/P ratio decrease provides an enhancement of the rate of methyl palmitate conversion through the acceleration of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.

  16. Palmitate Antagonizes Wnt/Beta-catenin Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long chain saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate (PA) produce insulin resistance, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in mature adipocytes and pre-adipocytes. In pre-adipocytes, saturated free fatty acids also promote adipogenic induction in the presence of adipogenic hormones. Wnt/be...

  17. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the Presence of Macroporous Ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Qarina Yaakob and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied in a batch reactor using macro porous ion exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. Methyl palmitate was produced from the reaction between palmitic acid and methanol in the presence of catalyst. The effects of processing parameters, molar ratio of alcohol to acid M, (4-10, catalyst loading (0-10 g cat/liter, water inhibition (0-2 mol/liter, agitator speed (200-800 rpm and reaction temperature (343-373K were studied. The experimental kinetic data were correlated using homogenous as well as heterogeneous models (based on single as well as dual site mechanisms. The activation energy of the reaction was 11.552 kJ/mol for forward reaction whilst 5.464 kJ/mol for backward reaction. The experimental data fitted well with the simulated data obtained from the kinetic models. Keywords: Palmitic Acid, Methanol, Esterification, Ion Exchange Resin, Kinetics.

  18. Impact of palmitic acid coating on the water uptake and loss of ammonium sulfate particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available While water insoluble organics are prevalent in the atmosphere, it is not clear how the presence of such species alters the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Here we use a combination of FTIR spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS to characterize ammonium sulfate particles coated with palmitic acid. Coated aerosols were generated by atomizing pure ammonium sulfate, mixing the particles with a heated flow of nitrogen with palmitic acid vapor, and then flowing the mixture through an in-line oven to create internally mixed particles. The mixing state of the particles was probed using the AMS data and images from the TEM. Both of these probes suggest that the particles were internally mixed. Water uptake by the mixed particles was then probed at 273 K. It was found that for ammonium sulfate containing ~20 wt% palmitic acid the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH was the same as for pure ammonium sulfate (80±3% RH. For particles with ~50 wt% palmitic acid however, the mixed particles began to take up water at relative humidities as low at 69% and continued to slowly take up water to 85% RH without fully deliquescing. In addition to studies of water uptake, water loss was also investigated. Here coatings of up to 50 wt% had no impact on the efflorescence relative humidity. These studies suggest that even if insoluble substances coat salt particles in the atmosphere, there may be relatively little effect on the resulting water uptake and loss.

  19. Improved hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films through incorporation of amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer film blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes (Na-Palm) were produced with no plasticizer, and were observed to have improved physical and gas barrier properties as compared with pure HPMC. The crystalline amylose helices incorporating t...

  20. Supplementation of pyruvate prevents palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake in C2 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Gab; Choi, Sung-E; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Sang-A; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Min-Seok; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-10-15

    Elevated fatty acid levels have been thought to contribute to insulin resistance. Repression of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene as well as impaired GLUT4 translocation may be a mediator for fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. This study was initiated to determine whether palmitate treatment repressed GLUT4 expression, whether glucose/fatty acid metabolism influenced palmitate-induced GLUT4 gene repression (PIGR), and whether attempts to prevent PIGR restored palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake (PIIGU) in C2 myotubes. Not only stimulators of fatty acid oxidation, such as bezafibrate, AICAR, and TOFA, but also TCA cycle substrates, such as pyruvate, leucine/glutamine, and α-ketoisocaproate/monomethyl succinate, significantly prevented PIGR. In particular, supplementing with pyruvate through methyl pyruvate resulted in nearly complete prevention of PIIGU, whereas palmitate treatment reduced the intracellular pyruvate level. These results suggest that pyruvate depletion plays a critical role in PIGR and PIIGU; thus, pyruvate supplementation may help prevent obesity-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-θ to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-θ nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-θ attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-θ activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity. PMID:19726875

  2. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-theta subcellular localization in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Kemp, Christopher J; Elias, Carol F; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G; Holland, William L; Clegg, Deborah J

    2009-09-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-theta, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-theta was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-theta to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-theta nor induced insulin resistance. Finally, arcuate-specific knockdown of PKC-theta attenuated diet-induced obesity and improved insulin signaling. These results suggest that many of the deleterious effects of high-fat diets, specifically those enriched with palmitic acid, are CNS mediated via PKC-theta activation, resulting in reduced insulin activity.

  3. Alcoholic Hepatitis

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    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  4. Paliperidone Palmitate for Schizoaffective Disorder: A Review of the Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, William M; Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Despite being frequently diagnosed, there has been very limited study of efficacious treatments for schizoaffective disorder. Paliperidone had been approved for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, and a recently completed relapse prevention study of the use of a once-monthly injectable paliperidone formulation has also led to an indication for that preparation to treat schizoaffective disorder. To review the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone for schizoaffective disorder, we conducted a systematic literature search of studies of paliperidone in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, and briefly reviewed evidence regarding the somewhat controversial nature of that diagnostic entity. We located several studies of the use of paliperidone extended release in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder, but only one completed study of the use of paliperidone palmitate, which demonstrated efficacy in preventing relapse. Three other studies are currently recruiting participants. Efficacy and tolerability were similar to the profile of oral paliperidone in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. These results were similar for both individuals treated with paliperidone palmitate alone, and for those treated with paliperidone palmitate with adjunctive mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. The use of paliperidone palmitate does not require initial co-administration of oral paliperidone, has relatively little risk of drug-drug interactions, and its pharmacokinetics are favorable for once-monthly administration, an important treatment option for individuals with psychotic disorders, who may often be non-adherent to effective medication regimens. Paliperidone palmitate is an approved treatment for schizoaffective disorder, and can be efficacious with or without commonly employed adjunctive treatments.

  5. Signaling dynamics of palmitate-induced ER stress responses mediated by ATF4 in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hyunju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palmitic acid, the most common saturated free fatty acid, has been implicated in ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. This lipoapotosis is dependent, in part, on the upregulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4. To better understand the mechanisms by which palmitate upregulates the expression level of ATF4, we integrated literature information on palmitate-induced ER stress signaling into a discrete dynamic model. The model provides an in silico framework that enables simulations and predictions. The model predictions were confirmed through further experiments in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and the results were used to update the model and our current understanding of the signaling induced by palmitate. Results The three key things from the in silico simulation and experimental results are: 1 palmitate induces different signaling pathways (PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, PERK (PKR-like ER kinase, PKA (cyclic AMP (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in a time dependent-manner, 2 both ATF4 and CREB1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 interact with the Atf4 promoter to contribute to a prolonged accumulation of ATF4, and 3 CREB1 is involved in ER-stress induced apoptosis upon palmitate treatment, by regulating ATF4 expression and possibly Ca2+ dependent-CaM (calmodulin signaling pathway. Conclusion The in silico model helped to delineate the essential signaling pathways in palmitate-mediated apoptosis.

  6. Palmitate and insulin synergistically induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumpkin Charles K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance is associated with a proinflammatory state that promotes the development of complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and atherosclerosis. The metabolic stimuli that initiate and propagate proinflammatory cytokine production and the cellular origin of proinflammatory cytokines in insulin resistance have not been fully elucidated. Circulating proinflammatory monocytes show signs of enhanced inflammation in obese, insulin resistant subjects and are thus a potential source of proinflammatory cytokine production. The specific, circulating metabolic factors that might stimulate monocyte inflammation in insulin resistant subjects are poorly characterized. We have examined whether saturated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA and insulin, which increase in concentration with developing insulin resistance, can trigger the production of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in human monocytes. Methods Messenger RNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Luminex bioassays. Student's t-test was used with a significance level of p Results Esterification of palmitate with coenzyme A (CoA was necessary, while β-oxidation and ceramide biosynthesis were not required, for the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α in THP-1 monocytes. Monocytes incubated with insulin and palmitate together produced more IL-6 mRNA and protein, and more TNF-α protein, compared to monocytes incubated with palmitate alone. Incubation of monocytes with insulin alone did not affect the production of IL-6 or TNF-α. Both PI3K-Akt and MEK/ERK signalling pathways are important for cytokine induction by palmitate. MEK/ERK signalling is necessary for synergistic induction of IL-6 by palmitate and insulin. Conclusions High levels of saturated NEFA, such as palmitate, when combined with hyperinsulinemia, may activate human monocytes to produce

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  18. Hepatitis C

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    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  20. Hepatitis A

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    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

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    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

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    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

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  5. Autoimmune Hepatitis

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  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  11. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

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  12. Retention and clearance of C-11 palmitic acid in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Keen, R.; Vinten-Johansen, J.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Barrio, J.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Free fatty acids are the major energy source for cardiac muscle. Oxidation of fatty acid decreases or even ceases during ischemia. Its recovery after transient ischemia remains largely unexplored. Using intracoronary carbon-11 palmitic acid as a tracer of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in an open chest dog model, retention and clearance of tracer in myocardium were evaluated at control, during ischemia and after reperfusion following a 20 minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves were analyzed with biexponential curve-fitting routines yielding fractional distribution and clearance half-times of C-11 palmitic acid in myocardial tissue. In animals with permanent occlusion and intracoronary injection of C-11 palmitic acid distal to the occlusion site, the relative size and half-time of the early clearance curve component differed markedly from control values and did not change with ongoing ischemia. Conversely, in animals with only 20 minutes of coronary occlusion, the relative size of the early C-11 clearance phase was still significantly depressed at 20 and 90 minutes of reperfusion but returned to control level at 180 minutes. Tissue C-11 clearance half-times remained significantly prolonged throughout the reperfusion period. Regional function in reperfused myocardium monitored with ultrasonic crystals recovered slowly and was still less than control after 3 hours of reperfusion. The data indicate that after transient ischemia, myocardial fatty acid metabolism fails to recover immediately. Because the metabolic recovery occurs in parallel with recovery of regional function, C-11 palmitic acid in conjunction with positron tomography may be useful for studying regional fatty acid metabolism noninvasively after an ischemic injury, and may be helpful in identifying reversible tissue injury

  13. Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Stephen C.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Elias, Carol F.; Abplanalp, William; Herman, James P.; Migrenne, Stephanie; Lefevre, Anne-Laure; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe; Yu, Fang; Niswender, Kevin; Irani, Boman G.; Holland, William L.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of ...

  14. Cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by membrane palmitate accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Payet

    Full Text Available The F508del-CFTR mutation, responsible for Cystic Fibrosis (CF, leads to the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The mistrafficking of this mutant form can be corrected by pharmacological chaperones, but these molecules showed limitations in clinical trials. We therefore hypothesized that important factors in CF patients may have not been considered in the in vitro assays. CF has also been associated with an altered lipid homeostasis, i. e. a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma and tissues. However, the precise fatty acyl content of membrane phospholipids from human CF bronchial epithelial cells had not been studied to date. Since the saturation level of phospholipids can modulate crucial membrane properties, with potential impacts on membrane protein folding/trafficking, we analyzed this parameter for freshly isolated bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. Interestingly, we could show that Palmitate, a saturated fatty acid, accumulates within Phosphatidylcholine (PC in CF freshly isolated cells, in a process that could result from hypoxia. The observed PC pattern can be recapitulated in the CFBE41o(- cell line by incubation with 100 µM Palmitate. At this concentration, Palmitate induces an ER stress, impacts calcium homeostasis and leads to a decrease in the activity of the corrected F508del-CFTR. Overall, these data suggest that bronchial epithelial cells are lipointoxicated by hypoxia-related Palmitate accumulation in CF patients. We propose that this phenomenon could be an important bottleneck for F508del-CFTR trafficking correction by pharmacological agents in clinical trials.

  15. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    OpenAIRE

    Zhangyang Qi; Meihao Wu; Yun Fu; Tengfei Huang; Tingting Wang; Yanjie Sun; Zhibo Feng; Changzheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane...

  17. A Case of Ileus in a Patient with Schizophrenia Under Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Serdar S?leyman; Kabaday?, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a side effect of antipsychotic drugs that have high affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, ileus is an important side effect of antipsychotic treatment, with potentially morbid and mortal consequences if early detection fails. In this report, a colonic ileus case is described in a patient with schizophrenia under the treatment of paliperidone palmitate. Consequently, complete physical examination and close screening of side effects are recommended when ant...

  18. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate, the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate, the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/- mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. METHODS: Muc2(-/- mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. RESULTS: Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/- mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1, genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/- mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  19. High beta-palmitate fat controls the intestinal inflammatory response and limits intestinal damage in mucin Muc2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Bar-Yoseph, Fabiana; Levi, Liora; Lifshitz, Yael; Witte-Bouma, Janneke; de Bruijn, Adrianus C J M; Korteland-van Male, Anita M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Renes, Ingrid B

    2013-01-01

    Palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-1,3 positions of the glycerol backbone (alpha, alpha'-palmitate), the predominant palmitate conformation in regular infant formula fat, is poorly absorbed and might cause abdominal discomfort. In contrast, palmitic-acid esterified to the sn-2 position (beta-palmitate), the main palmitate conformation in human milk fat, is well absorbed. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of high alpha, alpha'-palmitate fat (HAPF) diet and high beta-palmitate fat (HBPF) diet on colitis development in Muc2 deficient (Muc2(-/-)) mice, a well-described animal model for spontaneous enterocolitis due to the lack of a protective mucus layer. Muc2(-/-) mice received AIN-93G reference diet, HAPF diet or HBPF diet for 5 weeks after weaning. Clinical symptoms, intestinal morphology and inflammation in the distal colon were analyzed. Both HBPF diet and AIN-93G diet limited the extent of intestinal erosions and morphological damage in Muc2(-/-) mice compared with HAPF diet. In addition, the immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cell response as demonstrated by the up-regulation of Foxp3, Tgfb1 and Ebi3 gene expression levels was enhanced by HBPF diet compared with AIN-93G and HAPF diets. HBPF diet also increased the gene expression of Pparg and enzymatic antioxidants (Sod1, Sod3 and Gpx1), genes all reported to be involved in promoting an immunosuppressive Treg cell response and to protect against colitis. This study shows for the first time that HBPF diet limits the intestinal mucosal damage and controls the inflammatory response in Muc2(-/-) mice by inducing an immunosuppressive Treg cell response.

  20. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  2. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  3. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  4. Modification of Turen Bentonite with AlCl3 for Esterification of Palmitic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulloh Abdulloh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural Turen bentonite has been modified and applied as catalyst for palmitic acid esterification. Modification of natural Turen bentonite was conducted by cation exchange method using AlCl3 solution. Catalyst characterization was performed on X-ray Fluoroscence, X-ray Diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The catalytic activity test in the esterification reaction of palmitic acid with methanol was conducted by bath at 65 °C with a variation of reaction time of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h. Catalytic activity has been observed qualitatively using GC-MS and quantitatively by changes in acid number. The analysis showed the formation of Al3+-bentonite. Observation on the elements has shown that the presence of calcium decreased from 10.2% to 4.17%, with an increase of aluminium content from 9.9% to 13%. Diffraction line at 2θ 5.7379º became 5.6489º, along with changes in d-spacing of 15.3895 Å to 15.6319 Å. The surface area increased from 83.78 m2/g to 91.26 m2/g, while Brönsted acid sites increased from 10.2 µmol/g to 67.5 µmol/g and Lewis acid sites increased from 94.9 µmol/g to 132 µmol/g. Furthermore, Al3+-bentonite has showed as active catalyst in the esterification reaction of palmitic acid with palmitic acid with conversion of 78.78% for 5 h. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 24th September 2013; Revised: 31st December 2013; Accepted: 26th January 2014[How to Cite: Abdulloh, A., Maryam, S., Aminah, N.S., Triyono, T., Trisunaryanti, W., Mudasir, M., Prasetyoko, D. (2014. Modification of Turen’s Bentonite with AlCl3 for Esterification of Palmitic Acid. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 66-73. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5513.66-73][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5513.66-73

  5. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  6. Oleate ameliorates palmitate-induced reduction of NAMPT activity and NAD levels in primary human hepatocytes and hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Melanie; Schuster, Susanne; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2017-10-03

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels are crucial for liver function. The saturated fatty acid palmitate and the unsaturated fatty acid oleate are the main free fatty acids in adipose tissue and human diet. We asked how these fatty acids affect cell survival, NAMPT and NAD levels in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were stimulated with palmitate (0.5mM), oleate (1mM) or a combination of both (0.5mM/1mM) as well as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) (0.5 mM) or the specific NAMPT inhibitor FK866 (10nM). Cell survival was measured by WST-1 assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. NAD levels were determined by NAD/NADH Assay or HPLC. Protein and mRNA levels were analysed by Western blot analyses and qPCR, respectively. NAMPT enzyme activity was measured using radiolabelled 14 C-nicotinamide. Lipids were stained by Oil red O staining. Palmitate significantly reduced cell survival and induced apoptosis at physiological doses. NAMPT activity and NAD levels significantly declined after 48h of palmitate. In addition, NAMPT mRNA expression was enhanced which was associated with increased NAMPT release into the supernatant, while intracellular NAMPT protein levels remained stable. Oleate alone did not influence cell viability and NAMPT activity but ameliorated the negative impact of palmitate on cell survival, NAMPT activity and NAD levels, as well as the increased NAMPT mRNA expression and secretion. NMN was able to normalize intracellular NAD levels but did not ameliorate cell viability after co-stimulation with palmitate. FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor did not influence lipid accumulation after oleate-treatment. Palmitate targets NAMPT activity with a consequent cellular depletion of NAD. Oleate protects from palmitate-induced apoptosis and variation of NAMPT and NAD levels. Palmitate-induced cell stress leads to an increase of NAMPT mRNA and accumulation in the supernatant. However

  7. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  8. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  10. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  11. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  15. Palmitate-induced inflammatory pathways in human adipose microvascular endothelial cells promote monocyte adhesion and impair insulin transcytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Nicolas J; Azizi, Paymon M; Li, Yujin E; Liu, Jun; Wang, Changsen; Chan, Kenny L; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P; Heit, Bryan; Bilan, Philip J; Lee, Warren L; Klip, Amira

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and immune cell recruitment to adipose tissue, muscle and intima of atherosclerotic blood vessels. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are also associated with tissue insulin resistance and can compromise insulin delivery to muscle. The muscle/fat microvascular endothelium mediates insulin delivery and facilitates monocyte transmigration, yet its contribution to the consequences of hyperlipidemia is poorly understood. Using primary endothelial cells from human adipose tissue microvasculature (HAMEC), we investigated the effects of physiological levels of fatty acids on endothelial inflammation and function. Expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules was measured by RT-qPCR. Signaling pathways were evaluated by pharmacological manipulation and immunoblotting. Surface expression of adhesion molecules was determined by immunohistochemistry. THP1 monocyte interaction with HAMEC was measured by cell adhesion and migration across transwells. Insulin transcytosis was measured by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Palmitate, but not palmitoleate, elevated the expression of IL-6, IL-8, TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). HAMEC had markedly low fatty acid uptake and oxidation, and CD36 inhibition did not reverse the palmitate-induced expression of adhesion molecules, suggesting that inflammation did not arise from palmitate uptake/metabolism. Instead, inhibition of TLR4 to NF-κB signaling blunted palmitate-induced ICAM-1 expression. Importantly, palmitate-induced surface expression of ICAM-1 promoted monocyte binding and transmigration. Conversely, palmitate reduced insulin transcytosis, an effect reversed by TLR4 inhibition. In summary, palmitate activates inflammatory pathways in primary microvascular endothelial cells, impairing insulin transport and increasing monocyte transmigration. This behavior may contribute in vivo to reduced tissue insulin action and enhanced tissue

  16. Astragalus Polysaccharide Improves Palmitate-Induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting PTP1B and NF-κB in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes. Palmitate-reduced glucose uptake was restored by APS. APS prevented palmitate-induced C2C12 myotubes from impaired insulin signaling by inhibiting Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and increasing Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the increases in protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B protein level and NF-κB activation associated with palmitate treatment were also prevented by APS. However the treatment with APS didn’t change AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation in palmitate-induced myotubes. The results of the present study suggest that Astragalus polysaccharide inhibits palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes by inhibiting expression of PTP1B and regulating NF-κB but not AMPK pathway.

  17. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  18. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  19. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  20. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ben D; Rahnert, Jill A; Xie, Yang; Zheng, Bin; Woodworth-Hobbs, Myra E; Price, S Russ

    2018-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides), palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242). Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα) and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  1. Palmitate-induced ER stress and inhibition of protein synthesis in cultured myotubes does not require Toll-like receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben D Perry

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acids, such as palmitate, are elevated in metabolically dysfunctional conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Palmitate has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity and suppress protein synthesis while upregulating proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle. Increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and subsequent activation of the unfolded protein response may contribute to the palmitate-induced impairment of muscle protein synthesis. In some cell types, ER stress occurs through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Given the link between ER stress and suppression of protein synthesis, we investigated whether palmitate induces markers of ER stress and protein synthesis by activating TLR4 in cultured mouse C2C12 myotubes. Myotubes were treated with vehicle, a TLR4-specific ligand (lipopolysaccharides, palmitate, or a combination of palmitate plus a TLR4-specific inhibitor (TAK-242. Inflammatory indicators of TLR4 activation (IL-6 and TNFα and markers of ER stress were measured, and protein synthesis was assessed using puromycin incorporation. Palmitate substantially increased the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, CHOP, XBP1s, and ATF 4 mRNAs and augmented the levels of CHOP, XBP1s, phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α proteins. The TLR4 antagonist attenuated both acute palmitate and LPS-induced increases in IL-6 and TNFα, but did not reduce ER stress signaling with either 6 h or 24 h palmitate treatment. Similarly, treating myotubes with palmitate for 6 h caused a 43% decline in protein synthesis consistent with an increase in phospho-eIF2α, and the TLR4 antagonist did not alter these responses. These results suggest that palmitate does not induce ER stress through TLR4 in muscle, and that palmitate impairs protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part by induction of ER stress.

  2. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  3. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  4. Egr2 enhances insulin resistance via JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ye, Xinhua; Yao, Qing; Lu, Aijiao; Zhao, Zhen; Ding, Yang; Meng, Chuchen; Yu, Wenlong; Du, Yunfeng; Cheng, JinLuo

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance is generally responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early growth response proteins-2 (Egr2) has been reported to be able to increase the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), and impair insulin signaling pathway through suppression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS), including IRS-1 and IRS-2. However, whether Egr2 is directly involved in the development of insulin resistance, and how its potential contributions to insulin resistance still remain unknown. Here, our present investigation found that the expression levels of Egr2 were up-regulated when insulin resistance occurs, and knockdown of Egr2 abolished the effect of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells induced with palmitate (PA). Importantly, inhibition of Egr2 decreased the expression of SOCS-1 as well as reduced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. And, our data indicated that silencing of Egr2 accelerated hepatic glucose uptake and reversed the impaired lipid metabolism upon insulin resistance. In summary, the present study confirms that Egr2 could deteriorate insulin resistance via the pathway of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 and may shed light on resolving insulin resistance and further the pathogenesis of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  6. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-03-05

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs.

  7. The effect of cetyl palmitate crystallinity on physical properties of gamma-oryzanol encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Limpakdee, Surachai; Meejoo, Siwaporn; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Junyaprasert, Varaporn; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2008-01-01

    This present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the crystallinity of cetyl palmitate based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) on the physical properties of γ-oryzanol-loaded SLNs. SLNs consisting of varying ratios of cetyl palmitate and γ-oryzanol were prepared. Their hydrodynamic diameters were in the range 210-280 nm and the zeta potentials were in the range -27 to -35 mV. The size of SLNs increased as the amount of cetyl palmitate decreased whereas no significant change of zeta potentials was found. Atomic force microscopy pictures indicated the presence of disc-like particles. The crystallinity of SLNs, determined by differential scanning calorimetry and powder x-ray diffraction, was directly dependent on the ratio of cetyl palmitate to γ-oryzanol and decreased with decreasing cetyl palmitate content in the lipid matrix. Varying this ratio in the lipid mix resulted in a shift in the melting temperature and enthalpy, although the SLN structure remained unchanged as an orthorhombic lamellar lattice. This has been attributed to a potential inhibition by γ-oryzanol during lipid crystal growth as well as a less ordered structure of the SLNs. The results revealed that the crystallinity of the SLNs was mainly dependent on the solid lipid, and that the crystallinity has an important impact on the physical characteristics of active-loaded SLNs

  8. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  10. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  11. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  12. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  13. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  14. Synthesis of Renewable Diesel Range Alkanes by Hydrodeoxygenation of Palmitic Acid over 5% Ni/CNTs under Mild Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Duan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to renewable diesel has been attracting more and more attention. In the current paper, carbon nanotube (CNT-supported nickel catalysts, namely, 5% Ni/CNTs, were prepared for liquid hydrocarbon production through the deoxygenation of palmitic acid, the model compound of bio-oil under a mild condition of 240 °C reaction temperature and 2 MPa H2 pressure. The experimental results revealed that the main reaction product was pentadecane (yield of 89.64% at an optimum palmitic acid conversion of 97.25% via the hydrodecarbonylation (HDC process. The deoxygenation mechanism for palmitic acid conversion was also investigated. This study provides technical parameters and a theoretical basis for further industrialization in the bio-oil upgrading process.

  15. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  16. Paliperidone Palmitate Improves and Maintains Functioning in Asia-Pacific Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Zhuo, Jianmin; Mathews, Maju; Tan, Wilson; Feng, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Post hoc analyses (two single-arm studies) were conducted to determine the impact of once-monthly injection of paliperidone palmitate on functioning in adult patients with schizophrenia in the Asia-Pacific region. Study 1 enrolled hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, and study 2 enrolled patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia unsatisfactorily treated with oral antipsychotics. Patients received paliperidone palmitate, 150 mg eq. on day 1, 100 mg eq. on day 8, then once monthly (50-150 mg eq.) (study 1, days 36 and 64; study 2, 18 months). Functional status was evaluated by Personal and Social Performance score in both studies and employment only in study 2. In study 1, 54 of 184 patients (29.4%) with an unfavorable level of functioning at the baseline improved to a favorable level (Personal and Social Performance score greater than 70) at day 92. This improvement was significantly greater among patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia (5 years or less) compared with patients with chronic schizophrenia (more than 5 years): 40% versus 22% (p schizophrenia. Janssen-Cilag Asia-Pacific Medical Affairs.

  17. Lauric and palmitic acids eutectic mixture as latent heat storage material for low temperature heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncbilek, Kadir; Sari, Ahmet; Tarhan, Sefa; Erguenes, Gazanfer; Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA, 59.8 deg. C) and lauric acid (LA, 42.6 deg. C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting temperatures which can limit their use in low temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of the lauric and the palmitic acids. In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 69.0 wt% LA and 31 wt% PA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 35.2 deg. C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.3 J g -1 . This study also considers the experimental determination of the thermal characteristics of the eutectic mixture during the heat charging and discharging processes. Radial and axial temperature distribution, heat transfer coefficient between the heat transfer fluid (HTF) pipe and the PCM, heat recovery rate and heat charging and discharging fractions were experimentally established employing a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe energy storage system. The changes of these characteristics were evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet HTF temperature and mass flow rate. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-PA eutectic mixture can be a potential material for low temperature thermal energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics

  18. Palmitic acid/polypyrrole composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Baradaran, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel phase change composite of palmitic acid–polypyrrole(PA–PPy) was fabricated. • Thermal properties of PA–PPy are characterized in different mass ratios of PA–PPy. • Thermal cycling test showed that form stable PCM had a favorable thermal reliability. - Abstract: In this study a novel palmitic acid (PA)/polypyrrole (PPy) form-stable PCMs were readily prepared by in situ polymerization method. PA was used as thermal energy storage material and PPy was operated as supporting material. Form-stable PCMs were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer) analysis that illustrated PA Particles were wrapped by PPy particles. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) was used for crystalline phase of PA/PPy composites. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for investigating Thermal stability and thermal energy storage properties of prepared form-stable PCMs. According to the obtained results the form stable PCMs exhibited favorable thermal stability in terms of their phase change temperature. The form-stable PCMs (79.9 wt% loading of PA) were considered as the highest loading PCM with desirable latent heat storage of 166.3 J/g and good thermal stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also showed that form stable PCM had an acceptable thermal reliability. As a consequence of acceptable thermal properties, thermal stability and chemical stability, we can consider the new kind of form stable PCMs for low temperature solar thermal energy storage applications

  19. Preparation and Characterization of a Solid Acid Catalyst from Macro Fungi Residue for Methyl Palmitate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the process of fungal polysaccharide extraction for health care products and food factories, a large quantity of macro-fungi residues are produced, but most of the residues are abandoned and become environmental pollutants. A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized Phellinus igniarius residue, was shown to be an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst for the esterification of palmitate acid (PA and methanol. As a comparison, two types of common biomass catalysts, wheat straws and wood chips, were prepared. In this study, characterizations, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller assays and elemental analysis, and reaction conditions for the synthesis of methyl palmitate (MP using solid acid catalysts were investigated. Experiments showed that the solid acid catalyst prepared from P. igniarius residue had a higher catalytic activity than the other two catalysts, and the highest yield of MP catalyzed by P. igniarius residue solid acid catalyst was 91.5% under the following optimum conditions: molar ratio of methanol/PA of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 °C, mass ratio of catalyst/substrate of 2%, and a reaction time of 1.5 h. Thus, the use of this catalyst offers a method for producing MP.

  20. Metabolic reserve in normal myocardium assessed by positron emission tomography with C-11 palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide; Takahashi, Norio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Magata, Yasuhiro; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Kawai, Chuichi; Konishi, Junji

    1991-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with C-11 palmitate has been used in estimating the myocardial utilization of free fatty acid. To assess the metabolic reserve in normal subjects, a PET study was performed at control and during dobutamine infusion at 2 hour intervals in 5 normal subjects. Following monoexponential curve fitting of the time activity curve of the myocardium, the clearance half time (min) and residual fraction (%) were calculated as indices of β-oxydation of free fatty acid. A significant increase in the heart rate and systolic blood pressure were observed during dobutamine infusion (65±5 vs 100±29 bpm, p<0.05 and 119±12 vs 144±16 mmHg, p<0.01, respectively). The clearance half-time and the residual fraction were significantly decreased (23.4±2.6 vs 15.8±2.3 min and 67.0±2.5 vs 58.6±4.0%, p<0.05, each). When the left ventricular myocardium was divided into 4 segments, these indices were similar at control and uniformly decreased without regional differences during dobutamine infusion. These data suggest that β-oxydation of free fatty acid may be uniformly increased in the left ventricular myocardium in relation to the increase in cardiac work in normal subjects. PET with C-11 palmitate at control and during dobutamine infusion is considered to be promising in assessing metabolic reserve in the myocardium. (author)

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  2. Hydrogen Sulphide modulating mitochondrial morphology to promote mitophagy in endothelial cells under high-glucose and high-palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Jichao; Zhang, Linxue; Gao, Zhaopeng; Sun, Yu; Yu, Miao; Zhao, Yajun; Dong, Shiyun; Lu, Fanghao; Zhang, Weihua

    2017-12-01

    Endothelial cell dysfunction is one of the main reasons for type II diabetes vascular complications. Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) has antioxidative effect, but its regulation on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in aortic endothelial cells under hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia is unclear. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were treated with 40 mM glucose and 200 μM palmitate to imitate endothelium under hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia, and 100 μM NaHS was used as an exogenous H 2 S donor. Firstly, we demonstrated that high glucose and palmitate decreased H 2 S production and CSE expression in RAECs. Then, the antioxidative effect of H 2 S was proved in RAECs under high glucose and palmitate to reduce mitochondrial ROS level. We also showed that exogenous H 2 S inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis in RAECs under high glucose and palmitate. Using Mito Tracker and transmission electron microscopy assay, we revealed that exogenous H 2 S decreased mitochondrial fragments and significantly reduced the expression of p-Drp-1/Drp-1 and Fis1 compared to high-glucose and high-palmitate group, whereas it increased mitophagy by transmission electron microscopy assay. We demonstrated that exogenous H 2 S facilitated Parkin recruited by PINK1 by immunoprecipitation and immunostaining assays and then ubiquitylated mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which illuminated the mechanism of exogenous H 2 S on mitophagy. Parkin siRNA suppressed the expression of Mfn2, Nix and LC3B, which revealed that it eliminated mitophagy. In summary, exogenous H 2 S could protect RAECs against apoptosis under high glucose and palmitate by suppressing oxidative stress, decreasing mitochondrial fragments and promoting mitophagy. Based on these results, we proposed a new mechanism of H 2 S on protecting endothelium, which might provide a new strategy for type II diabetes vascular complication. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for

  3. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  4. D-isoascorbyl palmitate: lipase-catalyzed synthesis, structural characterization and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Cui, Feng-Jie; Li, Yun-Hong; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jing-Ya; Dong, Ying

    2013-07-08

    Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid's oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One-factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM). The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from "one-factor-at-a-time" experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time. The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives.

  5. Palmitate diet-induced loss of cardiac caveolin-3: a novel mechanism for lipid-induced contractile dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Knowles

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiomyopathy, and mechanisms linking the underlying risk and dietary factors are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that dietary intake of saturated fat increases the levels of sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingomyelin in cardiac cell membranes that disrupt caveolae, specialized membrane micro-domains and important for cellular signaling. C57BL/6 mice were fed two high-fat diets: palmitate diet (21% total fat, 47% is palmitate, and MCT diet (21% medium-chain triglycerides, no palmitate. We established that high-palmitate feeding for 12 weeks leads to 40% and 50% increases in ceramide and sphingomyelin, respectively, in cellular membranes. Concomitant with sphingolipid accumulation, we observed a 40% reduction in systolic contractile performance. To explore the relationship of increased sphingolipids with caveolins, we analyzed caveolin protein levels and intracellular localization in isolated cardiomyocytes. In normal cardiomyocytes, caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 co-localize at the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system. However, mice maintained on palmitate lost 80% of caveolin-3, mainly from the T-tubule system. Mice maintained on MCT diet had a 90% reduction in caveolin-1. These data show that caveolin isoforms are sensitive to the lipid environment. These data are further supported by similar findings in human cardiac tissue samples from non-obese, obese, non-obese cardiomyopathic, and obese cardiomyopathic patients. To further elucidate the contractile dysfunction associated with the loss of caveolin-3, we determined the localization of the ryanodine receptor and found lower expression and loss of the striated appearance of this protein. We suggest that palmitate-induced loss of caveolin-3 results in cardiac contractile dysfunction via a defect in calcium-induced calcium release.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed synthesis of D-isoascorbyl palmitate: process optimization and Kinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng-Jie; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Sun, Wen-Jing; Wei, Zhuan; Yu, Si-Lian; Zhou, Qiang; Dong, Ying

    2013-12-09

    D-isoascorbic acid is a food antioxidant additive and used in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). High solubility in water (about 150 g/L at 25°C) reduces its effectiveness in stabilizing fats and oils. Our research group had successfully synthesized D-isoascorbyl palmitate using immobilized lipase Novozym 435 as a biocatalyst. Low production efficiency of D-isoascorbyl palmitate is still a problem for industrial production due to the long reaction time of over 24 h. In the present work, ultrasonic treatment was applied for accelerating the reaction process. The operation parameters were optimized to obtain the maximum D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate by using a 5-level-4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and Response Surface Methdology (RSM). The reaction apparent kinetic parameters under the ultrasound treatment and mechanical shaking conditions were also determined and compared. Results showed that ultrasound treatment decreased the reaction time by over 50%. D-isoascorbyl palmitate yielded to 94.32 ± 0.17% and the productivity reached to 8.67 g L-1 h-1 under the optimized conditions as: 9% of enzyme load (w/w), 61°C of reaction temperature, 1:5 of D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio, and 137 W of the ultrasound power. The immobilized lipase Novozym 435 could be reused for 7 times with 65% of the remained D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. The reaction kinetics showed that the maximum apparent reaction rate (vmax) of the ultrasound-assisted reaction was 2.85 times higher than that of the mechanical shaking, which proved that ultrasound treatment significantly enhanced the reaction efficiency. A systematic study on ultrasound-assisted enzymatic esterification for D-isoascorbyl palmitate production is reported. The results show a promising perspective of the ultrasound technique to reduce the reaction time and improve the production efficiency. The commercial D-isoascorbyl palmitate synthesis will be potentially

  7. Bactericidal activity of self-assembled palmitic and stearic fatty acid crystals on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Nguyen, Song Ha; Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wandiyanto, Jason V; Garvey, Christopher J; Mahon, Peter J; Mainwaring, David E; Crawford, Russell J

    2017-09-01

    The wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have been found to possess nanostructure arrays that are assembled from fatty acids. These arrays can physically interact with the bacterial cell membranes, leading to the death of the cell. Such mechanobactericidal surfaces are of significant interest, as they can kill bacteria without the need for antibacterial chemicals. Here, we report on the bactericidal effect of two of the main lipid components of the insect wing epicuticle, palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) fatty acids. Films of these fatty acids were re-crystallised on the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. It appeared that the presence of two additional CH 2 groups in the alkyl chain resulted in the formation of different surface structures. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the palmitic acid microcrystallites were more asymmetric than those of the stearic acid, where the palmitic acid microcrystallites were observed to be an angular abutment in the scanning electron micrographs. The principal differences between the two types of long-chain saturated fatty acid crystallites were the larger density of peaks in the upper contact plane of the palmitic acid crystallites, as well as their greater proportion of asymmetrical shapes, in comparison to that of the stearic acid film. These two parameters might contribute to higher bactericidal activity on surfaces derived from palmitic acid. Both the palmitic and stearic acid crystallite surfaces displayed activity against Gram-negative, rod-shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive, spherical Staphylococcus aureus cells. These microcrystallite interfaces might be a useful tool in the fabrication of effective bactericidal nanocoatings. Nanostructured cicada and dragonfly wing surfaces have been discovered to be able physically kill bacterial cells. Here, we report on the successful fabrication of bactericidal three-dimensional structures of two main lipid

  8. Raman imaging and lipidomic analysis of lipid droplets in (activated) hepatic stellate cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaandrager, A.B.; Testerink, N.; Ajat, M.; Houweling, M.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; Pully, V.V.; van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis; Helms, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells the excess of hydrophobic molecules is stored in special organelles named lipid droplets (LDs). These droplets contain triacylglycerides, cholesteryl esters and/or retinyl esters, depending on the function of the cell in which they reside. Retinyl esters, the storage form of

  9. Optimization of α-tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate addition for the stabilization of sardine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Medina, R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to optimize the addition of natural antioxidants (α- tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate for the stabilization of sardine oil rich in omega-3 PUFA. The optimal values for peroxide value (PV, which minimizes primary oxidation products, were obtained at low concentrations of α-tocopherol (50–207 ppm, high content of ascorbyl palmitate (450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. On the other hand, optimal values for p-anisidine value (AV, which minimizes secondary oxidation products, were found at medium concentrations of α-tocopherol (478–493 ppm, high contents of ascorbyl palmitate (390–450 ppm and 50 ppm citric acid. The conflicting effect of α-tocopherol on the individual optimization of PV and AV motivated the generation of a Pareto front (set of non inferior solutions employing the weighted-sum multi-objective optimization technique.El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar la adición de antioxidantes naturales (α-tocoferol y palmitato de ascorbilo para la estabilización de aceite de sardina rico en omega-3 PUFA. Bajas concentraciones de α-tocoferol (50–207 ppm combinadas con la adicción de antioxidantes secundarios como palmitato de ascorbilo (450 ppm y ácido cítrico (50 ppm, minimizaron la formación de hidroperóxidos en el aceite de sardina estudiado. Sin embargo, los productos secundarios de oxidación se redujeron para concentraciones medias de α-tocoferol (478–493 ppm, altas de palmitato de ascorbilo (390–450 ppm y 50 ppm de ácido cítrico. El efecto contradictorio de la concentración de α-tocoferol en la optimización individual del índice de peróxidos e índice de p-anisidina motivó la realización de una optimización simultánea que permite satisfacer la optimización de cada una de las variables individuales en el grado deseado.

  10. Selection and Characterization of Palmitic Acid Responsive Patients with an OXPHOS Complex I Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom E. J. Theunissen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders are genetically and clinically heterogeneous, mainly affecting high energy-demanding organs due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. Currently, effective treatments for OXPHOS defects, with complex I deficiency being the most prevalent, are not available. Yet, clinical practice has shown that some complex I deficient patients benefit from a high-fat or ketogenic diet, but it is unclear how these therapeutic diets influence mitochondrial function and more importantly, which complex I patients could benefit from such treatment. Dietary studies in a complex I deficient patient with exercise intolerance showed increased muscle endurance on a high-fat diet compared to a high-carbohydrate diet. We performed whole-exome sequencing to characterize the genetic defect. A pathogenic homozygous p.G212V missense mutation was identified in the TMEM126B gene, encoding an early assembly factor of complex I. A complementation study in fibroblasts confirmed that the p.G212V mutation caused the complex I deficiency. The mechanism turned out to be an incomplete assembly of the peripheral arm of complex I, leading to a decrease in the amount of mature complex I. The patient clinically improved on a high-fat diet, which was supported by the 25% increase in maximal OXPHOS capacity in TMEM126B defective fibroblast by the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid, whereas oleic acid did not have any effect in those fibroblasts. Fibroblasts of other patients with a characterized complex I gene defect were tested in the same way. Patient fibroblasts with complex I defects in NDUFS7 and NDUFAF5 responded to palmitic acid, whereas ACAD9, NDUFA12, and NDUFV2 defects were non-responding. Although the data are too limited to draw a definite conclusion on the mechanism, there is a tendency that protein defects involved in early assembly complexes, improve with palmitic acid, whereas proteins defects involved in late assembly, do not. Our data show at

  11. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  12. Clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries

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    Fen-Dui Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases with thermal or chemical injuries to eyes were selected and divided into two groups by randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel controlled method: group A(40 cases were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye geland group B \\〖38 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF\\〗. The bFGF and vitamin A palmitate eye gel were used 4 times a day. The treatment course was 14d. Restoration of epithelial defect, Schirmer's test values, tear break-up time(BUT, and subjective assessment of symptoms and signs were observed on D1, D3, D5, D7, D10 and D14.RESULTS: In group A, 31 cases were cured, 5 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 76% and efficiency 90%. In group B, 32 cases were cured, 3 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 84% and efficiency 92%. There were no significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05. However, there were significant differences on the results of Schirmer's test and BUT(PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin A palmitate eye gel is valuable and safe on early ocular surface reconstruction of the eyes suffered from thermal or chemical injuries.

  13. Recovery outcomes of schizophrenia patients treated with paliperidone palmitate in a community setting: patient and provider perspectives on recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wesley; McKinney, Christopher; Martinez, Larry; Benson, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic on recovery-oriented mental health outcomes from the perspective of healthcare providers and patients during the treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Archival data for patients with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving ≥6 months of paliperidone palmitate LAI were retrieved from the electronic medical records system at the Mental Health Center of Denver. Mental health recovery was assessed from both a provider's (Recovery Markers Inventory [RMI]) and patient's (Consumer Recovery Measure [CRM]) perspective. A three-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) was utilized to determine changes in CRM and RMI scores by including independent variables in the models: intercept, months from treatment (slope), treatment time period (pretreatment and treatment), age, gender, primary diagnosis, substance abuse diagnosis, concurrent medications, and adherence to paliperidone palmitate LAI. A total of 219 patients were identified and included in the study. Results of the final three-level HLMs indicated an overall increase in CRM scores (p a retrospective, non-comparative design, and did not adjust for multiplicity Conclusions: The current study demonstrates that changes in recovery-oriented mental health outcomes can be detected following the administration of a specific antipsychotic treatment in persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Furthermore, patients receiving paliperidone palmitate LAI can effectively improve recovery-oriented outcomes, thereby supporting the drug's use as schizophrenia treatment from a recovery-oriented perspective.

  14. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-06-04

    {sup 1}H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at {delta} 4.32 for retinol and {delta} 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the {sup 1}H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 {mu}g/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and {sup 1}H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification.

  15. Quantitative analysis of retinol and retinol palmitate in vitamin tablets using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Hae; Kim, Hye Kyong; Wilson, Erica G.; Erkelens, Cornelis; Trijzelaar, Ben; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    1 H-NMR spectrometry was applied to the quantitative analysis of Vitamin A in four different types of vitamin tablets without any chromatographic purification or saponification. The experiment was performed analysing the H-15 resonance, which appears at δ 4.32 for retinol and δ 4.69 for retinol palmitate, well separated from other resonances in the 1 H-NMR spectrum. Compounds were quantified using the relative ratio of the integral of the H-15 signal to that of a known amount of internal standard (200 μg/ml), anthracene. In order to evaluate the feasibility of avoiding the saponification of retinol palmitate in the preparation of samples, several solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, n-hexane, methanol, water, and 0.1 M of HCl were tested as possible extraction solvents. Among these, dimethylsulfoxide showed the best yield of retinol palmitate. This method, using dimethylsulfoxide extraction and 1 H-NMR, allows rapid and simple quantitation of retinol palmitate in tablets avoiding tedious saponification

  16. Synergy analysis reveals association between insulin signaling and desmoplakin expression in palmitate treated HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    Full Text Available The regulation of complex cellular activities in palmitate treated HepG2 cells, and the ensuing cytotoxic phenotype, involves cooperative interactions between genes. While previous approaches have largely focused on identifying individual target genes, elucidating interacting genes has thus far remained elusive. We applied the concept of information synergy to reconstruct a "gene-cooperativity" network for palmititate-induced cytotoxicity in liver cells. Our approach integrated gene expression data with metabolic profiles to select a subset of genes for network reconstruction. Subsequent analysis of the network revealed insulin signaling as the most significantly enriched pathway, and desmoplakin (DSP as its top neighbor. We determined that palmitate significantly reduces DSP expression, and treatment with insulin restores the lost expression of DSP. Insulin resistance is a common pathological feature of fatty liver and related ailments, whereas loss of DSP has been noted in liver carcinoma. Reduced DSP expression can lead to loss of cell-cell adhesion via desmosomes, and disrupt the keratin intermediate filament network. Our findings suggest that DSP expression may be perturbed by palmitate and, along with insulin resistance, may play a role in palmitate induced cytotoxicity, and serve as potential targets for further studies on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  17. Ascorbyl palmitate, gamma-tocopherol, and EDTA affect lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched salad dressing differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Let, M.B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of γ-tocopherol, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and ascorbyl palmitate to protect fish oil enriched salad dressing against oxidation during a 6 week storage period at room temperature. The lipid-soluble γ-tocopherol (220 and 880 µg g-1...

  18. Palmitate activates autophagy in INS-1E β-cells and in isolated rat and human pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Martino

    Full Text Available We have investigated the in vitro effects of increased levels of glucose and free fatty acids on autophagy activation in pancreatic beta cells. INS-1E cells and isolated rat and human pancreatic islets were incubated for various times (from 2 to 24 h at different concentrations of glucose and/or palmitic acid. Then, cell survival was evaluated and autophagy activation was explored by using various biochemical and morphological techniques. In INS-1E cells as well as in rat and human islets, 0.5 and 1.0 mM palmitate markedly increased autophagic vacuole formation, whereas high glucose was ineffective alone and caused little additional change when combined with palmitate. Furthermore, LC3-II immunofluorescence co-localized with that of cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, showing that the autophagic flux was not hampered in PA-treated cells. These effects were maintained up to 18-24 h incubation and were associated with a significant decline of cell survival correlated with both palmitate concentration and incubation time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that autophagy activation, as evidenced by the occurrence of many autophagic vacuoles in the cytoplasm of beta cells, was associated with a diffuse and remarkable swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that among the metabolic alterations typically associated with type 2 diabetes, high free fatty acids levels could play a role in the activation of autophagy in beta cells, through a mechanism that might involve the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  19. Determination of Fatty Acid Metabolism with Dynamic [11C]Palmitate Positron Emission Tomography of Mouse Heart In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinlin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish a quantitative method for measuring fatty acid (FA metabolism with partial volume (PV and spill-over (SP corrections using dynamic [11C]palmitate positron emission tomographic (PET images of mouse heart in vivo. Twenty-minute dynamic [11C]palmitate PET scans of four 18- to 20-week-old male C57BL/6 mice under isoflurane anesthesia were performed using a Focus F-120 PET scanner. A model-corrected blood input function, by which the input function with SP and PV corrections and the metabolic rate constants (k1–k5 are simultaneously estimated from the dynamic [11C]palmitate PET images of mouse hearts in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model, was used to determine rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (MFAO, myocardial FA esterification, myocardial FA use, and myocardial FA uptake. The MFAO thus measured in C57BL/6 mice was 375.03 ± 43.83 nmol/min/g. This compares well to the MFAO measured in perfused working C57BL/6 mouse hearts ex vivo of about 350 nmol/g/min and 400 nmol/min/g. FA metabolism was measured for the first time in mouse heart in vivo using dynamic [11C]palmitate PET in a four-compartment tracer kinetic model. MFAO obtained with this model was validated by results previously obtained with mouse hearts ex vivo.

  20. Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-06-30

    The behaviour of monolayers containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate and their mixtures at different molar fraction, using surface pressure-molecular area results, was investigated. The negative deviation from additivity of the mean molecular areas as a function of the mixture composition indicates the miscibility. The miscibility was confirmed by applying the two-dimensional phase rule, since the collapse pressure values vary with the composition of the mixtures. Also the free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix} and the excess free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were determined. The negative values of {delta}G{sub mix} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} indicate that the mixed monolayers are thermodynamically more stable compared to the pure ones and that the compounds in the two dimensional state experience mainly attractive interactions.

  1. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takayuki; Murata, Makoto; Nishida, Tetsuya; Terakura, Seitaro; Saito, Shigeki; Kato, Tomonori; Mizuno, Hiroki; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Seto, Aika; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Kato, Hidefumi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagao, Keisuke; Ueda, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP), a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  2. Thermal properties of silica-filled high density polyethylene composites compatibilized with glut palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Dalina; Ismail, Hanafi; Othman, Nadras; Hamid, Zuratul Ain Abdul

    2017-07-01

    A study of thermal properties resulting from the utilization of Glut Palmitate (GP) on the silica filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was carried out. The composites with the incorporation of GP at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 phr were prepared by using an internal mixer at the temperature 180 °C and the rotor speed of 50 rpm. The thermal behaviours of the composites were then investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the crystallinity and the thermal stability of the composites increased with the incorporation of GP. The highest crystallinity contents and decomposition temperatures were observed at the 1 phr GP loading.

  3. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  4. Metabolic fate of radiolabeled palmitate in ischemic canine myocardium: implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosamond, T.L.; Abendschein, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.; Fox, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Interpretation of dynamic and integrated myocardial tomograms requires elucidation of the biochemical fate of the tracer and characterization of its tissue distribution and rate of efflux. The fate of [1- 11 C] and [1- 14 C]palmitate was studied in 13 open-chest dogs during control or ischemic extracorporeal perfusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. Residue detection of myocardial radioactivity, and radio-biochemical analyses of sequential transmural biopsies and arterial and coronary venous effluent were performed for 30 min after intracoronary bolus administration of tracer. In control hearts, 10.3% of initially extracted tracer was retained in tissue (2.9% in triglyceride, 3.5% in phospholipid, and 3.9% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 73.7% was oxidized, and 16.1% back-diffused unaltered. With ischemia (pump flow 10% of normal), 28.1% was retained (18% in triglyceride, 6.0% in phospholipid, and 4.1% in other lipid and aqueous fractions), 27.2% was oxidized, and 44.4% back diffused (p less than 0.05 compared to control). Throughout the 30-min study interval, triglyceride, diglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid comprised a significantly greater fraction of initially extracted radioactivity in ischemic than in control hearts. Thus, during ischemia externally detected clearance rates cannot be used as a direct measure of fatty acid metabolism because of marked influences on efflux of nonmetabolized radiolabeled palmitate and the distribution of tracer retained in tissue. Quantitative measurements of specific metabolic processes by tomography will require development and validation of tracers confined to individual metabolic pathways or pools

  5. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol. RESUMEN En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  6. PALMITIC AND OLEIC ACIDS AND THEIR ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Titov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of phylogenetic theory of general pathology, the cause of a noninfectious disease whose occurrence in a population is more than 5–7% is an impaired biological function or reaction to the environment. From the general biology viewpoint, high mortality rate related to cardio-vascular diseases and atherosclerosis (intercellular deficiency of polyenic fatty acids (PFA is just extinction of the Homo sapiens population upon adaptation to new environmental factors. The biological function of throphology (feeding and biological reaction of exotrophy (external feeding are impaired in several aspects, the major of which is nonphysiologically high dietary content of saturated fatty acids, primarily, of palmitic fatty acid (FA. The lipoprotein system formed at early stages of phylogenesis cannot transport and provide physiological deposition of great amounts of palmitic FA, which leads to the development of an adaption (compensatory and accumulation disease. This results in hypermipidemia, impaired bioavailability of PFA to cells, compesatory production of humoral mediators from ω-9 eicosatrienoic mead FA, disorders in physiological parameters of cell plasma membrane and integral proteins, nonphysiological conformation of apoВ-100 in lipoproteins, formation of ligandless lipoproteins (biological litter and impairments in the biological function of endoecology, utilization of ligandless lipoproteins in arterial intima by phylogenetically early macrophages that do not hydrolyze polyenic cholesterol esters, increase in the intensity of the biological reaction of inflammation, and destructive and inflammatory lesions in arterial intima of an atheromatosis or atherothrombosis type. Atheromatous masses are catabolites of PFA which were not internalized by phylogenetically late cells via receptor-mediated pathway.

  7. Localization of viable, ischemic myocardium by positron-emission tomography with 11C-palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Ambos, H.D.; Bergmann, S.R.; Welch, M.J.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether viable, but ischemic, tissue could be detected and localized in vivo based on external detection of impaired fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, regional clearance of 11 C-palmitate was assessed by sequential PET in 15 anesthetized dogs. Clearance was consistently monoexponential from 5-15 minutes after administration of the tracer. In the absence of coronary stenosis (n = 7), clearance was homogeneous throughout the heart, with an average rate constant (k) of -0.060 +/- 0.005 min -1 (+/- SEM) and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 11.1 +/- 2.1% in each heart. Homogeneity persisted when the heart rate was increased from 84.4 +/- 6.0 to 202.7 +/- 11.5 beats/min with atropine (CV 13.2 +/- 3.5%). With left circumflex coronary stenosis (less than or equal to70% reduction in vessel diameter), homogeneity of 11 C-clearance under control conditions and with tachycardia did not differ from clearance in hearts without coronary stenosis. However, with stenosis >70% sufficient to induce ischemia without gross infarction, regional clearance of 11 C became markedly heterogeneous under control conditions (CV 28.1 +/- 5.5%, p 11 C in regions supplied by the stenotic vessel (k = -0.044 +/- 0.011 min -1 ) compared with clearance in well perfused regions (k = -0.064 +/- 0.011 min -1 , p 11 C-palmitate delineates zones of viable, ischemic myocardium that characteristically exhibit impaired oxidation of extracted fatty acid

  8. Palmitic acid-labeled lipids selectively incorporated into platelet cytoskeleton during aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packham, M.A.; Guccione, M.A.; Bryant, N.L.; Livne, A.

    1990-01-01

    Previous experiments showed that during the early stages (20-30 seconds) of aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2 microM) or thrombin (0.1 U/mL) of rabbit or human platelets prelabeled with [3H]palmitic acid, labeled lipid became associated with the cytoskeleton isolated after lysis with 1% Triton X-100, 5 mM EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)]-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid. The association appeared to be related to the number of sites of contact and was independent of the release of granule contents. We have now investigated the nature of the labeled lipids by thin-layer and column chromatography and found differences between the distribution of the label in intact platelets (both stimulated and unstimulated) and the isolated cytoskeletons. In both species, and with either ADP or thrombin as aggregating agent, 70-85% of the label in both intact platelets and in the cytoskeletons was in phospholipids. The distribution of label among the phospholipids in the cytoskeletons was similar to that in intact platelets except that the percentage of label in phosphatidylcholine was significantly higher in the cytoskeletons of human platelets than in the intact platelets, and the percentage of label in phosphatidylserine/phosphatidylinositol was significantly lower in the cytoskeletons of rabbit platelets and thrombin-aggregated human platelets than in intact platelets. The cytoskeletons contained a lower percentage of label in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and cholesterol ester than the intact platelets. Contrary to a report in the literature, we found no evidence for the incorporation of diacylglycerol and palmitic acid into the cytoskeleton

  9. ClC-3 deficiency protects preadipocytes against apoptosis induced by palmitate in vitro and in type 2 diabetes mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Ying; Huang, Xiong-Qin; Zhao, Li-Yan; Sun, Fang-Yun; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Jie-Yi; Yuan, Feng; Li, Jie; Huang, Xue-Lian; Liu, Jie; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Yong-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Wen; Wang, Guan-Lei

    2014-11-01

    Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid (FFA), has been demonstrated to induce preadipocyte apoptosis in the absence of adipogenic stimuli, suggesting that preadipocytes may be prone to apoptosis under adipogenic insufficient conditions, like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, is critical for cell fate choices of proliferation versus apoptosis under diseased conditions. However, it is unknown whether ClC-3 is related with preadipocyte apoptosis induced by palmitate or T2DM. Palmitate, but not oleate, induced apoptosis and increase in ClC-3 protein expression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. ClC-3 specific siRNA attenuated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased protein levels of Grp78, ATF4, CHOP and phosphorylation of JNK1/2, whereas had no effects on increased phospho-PERK and phospho-eIF2α protein expression. Moreover, the enhanced apoptosis was shown in preadipocytes from high-sucrose/fat, low-dose STZ induced T2DM mouse model with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia (elevated serum TG and FFA levels) and insulin resistance. ClC-3 knockout significantly attenuated preadipocyte apoptosis and the above metabolic disorders in T2DM mice. These data demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency prevent preadipocytes against palmitate-induced apoptosis via suppressing ER stress, and also suggested that ClC-3 may play a role in regulating cellular apoptosis and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism during T2DM.

  10. Antioxidant effect of mogrosides against oxidative stress induced by palmitic acid in mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q.; Chen, S.Y.; Deng, L.D.; Feng, L.P.; Huang, L.Z.; Yu, R.R. [Department of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin (China)

    2013-11-18

    Excessive oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells, caused by glucose and fatty acids, is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Mogrosides have shown antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in animal models of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of mogrosides on insulinoma cells under oxidative stress caused by palmitic acid, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mouse insulinoma NIT-1 cells were cultured in medium containing 0.75 mM palmitic acid, mimicking oxidative stress. The effects of 1 mM mogrosides were determined with the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay for intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and FITC-Annexin V/PI assay for cell apoptosis. Expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) and pyruvate kinase was determined by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Palmitic acid significantly increased intracellular ROS concentration 2-fold (P<0.05), and decreased expression of GLUT2 (by 60%, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (by 80%, P<0.05) mRNAs in NIT-1 cells. Compared with palmitic acid, co-treatment with 1 mM mogrosides for 48 h significantly reduced intracellular ROS concentration and restored mRNA expression levels of GLUT2 and pyruvate kinase. However, mogrosides did not reverse palmitic acid-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells. Our results indicate that mogrosides might exert their antioxidant effect by reducing intracellular ROS and regulating expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Further research is needed to achieve a better understanding of the signaling pathway involved in the antioxidant effect of mogrosides.

  11. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  12. Resveratrol Ameliorates Palmitate-Induced Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Cells by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and JNK/NF-κB Pathway in a SIRT1-Independent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Asie; Seyyed Ebrahimi, Shadi Sadat; Golestani, Abolfazl; Meshkani, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in a variety of cell types, however, its role in prevention of inflammatory responses mediated by palmitate in skeletal muscle cells remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on palmitate-induced inflammation and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells. The results showed that palmitate significantly enhanced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion from C2C12 cells at 12, 24, and 36 h treatments. Increased expression of cytokines was accompanied by an enhanced phosphorylation of JNK, P38, ERK1/2, and IKKα/IKKβ. In addition, JNK and P38 inhibitors could significantly attenuate palmitate-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, whereas NF-κB inhibitor reduced the expression of both cytokines in palmitate-treated cells. Resveratrol pretreatment significantly prevented palmitate-induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression and protein secretion in C2C12 cells. Importantly, pre-treatment of the cells with resveratrol completely abrogated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and IKKα/IKKβ in palmitate treated cells. The protection from palmitate-induced inflammation by resveratrol was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known scavenger of ROS, could protect palmitate-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by shRNA or sirtinol demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol in muscle cells is mediated through a SIRT1-independent mechanism. Taken together, these findings suggest that resveratrol may represent a promising therapy for prevention of inflammation in skeletal muscle cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2654-2663, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perturbation of N-linked oligosaccharide structure results in an altered incorporation of [3H]palmitate into specific proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, R.B.; Ghosh, P.C.; Roecklein, B.; Wu, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into specific cellular proteins has been reported to occur in Chinese hamster ovary and yeast mutant cells. In this paper we report studies concerning the relationship between N-linked oligosaccharide structure and [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into proteins of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We have compared the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into proteins of wild-type and four different mutant CHO cell lines defective in various steps of N-linked protein glycosylation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoretic analysis showed that three of the mutants exhibited increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into several CHO cellular proteins (approximately 30,000-38,000 molecular weight) as compared to the wild-type cells. One of the affected mutants which accumulates the Man5Gn2Asn intermediate structure was examined in detail. In agreement with earlier reports, virtually all of the [ 3 H] palmitate-labeled proteins of both wild-type and mutant cell lines are membrane-bound. Pretreatment of the mutant cell line with tunicamycin blocked the increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the two specific proteins (both of approximately 30,000 molecular weight) observed in untreated cells; the decreased incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into the 30,000 molecular weight species was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the incorporation of [ 3 H]palmitate into two proteins of approximately 20,000 molecular weight. Pretreatment of wild-type cells with tunicamycin also caused increased [ 3 H]palmitate incorporation into the 20,000 molecular weight species

  14. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  15. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  16. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  17. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. ShenFu Preparation Protects AML12 Cells Against Palmitic Acid-Induced Injury Through Inhibition of Both JNK/Nox4 and JNK/NFκB Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Fu Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis includes steatosis along with liver inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the protective role and the potential mechanisms of a traditional Chinese medicine ShenFu (SF preparation in an in vitro hepatic steatosis model. Methods: In palmitic acid (PA-induced murine hepatic AML12 cell injury, effects of SF preparation on cellular apoptosis and intracellular triglyceride (iTG level were assessed using TUNEL and TG Colorimetric Assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP levels were measured using DCF and JC-1 assay. Cytokine levels were evaluated using ELISA assay. Immunoblot was used to compare the activation level of c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK, NADPH oxidase (Nox4, and NFκB pathways. Results: Addition of SF preparation prevented PA-mediated increase of apoptosis and iTG as well as IL-8 and IL-6. In PA-treated cell, SF preparation reduced the level of Nox4 and ROS, while increasing the level of MMP and the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and catalase, indicating emendation of mitochondrial dysfunction. Nox4 inhibitor GKT137381 prevented PA-induced increase of ROS and apoptosis, while decreasing iTG slightly and not influencing the level of IL-8 and IL-6. SF preparation prevented PA-induced upregulation of phospho-JNK. JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented PA-mediated increase of Nox4, IL-8, IL-6 and iTG. Nuclear translocation of NFκB/p65 was detected in PA-treated cells, which was prevented by SF preparation. An IκB degradation inhibitor, BAY11-7082, prevented PA-induced increase of IL-8 and IL-6 as well as iTG, whereas it only decreased ROS levels slightly and showed no influence on cellular apoptosis. Conclusion: SF preparation shows a beneficial role in prevention of hepatocyte injury by attenuating oxidative stress and cytokines production at least partially through inhibition of JNK/Nox4 and JNK

  20. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhangyang; Wu, Meihao; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yanjie; Feng, Zhibo; Li, Changzheng

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ. P-curcumin was prepared through chemical synthesis. Its structure was determined via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). An MTT assay was used to assess Aβ cytotoxicity and the protective effect of P-curcumin on SH-SY5Y cells. The effect of P-curcumin on Aβ-induced ROS production in vitro and in vivo were assessed based on changes in dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence. A spectrophotometric method was employed to detect lipid peroxidation. To mimic the interaction of P-curcumin on cell membranes with Aβ, liposomes were prepared by thin film method. Finally, the interactions between free P-curcumin and P-curcumin cultivated on liposomes and Aβ were determined via spectrophotometry. A novel derivative, palmitic acid curcumin ester was prepared and characterized. This curcumin, cultivated on the membranes of neurocytes, may prevent Aβ-mediated ROS production and may inhibit the direct interaction between Aβ and the cellular membrane. Furthermore, P-curcumin could scavenge Aβ-mediated ROS as curcumin in vitro and in vivo, and had the potential to prevent lipid peroxidation. Morphological analyses showed that P-curcumin was better than curcumin at protecting cell shape. To examine P-curcumin's ability to attenuate direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes, the binding affinity of Aβ to curcumin and P-curcumin was determined. The association

  1. Palmitic Acid Curcumin Ester Facilitates Protection of Neuroblastoma against Oligomeric Aβ40 Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyang Qi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by amyloid-β (Aβ is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ. Methods: P-curcumin was prepared through chemical synthesis. Its structure was determined via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS. An MTT assay was used to assess Aβ cytotoxicity and the protective effect of P-curcumin on SH-SY5Y cells. The effect of P-curcumin on Aβ-induced ROS production in vitro and in vivo were assessed based on changes in dichlorofluorescein (DCF fluorescence. A spectrophotometric method was employed to detect lipid peroxidation. To mimic the interaction of P-curcumin on cell membranes with Aβ, liposomes were prepared by thin film method. Finally, the interactions between free P-curcumin and P-curcumin cultivated on liposomes and Aβ were determined via spectrophotometry. Results: A novel derivative, palmitic acid curcumin ester was prepared and characterized. This curcumin, cultivated on the membranes of neurocytes, may prevent Aβ-mediated ROS production and may inhibit the direct interaction between Aβ and the cellular membrane. Furthermore, P-curcumin could scavenge Aβ-mediated ROS as curcumin in vitro and in vivo, and had the potential to prevent lipid peroxidation. Morphological analyses showed that P-curcumin was better than curcumin at protecting cell shape. To examine P-curcumin’s ability to attenuate direct interaction between Aβ and cell membranes, the binding affinity of Aβ to curcumin

  2. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  3. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  4. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  5. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  6. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  7. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  8. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  9. Aberrant hepatic lipid storage and metabolism in canine portosystemic shunts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Van den Bossche

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a poorly understood multifactorial pandemic disorder. One of the hallmarks of NAFLD, hepatic steatosis, is a common feature in canine congenital portosystemic shunts. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the pathogenesis of steatosis in this large animal model. Hepatic lipid accumulation, gene-expression analysis and HPLC-MS of neutral lipids and phospholipids in extrahepatic (EHPSS and intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS was compared to healthy control dogs. Liver organoids of diseased dogs and healthy control dogs were incubated with palmitic- and oleic-acid, and lipid accumulation was quantified using LD540. In histological slides of shunt livers, a 12-fold increase of lipid content was detected compared to the control dogs (EHPSS P<0.01; IHPSS P = 0.042. Involvement of lipid-related genes to steatosis in portosystemic shunting was corroborated using gene-expression profiling. Lipid analysis demonstrated different triglyceride composition and a shift towards short chain and omega-3 fatty acids in shunt versus healthy dogs, with no difference in lipid species composition between shunt types. All organoids showed a similar increase in triacylglycerols after free fatty acids enrichment. This study demonstrates that steatosis is probably secondary to canine portosystemic shunts. Unravelling the pathogenesis of this hepatic steatosis might contribute to a better understanding of steatosis in NAFLD.

  10. Aberrant hepatic lipid storage and metabolism in canine portosystemic shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Lindsay; Schoonenberg, Vivien A C; Burgener, Iwan A; Penning, Louis C; Schrall, Ingrid M; Kruitwagen, Hedwig S; van Wolferen, Monique E; Grinwis, Guy C M; Kummeling, Anne; Rothuizen, Jan; van Velzen, Jeroen F; Stathonikos, Nikolas; Molenaar, Martijn R; Helms, Bernd J; Brouwers, Jos F H M; Spee, Bart; van Steenbeek, Frank G

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a poorly understood multifactorial pandemic disorder. One of the hallmarks of NAFLD, hepatic steatosis, is a common feature in canine congenital portosystemic shunts. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the pathogenesis of steatosis in this large animal model. Hepatic lipid accumulation, gene-expression analysis and HPLC-MS of neutral lipids and phospholipids in extrahepatic (EHPSS) and intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS) was compared to healthy control dogs. Liver organoids of diseased dogs and healthy control dogs were incubated with palmitic- and oleic-acid, and lipid accumulation was quantified using LD540. In histological slides of shunt livers, a 12-fold increase of lipid content was detected compared to the control dogs (EHPSS Plipid-related genes to steatosis in portosystemic shunting was corroborated using gene-expression profiling. Lipid analysis demonstrated different triglyceride composition and a shift towards short chain and omega-3 fatty acids in shunt versus healthy dogs, with no difference in lipid species composition between shunt types. All organoids showed a similar increase in triacylglycerols after free fatty acids enrichment. This study demonstrates that steatosis is probably secondary to canine portosystemic shunts. Unravelling the pathogenesis of this hepatic steatosis might contribute to a better understanding of steatosis in NAFLD.

  11. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  12. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  13. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  14. Metabolism of U14C palmitic and 1-14C caproic acids by lettuce seeds during early germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salon, C.; Raymond, P.; Pradet, A.

    1986-01-01

    Germinating lettuce embryos (before radicule emergence) were fed with either U 14 C palmitic acid or 1 14 C caproic acid until a metabolic steady state was reached. The bulk of labelled caproate was evolved as respiratory CO 2 (52%) and incorporated into organic and amino acids (38%) and only a small part incorporated into lipids whereas most of labelled palmitic acid was found into lipids (92%) and only 8% evolved as CO 2 and incorporated into organic and amino acids. The label distribution at steady state in intermediates linked to the T.C.A. cycle was interpreted using a metabolic model. They found that the two fatty acids were degraded by β-oxidation and incorporated into the T.C.A. cycle as acetylCoA suggesting that β-oxidation is located in the mitochondria. The results also indicate that lipids contribute for at least 90% to the carbon supply to respiration

  15. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of pastes containing submicron Ag-coated Cu filler with palmitic acid surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication and applied use of submicron Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles as a filler material for epoxy-based conductive pastes having the advantages of a lower material cost and antioxidation behavior were studied. Submicron Cu@Ag particles were successfully prepared and surface-modified using palmitic acid. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the formation of an organic layer by the chemical interaction between the Cu@Ag surface and palmitic acid and the survival of the organic layer after treatment at 160 °C for 3 h in air. The printed pastes containing both commercial micron Cu@Ag flakes and the fabricated submicron Cu@Ag particles showed a greatly reduced electrical resistivity (4.68 × 10-4 Ω cm) after surface modification compared to an initial value of 1.85 × 10-3 Ω cm when cured.

  16. Palmitate-induced ER stress increases trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Jan; Wong, Jason; Sun, Yan; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells have recently been shown to use a unique Warburg-like metabolism for survival and aggressive behavior. These cells exhibit increased fatty acid synthesis and storage compared to normal breast cells or other tumor cells. Disruption of this synthetic process results in apoptosis. Since the addition of physiological doses of exogenous palmitate induces cell death in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells, the pathway is likely operating at its limits in these cells. We have studied the response of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells to physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate to identify lipotoxicity-associated consequences of this physiology. Since epidemiological data show that a diet rich in saturated fatty acids is negatively associated with the development of HER2/neu-positive cancer, this cellular physiology may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of the disease. We sought to identify signaling pathways that are regulated by physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate specifically in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanism and its relevance to disease prevention and treatment. Transcriptional profiling was performed to assess programs that are regulated in HER2-normal MCF7 and HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells in response to exogenous palmitate. Computational analyses were used to define and predict functional relationships and identify networks that are differentially regulated in the two cell lines. These predictions were tested using reporter assays, fluorescence-based high content microscopy, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Physiological effects were confirmed in HER2/neu-positive BT474 and HCC1569 breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous palmitate induces functionally distinct transcriptional programs in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. In the lipogenic HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 cell line, palmitate induces a G2 phase cell cycle delay and

  17. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  18. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  19. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  20. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb, which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  1. Effect of artichoke extract (Cynara scolymus L.) on palmitic-1-14C acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Czerny, Boguslaw; Pawlik, Andrzej; Drozdzik, Marek

    2008-05-01

    Studies on the effect of the artichoke extract (AE) on oxidation of palmitic-1-14C acid administered intravenously to rats at a dose 25 and 50 mg/kg bw demonstrated marked enhancement of both 14CO2 expiration rate and 14CO2 recovery in the expired air. The extract suppressed accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid in serum lipids and epididymal fat pad tissue as well. The effects of the extract on 14CO2 expiration rate, 14CO2 recovery, as well as accumulation of palmitic-1-14C acid were dose dependent. Total14CO2 recovery in expired air during 60 min was elevated by 17.3% (p < 0.05) and 52.1% (p < 0.001) in rats administered the extract at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The rats supplemented with the AE at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg bw were characterized by 10.0% (not significant) and 19% (p < 0.05) decrease in( 14)C radioactivity of serum lipids as well as reduction of epididymal fat tissue 14C radioactivity by 8.7 and 17.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, in comparison with the control rats. Thus, the results demonstrate that the AE possess stimulatory properties with respect to oxidation of palmitic acid administered to rats, and provide new information on the mechanism of antilipemic activity of the extract associated with activation of lipid oxidation in the organism.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  3. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  4. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

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    Hovsepyan Meri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Effects of methyl palmitate on cytokine release, liver injury and survival in mice with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, P; Demitri, M T; Meazza, C; Sironi, M; Gnocchi, P; Ghezzi, P

    1996-12-01

    The effects of methyl palmitate (MP), a known inhibitor of Kupffer cells, were studied in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced in CD-1 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The inhibition of Kupffer cells by pretreatment with MP was shown by the reduced phagocytosis, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The reduced activation of Kupffer cells resulted in lower levels of inflammatory products after CLP. TNF and IL-6 were significantly reduced in serum 2 h and 24 h respectively after CLP, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) was reduced in liver 4 h after CLP, nitric oxide (NO) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were significantly reduced 8 and 24 h respectively after CLP. Liver toxicity was significantly reduced in MP-treated mice and survival was significantly prolonged at all intervals, reaching 45% after six to ten days compared with 3% in control mice. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells play an important role in liver damage and survival in sepsis.

  6. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

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    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  7. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T.Y.; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters. PMID:27008853

  9. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Nusantoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph.

  10. Optimization of 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production using lipozyme RM IM as catalyst in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richetti, Aline; Leite, Selma G F; Antunes, Octávio A C; de Souza, Andrea L F; Lerin, Lindomar A; Dallago, Rogério M; Paroul, Natalia; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Treichel, Helen; de Oliveira, Débora

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the application of a lipase in the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate esterification in a solvent-free system with an immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RM IM). A sequential strategy was used applying two experimental designs to optimize the 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production. An empirical model was then built so as to assess the effects of process variables on the reaction conversion. Afterwards, the operating conditions that optimized 2-ethylhexyl palmitate production were established as being acid/alcohol molar ratio 1:3, temperature of 70 degrees C, stirring rate of 150 rpm, 10 wt.% of enzyme, leading to a reaction conversion as high as 95%. From this point, a kinetic study was carried out evaluating the effect of acid:alcohol molar ratio, the enzyme concentration and the temperature on product conversion. The results obtained in this step permit to verify that an excess of alcohol (acid to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6), relatively low enzyme concentration (10 wt.%) and temperature of 70 degrees C, led to conversions next to 100%.

  11. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  12. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusantoro, B.P.; Yanty, N.A.M.; Van de Walle, D.; Hidayat, C.; Danthine, S.; Dewettinck, K.

    2017-01-01

    A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph. [es

  13. Synthesis and characterization of microencapsulated myristic acid–palmitic acid eutectic mixture as phase change material for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alva, Guruprasad; Huang, Xiang; Liu, Lingkun; Fang, Guiyin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Myristic acid–palmitic acid eutectic was microencapsulated with silica shell. •Structure, morphology of microencapsulated phase change material were investigated. •Thermal capacity, stability of microencapsulated phase change material were analyzed. •Silica shell improved thermal stability of microencapsulated phase change material. -- Abstract: In this work microencapsulation of myristic acid–palmitic acid (MA–PA) eutectic mixture with silica shell using sol−gel method has been attempted. The core phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage was myristic acid−palmitic acid eutectic mixture and the shell material to prevent the PCM core from leakage was silica prepared from methyl triethoxysilane (MTES). Thermal properties of the microcapsules were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The morphology and particle size of the microcapsules were examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Fourier transformation infrared spectrophotometer (FT–IR) and X–ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the chemical structure and crystalloid phase of the microcapsules respectively. The DSC results indicated that microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) melts at 46.08 °C with a latent heat of 169.69 kJ kg −1 and solidifies at 44.35 °C with a latent heat of 159.59 kJ kg −1 . The thermal stability of the microcapsules was analyzed by a thermogravimeter (TGA). The results indicated that the MPCM has good thermal stability and is suitable for thermal energy storage application.

  14. Number needed to treat and number needed to harm with paliperidone palmitate relative to long-acting haloperidol, bromperidol, and fluphenazine decanoate for treatment of patients with schizophrenia

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    Srihari Gopal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Srihari Gopal1, Joris Berwaerts1, Isaac Nuamah1, Kasem Akhras2, Danielle Coppola1, Ella Daly1, David Hough1, Joseph Palumbo11Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA; 2Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Services, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USABackground: We analyzed data retrieved through a PubMed search of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (haloperidol decanoate, bromperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate, and a company database of paliperidone palmitate, to compare the benefit-risk ratio in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: From the eight studies that met our selection criteria, two efficacy and six safety parameters were selected for calculation of number needed to treat (NNT, number needed to harm (NNH, and the likelihood of being helped or harmed (LHH using comparisons of active drug relative to placebo. NNTs for prevention of relapse ranged from 2 to 5 for paliperidone palmitate, haloperidol decanoate, and fluphenazine decanoate, indicating a moderate to large effect size.Results: Among the selected maintenance studies, NNH varied considerably, but indicated a lower likelihood of encountering extrapyramidal side effects, such as akathisia, tremor, and tardive dyskinesia, with paliperidone palmitate versus placebo than with first-generation antipsychotic depot agents versus placebo. This was further supported by an overall higher NNH for paliperidone palmitate versus placebo with respect to anticholinergic use and Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale positive score. LHH for preventing relapse versus use of anticholinergics was 15 for paliperidone palmitate and 3 for fluphenazine decanoate, favoring paliperidone palmitate.Conclusion: Overall, paliperidone palmitate had a similar NNT and a more favorable NNH compared with the first-generation long-acting injectables assessed.Keywords: long-acting injectables, first-generation antipsychotics

  15. Palmitic acid suppresses apolipoprotein M gene expression via the pathway of PPAR{sub β/δ} in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Guanghua; Shi, Yuanping; Zhang, Jun; Mu, Qinfeng; Qin, Li; Zheng, Lu; Feng, Yuehua [Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Berggren-Söderlund, Maria; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, Xiaoying, E-mail: zhangxy6689996@163.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Xu, Ning, E-mail: ning.xu@med.lu.se [Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Palmitic acid significantly inhibited APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. • Palmitic acid could obviously increase PPARB/D mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. • PPAR{sub β/δ} antagonist, GSK3787, had no effect on APOM expression. • GSK3787 could reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression. • Palmitic acid induced suppression of APOM expression is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway. - Abstract: It has been demonstrated that apolipoprotein M (APOM) is a vasculoprotective constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which could be related to the anti-atherosclerotic property of HDL. Investigation of regulation of APOM expression is of important for further exploring its pathophysiological function in vivo. Our previous studies indicated that expression of APOM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF), transforming growth factors (TGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), leptin, hyperglycemia and etc., in vivo and/or in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid could significantly inhibit APOM gene expression in HepG2 cells. Further study indicated neither PI-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 nor protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GFX could abolish palmitic acid induced down-regulation of APOM expression. In contrast, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR{sub β/δ}) antagonist GSK3787 could totally reverse the palmitic acid-induced down-regulation of APOM expression, which clearly demonstrates that down-regulation of APOM expression induced by palmitic acid is mediated via the PPAR{sub β/δ} pathway.

  16. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    There are several standard diets for animals used in scientific research, usually conceived by scientific institutions. The AIN-93 diet is widely used, but there are some reports of fatty liver in Wistar rats fed this diet. We aimed to evaluate the hepatic repercussions of the AIN-93 diet intake in Wistar rats. Forty newly-weaned 21-day-old male Wistar rats were fed either the AIN-93 diet or a commercial diet for either 1 month or 4 months. Weight gain, serum biochemistry, hepatic histology, and hepatic fatty acid profile were analyzed. Hepatic steatosis was observed, especially in the group fed the AIN-93 diet. Serum blood glucose, absolute and relative liver weight and hepatic levels of oleic, palmitoleic, stearic, and palmitic fatty acids were related to the observed steatosis, while lipidogram and serum markers of liver function and injury were not. AIN-93 diet induced acute hepatic steatosis in Wistar rats, which may compromise its use as a standard diet for experimental studies with rodents. The hepatic fatty acid profile was associated with steatosis, with possible implications for disease prognosis. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcoholic hepatitis.

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    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  18. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  19. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  20. Sensitization of vascular smooth muscle cell to TNF-α-mediated death in the presence of palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Ah Lee, Kyeong; Mi Kim, Sun; Sik Lee, Chang; Jeong Jang, Min; Kook Kim, Young; Sun Lee, Hyun; Hyun Choi, Yung; Yong Rhim, Byung; Kim, Koanhoi

    2007-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitate, can activate the intrinsic death pathway in cells. However, the relationship between FFAs and receptor-mediated death pathway is still unknown. In this study, we have investigated whether FFAs are able to trigger receptor-mediated death. In addition, to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the activation, we examined the biochemical changes in dying vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and the effects of various molecules to the receptor-mediated VSMC death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated VSMC death occurred in the presence of sub-cytotoxic concentration of palmitate as determined by assessing viability and DNA degradation, while the cytokine did not influence VSMC viability in the presence of oleate. The VSMC death was inhibited by the gene transfer of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain-containing protein and the baculovirus p35, but not by the bcl-xL or the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, in tests utilizing recombinant adenoviruses. The VSMC death was also inhibited by a neutralizing anti-TNF receptor 1 antibody, the caspase inhibitor z-VAD, and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074, a finding indicative of the role of both caspases and cathepsin B in this process. Consistent with this finding, caspase-3 activation and an increase in cytosolic cathepsin B activity were detected in the dying VSMC. Palmitate inhibited an increase of TNF-α-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, the survival pathway activated by the cytokine, by hindering the translocation of the NF-κB subunit of p65 from the cytosol into the nucleus. The gene transfer of inhibitor of NF-κB predisposed VSMC to palmitate-induced cell death. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate the activation of TNF-α-mediated cell death in the presence of palmitate. The current study proposes that FFAs would take part in deleterious vascular

  1. Adiponectin protects palmitic acid induced endothelial inflammation and insulin resistance via regulating ROS/IKKβ pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Li, Shaojing; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) has been closely associated with endothelial dysfunction. Adiponectin (APN), an adipocyte-secreted hormone from adipose tissues, showed cardioprotective effects. Here, the protective effect of APN on palmitic acid (PA)-induced endothelial inflammation and IR was investigated. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with PA without or without APN pretreatment. The expression of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, adhesion molecule ICAM-1 were determined by western blotting, ELISA, and real-time PCR. The protein expression and protein-protein interaction were determined by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were monitored with fluorescence probes. PA-induced secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and expression of ICAM-1 at protein and mRNA levels, which was significantly inhibited by APN. PA treatment caused increase of ROS generation, NOX2, p-IKKβ, p-IκBα, p-p65 expression, and p-IκBα-IKKβ interaction, which were all partly reversed by APN. ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and NF-κB inhibitor PDTC showed similar effect on PA-induced secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and expression of ICAM-1. Furthermore, APN and NAC pretreatment restored PA-induced increase of p-IRS-1(S307), decrease of p-IRS-1(Tyr). In addition, insulin-triggered expression of p-IRS-1(Tyr), p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-eNOS and NO generation were inhibited by PA, which were also restored by both APN and NAC. These results suggested that APN ameliorated endothelial inflammation and IR through ROS/IKKβ pathway. This study shed new insights into the mechanisms of APN's cardiovascular protective effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hospitalizations and economic analysis in psychotic patients with paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesones-Peral, Jesús E; Gurillo-Muñoz, Pedro; Sánchez-Sicilia, Mari Paz; Miller, Adam; Griñant-Fernández, Alejandra

    Prevent hospitalizations in psychotic disorders is an important aim, so long-acting antipsychotic is a good option that can control better the correct adherence. Moreover, in the current economic context pharmacoeconomic studies are necessary. We estimate the effect in prevention of paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PP-LAI) and calculate the economic cost in the 12 months preceding the start of treatment with PP-LAI and 12 months later. Mirror image study of 71 outpatients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and treated with PP-LAI. In a first analysis, we measured along one year: number of hospitalizations/year, number of hospitalization in days, number of emergency assists/year and if there is antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment. After this phase, we applied Fees Act of Valencia for economic analysis and estimate of the cost per hospitalization (€ 5,640.41) and hospital emergency (€ 187.61). After one year of treatment with PP-LAI (mean dose=130.65mg/month), we obtained greater numbers in assistance variables: total hospitalizations decrease, 78.8% (P=.009); shortening in hospitalization days, 89.4% (P=.009); abridgement of number of emergency assists, 79.1% (P=.002); decrease of rate of antipsychotics associated to long-acting treatment, 21% (P<.0001); increase in monotherapy, 53.8% (P<.0001). Therefore, after 12 months of treatment with PP-LAI we obtained a reduction in inpatient spending (savings of € 175,766.54) and increased spending on antipsychotics 32% (equivalent to € 151,126.92). PP-LAI can be an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with severe psychotic disorders: improves symptomatic stability and can prevent hospitalizations with cost-effective symptom control. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Su [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Department of Life Science and Ewha Research Center for Systems Biology (Korea, Republic of); The Research Center for Cell Homeostasis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 127-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Da Hyun [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Soo Han, E-mail: soohanbae@yuhs.ac [Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  4. Concerted action of p62 and Nrf2 protects cells from palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Su; Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Da Hyun; Bae, Soo Han

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus, is caused by the accumulation of excess fatty acids within liver cells. Palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated fatty acid found in mammals, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and elicits apoptotic cell death, known as lipotoxicity. However, protective mechanisms against PA-induced lipotoxicity have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagic process, as well as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway, in protecting cells from PA-induced lipotoxicity. The Nrf2-Keap1 pathway is essential for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. p62 enhances its binding to Keap1 and leads to Nrf2 activation. Here, we show that PA potentiates Keap1 degradation and thereby activates the transcription of Nrf2 target genes partially through autophagy. Furthermore, this PA-mediated Keap1 degradation depends on p62. Correspondingly, a lack of p62 attenuates the PA-mediated Nrf2 activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to oxidative stress. These results indicate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells against lipotoxicity through Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. - Highlights: • PA induces Keap1 downregulation and activates Nrf2 target gene transcription. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation is partly mediated by the autophagic pathway. • PA-induced Keap1 degradation depends on p62. • Ablation of p62 exacerbates PA-mediated apoptotic cell death.

  5. Androgenic effect of honeybee drone milk in castrated rats: roles of methyl palmitate and methyl oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, A B; Ducza, E; Báthori, M; Hunyadi, A; Béni, Z; Dékány, M; Hajagos-Tóth, J; Verli, J; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-04-28

    Numerous honeybee (Apis mellifera) products have been used in traditional medicine to treat infertility and to increase vitality in both men and women. Drone milk (DM) is a relatively little-known honeybee product with a putative sexual hormone effect. The oestrogenic effect of a fraction of DM has recently been reported in rats. However, no information is available on the androgenic effects of DM. The purpose of the present study was to determine the androgen-like effect of DM in male rats and to identify effective compounds. A modified Hershberger assay was used to investigate the androgenic effect of crude DM, and the plasma level of testosterone was measured. The prostatic mRNA and protein expression of Spot14-like androgen-inducible protein (SLAP) were also examined with real-time PCR and Western blot techniques. GC-MS and NMR spectroscopic investigations were performed to identify the active components gained by bioactivity-guided fractionation. The crude DM increased the relative weights of the androgen-dependent organs and the plasma testosterone level in castrated rats and these actions were flutamide-sensitive. DM increased the tissue mRNA and protein level of SLAP, providing further evidence of its androgen-like character. After bioactivity-guided fractionation, two fatty acid esters, methyl palmitate (MP) and methyl oleate (MO), were identified as active compounds. MP alone showed an androgenic effect, whereas MO increased the weight of androgen-sensitive tissues and the plasma testosterone level only in combination. The experimental data of DM and its active compounds (MO and MP) show androgenic activity confirming the traditional usage of DM. DM or MP or/and MO treatments may project a natural mode for the therapy of male infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of physicochemical properties and degradation kinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cuilian; Liu, Cong; Tang, Xing

    2010-12-01

    Triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) is a lipophilic prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) to improve the insoluble TAA physicochemical properties for the preparation of emulsions. This investigation has focused on the preformulation study of TAP, including its physicochemical properties and hydrolysis kinetics in vitro. The solubility of TAP in medium-chain triglyceride is about twice greater than that in soybean oil (long-chain triglyceride) (19.17 versus 9.55 mg/g) at 25°C, and in all investigated cases, lecithin (80, 160, and 240 mg/g) as solubilizer provided increased solubility of drugs in medium-chain triglyceride and long-chain triglyceride, whereas the maximum water solubility of TAP was 0.10 μg/mL. The partition coefficient (log P) of TAP was 5.79 irrespective of the pH conditions. The hydrolysis of TAP followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in aqueous solutions, and the stable pH range was from pH 5.0 to 9.0. The in vitro enzymolysis kinetics of TAP in rat plasma and liver homogenate was evaluated by measuring the decrease of TAP as well as the increase of TAA at 37°C for 96 hours. The results demonstrated that the TAP may be hydrolyzed mainly by rat plasma esterase and, to a minor extent, by liver esterase, and the hydrolysis half-life of TAP in 100% rat plasma was 17.53 ± 6.85 hours at pH 7.4. All these results indicated that TAP had successfully obtained higher lipid-soluble property for the preparation of intravenous emulsion and may be an effective prodrug for sustained release of TAA in vivo.

  7. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  8. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  9. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  10. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  11. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  12. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  13. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  14. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  15. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF COSMETIC MULTI- PLE EMULSIONS LOADED WITH ASCORBYL PALMITATE AND SODIUM ASCORBYL PHOSPHATE SALTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hira; Akhtar, Naveed; Ali, Atif; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Sohail, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Nawaz, Zarqa

    2016-09-01

    Stability of hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives for quenching synergistic antioxidant activities and to treat oxidative related diseases is a major issue. This study was aimed to encapsulate hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives (ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as functional ingredients in a newly formulated multiple emulsion of the W//W type to attain the synergistic antioxidant effects and the resultant system's long term physical and chemical stability. Several multiple emulsions using the same concentration of emulsifiers but different concentrations of ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were developed. Three finally selected multiple emulsions (ME₁, ME₂ and ME₃) were evaluated for physical stability in terms of rheology, microscopy, conductivity, pH, and organoleptic characteristics under different storage conditions for 3 months. Chemical stability was determined by HPLC on Sykam GmbH HPLC system (Germany), equipped with a variable UV detector. Results showed that at accelerated storage conditions all the three multiple emulsions had shear thinning behavior of varying shear stress with no influence of location of functional ingredients in a carrier system. Conductivity values increased and pH values remained within the skin pH range for 3 months. Microscopic analysis showed an increase in globule size with the passage of time, especially at higher temperatures while decreased at low temperatures. Centrifugation test did not cause phase separation till the 45th day, but little effects after 2 months. Chemical stability analysis by HPLC at the end of 3 months showed that ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate were almost stable in all multiple emulsions with no influence of their location in a carrier system. Multiple emulsions were found a stable carrier for hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamin C derivatives to enhance their desired effects. Considering that many topical formulations

  16. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  17. Bitter melon extract ameliorates palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells and high-fat/high-fructose-diet-induced fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Joung Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bitter melon (BM improves glucose level, lipid homeostasis, and insulin resistance in vivo. However, the preventive mechanism of BM in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been elucidated yet. Aim & Design: To determine the protective mechanism of bitter melon extract (BME, we performed experiments in vitro and in vivo. BME were treated palmitate (PA-administrated HepG2 cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: high-fat/high-fructose (HF/HFr without or with BME supplementation (100 mg/kg body weight. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, apoptosis, and biochemical markers were then examined by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Results: BME significantly decreased expression levels of ER-stress markers (including phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, and phospho-JNK [Jun N-terminal kinases] in PA-treated HepG2 cells. BME also significantly decreased the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (a well known apoptotic-induced molecule and DNA fragmentation. The effect of BME on ER stress–mediated apoptosis in vitro was similarly observed in HF/HFr-fed mice in vivo. BME significantly reduced HF/HFr-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT as markers of hepatic damage in mice. In addition, BME ameliorated HF/HFr-induced serum TG and serum-free fatty acids. Conclusion: These data indicate that BME has protective effects against ER stress mediated apoptosis in HepG2 cells as well as in HF/HFr-induced fatty liver of mouse. Therefore, BME might be useful for preventing and treating NAFLD.

  18. Curcumin attenuates palmitate-induced apoptosis in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells through PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Feng; Kang, Jinsen; Cao, Yajun; Fan, Shengjun; Yang, Haopeng; An, Yu; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Li, Xuejun

    2015-11-01

    Lipotoxicity plays a vital role in development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Prolonged elevation of free fatty acids especially the palmitate leads to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol from the curry spice turmeric, is considered to be a broadly cytoprotective agent. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of curcumin on palmitate-induced apoptosis in β-cells and investigate underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that curcumin improved cell viability and enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretory function in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells. Palmitate incubation evoked chromatin condensation, DNA nick end labeling and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Curcumin treatment inhibited palmitate-induced apoptosis, relieved mitochondrial depolarization and up-regulated Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Palmitate induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes, which could be neutralized by curcumin treatment. Moreover, curcumin could promote rapid phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 in MIN6 cells under lipotoxic condition. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt specific inhibitors abolished the anti-lipotoxic effect of curcumin and stimulated FoxO1 nuclear translocation. These findings suggested that curcumin protected MIN6 pancreatic β-Cells against apoptosis through activation of Akt, inhibition of nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and mitochondrial survival pathway.

  19. Effects of Ursodeoxycholic Acid and Insulin on Palmitate-Induced ROS Production and Down-Regulation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Hidemi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    In obese and diabetic patients, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels are often elevated and may play a causal role in insulin resistance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have previously shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has antioxidative activity through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling-mediated glutathione production. In this study, we investigated the effects of UDCA on insulin response by analyzing intracellular ROS and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate. The level of ROS was quantified using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H 2 DCFDA), and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was determined by Western blotting assay using appropriate antibodies. The intracellular ROS levels were increased by palmitate but were reduced by treatment with UDCA and insulin. Furthermore, insulin significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt. When the cells were pre-treated with palmitate, insulin-induced Akt-phosphorylation was markedly inhibited. However, when the cells were treated with palmitate and UDCA, the effects of insulin were partially restored. UDCA may have protective effects against palmitate-induced decreases in responsiveness to insulin.

  20. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  2. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  3. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  4. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  5. In Vitro Palmitate Treatment of Myotubes from Postmenopausal Women Leads to Ceramide Accumulation, Inflammation and Affected Insulin Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Julie; Henstridge, Darren C; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is associated with an increased incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. In a chronic palmitate treatment model, we investigated the role of skeletal muscle fatty acid exposure in relation to the metabolic deterioration observed with menopause. Human skeletal muscle......, post-myotubes showed a blunted insulin stimulated phosphorylation of AS160 in response to chronic palmitate treatment compared with pre-myotubes (p = 0.02). The increased intramyocellular ceramide content in the post-myotubes was associated with a significantly higher mRNA expression of Serine...... Palmitoyltransferase1 (SPT1) after one day of palmitate treatment (p = 0.03) in post-myotubes compared with pre-myotubes. Our findings indicate that post-myotubes are more prone to develop lipid accumulation and defective insulin signaling following chronic saturated fatty acid exposure as compared to pre-myotubes....

  6. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  7. Incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into lipids of Brassica cells during the induction of freezing tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.V.; Joseph, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipid composition have been causally related to increased freezing tolerance. Studies of lipid metabolism during ABA induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension cultures were undertaken. Cells were labeled with [ 14 C]-palmitate four days after transfer to fresh medium (control) or medium containing ABA (which increases freezing tolerance). At times between one and 20 hrs after labeling, ABA-treated cells incorporated almost twice the amount of label as controls cells. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity was associated with neutral lipids in ABA-treated cells and controls. Incorporation of label into total cellular polar lipids was 4.9 x 10 5 dpm/mg protein for control cells and 1 x 10 6 dpm/mg protein for cells transferred to medium containing ABA. Analysis of lipids following alkaline hydrolysis indicated that incorporation of [ 14 C]-palmitate into glucosylceramide of ABA-treated cells was less than 60% of control values when expressed relative to that of the total polar lipids. Incorporation into ceramides was also depressed in ABA-treated cells

  8. Deoxygenation of Palmitic and Lauric Acids over Pt/ZIF-67 Membrane/Zeolite 5A Bead Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiu; Carreon, Moises A

    2017-09-20

    The deoxygenation of palmitic and lauric acids over 0.5 wt % Pt/ZIF-67 membrane/zeolite 5A bead catalysts is demonstrated. Almost complete conversion (% deoxygenation of ≥95%) of these two fatty acids was observed over both fresh and recycled catalyst after a 2 h reaction time. The catalysts displayed high selectivity to pentadecane and undecane via decarboxylation reaction pathway even at low 0.5 wt % Pt loading. Selectivity to pentadecane and undecane as high as ∼92% and ∼94% was observed under CO 2 atmosphere when palmitic and lauric acids were used respectively as reactants. Depending on the reaction gas atmosphere, two distinctive reaction pathways were observed: decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation. Specifically, it was found that decarboxylation reaction pathway was more favorable in the presence of helium and CO 2 , while hydrodeoxygenation pathway strongly competed against the decarboxylation pathway when hydrogen was employed during the deoxygenation reactions. Esters were identified as the key reaction intermediates leading to decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation pathways.

  9. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A.W. Japir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v, the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0 as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0. The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics.

  10. Optimization of methanol crystallization for highly efficient separation of palmitic acid from palm fatty acid mixture using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japir, A.A.W.; Salimon, J.; Derawi, D.; Yahaya, B.H.; Jamil, M.S.M.; Yusop, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop parameters for the separation of palmitic acid (PA) from a crude palm oil saturated fatty acid (SFAs) mixture by using the methanol crystallization method. The conditions of methanol crystallization were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) with the D-optimal design. The procedure of developing the solvent crystallization method was based on various different parameters. The fatty acid composition was carried out using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) as fatty acid methyl esters. The highest percentage of SFAs was more than 96% with the percentage yield of 87.5% under the optimal conditions of fatty acids-to-methanol ratio of 1: 20 (w/v), the crystallization temperature of -15 °C, and the crystallization time of 24 hours, respectively. The composition of separated SFAs in the solid fraction contains 96.7% of palmitic acid (C16:0) as a dominant component and 3.3% of stearic acid (C18:0). The results showed that utilizing methanol as a crystallization solvent is recommended because of its high efficiency, low cost, stability, availability, comparative ease of recovery and its ability to form needle-like crystals which have good filtering and washing characteristics. [es

  11. Improving the physical and moisture barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum biodegradable film with stearic and palmitic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Stearic and palmitic fatty acids (10%, 20% and 30%, W/W gum) were used to improve the barrier properties of Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) film. The impact of the incorporation of fatty acids into the film matrix was studied by investigating the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the films. Addition of stearic and palmitic fatty acids to LPSG films reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), moisture content, water solubility and water adsorption. Increasing fatty acid concentration from 10% to 30%, reduced the elongation at break (EB). Lower values of tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained in the presence of higher fatty acids concentrations. Incorporation of fatty acids led to production of opaque films and the opacity increased as function of fatty acids concentration. Results showed that moisture content, water solubility and WVP decreased as the chain length of fatty acid increased. Therefore, LPSG-fatty acids composite film could be used for packaging in which a low affinity toward water is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  13. ATGL and CGI-58 are lipid droplet proteins of the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Thomas O; Grumet, Lukas; Taschler, Ulrike; Hartler, Jürgen; Heier, Christoph; Woblistin, Aaron; Pajed, Laura; Kollroser, Manfred; Rechberger, Gerald; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Zechner, Rudolf; Haemmerle, Günter; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2015-10-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contain large amounts of vitamin A [in the form of retinyl esters (REs)] as well as other neutral lipids such as TGs. During times of insufficient vitamin A availability, RE stores are mobilized to ensure a constant supply to the body. To date, little is known about the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of neutral lipid esters, in particular of REs, in HSCs. In this study, we aimed to identify LD-associated neutral lipid hydrolases by a proteomic approach using the rat stellate cell line HSC-T6. First, we loaded cells with retinol and FAs to promote lipid synthesis and deposition within LDs. Then, LDs were isolated and lipid composition and the LD proteome were analyzed. Among other proteins, we found perilipin 2, adipose TG lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), known and established LD proteins. Bioinformatic search of the LD proteome for α/β-hydrolase fold-containing proteins revealed no yet uncharacterized neutral lipid hydrolases. In in vitro activity assays, we show that rat (r)ATGL, coactivated by rat (r)CGI-58, efficiently hydrolyzes TGs and REs. These findings suggest that rATGL and rCGI-58 are LD-resident proteins in HSCs and participate in the mobilization of both REs and TGs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Retinol metabolism in hepatic stellate cells : a new vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Md Ajat, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) or its derivatives are involved in many physiological processes ranging from vision to cells differentiation. In mammals retinol is stored as retinyl ester (RE) and the liver is the major site for RE storage in the body. The liver is made of various cell types and REs

  15. Whole-body biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolite correction of [11C]palmitate: A PET tracer for imaging of fatty acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nana Louise; Jakobsen, Steen; Schacht, Anna Christina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were...... performed in 2 pigs and 2 healthy volunteers by whole-body [11C]palmitate PET scans. Metabolite studies were performed in 40 participants (healthy and with type 2 diabetes) under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions. Metabolites were estimated using 2 approaches and subsequently compared: Indirect [11C]CO2...

  16. Whole-body biodistribution, dosimetry and metabolite correction of [11C]palmitate: A PET tracer for imaging of fatty acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nana Louise; Jakobsen, Steen; Schacht, Anna Christina

    2017-01-01

    release and parent [11C]palmitate measured by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. Finally, myocardial fatty acid uptake was calculated in a patient cohort using input functions derived from individual metabolite correction compared with population-based metabolite correction. RESULTS: In humans, mean......INTRODUCTION: Despite the decades long use of [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography in basic metabolism studies, only personal communications regarding dosimetry and biodistribution data have been published. METHODS: Dosimetry and biodistribution studies were...

  17. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  18. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  19. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  20. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  1. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkannin Inhibited Hepatic Inflammation in Diabetic Db/Db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Xue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The current study was designed to investigate the protective role of alkannin (ALK on liver injury in diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice and explore its potential mechanisms. Methods: An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The levels of insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG were determined by commercial kits. The pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were determined by ELISA. The levels of the ROCK/NF-κB pathway were determined by Western blotting. Results: The contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were inhibited by ALK, metformin or fasudil in diabetic db/db mice. Further, Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα was significantly reversed by ALK treatment. In human hepatic HepG2 cells, the hepatoprotective effects of ALK were further characterized. With response to palmitic acid-challenge, increased amounts of insulin, ALT, AST, TG, and TC were observed, whereas ALK pretreatment significantly inhibited their leakage in HepG2 cells without appreciable cytotoxic effects. The inflammation condition was recovered with ALK treatment as shown by changes of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Further, Western blotting analysis also suggested that ALK improves hepatic inflammation in a Rho-kinase pathway. Conclusion: The present study successfully investigated the role of Rho-kinase signalling in diabetic liver injury. ALK exhibited hepatoprotective effects in diabetic db/db mice, and it might act through improving hepatic inflammation through the Rho-kinase pathway.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  4. Study on the metabolism of 15 p-131iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid [p-iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid] as a tracer of free fatty acids in comparison to 1-14C-palmitic acid (C-palmitic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In an animal experiment under identical metabolic influences the metabolism of a new radiopharmaceutical, 15 p- 131 iodine phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA), was compared to the marked physiological fatty acid, 1- 14 C-palmitic acid (PA). The pharmacological kinetics of both tracers in tissues with widely varied turnover rates of fatty acids (heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, small intestine, skeletal muscle) was studied. By alkali extraction of the tissue lipids and then a chromatographic separation of the lipid fractions quantitatively comparable statements about the metabolism of PA and IPPA were made possible. The analyses of autoradiographs of the chromatographically separated lipids show a qualitatively congruous assimilation of both markers in the major lipid fractions. The quantitative evaluation shows minor differences as a result of a preferred assimilation of IPPA in triglycerides and of PA in phospholipids. The fractionated separation of tissue lipids which had been marked with PA and IPPA in vivo agrees very well with values which have been determined by other authors using 14 C- or 3 H-marked fatty acids. The close correlation of the tissue-specific metabolism kinetics of both markers makes it clear that both fatty acids are metabolized by similar, respectively, primarily identical metabolic pathyways. In conclusion, this study makes clear the extensive congruence of the metabolism kinetics of IPPA and the kinetics of the physiological palmitic acid. As a result of the presented results of the γ-radiating radiopharmaceutical IPPA as a free fatty acid analog new possibilities for the non-invasive external comprehension of lipid metabolism are opened up, whose use especially in the diagnostic of heart diseases promises success. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  6. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  7. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  8. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  9. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  10. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  11. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  13. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  14. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  15. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  16. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  17. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  18. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  19. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  20. Serotonin- and Dopamine-Related Gene Expression in db/db Mice Islets and in MIN6 β-Cells Treated with Palmitate and Oleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs concentration, often reported in diabetes, leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS through not yet well-defined mechanisms. Serotonin and dopamine might contribute to NEFA-dependent β-cell dysfunction, since extracellular signal of these monoamines decreases GSIS. Moreover, palmitate-treated β-cells may enhance the expression of the serotonin receptor Htr2c, affecting insulin secretion. Additionally, the expression of monoamine-oxidase type B (Maob seems to be lower in islets from humans and mice with diabetes compared to nondiabetic islets, which may lead to increased monoamine concentrations. We assessed the expression of serotonin- and dopamine-related genes in islets from db/db and wild-type (WT mice. In addition, the effect of palmitate and oleate on the expression of such genes, 5HT content, and GSIS in MIN6 β-cell was determined. Lower Maob expression was found in islets from db/db versus WT mice and in MIN6 β-cells in response to palmitate and oleate treatment compared to vehicle. Reduced 5HT content and impaired GSIS in response to palmitate (−25%; p<0.0001 and oleate (−43%; p<0.0001 were detected in MIN6 β-cells. In conclusion, known defects of GSIS in islets from db/db mice and MIN6 β-cells treated with NEFAs are accompanied by reduced Maob expression and reduced 5HT content.

  1. SIRT1 attenuates palmitate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via induction of oxygen-regulated protein 150

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, M.W.; Ka, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although SIRT1 has a therapeutic effect on T2DM, the mechanisms by which SIRT1 ameliorates insulin resistance (IR) remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of SIRT1 on palmitate-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells and its underlying signal pathway. Treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator significantly inhibited palmitate-induced ER stress, leading to the protection against palmitate-induced ER stress and insulin resistance. Resveratrol and SIRT1 overexpression induced the expression of oxygen-regulated protein (ORP) 150 in HepG2 cells. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) was involved in the regulation of ORP150 expression because suppression of FOXO1 inhibited the induction of ORP150 by SIRT1. Our results indicate a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates ER stress by overexpression of ORP150, and suggest that SIRT1 ameliorates palmitate-induced insulin resistance in HepG2 cells via regulation of ER stress.

  2. Varying effects of calcium on the oxidation of palmitate and alpha-ketoglutarate in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated in KCl-based and sucrose-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaek, B; Dolva, K; Singh, B

    1984-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria from rat liver were incubated in the presence of [U-14C]palmitate, ATP, CoA, carnitine, EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid) and varying amounts of calcium. When a KC1-based incubation medium was used, the oxidation of palmitate was inhibited when the concentration of free calcium was increased from about 0.1-10 microM. When a sucrose-based incubation medium was used, the basal rate of palmitate oxidation was about half of that observed with the KC1-medium and calcium had a stimulatory effect. With the KC1-medium the rate of oxygen consumption was inhibited by calcium with alpha-ketoglutarate as well as palmitate as the respiratory substrate. No inhibitory effect of calcium was observed with succinate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. With the KC1-medium and with alpha-ketoglutarate as the respiratory substrate, state 3 respiration but not state 4 respiration was inhibited by calcium. When the sucrose-medium was used, state 3 respiration was first inhibited by calcium, but this inhibition was gradually relieved and the respiratory rate finally became higher than it was before calcium addition.

  3. The combination of ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and [Fe III 3(µ3-O)]7+ as a catalyst for the oxidation of unsaturated lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Long, G.J.; Shahin, A.M.; Grandjean, F.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, iron 2-ethylhexanoate (Fe-eh, 1) in combination with ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AsA6p) has been reported as a good catalytic system for the oxidation of ethyl linoleate (EL), an unsaturated lipid. In response to the fascinating chemistry of this bio-inspired iron-based catalyst the

  4. Synergetic Effect of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 Physical Mixture in Hydrodeoxygenation of Methyl Palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Shamanaev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, which was prepared by in situ temperature-programmed reduction and in the mixture with the inert (SiC, SiO2 or acidic (γ-Al2O3 material was studied in methyl palmitate hydrodeoxygenation (HDO. Methyl palmitate HDO was carried out at temperatures of 270–330 °C, H2/feed volume ratio of 600 Nm3/m3, and H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst, diluted with γ-Al2O3 showed a higher activity than Ni2P/SiO2 catalyst diluted with SiC or SiO2. The conversion of methyl palmitate increased significantly in the presence of γ-Al2O3 most probably due to the acceleration of the acid-catalyzed reaction of ester hydrolysis. The synergism of Ni2P/SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 in methyl palmitate HDO can be explained by the cooperation of the metal sites of Ni2P/SiO2 and the acid sites of γ-Al2O3 in consecutive metal-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed reactions of HDO. The obtained results let us conclude that the balancing of metal and acid sites plays an important role in the development of the efficient catalyst for the HDO of fatty acid esters over supported phosphide catalysts.

  5. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  6. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Chandan; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  7. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshida, Hiroshi; Funaki, Toshinari; Ono, Koichi; Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Watanabe, Sota; Seki, Tamotsu; Otake, Hiroshi; Kato, Takuji; Ebihara, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal) ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) for the treatment of patients with dry eye. This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1) into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks ( P ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL) is safe and effective for the treatment of patients with dry eye.

  8. Uncoupling effect of palmitate is exacerbated in skeletal muscle mitochondria of sea-acclimatized king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins. Mitochondria exhibited much greater palmitate-induced uncoupling respiration and higher maximal oxidative capacity after acclimatization to marine life. Such effects were not reproduced experimentally after repeated immersions in cold water, suggesting that the plasticity of mitochondrial characteristics may not be primarily driven by cold exposure per se but by other aspects of sea acclimatization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Polarized Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy and ab Initio Calculation of Palmitic and Stearic Acids in the Bm and C Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L da Silva, L F; Andrade-Filho, T; Freire, P T C; Filho, J Mendes; da Silva Filho, J G; Saraiva, G D; Moreira, S G C; de Sousa, F F

    2017-06-29

    A complete experimental study on the vibrational properties of palmitic and stearic acids crystallized in the B m and C forms, both belonging to the monoclinic system with the P2 1 /a (C 2h 5 ) space group, through polarized Raman and infrared spectroscopy, is reported in this paper. Density functional theory calculations were also performed to assign the normal modes and to help in the interpretation of the experimental data. The different polarizations were compared and their influence on the spectral profiles, in both the lattice and the internal mode regions, was discussed. In general, the Raman and infrared spectra exhibit accentuated differences among the polymorphic forms, which are associated with the different molecular modifications, defined as gauche and all-trans conformations. Insights about interaction among different groups are also furnished.

  10. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  12. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  13. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  14. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  15. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  16. Thermal properties and heat storage analysis of palmitic acid-TiO_2 composite as nano-enhanced organic phase change material (NEOPCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Ganesan, P.; Tyagi, V.V.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Sandaran, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite of palmitic acid and TiO_2 nanoparticles with enhanced thermal energy storage capabilities • The composite is thermally reliable and chemically stable. • Thermal conductivity of the composite increases significantly with the loading. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: In the present study, the phase change behavior of prepared novel composites of palmitic acid and solid nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) for thermal energy storage has been investigated. The nanoparticles are dispersed into the base fluid in various mass fractions (0.5, 1, 3, and 5%), and their effects on the thermo-physical properties have been investigated. Structural analysis has been carried out by using FESEM, and crystallography was checked by XRD technique. The chemical/functional groups of the base fluid and composite PCMs have been analyzed by using FT-IR spectrum. The observations showed that the TiO_2 nanoparticles do not affect the chemical structure of palmitic acid; however they improve the chemical stability. The phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion has shown the significant stability with the increase in nanoparticle weight fractions. The accelerated thermal cycle test of the composite shows good thermal reliability for 1500 melt/freeze cycles. Thermal conductivity of palmitic acid increased gradually by 12.7, 20.6, 46.6, and 80% for the nanoparticle weight fractions of 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% respectively. Based on the results, it can be mentioned that the prepared palmitic acid based nano-enhanced organic phase change composite materials can be very well used as potential solar thermal energy storage materials.

  17. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  18. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  19. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  20. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  1. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  3. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  4. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  7. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  8. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  9. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  10. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  11. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  12. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  13. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  14. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  15. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  16. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  17. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  18. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  19. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  20. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  1. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  2. Onset of efficacy and tolerability following the initiation dosing of long-acting paliperidone palmitate: post-hoc analyses of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Dong-Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic for the acute and maintenance treatment of adults with schizophrenia. The recommended initiation dosing regimen is 234 mg on Day 1 and 156 mg on Day 8 via intramuscular (deltoid injection; followed by 39 to 234 mg once-monthly thereafter (deltoid or gluteal. These post-hoc analyses addressed two commonly encountered clinical issues regarding the initiation dosing: the time to onset of efficacy and the associated tolerability. Methods In a 13-week double-blind trial, 652 subjects with schizophrenia were randomized to paliperidone palmitate 39, 156, or 234 mg (corresponding to 25, 100, or 150 mg equivalents of paliperidone, respectively or placebo (NCT#00590577. Subjects randomized to paliperidone palmitate received 234 mg on Day 1, followed by their randomized fixed dose on Day 8, and monthly thereafter, with no oral antipsychotic supplementation. The onset of efficacy was defined as the first timepoint where the paliperidone palmitate group showed significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS score compared to placebo (Analysis of Covariance [ANCOVA] models and Last Observation Carried Forward [LOCF] methodology without adjusting for multiplicity using data from the Days 4, 8, 22, and 36 assessments. Adverse event (AE rates and relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI versus placebo were determined. Results Paliperidone palmitate 234 mg on Day 1 was associated with greater improvement than placebo on Least Squares (LS mean PANSS total score at Day 8 (p = 0.037. After the Day 8 injection of 156 mg, there was continued PANSS improvement at Day 22 (p ≤ 0.007 vs. placebo and Day 36 (p Conclusions Significantly greater symptom improvement was observed by Day 8 with paliperidone palmitate (234 mg on Day 1 compared to placebo; this effect was maintained after the 156 mg Day 8 injection, with a trend towards a dose

  3. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  4. Additions of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or gamma-tocopherol to fish oil-enriched energy bars affect lipid oxidation differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of caffeic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and gamma-tocopherol on protection of fish oil-enriched energy bars against lipid oxidation during storage for 10 weeks at room temperature. The lipophilic gamma-tocopherol reduced lipid oxidation during...... storage when added at a concentration above 440 mu g/g fish oil. However, the best antioxidative effect was observed when it was added at a concentration of 660 mu g/g fish oil. In contrast, prooxidative effects were observed when using either gamma-tocopherol at concentrations below 220 mu g/g fish oil......, or the hydrophilic caffeic acid, or the amphiphilic ascorbyl palmitate at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300 mu g/g fish oil. Prooxidative effects were observed as an increase in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and volatile secondary oxidation products, as well as the development of rancid off...

  5. Methodological challenges in indirect treatment comparisons: spotlight on a recent comparison of long-acting injectable aripiprazole versus paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Gopal, Srihari; Kim, Edward; Mathews, Maju; Kern-Sliwa, Jennifer; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Wooller, Annette; Berlin, Jesse

    2018-03-01

    In a recent study, an indirect treatment comparison was performed to examine the relative efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole once monthly and paliperidone palmitate once monthly. The authors concluded that the results may suggest relative advantages for aripiprazole once monthly over paliperidone palmitate once monthly in the short-term treatment of schizophrenia. However, the validity of the study is compromised as an indirect treatment comparison using extant data may violate important assumptions. Other methodological issues identified further highlight the challenges of performing indirect treatment comparisons.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  6. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  7. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  8. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  9. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  10. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta...... (middle or beta) position of the glycerol backbone. Beta-palmitate is considered to be sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “beta palmitate enrichment contributes to increase calcium absorption”. The target population proposed by the applicant is infants from birth to 12 months of age......, the Panel took into account the biological plausibility of the mechanism by which beta-palmitate could exert the claimed effect and that three small human intervention studies in preterm and term infants provided some evidence that a higher degree of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of formula...

  12. Effects of substrate availability on myocardial C-11 palmitate kinetics by positron emission tomography in normal subjects and patients with ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelbert, H.R.; Henze, E.; Sochor, H.; Grossman, R.G.; Huang, S.C.; Barrio, J.R.; Schwaiger, M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of demonstrating noninvasively with C-11 palmitate and positron emission tomography (PET) changes in myocardial substrate metabolism in normal and diseased human myocardium in response to altered substrate availability in blood and disease-related abnormalities was examined in five normal volunteers and 16 patients with ventricular dysfunction. C-11 palmitate injection and serial PET imaging were performed after an overnight fast (control period) and again 2 hours later after oral glucose (50 gm). Myocardial C-11 time-activity curves from serial PET images revealed a biexponential clearance pattern. An early rapid phase, defined by relative size and clearance half-time, reflects C-11 palmitate oxidation and the late slow phase tracer deposition in the endogenous lipid pool. During the control period, the tracer fraction entering the early rapid phase averaged 47 +/- 13% (SD) in normal subjects and 45 +/- 12% in patients. Corresponding clearance half-times were 19 +/- 7 and 20 +/- 5 minutes, respectively. Heart rate and blood pressure remained unchanged after glucose, but plasma glucose levels rose by 72.5% in normal subjects and by 98.9% in patients, while free fatty acid levels fell by 72% and 42% respectively. In normal subjects, the tracer fraction in the early rapid phase fell by 43% (p less than 0.005) and the clearance half-time increased by 46%. In patients, the response of C-11 palmitate tissue kinetics to glucose was variable. In nine patients, it was similar to normal subjects while in the other seven patients, the tracer fraction entering the rapid clearance phase increased after glucose by 30% (p less than 0.05) associated with a 36% (p less than 0.05) decline in clearance half-times. This was unrelated to disease etiology or plasma substrate levels but occurred mostly in left ventricles with more severely depressed function

  13. Effects of inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of short (2 h and prolonged (18 h inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT and sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1 on palmitate (PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes. METHODS: L6 myotubes were treated simultaneously with either PA and myriocin (SPT inhibitor or PA and Ski II (SphK1inhibitor for different time periods (2 h and 18 h. Insulin stimulated glucose uptake was measured using radioactive isotope. Expression of insulin signaling proteins was determined using Western blot analyses. Intracellular sphingolipids content [sphinganine (SFA, ceramide (CER, sphingosine (SFO, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P] were estimated by HPLC. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both short and prolonged time of inhibition of SPT by myriocin was sufficient to prevent ceramide accumulation and simultaneously reverse palmitate induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, prolonged inhibition of SphK1 intensified the effect of PA on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and attenuated further the activity of insulin signaling proteins (pGSK3β/GSK3β ratio in L6 myotubes. These effects were related to the accumulation of sphingosine in palmitate treated myotubes. CONCLUSION: Myriocin is more effective in restoration of palmitate induced insulin resistance in L6 myocytes, despite of the time of SPT inhibition, comparing to SKII (a specific SphK1 inhibitor. Observed changes in insulin signaling proteins were related to the content of specific sphingolipids, namely to the reduction of ceramide. Interestingly, inactivation of SphK1 augmented the effect of PA induced insulin resistance in L6 myotubes, which was associated with further inhibition of insulin stimulated PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation, glucose uptake and the accumulation of sphingosine.

  14. Estimated medical cost reductions for paliperidone palmitate vs placebo in a randomized, double-blind relapse-prevention trial of patients with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, K; Lin, J; Lingohr-Smith, M; Fu, D J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this economic model was to estimate the difference in medical costs among patients treated with paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injectable antipsychotic (PP1M) vs placebo, based on clinical event rates reported in the 15-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of paliperidone palmitate evaluating time to relapse in subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Rates of psychotic, depressive, and/or manic relapses and serious and non-serious treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were obtained from the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. The total annual medical cost for a relapse from a US payer perspective was obtained from published literature and the costs for serious and non-serious TEAEs were based on Common Procedure Terminology codes. Total annual medical cost differences for patients treated with PP1M vs placebo were then estimated. Additionally, one-way and Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were conducted. Lower rates of relapse (-18.3%) and serious TEAEs (-3.9%) were associated with use of PP1M vs placebo as reported in the long-term paliperidone palmitate vs placebo relapse prevention study. As a result of the reduction in these clinical event rates, the total annual medical cost was reduced by $7140 per patient treated with PP1M vs placebo. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that variations in relapse rates had the greatest impact on the estimated medical cost differences (range: -$9786, -$4670). Of the 10,000 random cycles of Monte Carlo simulations, 100% showed a medical cost difference schizoaffective disorder was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse and a reduction in medical costs compared to placebo. Further evaluation in the real-world setting is warranted.

  15. Effect of Retinol Palmitate on Corneal and Conjunctival Mucin Gene Expression in a Rat Dry Eye Model After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Nobuhito; Toshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Daisuke; Odaka, Akito; Suto, Chikako; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    We examined the wound-healing effect of retinol palmitate (VApal) on mucin gene and protein expressions in a rat dry eye model based on lacrimal gland (LG) resection after injury. The rat dry eye model was prepared by surgical resection of the main LG in male Long-Evans rats. After alkaline injury of the central part of the lower palpebral conjunctiva bilaterally, VApal eye drops at 1,500 IU/mL in one eye and a vehicle in the fellow eye were both administered 6 times a day for 7 days. The expression of mucin gene and protein was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the cornea and conjunctiva of MUC1, MUC4, MUC16, and MUC5AC after 1, 3, (5), and 7 days of treatment with VApal. Significant decreases in fluorescein-stained areas and rose bengal scores were observed in VApal-treated dry eyes compared with vehicle-treated dry eyes at both 3 (P dry eye model after injury. VApal also promoted conjunctival MUC16 expression. These results indicate that VApal has efficacy in improving keratoconjunctival epithelial damage associated with decreased tear production.

  16. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  17. Neuroprotective effect and mechanism of daucosterol palmitate in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Hong; Xu, Zhong-Qi; Zhao, Hong; Yu, Xin-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and cognitive impairment. Amyloid beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the causative role for the pathogenesis of AD. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that Aβ neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity. Daucosterol palmitate (DSP), a plant steroid with anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect, was isolated from the anti-aging traditional Chinese medicinal herb Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. in our previous study. Based on the anti-glutamate excitotoxicity effect of DSP, in this study we investigated potential benefit and mechanism of DSP in ameliorating learning and memory impairment in AD model rats. Results from this study showed that DSP administration effectively ameliorated Aβ-induced learning and memory impairment in rats, markedly inhibited Aβ-induced hippocampal ROS production, effectively prevented Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and significantly restored hippocampal synaptophysin expression level. This study suggests that DSP may be a potential candidate for development as a therapeutic agent for AD cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel adjunctive therapy on tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yuan Lu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on levels of tear film stability and inflammatory cytokines in patients with dry eye. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with dry eye treated in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 50 cases in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with sodium hyaluronate eye drops. Patients in the observation group were given vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel on the basis of the control group, and then the clinical efficacy, tear film stability and the level of inflammatory cytokines were detected in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the levels of BUT and SⅠt in both groups increased significantly compared with that before treatment, and FL was significantly lower than that before treatment. The levels of BUT and SⅠt in the observation group after treatment were 11.24±0.22s and 11.4±0.17mm/5min respectively, which was high than that of control groups(PPPPCONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate eye drops combined with vitamin A palmitate ophthalmic gel can relieve the symptoms of patients with dry eye effectively, increase the stability of tear film, and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors in tears, which is reliable in clinical application.

  19. Effect of temperature on thermal oxidation of palmitic acid studied by combination of EPR spin trapping technique and SPME-GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongjian; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-11-01

    Effect of temperatures on thermal oxidation of palmitic acid was studied by the combination of EPR and GC-MS/MS. DMPO was used as the spin trap. The experimental spectrum was simulated with alkyl and alkoxyl spin adducts. Total amount of spins, a parameter to indicate radical concentrations, detected at 180°C was nearly 10 times higher than that at 175°C. Besides, total amounts of spins detected at 180°C decreased rapidly because of the reaction between radical adducts and newly formed radicals. Signal intensities of alkyl radical adducts increased rapidly from 0.405 to 4.785 from 175°C to 180°C. Besides, more palmitic acid degraded to oxidized compounds from 175°C to 180°C than that of other temperature ranges. The C-C linkages between carbons 2 to 6 were easier to be oxidized at 180°C. The results all implied that oxidation rates of palmitic acid samples increased rapidly from 175°C to 180°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporation of radioactive labelled cholin and palmitate into lung lecithin of rabbits treated with high doses of bromcarbamides, barbiturates and diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichert, P. von; Schmidt, C.; Pomraenke, K.; Wiegers, U.

    1977-01-01

    Severe intoxications with bromcarbamides often show respiratory complications. To answer the question if there is a direct effect of the drug on lung tissue the incorporation of radioactive labelled choline and palmitate into lung lecithin was investigated. The phospholipid metabolism is in close relation to the surfactant system of the lung. Secondly the influence of bromcarbamides was compared with other hypnotic drugs. There was a reduction of palmitate incorporation into lung lecithin down to 40%, whereas the incorporation of choline increases in bromcarbamide intoxication. The relation between palmitate and choline incorporation was 6.77 in the controls and it decreases to 2-3 in the bromcarbamide group. The total phospholipid content in the lung/g wet weight remained unchanged in all experiments. From this data it is concluded, that these drugs cause a reduction of fatty acid exchange of the lecithin molecules of the lung. This might lead to the production of non surface active lecithin. The clinical and the morphological aspects of severe bromcarbamide intoxication are consistent with a perturbation of the surfactant function. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  3. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  4. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  5. Simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate and triamcinolone acetonide in beagle dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate lipid emulsion injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Mingjing; Wu, Panpan; Guan, Jiao; Men, Lei; Lin, Hongli; Tang, Xing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) which is a lipid-soluble prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TAP and TA in beagle dog plasma. After simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (dexamethasone, DEX) were separated on Phenomenex Luna C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.1% ammonia solution) at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min with gradient elution. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization using the ion transitions of m/z 673.5→397.3, 435.3→415.3 and 393.3→355.3 for TAP, TA and IS, respectively. The method was of satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy over the concentration range of 1-1,000 ng/ml for TAP and 0.5-500 ng/ml for TA. The intra- and inter-day precisions for both TAP and TA were 3.2% to 18.7% and the accuracy was in the range of -8.4% to 6.8%. The mean recoveries of TAP, TA and IS were 86.7-104.7%. The method was successfully applied to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of TAP and TA after 28-day repeated intravenous administration of TAP lipid emulsion injection to beagle dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  7. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  8. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  9. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  10. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  11. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  12. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  13. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  15. Stereochemistry of Endogenous Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid and Relevance of Absolute Configuration to Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Kolar, Matthew J; Chu, Qian; Syed, Ismail; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Siegel, Dionicio

    2017-04-05

    Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored. Here, we synthesized the R- and S- palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (R-9-PAHSA, S-9-PAHSA). Access to highly enantioenriched PAHSAs enabled the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to separate and quantify R- and S-9-PAHSA, and this approach identified R-9-PAHSA as the predominant stereoisomer that accumulates in adipose tissues from transgenic mice where FAHFAs were first discovered. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of 9-PAHSA biosynthesis and degradation indicate that the enzymes and pathways for PAHSA production are stereospecific, with cell lines favoring the production of R-9-PAHSA and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a PAHSA degradative enzyme, selectively hydrolyzing S-9-PAHSA. These studies highlight the role of stereochemistry in the production and degradation of PAHSAs and define the endogenous stereochemistry of 9-PAHSA in adipose tissue. This information will be useful in the identification and characterization of the pathway responsible for PAHSA biosynthesis, and access to enantiopure PAHSAs will elucidate the role of stereochemistry in PAHSA activity and metabolism in vivo.

  16. Intramuscular administration of paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable microsuspension induces a subclinical inflammatory reaction modulating the pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-07-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the intricate nature of the drug release and absorption following intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sustained-release prodrug nanocrystals/microcrystals. A paliperidone palmitate (PPP) long-acting suspension was characterized with regard to particle size (Dv,50 = 1.09 μm) and morphology prior to i.m. injection in rats. The local disposition was rigorously investigated by means of (immuno)histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy while the concurrent multiphasic pharmacokinetics was linked to the microanatomy. A transient (24 h) trauma-induced inflammation promptly evolved into a subclinical but chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction initiated by the presence of solid material. The dense inflammatory envelope (CD68(+) macrophages) led to particle agglomeration with subsequent drop in dissolution rate beyond 24 h postinjection. This was associated with a decrease in apparent paliperidone (PP) absorption (near-zero order) until 96 h and a delayed time of occurrence of observed maximum drug plasma concentration (168 h). The infiltrating macrophages phagocytosed large fractions of the depot, thereby influencing the (pro)drug release. Radial angiogenesis (CD31(+)) was observed throughout the inflammatory rim from 72 h onwards and presumably contributed to the sustained systemic PP concentrations by maintaining a sufficient absorptive capacity. No solid-state transitions of the retrieved formulation were recorded with X-ray diffraction analysis. In summary, the initial formulation-driven prodrug (PPP) dissolution and drug (PP) absorption were followed by a complex phase determined by the relative contribution of formulation factors and dynamic physiological variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Levels of palmitic acid ester of hydroxystearic acid (PAHSA) are reduced in the breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinova, Marie; Kuda, Ondrej; Hansikova, Jana; Rombaldova, Martina; Balas, Laurence; Bardova, Kristina; Durand, Thierry; Rossmeisl, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Stranak, Zbynek; Kopecky, Jan

    2018-02-01

    To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice. FAHFA lipid profiles were measured using reverse phase and chiral liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. PAHSA regioisomers as well as other FAHFAs were present in both human and murine milk. Unexpectedly, the levels of 5-PAHSA were higher relative to other regioisomers. The separation of both regioisomers and enantiomers of PAHSAs revealed that both R- and S-enantiomers were present in the biological samples, and that the majority of the 5-PAHSA signal is of R configuration. Total PAHSA levels were positively associated with weight gain during pregnancy, and 5-PAHSA as well as total PAHSA levels were significantly lower in the milk of the obese compared to the lean mothers. Our results document for the first time the presence of lipid mediators from the FAHFA family in breast milk, while giving an insight into the stereochemistry of PAHSAs. They also indicate the negative effect of obesity on 5-PAHSA levels. Future studies will be needed to explore the role and mechanism of action of FAHFAs in breast milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role and mechanism of KCa3.1 channels in human monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Zhen; Pang, Zheng-Da; Wang, Jun-Hong; Song, Zheng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Du, Xiao-Jun; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2018-05-21

    Monocyte migration into diseased tissues contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases. Intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (K Ca 3.1) channels play an important role in cell migration. However, the role of K Ca 3.1 channels in mediating monocyte migration induced by palmitic acid (PA) is still unclear. Using cultured THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects, we investigated the role and signaling mechanisms of K Ca 3.1 channels in mediating the migration induced by PA. Using methods of Western blotting analysis, RNA interference, cell migration assay and ELISA, we found that PA-treated monocytes exhibited increment of the protein levels of K Ca 3.1 channel and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and the effects were reversed by co-incubation of PA with anti-TLR2/4 antibodies or by specific inhibitors of p38-MAPK, or NF-κB. In addition, PA increased monocyte migration, which was abolished by a specific K Ca 3.1 channel blocker, TRAM-34, or K Ca 3.1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression and secretion of MCP-1 induced by PA was also similarly prevented by TRAM-34 and K Ca 3.1 siRNA. These results demonstrate for the first time that PA upregulates K Ca 3.1 channels through TLR2/4, p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathway to promote the expression of MCP-1, and then induce the trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss.

  20. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  1. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  2. Liver X receptors balance lipid stores in hepatic stellate cells through Rab18, a retinoid responsive lipid droplet protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Fiona; Wroblewski, Kevin; O'Byrne, Sheila M; Jiang, Hongfeng; Clerkin, Kara; Benhammou, Jihane; Blaner, William S; Beaven, Simon W

    2015-08-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are determinants of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis. Freshly isolated HSCs from Lxrαβ(-/-) mice have increased lipid droplet (LD) size, but the functional consequences of this are unknown. Our aim was to determine whether LXRs link cholesterol to retinoid storage in HSCs and how this impacts activation. Primary HSCs from Lxrαβ(-/-) and wild-type mice were profiled by gene array during in vitro activation. Lipid content was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Primary HSCs were treated with nuclear receptor ligands, transfected with small interfering RNA and plasmid constructs, and analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Lxrαβ(-/-) HSCs have increased cholesterol and retinyl esters. The retinoid increase drives intrinsic retinoic acid receptor signaling, and activation occurs more rapidly in Lxrαβ(-/-) HSCs. We identify Rab18 as a novel retinoic acid-responsive, LD-associated protein that helps mediate stellate cell activation. Rab18 mRNA, protein, and membrane insertion increase during activation. Both Rab18 guanosine triphosphatase activity and isoprenylation are required for stellate cell LD loss and induction of activation markers. These phenomena are accelerated in Lxrαβ(-/-) HSCs, where there is greater retinoic acid flux. Conversely, Rab18 knockdown retards LD loss in culture and blocks activation, just like the functional mutants. Rab18 is also induced with acute liver injury in vivo. Retinoid and cholesterol metabolism are linked in stellate cells by the LD-associated protein Rab18. Retinoid overload helps explain the profibrotic phenotype of Lxrαβ(-/-) mice, and we establish a pivotal role for Rab18 GTPase activity and membrane insertion in wild-type stellate cell activation. Interference with Rab18 may have significant therapeutic benefit in ameliorating liver fibrosis. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Liver X Receptors Balance Lipid Stores in Hepatic Stellate Cells via Rab18, a Retinoid Responsive Lipid Droplet Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mahony, Fiona; Wroblewski, Kevin; O’Byrne, Sheila M.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Clerkin, Kara; Benhammou, Jihane; Blaner, William S.; Beaven, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are determinants of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and liver fibrosis. Freshly isolated HSCs from Lxrαβ−/− mice have increased lipid droplet (LD) size but the functional consequences of this are unknown. Our aim was to determine whether LXRs link cholesterol to retinoid storage in HSCs and how this impacts activation. Primary HSCs from Lxrαβ−/− and wild-type (WT) mice were profiled by gene array during in vitro activation. Lipid content was quantified by HPLC and mass spectroscopy. Primary HSCs were treated with nuclear receptor ligands, transfected with siRNA and plasmid constructs, and analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Lxrαβ−/− HSCs have increased cholesterol and retinyl esters (CEs & REs). The retinoid increase drives intrinsic retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and activation occurs more rapidly in Lxrαβ−/− HSCs. We identify Rab18 as a novel retinoic acid responsive, lipid droplet associated protein that helps mediate stellate cell activation. Rab18 mRNA, protein, and membrane insertion increase during activation. Both Rab18 GTPase activity and isoprenylation are required for stellate cell lipid droplet loss and induction of activation markers. These phenomena are accelerated in the Lxrαβ−/− HSCs, where there is greater retinoic acid flux. Conversely, Rab18 knockdown retards lipid droplet loss in culture and blocks activation, just like the functional mutants. Rab18 is also induced with acute liver injury in vivo. Conclusion Retinoid and cholesterol metabolism are linked in stellate cells by the LD associated protein, Rab18. Retinoid overload helps explain the pro-fibrotic phenotype of Lxrαβ−/− mice and we establish a pivotal role for Rab18 GTPase activity and membrane insertion in wild-type stellate cell activation. Interference with Rab18 may have significant therapeutic benefit in ameliorating liver fibrosis. PMID:25482505

  4. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  6. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  7. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  9. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  10. Hepatic malonyl-CoA levels of fed, fasted and diabetic rats as measured using a simple radioisotopic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.D.; Stark, M.J.; Foster, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    A simple radioisotopic assay for malonyl-CoA is described. The method is based on the malonyl-CoA-dependent incorporation of labeled acetyl-CoA into palmitic acid catalyzed by fatty acid synthetase in the presence of NADPH. Its main advantage over the more conventional spectrophotometric procedure is that it is extremely sensitive and allows the simultaneous determination of picomole quantities of malonyl-CoA in multiple tissue extracts. It should prove particularly suitable for studies on the regulation of lipid metabolism in isolated hepatocytes where the quantity of tissue available for analysis is frequently very small. Application of the method to the measurement of malonyl-CoA in livers from fed, fasted, and diabetic rats yielded values that were consistent with the recently postulated role of malonyl-CoA in the regulation of hepatic ketone body production

  11. Aspiration sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled lesions in the liver that generally arise as congenital anomalies. Prevalence is estimated between 3 and 18%. Overall, cysts are benign and asymptomatic. However, hepatic cysts can increase to a volume of several liters as a result of continuous fluid production by the

  12. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  13. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  14. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  15. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  16. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  17. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  18. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  19. Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Roomp

    Full Text Available Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24:1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our

  20. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  3. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  4. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  5. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of hypoxia on the incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C[-palmitate into lipids of various brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The lipid metabolism in guinea pig brain after intermittent hypoxia, prolonged for 80 hrs, was markedly impaired. The in vivo incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C] palmitate into lipids of microsomes, mitochondria, myelin, and synaptosomes, purified form cerebral hemispheres, was significantly lower in the hypoxic animals than in the controls. The same effect was observed on the incorporation of labeled precursors into lipids of mitochondria purified from cerebellum and brainstem. In particular, the labeling of th major phospholipids present - ie, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) - in the mitochondria of the three brain regions examined decreased after hypoxic treatment

  7. Monocyte adhesion induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and palmitic acid in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2016-01-01

    Free palmitic acid (PA) is a potential pro-atherogenic stimulus that may aggravate particle-mediated cardiovascular health effects. We hypothesized that the presence of PA can aggravate oxidative stress and endothelial activation induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in vitro. We...... measured in the lower chamber on HUVECs and THP-1 cells. The exposure to MWCNTs, including a short (NM400) and long (NM402) type of entangled fibers, was associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in the intracellular glutathione concentration in HUVEC and A549...

  8. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-01-01

    Titer and cloud point Distilled Oleic Acid’s higher than standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH) or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design 3 independent variables 3 X 2 X 3, twice repeating’s applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. On the optimum C16 feed composition at 5.20 % was produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside it...

  9. Optimization of Palmitic Acid Composition in Crude Oleic Acid to Provide Specifications of Titer and Cloud Point of Distillate Oleic Acid using a Flash Distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Ritonga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Titer and cloud point of Distilled Oleic Acid is higher than is the standard on feed composition palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or C16 11.2 %. Feed composition C16, top temperature precut and bottom main distiller column were optimized to produce DOA. A factorial design with 3 independent variables, 3 X 2 X 3, repeated twice as much, is applied to observe effects of feed composition C16 to quality parameters. In the optimum C16, feed composition at 5.20 % produced DOA with titer 6.8 oC, cloud point 5.0 oC (inside its specification.

  10. Efficacy and safety of retinol palmitate ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eye: a Japanese Phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshida H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Toshida,1 Toshinari Funaki,2 Koichi Ono,3 Nobuhito Tabuchi,4 Sota Watanabe,4 Tamotsu Seki,5 Hiroshi Otake,6 Takuji Kato,7 Nobuyuki Ebihara,8 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center, Tokyo, 4Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories, Lion Corporation, Kanagawa, 5Tamagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 6Otake Eye Clinic, Kanagawa, 7Kato Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the administration of retinol palmitate (VApal ophthalmic solution (500 IU/mL for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Patients and methods: This study included 66 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomized (1:1 into either a VApal ophthalmic solution or a placebo group, and a single drop of either solution was administered six times daily for 4 weeks. Efficacy measures were 12 subjective symptoms, rose bengal (RB and fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup time, and tear secretion. Safety measures included clinical blood and urine analyses and adverse event recordings. Results: In comparisons of the two groups, the mean change in RB staining score from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 2 and 4 weeks (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the fluorescein clearance rate (fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the VApal group at 4 weeks (P<0.05. The VApal group showed a significant improvement in blurred vision at 1 and 2 weeks (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, and the mean change in the total score for subjective symptoms from baseline was significantly lower in the VApal group at 1 week (P<0.05. In before- and after-intervention comparisons, the

  11. A preliminary evaluation of dexamethasone palmitate emulsion: a novel intravitreal sustained delivery of corticosteroid for treatment of macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daull, Philippe; Paterson, Christopher A; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Garrigue, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-03-01

    Dexamethasone palmitate (DXP) is a lipophilic prodrug of dexamethasone (DXM), a potent corticosteroid used to treat a variety of ophthalmic diseases. The aim of the study was to characterize the sustained release capacity (in rabbit), efficacy (in rat and rabbit), and safety (in rabbit, cat, and minipig) of intravitreal (IVT) DXP emulsions in preclinical models. Oil-in-water emulsions of DXP were administered by IVT injections in rats, rabbits, cats, or minipigs. Efficacy was assessed in rabbits by the inhibition of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and in rats by inhibition of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Concentrations of DXP and DXM in aqueous humor, vitreous, retina, choroid, and blood were determined to characterize the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. Complete ophthalmic examinations (indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit-lamp biomacroscopy, electroretinography, tonometry) were performed to assess the ocular safety of IVT DXP doses up to 2,600 μg in minipig, followed by histopathologic examinations. A validated feline model of DXM-induced elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was used to assess the ocular hypertensive impact (i.e., the safety) of an IVT injection of DXP emulsion. Rat and rabbit efficacy data demonstrated that IVT injections of DXP emulsions were effective. Rabbit PK data demonstrated that following a single 1,280 μg IVT injection resulted in sustained DXM levels in the retina and choroid (1,179.6 and 577.7 ng/g with a half-life of 189 and 103 days, respectively) sufficient to inhibit VEGF-induced vascular hyper-permeability for up to 9 months. No adverse ocular findings were observed in the rabbit at the 1,280 μg DXP dose. Plasma levels of DXP and DXM were close to the lower limit of quantification (0.5 ng/mL). In minipigs, no systemic effects were observed at a dose up to 2,600 μg DXP. In steroid responsive cats, IVT DXP emulsions increased IOP to a lesser extent than triamcinolone acetonide with a more rapid return to

  12. Comparison of Medicaid spending in schizoaffective patients treated with once monthly paliperidone palmitate or oral atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongling; Muser, Erik; Fu, Dong-Jing; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Pilon, Dominic; Emond, Bruno; Wu, Allen; Duh, Mei Sheng; Lefebvre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Compared to oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs), long-acting injectable antipsychotics require less frequent administration, and thus may improve adherence and reduce risk of relapse in schizoaffective disorder (SAD) patients. To evaluate the impact of once monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP) versus OAAs on healthcare resource utilization, Medicaid spending, and hospital readmission among SAD patients. Using FL, IA, KS, MS, MO, and NJ Medicaid data (January 2009-December 2013), adults with ≥2 SAD diagnoses initiated on PP or OAA (index date) were identified. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were assessed during the 12month pre- and post-index periods, respectively. Propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to reduce confounding and compare the estimated treatment effect for PP versus OAA. A total of 10,778 OAA-treated patients and 876 PP-treated patients were selected. Compared to OAAs, PP was associated with significantly lower medical costs (PSM: mean monthly cost difference [MMCD] = -$383, p < 0.001; IPTW: MMCD = -$403, p = 0.016), which offset the higher pharmacy costs associated with PP (PSM: MMCD = $270, p < 0.001; IPTW: MMCD = $350, p < 0.001) and resulted in similar total healthcare cost (PSM: MMCD = -$113, p = 0.414; IPTW: MMCD = -$53, p = 0.697) for PP versus OAA. Reduced risk of hospitalization (PSM: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.85, p = 0.128; IPTW: IRR = 0.96, p = 0.004) and fewer hospitalization days (PSM: IRR = 0.74, p = 0.008; IPTW: IRR = 0.85, p < 0.001) were observed in PP versus OAA patients. Among hospitalized patients, PP was associated with a lower risk of 30 day hospital readmission compared to OAA (IPTW: odds ratio = 0.89, p = 0.041). Limitations The Medicaid data may not be representative of the nation or other states, and includes pre-rebate pharmacy costs (potentially over-estimated). Also

  13. In vivo and in vitro studies of hepatic lipid metabolism in lean and reobese fetal pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, G.J.; Trusty, C.D.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fetuses were removed from pregnant (110 days of gestation) sows and 80 to 120 mg liver slices were prepared for two hour incubations with 14 C-palmitate (1 μCi/ml) or 3 H 2 O (1 mCi/ml). In vivo studies were conducted by injecting a single bolus of 0.5 or 10 ml of Liposyn (a 10% safflower oil emulsion) into fetuses (umbilical vein). One hour post injection (Liposyn) fetuses were removed from the uterus. Subsequently liver lipids were extracted and gas chromatographic analysis for 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 20:4 were performed. Incorporation of C 14 -palmitate into total lipids was higher in lean livers whereas incorporation into CO 2 was independent of fetal strain. Incorporation of 3 H 2 O into triglyceride fatty acids was similar in lean and obese livers. Fatty acid composition of livers indicated strain differences (obese versus lean for 16:0 = 52 vs 27.8%; 18:0 = 20 vs 16.8%; 18:1 = 16.3 vs 32.6%; 20:4 = 8.8 vs 17.6%). There was a similar Liposyn dose dependent increase in the amount of 18:2 in chromatographs of lean (n = 7) and obese (n = 7) livers. Administration of Liposyn caused a significant increase in the amount of 18:1 and 20:4 in lean livers (least squares means +/- SEM, 0 vs 0.5 ml for 20:4 = .31 +/- .03 vs .48 +/- .04) but no increase in preobese livers. These studies illustrate significant alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the preobese state

  14. Bee's honey attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced hepatic injury through the regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Liu, Yingxia; Xing, Feiyue; Leung, Tung Ming; Liong, Emily C; Tipoe, George L

    2016-06-01

    We aim to examine whether honey ameliorates hepatic injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) animal and cell line steatosis models. NASH was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rat by 8-week feeding with a high-fat diet. During the experiment, 5 g/kg honey was intragastrically fed daily. Rat normal hepatocyte BRL-3A cell was treated with sodium palmitate (SP) to induce steatosis in the absence or presence of honey pre-treatment or specific siRNA/overexpress plasmid of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) or antagonist/agonist of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). Honey significantly improved the high-fat-diet-induced hepatic injury, steatosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats. Honey also inhibited the overexpression of TXNIP and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These effects were replicated in BRL-3A cell line which showed that the down-regulation of TXNIP or inhibition of NLRP3 contributed to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, and re-balanced lipid metabolism. In contrast, overexpression of TXNIP or agonism of NLRP3 exacerbated the cellular damage induced by SP. Suppression of the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway may partly contribute to the amelioration of hepatic injury during the progression of NASH by honey. Targeting hepatic TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is a potential therapeutic way for the prevention and treatment of NASH.

  15. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  16. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  17. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent disease ... know it. Some people who get infected with Hepatitis C are able to clear, or get rid ... or lifelong, infection. Over time, chronic Hepatitis C can cause serious ...

  18. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis... American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis..., we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to...

  19. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths... save lives and prevent the spread of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and.... While we have come far, work still needs to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis...

  20. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru

    1980-01-01

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  1. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  2. Acidolysis of terebinth fruit oil with palmitic and caprylic acids in a recirculating packed bed reactor: optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koçak, D.; Keskin, H.; Fadiloglu, S.; Gögüs, F.

    2016-07-01

    The acidolysis reaction of terebinth fruit oil with caprylic and palmitic acid has been investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase (Lipozyme IM from Rhizomucormiehei) and carried out in recirculating packed bed reactor. The effects of reaction parameters have been analyzed using response surface methodology. Reaction time (3.5–6.5 h), enzyme load (10–20%), substrate flow rate (4–8 mL·min−1 ) and substrate mole ratios (Terebinth oil : Palmitic acid : Caprylic acid, 1:1.83:1.22–1:3.07:2.05) were evaluated. The optimum reaction conditions were 5.9 h reaction time, 10% enzyme load, 4 mL·min−1 substrate flow rate and 1:3.10:2.07 substrate mole ratio. The structured lipid obtained at these optimum conditions had 52.23% desired triacylglycerols and a lower caloric value than that of terebinth fruit oil. The melting characteristics and microstructure of the structured lipid were similar to those of commercial margarine fat extracts. The results showed that the structured lipid had the highest oxidative stability among the studied fats. (Author)

  3. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-123I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-14C-palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p- 123 I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1- 14 C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. (author)

  4. Comparative evaluation of labelling patterns and turnover of lipids, tagged by 15 (p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Sauer, W.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin); Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J. (Essen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenphysik und Strahlenbiologie)

    1984-06-15

    Uptake and turnover of chloroform/methanol extractable tissue lipids labelled in vivo simultaneously with 15(p-/sup 123/I-phenyl-)pentadecanoic and 1-/sup 14/C-palmitic acid were compared. Lipid turnover studies were performed in fasted pentobarbital-anaesthetized Wistar rats in tissues with highly varying free fatty acid turnover rates. In all tissues investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney, both tracers labelled nearly identical lipid fractions. The main tracer uptake was found in free fatty acids, phospholipids, diglycerides and triglycerides. A highly significant correlation of uptake and turnover in main tissue lipid fractions indicated an essentially identical metabolic pathway of both tracers in intermediary tissue lipid metabolism. Concordant tracer uptake and turnover patterns in tissue of lipids with highly varying fatty acid metabolic rates suggested that intrinsic metabolic activity of the tissue and respective lipid fraction was the major determinant of metabolic handling of both iodophenyl fatty- and palmitic acid. Thus, the feasibility of iodophenylpentadecanoic acid as free fatty acid tracer for studying tissue lipid metabolism is demonstrated. 21 refs.

  5. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  6. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S; Martin, B; Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  7. Exendin-4 Inhibits Hepatic Lipogenesis by Increasing β-Catenin Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hae Seo

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate whether the beneficial effect of exendin-4 on hepatic steatosis is mediated by β-catenin signaling. After the HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with PA for 24 hours, total triglycerides levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression levels of perilipin family members were upregulated in cells treated with 400 μM PA. For our in vitro model of hepatic steatosis, HepG2 cells were treated with 400 μM palmitic acid (PA in the presence or absence of 100 nM exendin-4 for 24 hours. PA increased the expression of lipogenic genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1, fatty acid synthase (FAS, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and triglyceride synthesis-involved genes, such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 in HepG2 cells, whereas exendin-4 treatment significantly prevented the upregulation of SREBP-1c, PPARγ, SCD1, FAS, ACC, DGAT1 and DGAT2. Moreover, exendin-4 treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β in the cytosolic fraction and the expression of β-catenin and transcription factor 4 (TCF4 in the nuclear fraction. In addition, siRNA-mediated inhibition of β-catenin upregulated the expression of lipogenic transcription factors. The protective effects of exendin-4 on intracellular triglyceride content and total triglyceride levels were not observed in cells treated with the β-catenin inhibitor IWR-1. These data suggest that exendin-4 treatment improves hepatic steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  8. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  9. Dengue fever with hepatitis E and hepatitis A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Siddiqui, Shaheer; Riaz, Mehmood

    2009-03-01

    Infection with dengue viruses produces a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal haemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors include the strain and serotype of the infecting virus, as well as the age, immune status, and genetic predisposition of the patient. The teaching point in this case study was Dengue fever which occurred concomitantly with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus infection.

  10. Hepatic glucose utilization in hepatic steatosis and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien?Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilization rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30?min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak?Rutland graphical analysis of the liver us...

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2002-08-01

    AIH, ASC, and de novo AIH after liver transplantation are childhood liver diseases of an autoimmune nature. The mode of presentation of AIH in childhood is variable, and the disease should be suspected and excluded in all children presenting with symptoms and signs of prolonged or severe acute liver disease. Although corticosteroids are effective in all types of childhood AIH, patients with LKM1 have a higher frequency of acute hepatic failure and relapse after corticosteroid withdrawal than do patients with ANA/SMA. ASC occurs commonly in the absence of inflammatory bowel disease, requires cholangiography for diagnosis, and improves during corticosteroid therapy. The development of AIH de novo in children who undergo liver transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disease may reflect interference with the maturation of T cells by immunosuppressive drugs.

  12. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  13. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  14. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  15. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  16. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  17. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  18. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-06-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author).

  19. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-01-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author)

  20. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  1. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  2. The angiographic demonstration of hepatic vein obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Maoheng; Xu Hao; Li Guojun; Gu Yuming; Wei Ning; Wang Cheng; Xu Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the angiographic feature of hepatic vein obstruction. Methods Forty-five patients (male 23, female 22, age 9-54 years) suffered from hepatic vein obstruction. The inferior vena cavography and the hepatic venography were performed in all cases. Results: IVC was free in 37 patients with hepatic vein obstruction, both IVC and HV were obstructed in 8 patients. The local or long stenosis of IVC was found in 31 inferior vena cavography. The diameter of IVC was normal in 12 patients. The sign of membranous dome was found in hepatic vein orifice in 5 cases and in accessory hepatic vein orifice in 4 cases. Intrahepatic venous collaterals were found in 45 cases. Conclusion: Hepatic vein obstruction can be reproached primarily in inferior vena cavography, the membranous dome is a direct sign of membranous obstruction of HV and AHV in inferior vena cavography. The selected hepatic venography can provide reliable evidence to diagnose hepatic vein obstruction

  3. Western diet enhances hepatic inflammation in mice exposed to cecal ligation and puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton Jeff

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese patients display an exaggerated morbidity during sepsis. Since consumption of a western-style diet (WD is a major factor for obesity in the United States, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of chronic WD consumption on hepatic inflammation in mice made septic via cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Feeding mice diets high in fat has been shown to enhance evidence of TLR signaling and this pathway also mediates the hepatic response to invading bacteria. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined effects of sepsis and feeding WD on TRL-4 signaling would exacerbate hepatic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified control diet (CD or WD that was enriched in butter fat (34.4% of calories for 3 weeks prior to CLP. Intravital microscopy was used to evaluate leukocyte adhesion in the hepatic microcirculation. To demonstrate the direct effect of saturated fatty acid on hepatocytes, C3A human hepatocytes were cultured in medium containing 100 μM palmitic acid (PA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4 and interleukin-8 (IL-8. Results Feeding WD increased firm adhesion of leukocytes in the sinusoids and terminal hepatic venules by 8-fold six hours after CLP; the increase in platelet adhesion was similar to the response observed with leukocytes. Adhesion was accompanied by enhanced expression of TNF-α, MCP-1 and ICAM-1. Messenger RNA expression of TLR-4 was also exacerbated in the WD+CLP group. Exposure of C3A cells to PA up-regulated IL-8 and TLR-4 expression. In addition, PA stimulated the static adhesion of U937 monocytes to C3A cells, a phenomenon blocked by inclusion of an anti-TLR-4/MD2 antibody in the culture medium. Conclusions These findings indicate a link between obesity-enhanced susceptibility to sepsis and

  4. Free fatty acids induce ER stress and block antiviral activity of interferon alpha against hepatitis C virus in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz Feyza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic steatosis is recognized as a major risk factor for liver disease progression and impaired response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients. The mechanism of response to interferon-alpha (IFN-α therapy under the condition of hepatic steatosis is unexplored. We investigated the effect of hepatocellular steatosis on hepatitis C virus (HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response in a cell culture model. Methods Sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP and HCV infected Huh-7.5 cells were cultured with a mixture of saturated (palmitate and unsaturated (oleate long-chain free fatty acids (FFA. Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in these cells was visualized by Nile red staining and electron microscopy then quantified by microfluorometry. The effect of FFA treatment on HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response was measured by flow cytometric analysis, Renilla luciferase activity, and real-time RT-PCR. Results FFA treatment induced dose dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in the HCV replicon cells was confirmed by Nile red staining, microfluorometry, and by electron microscopy. Intracellular fat accumulation supports replication more in the persistently HCV infected culture than in the sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP cell line. FFA treatment also partially blocked IFN-α response and viral clearance by reducing the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat2 dependent IFN-β promoter activation. We show that FFA treatment induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response and down regulates the IFNAR1 chain of the type I IFN receptor leading to defective Jak-Stat signaling and impaired antiviral response. Conclusion These results suggest that intracellular fat accumulation in HCV cell culture induces ER stress, defective Jak-Stat signaling, and attenuates the antiviral response, thus providing an explanation to the clinical observation regarding how hepatocellular steatosis influences IFN

  5. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  6. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  8. Nuclear factor-κB is a common upstream signal for growth differentiation factor-5 expression in brown adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and palmitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Yoneda, Yukio, E-mail: yyoneda@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • GDF5 expression is up-regulated by IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate in brown pre-adipocytes. • NF-κB stimulates promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. • Recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter is facilitated in BAT from ob/ob mice. • An NF-κB inhibitor prevents upregulation of GDF5 expression in brown pre-adipocytes. - Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that genetic and acquired obesity similarly led to drastic upregulation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), rather than white adipose tissue, of expression of both mRNA and corresponding protein for the bone morphogenic protein/growth differentiation factor (GDF) member GDF5 capable of promoting brown adipogenesis. In this study, we evaluated expression profiles of GDF5 in cultured murine brown pre-adipocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are all shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Both interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were effective in up-regulating GDF5 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, while similar upregulation was seen in cells exposed to the saturated FFA palmitate, but not to the unsaturated FFA oleate. In silico analysis revealed existence of the putative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding site in the 5′-flanking region of mouse GDF5, whereas introduction of NF-κB subunits drastically facilitated both promoter activity and expression of GDF5 in brown pre-adipocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed significant facilitation of the recruitment of NF-κB to the GDF5 promoter in lysed extracts of BAT from leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice. Upregulation o GDF5 expression was invariably inhibited by an NF-κB inhibitor in cultured brown pre-adipocytes exposed to IL-1β, TNF-α and palmitate. These results suggest that obesity leads to upregulation of GDF5 expression responsible for the promotion of brown adipogenesis through a mechanism

  9. Preparation and properties of palmitic-stearic acid eutectic mixture/expanded graphite composite as phase change material for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Yanping; Du, Yanxia; Cao, Xiaoling; Yuan, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite PCM (phase change material) with PA-SA (palmitic-stearic acid) eutectic mixture as PCM and EG (expanded graphite) as supporting material was prepared. The optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was determined as PA-SA:EG = 13:1 (by mass). Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy results show that PA-SA was uniformly distributed in the porous network structure of EG due to the physical action. Thermal property and thermal stability of the PA-SA/EG composite PCM were characterized by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). DSC results indicated that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of PA-SA/EG were measured as 53.89 °C and 54.37 °C, and 166.27 J/g and 166.13 J/g. TGA test results revealed that PA-SA/EG had a good thermal stability in working temperature range. Thermal cycling test results showed PA-SA/EG had a good thermal reliability after 720 thermal cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was measured as 2.51 W/m K, much higher than that of PA-SA. The thermal energy storage and release rates of PA-SA/EG were also increased due to the high thermal conductivity of EG. In conclusion, the prepared PA-SA/EG composite PCM can be acted as a potential material for thermal energy storage due to the acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability and stability, high thermal conductivity. - Highlights: • PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was prepared. • Optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA in EG was obtained as 13:1 (by mass). • Thermal conductivity and performance of PA-SA/EG have been significate improved. • PA-SA/EG has a good thermal reliability and thermal stability

  10. Counter-attack on virol hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozesky, O.W.; Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-01-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B

  11. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  12. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  13. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Gestational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters retinoid homeostasis in maternal and perinatal tissues of the Holtzman rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransler, Kevin M.; Tonucci, David A.; McGarrigle, Barbara P.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Olson, James R.

    2007-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the most widely studied environmental contaminants, causes a variety of adverse health effects including teratogenesis and altered development which may be related to disruptions in retinoid homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that gestational administration of TCDD has on retinoid homeostasis in both pregnant Holtzman rats and developing fetuses and neonates. A single oral dose of TCDD (0, 1.5, 3, or 6 μg/kg) was administered to pregnant rats on gestation day 10, with fetuses analyzed on gestation days 17 and 20, and neonates analyzed on post natal day 7. Exposure to TCDD generally produced decreases in the concentrations of retinyl esters, such as retinyl palmitate, and retinol in maternal and perinatal liver and lung, while increasing levels in the maternal kidney. Additionally, perinatal hepatic retinol binding protein 1-dependent retinyl ester hydrolysis was also decrease by TCDD. Sensitivity of the developing perinates to TCDD appeared to have an age-related component demonstrated by an increased rate of mortality and significant alterations to body weight and length on post natal day 7 relative to that observed at gestation day 20. A unique observation made in this study was a significant decrease in lung weight observed in the perinates exposed to TCDD. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TCDD significantly alters retinoid homeostasis in tissues of the developing fetus and neonate, suggesting that their unique sensitivity to TCDD may at least be in part the result of altered retinoid homeostasis

  15. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.O.; Khokhar, N.; Shafqat, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  16. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hisada, Kinichi; Matsudaira, Masamichi.

    1975-01-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effective hepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease. (auth.)

  17. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  18. Hepatitis C and autoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesco B; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi

    2007-09-01

    After the discovery of HCV in 1989 a great amount of data has been produced in order to identify a possible aetiology for a number of idiopathic diseases, especially those with a suspected immune origin. Many associations have not been confirmed by prospective studies (as in the case of autoimmune hepatitis); other immune abnormalities, such as the emergence of non organ-specific autoantibodies and cryoglobulins, have been reported by many specific studies. To date, the link between HCV and autoreactivity is tentatively explained on the basis of sequence homologies shared by the HCV polyprotein and "self" proteins (such as CYP 2D6, target of anti-LKM1) (molecular mimicry mechanism); a second interpretation relies on the demonstration that the HCV - B lymphocyte interaction is able to induce a polyclonal B cell activation, an important cofactor for the development of clinically relevant B-lymphocyte autoimmune disorders. In this review we will focus on the major aspects of the autoimmune phenomena in HCV-infected patients, their clinical and therapeutical implications.

  19. [Prevention of virus hepatitis A to E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornberg, M; Manns, M P

    2011-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis viruses can lead to acute hepatitis with the risk of developing liver failure. Chronic viral hepatitis may evolve into liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, prevention of viral hepatitis and its sequels is essential. Vaccination against hepatitis A is successful in almost all individuals. Protective antibodies maintain for at least 20 years. Booster vaccinations are not necessary. Since the introduction of hepatitis A vaccines, the incidence of new HAV-infections has declined significantly. Hepatitis B vaccines are safe and highly effective. Special populations such as dialysis patients or immunocompromised patients require special vaccine schedules. New vaccines with improved adjuvants are currently being tested in clinical trials. So far there is no hepatitis C vaccine on the horizon. Prophylaxis of HCV-infections relies primarily on hygiene measures. Early therapy of acute hepatitis C can prevent chronic hepatitis C. HDV-infection can only be established if HBsAg is present. Thus, prevention of hepatitis B or elimination of HBsAg means prevention of hepatitis delta. Hepatitis E vaccines have been evaluated in phase III studies. The development of HEV vaccines becomes more relevant since chronic HEV infections have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals.

  20. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...