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Sample records for hepatic mixed function

  1. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  2. The damage of the hepatic mixed functional oxygenase system by CCI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fander, U.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between incorporation of C-14 from C-14-Cl 4 into liver lipids and the damage of the mixed functional oxygenase system of liver microsomes is investigated in rats depending on sex difference and method of pretreatment. Under the respective conditions of pretreatment C-14-incorporation rate and relative decrease of the cytochrome P-450 level as the parameter most influenced by CCl 4 are compared with untreated female rats. Induction by 3-MC does not alter both the parameters. Induction by PB enhances the C-14-incorporation rate as well as the cytochrome P-450 decrease but the latter is more affected. In male rats there is only the C-14-incorporation rate increased. Vitamine D 3 pretreated rats show a less decrease of cytochrome P-450 but an enhanced C-14 incorporation rate. Therefore there is no correlation between cytochrome P-450 decrease and C-14 incorporation rate. Reasons for the lack of that correlation are discussed with regard to the mechanism of liver cell damage by carbon tetrachloride. (orig./MG)

  3. Early onset mixed cryoglobulinemia in hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryoglobulinemia is one of the most common forms of extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis infection. The phenomenon is generally seen after several years of chronicity predominantly in the female population resulting in arthralgias, purpuras, and other symptoms, due to vasculitis. Here we present a case of incomplete mixed cryoglobulinemia Type III (as per Brouet′s classification in a young boy aged 13 years who presented with an unusual symptom of pruritus. Diagnosis was confirmed by cryoprecipitation test followed by immunofixation. We aim to highlight the difficulty in diagnosis of this rare case/presentation, important investigation pitfalls and how to avoid them.

  4. Infectious mononucleosis and hepatic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Pang, Chongjie; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Qing; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal hepatic function is common in infectious mononucleosis (IM). However, it remains unknown why increased transferase levels are more common than bilirubin abnormalities in IM. The current study aimed to investigate these associations in the Chinese population. A total of 95 patients with IM (47 males and 48 females) were enrolled in the current study, as well as 95 healthy controls. Patients were sorted by sex. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-off values for IM diagnosis and prediction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for IM were analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was determined that alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were significantly higher in patients with IM compared with controls; however, total bilirubin (TB) levels were significantly lower in patients with IM. ROCs demonstrated that, if ALT, AST and GGT concentrations were higher than, or if TB was lower than, cut-off values, they were predictive of IM. Binary logistic regression identified that the risk of IM in patients exhibiting high levels of transferases was significantly increased, particularly in males. Crude ORs in ALT quartile 4 were 21.667 and 10.111 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 38.054 and 9.882, respectively. A significant IM risk of IM was evident in patients with low bilirubin levels and females appeared to be particularly susceptible. For example, crude ORs in quartile 1 were 8.229 and 8.257 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 8.883 and 10.048, respectively. Therefore, the current study identified a positive association between transferase levels and IM and a negative association between TB and IM. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that high transferases are suggestive of IM, particularly in males, whereas low TB is suggestive for IM, particularly in females. PMID:29456696

  5. Tissue hepatic blood volume and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Mamoru

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan has an advantage that it can measure regional organ blood flow and volume not only quantitatively but also non-invasively. In order to estimate the liver function, tissue hepatic blood volume was measured using C 15 O inhalation in conjunction with positron emission tomography. PET scans of the liver were performed after the single breath inhalation of 20 mCi of high specific activity 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide in 105 patients which were classified 3 groups; normal, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. They consist of 61, 14, and 30 patients, respectively. Significant differences between normal and cirrhotic patients were noted in tissue hepatic blood volume (mean 20.4, 18.2, 16.0 ml/100 g, respectively). Tissue hepatic blood volume (tHBV) correlated with the reaction of the peripheral reticuloendothelial compartment and protein synthesis, because there was a potent correlation between tHBV and hepatic fibrosis. In normal livers, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in tissue hepatic blood volume among liver segments. (author)

  6. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  7. /sup 131/I-Bromsulphalein in the evaluation of hepatic function during reconvalescence after viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernysheva, N N; Pal' tseva, T F; Nonikova, T B; Aleshkovich, T V; Kuandykova, S Zh; Rumyantseva, L A; Kal' nitskaya, E F [Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR)

    1982-10-01

    The combined use of biochemical and radionuclide tests (the clearance of /sup 131/I-bromsulphalein) made it possible to reveal significant differences in 53 patients in the time of complete reparation of hepatic function and the period of reconvalescence after hepatitis A and B. The period of reconvalescence in patients with hepatitis B was more prolonged. Dynamic observation and appropriate treatment is recommended for these patients.

  8. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  9. Systematic review of mixed cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis E virus infection: association or causation?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Leise, Michael D.; Watt, Kymberly D.; Murad, M. Hassan; Prokop, Larry J.; Haffar, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) has been associated with several viral infections, and chronic hepatitis C is recognized as a major cause. MC associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been described and little is known about this rare association. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review of MC associated with HEV, and examine the presence of a causal relationship. Methods: An experienced librarian conducted a search of databases from each database?s i...

  10. Hepatic function and the cardiometabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas WiernspergerINSERM French Institute of Health and Medical Research, U1060, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne, FranceAbstract: Despite skeletal muscle being considered by many as the source of insulin resistance, physiology tells us that the liver is a central and cardinal regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is sometimes underestimated because, in contrast with muscle, investigations of liver function are technically very difficult. Nevertheless, recent experimental and clinical research has demonstrated clearly that, due in part to its anatomic position, the liver is exquisitely sensitive to insulin and other hormonal and neural factors, either by direct intrahepatic mechanisms or indirectly by organ cross-talk with muscle or adipose tissue. Because the liver receives absorbed nutrients, these have a direct impact on liver function, whether via a caloric excess or via the nature of food components (eg, fructose, many lipids, and trans fatty acids. An emerging observation with a possibly great future is the increase in intestinal permeability observed as a consequence of high fat intake or bacterial modifications in microbiota, whereby substances normally not crossing the gut gain access to the liver, where inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation leads to fatty liver, a situation observed very early in the development of diabetes. The visceral adipose tissue located nearby is another main source of inflammatory substances and oxidative stress, and also acts on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, resulting in stimulation of macrophages. Liberation of these substances, in particular triglycerides and inflammation factors, into the circulation leads to ectopic fat deposition and vascular damage. Therefore, the liver is directly involved in the development of the prediabetic cardiometabolic syndrome. Treatments are mainly metformin, and possibly statins and vitamin D. A very promising

  11. Research progress of BOLD-functional MRI of hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from behavior abnormality, conscious disorder and even coma, is a consequence of liver dysfunction in both acute and chronic hepatic diseases. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to a subgroup of cirrhotic patients without clinical overt hepatic encephalopathy symptoms hut with abnormalities in neuro -cognitive functions. HE/MHE can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life and prognosis. The exact neuropathology mechanism was still unclear. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) has been increasingly applied for investigating the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of HE. This paper will review the fMRI research applied on uncovering the neuropathology mechanism of HE. (authors)

  12. Application of zero-inflated poisson mixed models in prognostic factors of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Zayeri, Farid; Jafari, Ali Akbar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health problem. Evaluation of risk factors is one of the solutions which help protect people from the infection. This study aims to employ zero-inflated Poisson mixed models to evaluate prognostic factors of hepatitis C. The data was collected from a longitudinal study during 2005-2010. First, mixed Poisson regression (PR) model was fitted to the data. Then, a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was fitted with compound Poisson random effects. For evaluating the performance of the proposed mixed model, standard errors of estimators were compared. The results obtained from mixed PR showed that genotype 3 and treatment protocol were statistically significant. Results of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model showed that age, sex, genotypes 2 and 3, the treatment protocol, and having risk factors had significant effects on viral load of HCV patients. Of these two models, the estimators of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model had the minimum standard errors. The results showed that a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was the almost best fit. The proposed model can capture serial dependence, additional overdispersion, and excess zeros in the longitudinal count data.

  13. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function

  14. Efficacy of 131I treatment for 840 cases of Graves' disease combined with hepatic function injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Liang; Tan Jian; Wang Renfei

    2012-01-01

    than medium and severe injury ((2.0 ± 0.6) vs (3.2 ± 0.8)vs (4.3 ± 1.4) months; t=21.886, 21.307, both P<0.01). The curative rates for hepatic function injury type measured with mainly enzyme rise, mainly bilirubin rise and mixed rise were 85.1% (480/564), 56.3% (49/87) and 72.0% (136/189). A statistically significant better curative rate was shown for hepatic function injury type with mainly enzyme rise (χ 2 =41.009, 16.444, both P<0.01). No cases had obvious function injury aggravation after 131 I treatment. There was a significantly correlated association between outcomes of hepatic function recovery and GD therapeutic efficacy (χ 2 =309.142, r=0.519, both P<0.05). Conclusions: The curative rate of GD patients treated with 131 I depends on hepatic dysfunction. The curative rate is highest in those with mild hepatic function injury, followed by those with medium and severe hepatic function injury. The recovery time is shortest in patients with mild hepatic function injury, followed by those with medium and severe hepatic function injury. (authors)

  15. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  16. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  17. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impaired liver function tests and co-infection with hepatitis viruses in AIDS patients are common in western countries. Objective: To assess liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A prospective study.

  18. [Impaired cognitive function in hepatitis C - a review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter; Hjerrild, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function is commonly seen in patients with hepatitis C-virus (HCV). This might be due to a toxic effect of the virus itself or to neuroinflammatory processes with a direct damaging cerebral effect. The symptoms appear in the pre-cirrhotic stage and impair the patient's level...... of functioning. Therefore, doctors in contact with HCV patients should be up to date on the existing knowledge in the field to be able to inform patients about their cognitive deficits and take them into consideration. It is unknown if the cognitive deficits decline when the virus is eradicated. Udgivelsesdato...

  19. How I do it: assessment of hepatic functional reserve for indication of hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin

    2005-01-01

    Liver resection of up to 75% of the total liver volume (TLV) has been regarded as safe in normal livers, but this concept was challenged by the results of living donor hepatectomies. In normal livers or livers with resolved jaundice, hepatectomy of 65% of TLV may be safe, except for patients with an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG R15) of over 15%, excessive hepatic steatosis, and age of over 70 years. However, the permissible extent of hepatectomy has been much restricted in cirrhotic livers because most post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) has occurred in cirrhotic livers. Our routine protocols for the assessment of functional hepatic reserve (FHR) include biochemical liver function tests, ICG R15, Doppler ultrasonography, and triphasic liver computed tomogram (CT) with volumetry. Blood cell count and gastroesophageal endoscopic findings are taken into consideration for cirrhotic livers, as well as age, diabetes, cardiopulmonary function, and general performance. Preoperative portal vein embolization has been used for safe hepatectomy even in cirrhotic livers. We think that any cirrhotic liver showing optimal FHR should have a remnant liver of 40% of TLV to prevent PHLF. ICG R15 and triphasic CT with volumetry have been the most useful methods for assessment of FHR and determination of hepatectomy extent in our institution.

  20. 99mTc-GSA dynamic SPECT for regional hepatic functional reserve estimation. Assessment of quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Eui-Hyo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is the assessment of the physiological implication of estimated parameters and the clinical value of this analyzing method for hepatic functional reserve estimation. After venous injection of 185 MBq of GSA, fifteen sequential sets of SPECT data were acquired for 15 minutes. First 5 sets SPECT images were analyzed by Patlak plot and hepatic GSA clearance was obtained in each matrix. The sum of hepatic GSA clearance in each matrix (total hepatic GSA clearance) was calculated as an index of whole liver functional reserve. Total hepatic GSA clearance was compared with receptor index or effective blood flow (EHBF) of whole liver which were analyzed by Direct Integral Linear Least Square Regression (DILS) method for the assessment of the physiological implications of hepatic GSA clearance. The clinical value of total hepatic GSA clearance was assessed in comparisons with the conventional hepatic function test. A very good correlations were observed between total hepatic GSA clearance and receptor index, whereas the correlations between total hepatic GSA clearance and EHBF were not significant. Significant correlations were also observed between total hepatic GSA clearance and the conventional hepatic function tests, such as choline esterase, albumin, hepaplastin test, ICG R15. (K.H.)

  1. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou

    1996-02-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL{sub 15}) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG{sub 15}). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL{sub 15} value agreed well with ICG{sub 15} value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL{sub 15} value and ICG{sub 15} value was observed. Increment of the ICG{sub 15} value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL{sub 15} value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author).

  2. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by 99mTc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of 99m Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL 15 ) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG 15 ). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL 15 value agreed well with ICG 15 value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL 15 value and ICG 15 value was observed. Increment of the ICG 15 value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL 15 value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author)

  3. Prevalence of mixed hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes among recently diagnosed dialysis patients with HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al Balwi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is considered a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multiple (mixed HCV genotypes in Saudi patients recently diagnosed with HCV infection and their association with various clinical risk factors. We examined a total of 1,292 newly diagnosed HCV-positive cases between January 2006 and July 2009 at the Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The clinical and laboratory data of the study patients were collected. The HCV-RNA viral load and its genotyping were carried out with RT-PCR technology to assist in the follow-up and management of HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Twenty-two patients (1.7% were found to have mixed HCV genotypes; of them, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-4 were seen in 19 patients (86%, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were found in 68.4%, with genotype-3 in 26.3% and with genotype-2 in 5.3%. Additionally, mixed genotypes associated with genotype-1 were seen in three cases (13.6%; they were associated with genotype-2 in two (66.7% and with genotype-5 in one patient (33.3%. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of mixed HCV genotypes in the cohort of the newly infected Saudi patients was 1.7%, with genotype-4 being the most frequent genotype encountered.

  4. Functional RNA structures throughout the Hepatitis C Virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca L; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-06-01

    The single-stranded Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome adopts a set of elaborate RNA structures that are involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle. Recent advances in chemical probing, sequencing, and structural biology have facilitated analysis of RNA folding on a genome-wide scale, revealing novel structures and networks of interactions. These studies have underscored the active role played by RNA in every function of HCV and they open the door to new types of RNA-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF. Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC. The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC (p = 0.014. Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05. It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  6. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between ...

  7. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  8. Molecular Signatures of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia (MCII

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    Roberto Burioni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the induction of type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII and the possible establishment of related lymphoproliferative disorders, such as B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL, is well ascertained. However, the molecular pathways involved and the factors predisposing to the development of these HCV-related extrahepatic complications deserve further consideration and clarification. To date, several host- and virus-related factors have been implicated in the progression to MCII, such as the virus-induced expansion of selected subsets of B-cell clones expressing discrete immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies, the involvement of complement factors and the specific role of some HCV proteins. In this review, we will analyze the host and viral factors taking part in the development of MCII in order to give a general outlook of the molecular mechanisms implicated.

  9. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki; Ishii, Toshiya; Okuse, Chiaki; Sase, Shigeru; Itoh, Fumio; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2016-09-14

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF) correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC) was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC) (p = 0.014). Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  10. Estimation of Hepatic Function Using 99mTc-DISIDA Plasma Clearance Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Yoo, H. S.; Lee, J. T.; Park, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods to determine hepatic function have been studied, and among these, calculated maximal removal rate of ICG (ICG R-max) is more accurate and sensitive index for quantification of hepatic function. But calculation of ICG R-max is time-consuming, invasive, and expensive study, and even ICG R-max 1 day study is still complicated. So we tried to evaluated of hepatic function test using 99mTc-DISIDA plasma clearance rate. The author studied 11 cases of normal control, 4 cases of acute hepatitis, 8 cases of chronic hepatitis, and 19 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as follows: 1. In normal control, DISIDA-K was 0.70 min -1 , in liver cirrhosis 0.25 min -1 , in acute hepatitis 0.46 min -1 , and in chronic hepatitis 0.14min -1 . The most severe depressed DISIDA-K value was observed in liver cirrhosis. 2. Comparison of DISIDA-K value to liver function indices revealed no correlation between DISIDA-K value and serum albumin, prothrombin time, total bilirubin, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase. 3. DISIDA-K value in liver cirrhosis with complication such as ascites, splenomegaly, esophageal varices, and hepatic coma was more decreased than without complication. With the above result, calculation of DISIDA-K value was found easily available, accurate, and simple index for quantification of hepatic function.

  11. Functional assessment of the hepatic arterial blood flow by pharmacoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellamor, K; Hruby, W; Peschl, L

    1981-12-01

    By means of celiacography it was possible to demonstrate that parenteral medication with parathormone creates a selective dilatation of the liver vessels in man, provided that they are dilatable. This hemodynamic hormone effect could not be traced in the other mesenteric vessels. The increase of portal hypertension resulting from cirrhosis leads to a loss of the dilating ability of liver vessels. This regressive reaction is well demonstrated on the parathormone-celiacogram. Thus a functional assessment of the hepatic blood flow is possible. The extent of the dilatability of the liver artery seems to be of great importance for the prognosis and indication of the porto-systemic shunt-operation. Moreover we could show that an increase in the liver perfusion demonstrates pathologic liver processes in a better way.

  12. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria

  13. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. H-functions and mixing in violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, S.; Henon, M.; Lynden-Bell, D.

    1986-01-01

    An H-function is any function of the phase space distribution function F(x,v) which is non-decreasing with time. In collisionless systems Boltzmann's H-function - integral F log F dx dv is only one of a variety of H-functions of the form - integral C(F) dx dv, where C is any convex function. Every equilibrium stellar system in which the distribution function is a decreasing function of the energy alone is a stationary point of some H-function of this form. During violent relaxation, all such H-functions must increase, and the distribution function is said to become 'more mixed'. A simple criterion is given for determining whether a given distribution function is more mixed than another; this criterion is used to show that a violently relaxed galaxy resembles observed elliptical galaxies only if the initial state is cold or clumpy. (author)

  15. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  16. Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Magen, I; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiav, L; Zolotarev, O; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by liver failure. In view of the effects of cannabinoids in a thioacetamide-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy and liver disease and the beneficial effect of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in liver disease, we assumed that capsaicin may also affect hepatic encephalopathy. Experimental approach: Fulminant hepatic failure was induced in mice by thioacetamide and 24 h later, the animals were injected with one of the following compound(s): 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor agonist); HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist), SR141716A (CB1 receptor antagonist); SR141716A+2-arachidonoylglycerol; SR144528 (CB2 receptor antagonist); capsaicin; and capsazepine (TRPV1 receptor agonist and antagonist respectively). Their neurological effects were evaluated on the basis of activity in the open field, cognitive function in an eight-arm maze and a neurological severity score. The mice were killed 3 or 14 days after thioacetamide administration. 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. Results: Capsaicin had a neuroprotective effect in this animal model as shown by the neurological score, activity and cognitive function. The effect of capsaicin was blocked by capsazepine. Thioacetamide induced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and the cerebellum and raised brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were decreased by capsaicin, SR141716A and HU-308. Thioacetamide lowered brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels, an effect reversed by capsaicin. Conclusions: Capsaicin improved both liver and brain dysfunction caused by thioacetamide, suggesting that both the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems play important roles in hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic value. PMID:19764982

  17. Novel Index (Hepatic Receptor: IHR) to Evaluate Hepatic Functional Reserve Using (99m)Tc-GSA Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the novel index of hepatic receptor (IHR) on the regression analysis derived from time activity curve of the liver for hepatic functional reserve. Sixty patients had undergone (99m)Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) scintigraphy in the retrospective clinical study. Time activity curves for liver were obtained by region of interest (ROI) on the whole liver. A novel hepatic functional predictor was calculated with multiple regression analysis of time activity curves. In the multiple regression function, the objective variables were the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 min, and the explanatory variables were the liver counts in 3-min intervals until end from beginning. Then, this result was defined by IHR, and we analyzed the correlation between IHR and ICG, uptake ratio of the heart at 15 minutes to that at 3 minutes (HH15), uptake ratio of the liver to the liver plus heart at 15 minutes (LHL15), and index of convexity (IOC). Regression function of IHR was derived as follows: IHR=0.025×L(6)-0.052×L(12)+0.027×L(27). The multiple regression analysis indicated that liver counts at 6 min, 12 min, and 27 min were significantly related to objective variables. The correlation coefficient between IHR and ICG was 0.774, and the correlation coefficient between ICG and conventional indices (HH15, LHL15, and IOC) were 0.837, 0.773, and 0.793, respectively. IHR had good correlation with HH15, LHL15, and IOC. The finding results suggested that IHR would provide clinical benefit for hepatic functional assessment in the (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy.

  18. Longitudinal mixed-effects models for latent cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-effects regression model with a bent-cable change-point predictor is formulated to describe potential decline of cognitive function over time in the older population. For the individual trajectories, cognitive function is considered to be a latent variable measured through an item response

  19. Hepatitis C virus RNA functionally sequesters miR-122

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Joseph M; Scheel, Troels K H; Danino, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uniquely requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 for replication, yet global effects on endogenous miRNA targets during infection are unexplored. Here, high-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) experiments of human Argonaute (AGO) during...

  20. Structural and functional cerebral impairments in cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhu, Xi-Qi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Shu, Hao [Department of Neurology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Ming; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Jie; Wang, Yu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Teng, Gao-Jun, E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: Diffuse brain atrophy has been observed in cirrhotic patients and recent reports have revealed the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. We sought to explore the continued influence of overt hepatic encephalopathy on neurological function by measuring brain resting-state inherent connectivity, based on an investigation of structural abnormalities. Methods: Neuropsychological tests and structural and functional magnetic resonance scanning were conducted in 20 healthy controls and 21 cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The analysis of voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity were performed to detect the alterations in brain structure and function, respectively. Results: Patients showed significantly worse performance in neuropsychological tests as compared with controls, despite apparently normal mental status. Analysis of voxel-based morphometry revealed a decrease in gray matter volume primarily in the midline regions, bilateral insular cortex and caudates, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right cerebellum posterior lobe, while the volume of the bilateral thalamus showed an increase. Of these regions, the posterior cingulate cortex with peak atrophy was selected as the origin for the analysis of functional connectivity. Typical patterns of a default mode network were identified in both groups. Decreased functional connectivity was found in the medial prefrontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus in the patients. Conclusions: Both functional and structural impairments were evident after apparent recovery from overt hepatic encephalopathy, demonstrating that brain dysfunction induced by hepatic encephalopathy persisted after clinical resolution and provided a basis for further evolution of the disease.

  1. Structural and functional cerebral impairments in cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Xi-Qi; Shu, Hao; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Jie; Wang, Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Diffuse brain atrophy has been observed in cirrhotic patients and recent reports have revealed the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. We sought to explore the continued influence of overt hepatic encephalopathy on neurological function by measuring brain resting-state inherent connectivity, based on an investigation of structural abnormalities. Methods: Neuropsychological tests and structural and functional magnetic resonance scanning were conducted in 20 healthy controls and 21 cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The analysis of voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity were performed to detect the alterations in brain structure and function, respectively. Results: Patients showed significantly worse performance in neuropsychological tests as compared with controls, despite apparently normal mental status. Analysis of voxel-based morphometry revealed a decrease in gray matter volume primarily in the midline regions, bilateral insular cortex and caudates, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right cerebellum posterior lobe, while the volume of the bilateral thalamus showed an increase. Of these regions, the posterior cingulate cortex with peak atrophy was selected as the origin for the analysis of functional connectivity. Typical patterns of a default mode network were identified in both groups. Decreased functional connectivity was found in the medial prefrontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus in the patients. Conclusions: Both functional and structural impairments were evident after apparent recovery from overt hepatic encephalopathy, demonstrating that brain dysfunction induced by hepatic encephalopathy persisted after clinical resolution and provided a basis for further evolution of the disease

  2. The Effect of Hypotensive Anesthesia on Hepatic Function in Hip Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Zagrekov V.I.; Zhirova T.A.; Ezhov I.Y.; Taranyuk А.V.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work is to assess the influence of spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect on hepatic function in patients in total hip replacement. Materials and Methods. There has been studied the dynamics of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin indexes in 80 patients in hip replacement. Depending on the anesthesia method, three groups were considered: with spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect and normotensive spinal anesthesia using ...

  3. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Griffiths, M.R.; Fuentes, M.; Bunce, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K A [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Keith, C J [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Griffiths, M R [Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Fuentes, M [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Bunce, I [Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Mutations: Functional and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis and affects more than 20 million individuals, with three million symptomatic cases and 56,000 recognized HEV-related deaths worldwide. HEV is endemic in developing countries and is gaining importance in developed countries, due to increased number of autochthone cases. Although HEV replication is controlled by the host immune system, viral factors (especially specific viral genotypes and mutants can modulate HEV replication, infection and pathogenesis. Limited knowledge exists on the contribution of HEV genome variants towards pathogenesis, susceptibility and to therapeutic response. Nonsynonymous substitutions can modulate viral proteins structurally and thus dysregulate virus-host interactions. This review aims to compile knowledge and discuss recent advances on the casual role of HEV heterogeneity and its variants on viral morphogenesis, pathogenesis, clinical outcome and antiviral resistance.

  6. The role of PTEN in regulation of hepatic macrophages activation and function in progression and reversal of liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yahui; Tian, Yuanyao; Xia, Jialu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yang; Li, Xiaofeng; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Ma, Taotao; Li, Jun, E-mail: lj@ahmu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The progression and reversal of CCl{sub 4}-induced mouse liver fibrosis showed a mixed induction of hepatic classical (M1) and alternative (M2) macrophage markers. Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in modulating myeloid cell activation has recently been identified, its function in macrophage activation during hepatic fibrosis remains to be fully appreciated. In our study, PTEN expression of KCs was remarkably decreased in CCl{sub 4}-induced mice but increased to a near-normal level in reversed mice. Moreover, PTEN was significantly decreased in IL4-induced RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and lower expression of PTEN was observed in M2 macrophages in vivo. In addition, loss- and gain-of-function studies suggested that PTEN regulates M2 macrophages polarization via activation of PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling, but had a limited effect on M1 macrophages polarization in vitro. Additionally, Ly294002, a chemical inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, could dramatically down-regulate the hallmarks of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, PTEN mediates macrophages activation by PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling pathway, which provides novel compelling evidences on the potential of PTEN in liver injury and opens new cellular target for the pharmacological therapy of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} treatment triggered a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype in fibrosis. • Lower expression of PTEN in murine M2 macrophages in vivo and vitro. • PTEN modulates M2 macrophages activation via PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling. • Provide a new cellular target modulate macrophage mediated hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Functional Mixed Effects Model for Small Area Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Tapabrata; Sinha, Samiran; Zhong, Ping-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Functional data analysis has become an important area of research due to its ability of handling high dimensional and complex data structures. However, the development is limited in the context of linear mixed effect models, and in particular, for small area estimation. The linear mixed effect models are the backbone of small area estimation. In this article, we consider area level data, and fit a varying coefficient linear mixed effect model where the varying coefficients are semi-parametrically modeled via B-splines. We propose a method of estimating the fixed effect parameters and consider prediction of random effects that can be implemented using a standard software. For measuring prediction uncertainties, we derive an analytical expression for the mean squared errors, and propose a method of estimating the mean squared errors. The procedure is illustrated via a real data example, and operating characteristics of the method are judged using finite sample simulation studies.

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  9. Effect of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Li-Hua; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Xia; Geng, Huan-Xiong

    2005-12-07

    To explore the effects of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets and mIL-2R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by biotin-streptavidin (BSA) technique in patients with chronic hepatitis B before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. After one course of treatment with liniment levamisole, the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) increased as compared to those before the treatment but the level of CD8(+) decreased. The total expression level of mIL-2R in PBMCs increased before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. Liniment levamisole may reinforce cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  10. Deciduous and permanent dental pulp mesenchymal cells acquire hepatic morphologic and functional features in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Yaegaki, Ken; Calenic, Bogdan; Nakahara, Taka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Mitiev, Vanyo; Haapasalo, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells display extensive proliferative capacity of multilineage differentiation. The stromal compartment of mesenchymal tissues is considered to harbor stem cells. We assessed the endodermal differentiation of mesenchymal cells from deciduous and wisdom tooth pulp. Dental mesenchymal cells were isolated and expanded in vitro. After cell cultures had been established, cells were characterized using known stem cell markers. For hepatic differentiation the media was supplemented with hepatic growth factor, dexamethasone, Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium-X, and oncostatin. Both cultures showed a number of cells positive for specific hepatic markers including alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha after differentiation. Also, small clusters of cells positive for insulin-like growth factor 1 were found. The concentration of urea increased significantly in the media. Moreover, a significant amount of glycogen was found in the cells. Because the cells proved to produce specific hepatic proteins and to start functions specific for hepatocytes, such as storing glycogen and urea production, we may state that the mesenchymal cell cultures from wisdom and deciduous tooth pulp acquired morphologic and functional characteristics of hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phenobarbital alters hepatic Mrp2 function by direct and indirect interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, NJ; Zamek-Gliszczynski, MJ; Zhang, PJ; Han, YH; Jansen, PLM; Meier, PJ; Stieger, B; Brouwer, KLR

    Phenobarbital (PB) treatment impairs the biliary excretion of some organic anions. One mechanism may involve direct competition for biliary excretion by PB and/or a PB metabolite. Alternatively, PB may alter the expression and/or function of hepatic organic anion transport proteins. The role of

  12. Phenobarbital alters hepatic Mrp2 function by direct and indirect interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Nita J.; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J.; Zhang, Peijin; Han, Yong-Hae; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Meier, Peter J.; Stieger, Bruno; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) treatment impairs the biliary excretion of some organic anions. One mechanism may involve direct competition for biliary excretion by PB and/or a PB metabolite. Alternatively, PB may alter the expression and/or function of hepatic organic anion transport proteins. The role of

  13. Absence of correlation between hepatic function and characteristics of migrating motor complexes in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Mortensen, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclic changes in gallbladder filling and emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle have been demonstrated by scintigraphy. However, a possible cyclic change in the hepatic function and handling of the pharmacologic agents used for scintigraphy during the MMC cycle could...

  14. Study on the peripheral dendritic cell function in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruihai; Chen Miaotian; Li Rui; Zheng Jiashui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of peripheral dendritic cell function on the clinical course and anti-viral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Dendritic cells (DCs) were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and surface markers (phenotype) examined with flow-cytometry in 71 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 17 chronic HBV carriers and 42 controls. Those patients with positive HBV-DNA (57/71) were treated with lamivudine or interferon-α and DCs reexamined after completion of treatment. Results: The expression of DCs phenotypes CD1a and CD86 in chronic hepatitis B patients and chronic carriers were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Among the 71 patients, CD1a, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expressions in the 57 HBV - DNA positive patients were all lower than those in the 14 HBV-DNA negative patients, but the difference was significant only in the case of CD86 (P<0.05). After a course of lamivudine treatment (six months, 38 patients), only CD40 expression was significantly increased, but both CD40 and CD86 expressions were significantly higher than those before treatment in the 19 patients treated with interferon-α. Conclusion: DCs function impairment could be demonstrated in patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially in those with positive HBV-DNA. Lamivudine or interferon-α treatment could improve the DCs function. (authors)

  15. Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion channel required for release of infectious particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiang; Heller, Brigitte; Capuccino, Juan M V; Song, Bokai; Nimgaonkar, Ila; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Contreras, Jorge E; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-01-31

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein. ORF3's ion channel function is further evidenced by its ability to mediate ionic currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore, we identified several positions in ORF3 critical for its formation of multimeric complexes, ion channel activity, and, ultimately, release of infectious particles. Collectively, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed function of HEV ORF3 as a viroporin, which may serve as an attractive target in developing direct-acting antivirals.

  16. Mixed kernel function support vector regression for global sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Lu, Zhenzhou; Wei, Yuhao; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Yicheng

    2017-11-01

    Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) plays an important role in exploring the respective effects of input variables on an assigned output response. Amongst the wide sensitivity analyses in literature, the Sobol indices have attracted much attention since they can provide accurate information for most models. In this paper, a mixed kernel function (MKF) based support vector regression (SVR) model is employed to evaluate the Sobol indices at low computational cost. By the proposed derivation, the estimation of the Sobol indices can be obtained by post-processing the coefficients of the SVR meta-model. The MKF is constituted by the orthogonal polynomials kernel function and Gaussian radial basis kernel function, thus the MKF possesses both the global characteristic advantage of the polynomials kernel function and the local characteristic advantage of the Gaussian radial basis kernel function. The proposed approach is suitable for high-dimensional and non-linear problems. Performance of the proposed approach is validated by various analytical functions and compared with the popular polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). Results demonstrate that the proposed approach is an efficient method for global sensitivity analysis.

  17. HEPATIC FUNCTION AFTER GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN BABOONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekser, Burcin; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Yazer, Mark H.; Long, Cassandra; Meyer, Michael; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Lin, Chih Che; Hara, Hidetaka; van der Windt, Dirk J.; Dons, Eefje M.; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background If ‘bridging’ to allotransplantation is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. Methods We have studied hepatic function in baboons after transplantation of livers from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO,n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46,n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In 4 baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Results Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4-7 days following internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. Conclusions After the transplantation of genetically-engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near-normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors, and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons, though inter-species compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed. PMID:20606605

  18. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  19. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2014-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m e...

  1. Gallbladder Function and Hepatic Structural Changes in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, pediatric nonalcoholic liver disease has reached epidemic proportions, becoming one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases in the global child population. Purpose: to study the relationship of the functional state of the gallbladder with structural changes in the liver in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods. We examined 34 children aged from 8 to 17 years old. Hepatic steatosis was determined using the FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of transient elastometry and ultrasound of the abdomen with the gallbladder function study, patients were divided into 4 groups: the 1st group consisted of 7 patients with steatosis and hypofunction of gallbladder (20.5 %, group 2 included 6 patients with steatosis and gallbladder normofunction (17.65 %, group 3 consisted of 11 patients without hepatic steatosis with hypofunction of gallbladder (32.35 %, group 4 included 10 patients without hepatic steatosis with gallbladder normofunction (29.4 %. Results. The sonographic studies demonstrated children of the 1st group (steatosis with gallbladder hypokinesia to have significantly larger sizes of liver lobes compared to group 4 (children without steatosis with gallbladder normofunction. Also, the stiffness of the liver parenchyma was highest in patients with hepatic steatosis and gallbladder hypokinesia. Discussion. The combination of hepatic steatosis and hypokinesia of the gallbladder in children is accompanied by a significant increase in liver size, increased stiffness of the liver parenchyma and increasing degree of steatosis. The data indicate the relationship of the gallbladder function and the liver structural changes.

  2. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4'-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4'-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers

  3. Pretreatment with mixed-function oxidase inducers increases the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaddock, J.G.; Heflich, R.H.; McMillan, D.C.; Hinson, J.A.; Casciano, D.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (USA) Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A recent National Toxicology Program evaluation indicates that the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay has a high false-negative rate and that it is insensitive to some genotoxic hepatocarcinogens as well as other species and organ-specific carcinogens. In this study, the authors examined whether the sensitivity of the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay might be increased through animal pretreatment with various hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers, i.e., Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital, and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB). The effects on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), a measured of DNA damage and repair, were studied in cultures exposed to known and/or potential carcinogens that had been evaluated as negative or questionable or that produced conflicting results with hepatocytes isolated from uninduced animals. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline, 1-nitropy-rene, and TCAB produced concentration-dependent increases in UDS in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor 1254. 4,4{prime}-Oxydianiline and TCAB also induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA repair in hepatocytes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital, whereas 1-nitropyrene was negative. These data indicate that the limited sensitivity to chemical carcinogens displayed by the hepatocyte/DNA repair assay may be increased by using hepatocytes isolated from animals exposed to hepatic mixed-function oxidase inducers.

  4. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  5. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen impairs myeloid dendritic cell function: a possible immune escape mechanism of hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op den Brouw, Marjoleine L; Binda, Rekha S; van Roosmalen, Mark H; Protzer, Ulrike; Janssen, Harry L A; van der Molen, Renate G; Woltman, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) of patients with chronic HBV are impaired in their maturation and function, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. The mechanism responsible for altered mDC function remains unclear. The HBV-infected patients display large amounts of HBV particles and viral proteins in their circulation, especially the surface antigen HBsAg, which allows multiple interactions between the virus, its viral proteins and DC. To assess whether HBV directly influences mDC function, the effects of HBV and HBsAg on human mDC maturation and function were investigated in vitro. As already described for internalization of HBV by DC, the present study shows that peripheral blood-derived mDC of healthy controls also actively take up HBsAg in a time-dependent manner. Cytokine-induced maturation in the presence of HBV or HBsAg resulted in a significantly more tolerogenic mDC phenotype as demonstrated by a diminished up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and a decreased T-cell stimulatory capacity, as assessed by T-cell proliferation and interferon-γ production. In addition, the presence of HBV significantly reduced interleukin-12 production by mDC. These results show that both HBV particles and purified HBsAg have an immune modulatory capacity and may directly contribute to the dysfunction of mDC in patients with chronic HBV. The direct immune regulatory effect of HBV and circulating HBsAg particles on the function of DC can be considered as part of the mechanism by which HBV escapes immunity. PMID:18624732

  6. The utility of quantitative 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    Using data from 17 patients with liver cirrhosis and 3 patients with fatty liver, we have compared the utility of 3 hepatic imaging agents in the evalution of hepatic functional reserve. Evaluated here were 99m Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) which is a new ligand for hepatic binding protein, 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl tryptophan (PMT) of a hepatobiliary agent, and 99m Tc-Sn colloid. In each patient, we performed these 3 imaging studies within a week and also examined hepatic function tests (indocyanine green test, hepaplastin test, choline-esterase, etc). In each imaging study, serial images and dynamic data were obtained after the injection of 99m Tc-GSA (185 MBq/3 mg), 99m Tc-PMT (185 MBq), or 99m Tc-Sn colloid (185 MBq). Using the dynamic data obtained, we analyzed the liver kinetics of the 3 agents based on 1 compartment model with 3 parameters (hepatic clearance, hepatic excretion rate, non-specific volume of distribution). From fitting the liver and heart data to this model, three unknown parameters were determined. Patlak plot was also applied in order to estimate liver uptake rate. Both curve fitting and Patlak plot could determine appropriate parameters in every study. In 99m Tc-GSA, a nonlinear 3 compartment model was also applied in order to estimate hepatic blood flow, liver receptor density, and affinity of receptor-GSA binding separately. Using the parameters obtained, we analyzed the correlations between the parameters and the results of hepatic function tests. In all of the parameters, those obtained from 99m Tc-GSA imaging showed the most significant statistical correlation with the results of hepatic function tests. From the present results, 99m Tc-GSA imaging was concluded to be the best for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve. (author)

  7. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the IUGR rats that had restricted milk intake during the suckling period (SM/SP; n = 4, p < 0.05 as compared to the normal growth controls (CM/CP; n=4, and access to ad lib milk intake during the sucking period partially corrected the hepatic TLR4 expression (SM/CP; n = 4. IUGR had no effect on the splenic (n = 4 or intestinal (n = 4 TLR4 mRNA levels. In the liver, IUGR led to a 20% increase in baseline tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA expression ( p < 0.03 and a 70% increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA expression ( p < 0.008 as compared to the control rats (CM/CP; n = 7. LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α release was significantly higher in SM/SP as compared to CM/CP. We propose that IUGR dysregulates TLR4 expression and function in the offspring, which may help explain the increased risk of Gram-negative sepsis and inflammatory diseases in this population.

  8. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  9. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed {sup 99m}Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan({sup 99m}Tc-PMT) and {sup 99m}Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH{sub 15}) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL{sub 15}) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15} was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}, PVR correlated statistically significantly HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}. K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, {gamma}-globulin, ICGR{sub 15}, albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL{sub 15} and the value of cholinesterase, {gamma}-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL{sub 15} value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy

  10. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using 99mTc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    99m Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin( 99m Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan( 99m Tc-PMT) and 99m Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH 15 ) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL 15 ) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH 15 and LHL 15 was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH 15 and LHL 15 , PVR correlated statistically significantly HH 15 and LHL 15 . K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, γ-globulin, ICGR 15 , albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL 15 and the value of cholinesterase, γ-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL 15 value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy reflect the hepatic blood flow and ability of protein synthesis. It was proved that 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy is

  11. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  12. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Sijian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qian; Ma, Yanmin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs). Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound-multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs.

  13. Hepatic encephalopathy in a liver transplant recipient with stable liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Juan Pablo; Meneses, Luis; Pérez, Rosa M; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Postshunt hepatic encephalopathy after liver transplantation (LT) is an infrequent condition and is commonly associated with portal occlusion or stenosis and the presence of a patent portosystemic shunt. Portal vein stenosis (PVS) or thrombosis (PVT) are uncommon complications after LT. The overall frequency of both complications is reported to be less than 3%. When PVS or PVT develop early after LT, the occlusion of the portal vein can have catastrophic consequences to the graft including acute liver failure and graft loss. Late PVT/PVS are asymptomatic in approximately 50% of the cases and mainly diagnosed by a routine ultrasound. Symptomatic postshunt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a very infrequent condition after LT that has been scarcely reported in the literature. We present here the case of a liver recipient with normal graft function who presented with hepatic encephalopathy 3 months after LT with stable liver function but a severe portal stenosis and the presence of a spontaneous portosystemic shunt whose successful endovascular treatment was followed by the complete resolution of the HE.

  14. Changes of liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  16. Estimating functional liver reserve following hepatic irradiation: Adaptive normal tissue response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Jackson, Andrew; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the limit of functional liver reserve for safe application of hepatic irradiation using changes in indocyanine green, an established assay of liver function. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2011, 60 patients undergoing hepatic irradiation were enrolled in a prospective study assessing the plasma retention fraction of indocyanine green at 15-min (ICG-R15) prior to, during (at 60% of planned dose), and after radiotherapy (RT). The limit of functional liver reserve was estimated from the damage fraction of functional liver (DFL) post-RT [1 − (ICG-R15 pre-RT /ICG-R15 post-RT )] where no toxicity was observed using a beta distribution function. Results: Of 48 evaluable patients, 3 (6%) developed RILD, all within 2.5 months of completing RT. The mean ICG-R15 for non-RILD patients pre-RT, during-RT and 1-month post-RT was 20.3%(SE 2.6), 22.0%(3.0), and 27.5%(2.8), and for RILD patients was 6.3%(4.3), 10.8%(2.7), and 47.6%(8.8). RILD was observed at post-RT damage fractions of ⩾78%. Both DFL assessed by during-RT ICG and MLD predicted for DFL post-RT (p < 0.0001). Limiting the post-RT DFL to 50%, predicted a 99% probability of a true complication rate <15%. Conclusion: The DFL as assessed by changes in ICG during treatment serves as an early indicator of a patient’s tolerance to hepatic irradiation

  17. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term culture of human liver tissue with advanced hepatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Seng; Xiong, Anming; Nguyen, Khanh; Masek, Marilyn; No, Da Yoon; Elazar, Menashe; Shteyer, Eyal; Winters, Mark A; Voedisch, Amy; Shaw, Kate; Rashid, Sheikh Tamir; Frank, Curtis W; Cho, Nam Joon; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-02

    A major challenge for studying authentic liver cell function and cell replacement therapies is that primary human hepatocytes rapidly lose their advanced function in conventional, 2-dimensional culture platforms. Here, we describe the fabrication of 3-dimensional hexagonally arrayed lobular human liver tissues inspired by the liver's natural architecture. The engineered liver tissues exhibit key features of advanced differentiation, such as human-specific cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and the ability to support efficient infection with patient-derived inoculums of hepatitis C virus. The tissues permit the assessment of antiviral agents and maintain their advanced functions for over 5 months in culture. This extended functionality enabled the prediction of a fatal human-specific hepatotoxicity caused by fialuridine (FIAU), which had escaped detection by preclinical models and short-term clinical studies. The results obtained with the engineered human liver tissue in this study provide proof-of-concept determination of human-specific drug metabolism, demonstrate the ability to support infection with human hepatitis virus derived from an infected patient and subsequent antiviral drug testing against said infection, and facilitate detection of human-specific drug hepatotoxicity associated with late-onset liver failure. Looking forward, the scalability and biocompatibility of the scaffold are also ideal for future cell replacement therapeutic strategies.

  19. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  20. Clinical and CT evaluation of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changxue; Tu Rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of clinical and CT assessment of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with cirrhosis and primary liver cancer treated using TACE were studied prospectively. The hepatic reserve function was evaluated using Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification before and after TACE respectively. The modified Child-Pugh classification was an integration of Child-Pugh classification, morphological evaluation of the cirrhotic liver and measurement of tumor-free liver volume by CT. Agreement rates of the two methods for assessing the hepatic reserve function peri-operatively and the survival time were calculated. Results: The agreement rates of Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification for assessing the postoperative hepatic reserve function were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively in well-compensated cases (P 2 =11.2, 8.7, 13.5, P<0.001) shorter than that of patients in modified Child-Pugh classes A (71 months), B (46 months) and C (7.6 months). Conclusion: Modified Child-Pugh classification is better than Child-Pugh classification for assessing the hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing TACE. (authors)

  1. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    expression through activation of the SREBPs. In the LDLR(-/-) background, hepatic S1P KD significantly reduced Blp-c levels. Hepatic S1P is a physiological modulator of plasma Blp metabolism through its regulation of LDLR and PCSK9. Hepatic S1P is a valid target for lowering plasma Blp-c levels in the situation where LDLR function is compromised.

  2. Influence of distal ileum exclusion on hepatic and renal functions in presence of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luis de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the ileal exclusion interferes with liver and kidney functional changes secondary to extrahepatic cholestasis.METHODS: We studied 24 rats, divided into three groups with eight individuals each: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (ligation of the hepatic duct combined with internal biliary drainage, and Group 3 (bile duct ligation combined with internal biliary drainage and exclusion of the terminal ileum. Animals in Group 1 (control underwent sham laparotomy. The animals of groups 2 and 3 underwent ligation and section of the hepatic duct and were kept in cholestasis for four weeks. Next, they underwent an internal biliary bypass. In Group 3, besides the biliary-enteric bypass, we associated the exclusion of the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum and carried out an ileocolic anastomosis. After four weeks of monitoring, blood was collected from all animals of the three groups for liver and kidney biochemical evaluation (albumin, ALT, AST, direct and indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cGT, creatinine and urea.RESULTS: there were increased values of ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, cGT, creatinine and urea in rats from Group 3 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: ileal exclusion worsened liver and kidney functions in the murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis, being disadvantageous as therapeutic procedure for cholestatic disorders.

  3. Ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems. Equation of state, thermodynamic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Korynevskii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of equation of state for ferroelectric-antiferroelectric mixed systems in the whole region of a concentration change (0≤n≤1 is discussed. The main peculiarity of the presented model turns out to be the possibility for the site dipole momentum to be oriented ferroelectrically in z-direction and antiferroelectrically in x-direction. Such a situation takes place in mixed compounds of KDP type. The different phases (ferro-, antiferro-, paraelectric, dipole glass and some combinations of them have been found and analyzed.

  4. Parameter Selection Method for Support Vector Regression Based on Adaptive Fusion of the Mixed Kernel Function

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    Hailun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression algorithm is widely used in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. A new model parameter selection method for support vector regression based on adaptive fusion of the mixed kernel function is proposed in this paper. We choose the mixed kernel function as the kernel function of support vector regression. The mixed kernel function of the fusion coefficients, kernel function parameters, and regression parameters are combined together as the parameters of the state vector. Thus, the model selection problem is transformed into a nonlinear system state estimation problem. We use a 5th-degree cubature Kalman filter to estimate the parameters. In this way, we realize the adaptive selection of mixed kernel function weighted coefficients and the kernel parameters, the regression parameters. Compared with a single kernel function, unscented Kalman filter (UKF support vector regression algorithms, and genetic algorithms, the decision regression function obtained by the proposed method has better generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy.

  5. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  7. Correlation between liver function tests and metabolic syndrome in hepatitis-free elderly

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    Hung-Sheng Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between liver function tests (LFTs and metabolic syndrome (MetS as several studies have shown positive correlations between some of the LFTs, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and MetS but have not fully explored the same in the elderly. Owing to the progress in public health, the aging of the general population becomes a major issue. Design: We enrolled subjects aged over 60 years who underwent routine health checkups in a Health Screening Center after excluding subjects with a history of hepatitis B or C infection, excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, or receiving medications for these diseases. Finally, 9,282 participants were eligible for analysis. Statistical Analysis: All data were tested for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and for homogeneity of variances with the Levene′s test. A t-test was used to evaluate the differences between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to observe correlations between different parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves of each LFT were used to predict MetS. Areas under curves and 95% confidence interval were also estimated and compared. Results: With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase and α-fetal protein, the results of LFTs, including total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALT, and γ-GT, were altered in the group with MetS. Furthermore, the levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women were independently associated with all MetS components and had the highest areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusion: Abnormal LFTs are highly correlated with MetS in the hepatitis-free elderly, with levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women being the most important factors. LFTs may represent an auxiliary tool for the

  8. Effects of hepatitis B virus S protein exposure on sperm membrane integrity and functions.

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    XiangJin Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. Viral infection can affect a man's fertility, but only scant information about the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection on sperm quality is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus S protein (HBs on human sperm membrane integrity and functions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation (LP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and phosphatidylserine (PS externalization were determined. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays and flow cytometric analyses were performed. (1 After 3 h incubation with 25 µg/ml of HBs, the average rates of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/propidium iodide (PI-negative cells, Caspases-3,-8,-9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in the test groups as compared to those in the control groups, while TAC level was decreased when compared with the control. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA in the sperm cells exposed to 50 µg/ml of HBs for 3 h was significantly higher than that in the control (P<0.05-0.01. (2 HBs increased the MDA levels and the numbers of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/PI-negative cells, caspases-3, -8, -9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. (3 HBs monoclonal antibody (MAb and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC reduced the number of ROS-positive sperm cells. (4 HBs decreased the TAC levels in sperm cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: HBs exposure could lead to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, TAC reduction, PS externalization, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation, resulting in increased apoptosis of sperm cells and loss of sperm membrane integrity and causing sperm dysfunctions.

  9. A 6-month mixed-effect pharmacokinetic model for post-transplant intravenous anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis

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    Han S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seunghoon Han,1,2 Gun Hyung Na,3 Dong-Goo Kim3 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 2Pharmacometrics Institute for Practical Education and Training, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Surgery, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea Background: Although individualized dosage regimens for anti-hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG therapy have been suggested, the pharmacokinetic profile and factors influencing the basis for individualization have not been sufficiently assessed. We sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of anti-HBIG quantitatively during the first 6 months after liver transplantation. Methods: Identical doses of 10,000 IU HBIG were administered to adult liver transplant recipients daily during the first week, weekly thereafter until 28 postoperative days, and monthly thereafter. Blood samples were obtained at days 1, 7, 28, 84, and 168 after transplantation. Plasma HBIG titer was quantified using 4 different immunoassay methods. The titer determined by each analytical method was used for mixed-effect modeling, and the most precise results were chosen. Simulations were performed to predict the plausible immunoglobulin maintenance dose. Results: HBIG was eliminated from the body most rapidly in the immediate post-transplant period, and the elimination rate gradually decreased thereafter. In the early post-transplant period, patients with higher DNA titer tend to have lower plasma HBIG concentrations. The maintenance doses required to attain targets in 90%, 95%, and 99% of patients were ~15.3, 18.2, and 25.1 IU, respectively, multiplied by the target trough level (in IU/L. Conclusion: The variability (explained and unexplained in HBIG pharmacokinetics was relatively larger in the early post-transplant period. Dose individualization based upon

  10. Polystyrene with pendant mixed functional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2002-01-01

    A vinyl substituted 2,2:6,2-terpyridine and a mixed, bifunctional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complex bearing a vinyl and a hydroxymethyl group are utilized as comonomers for radical copolymerization with styrene. The resulting polymers are characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and gel

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  12. The Value of Circulating Nogo-B for Evaluating Hepatic Functional Reserve in Patients with Cirrhosis

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    Maoyao Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine Nogo-B in liver tissues and plasma of patients with liver cirrhosis and associate them with various clinical parameters. Materials and Methods. Nogo-B protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 24 human fibrotic/cirrhotic liver specimens and 10 healthy controls. We determined plasma Nogo-B levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 301 patients with liver cirrhosis and 153 healthy controls, and then analyzed various clinical parameters. Results. Nogo-B was mainly expressed in nonparenchymal cells in the liver and was marked increased in liver with significant fibrosis/cirrhosis compared to controls. Moreover, Metavir F4 showed a higher level of expression than F2. Plasma Nogo-B levels were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls and were the highest in Child-Pugh class C patients. Plasma Nogo-B levels were positively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. However, there was no relationship between plasma Nogo-B levels and etiology of liver diseases, ALT, AST, platelet counts, and the severity of esophagogastric varices. Conclusions. Nogo-B is mainly expressed in hepatic nonparenchymal cells and is present in plasma. Abnormally high plasma levels of Nogo-B are associated with hepatic cirrhosis and Child-Pugh score, but not correlated with the grade of liver inflammation or portal hypertension. Plasma Nogo-B may be a novel surrogate marker to reflect liver function reserve.

  13. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  14. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  15. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  16. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  17. Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watashi, Koichi; Ishii, Naoto; Hijikata, Makoto; Inoue, Daisuke; Murata, Takayuki; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2005-07-01

    Viruses depend on host-derived factors for their efficient genome replication. Here, we demonstrate that a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin B (CyPB), is critical for the efficient replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. CyPB interacted with the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B to directly stimulate its RNA binding activity. Both the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CyPB expression and the induced loss of NS5B binding to CyPB decreased the levels of HCV replication. Thus, CyPB functions as a stimulatory regulator of NS5B in HCV replication machinery. This regulation mechanism for viral replication identifies CyPB as a target for antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  18. Effects of a combined intervention with a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol on the lipid metabolism and hepatic markers of NAFLD in Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Donaire, Ana; Lopez-Chaves, Carlos; Arrebola, Francisco; Galisteo, Milagros; Cantarero, Samuel; Aranda, Pilar; Porres, Jesus M; López-Jurado, María

    2018-02-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic alterations characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated plasma glucose, insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, a combined intervention of a lentil protein hydrolysate and a mixed training protocol was assessed in an animal experimental model of genetic obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thirty-two male obese and 32 lean Zucker rats were divided into eight different experimental groups. Rats performed a mixed exercise protocol or had a sedentary lifestyle and were administered a lentil protein hydrolysate or placebo. Daily food intake, weekly body weight gain, plasma parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, body composition, hepatic weight, total fat content and fatty acid profile, as well as gene expression of lipogenic and lipolytic nuclear transcription factors and their target genes were measured. Obese Zucker rats exhibited higher body and liver weight and fat content than did their lean counterparts. Such alterations were related to modifications in aerobic capacity, plasma biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolisms, hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression of nuclear transcription factors SREBP1c, PPARα, LXR and associated lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes. The interventions tested did not affect body weight gain but improved aerobic capacity, reduced hepatomegalia and steatosis associated with NAFLD and relieved the adverse effects produced by this condition in glucose and lipid metabolisms through the modulation in the expression of different genes involved in diverse metabolic pathways.

  19. Outcomes of radioembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with marginal functional hepatic reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Derek M; Posham, Raghuram; Durrani, Raisa J; Titano, Joseph J; Patel, Rahul S; Tabori, Nora E; Nowakowski, Francis S; Fischman, Aaron M; Lookstein, Robert A; Kim, Edward

    To evaluate the outcomes of radioembolization (RE) as a therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with marginal functional hepatic reserve. A retrospective review of 471 patients (1/2010-7/2015) treated with RE (Therasphere, BTG, UK) was performed. A total of 36 patients (mean age: 66.1±9.3, male: 86.1%) underwent therapy for HCC with a MELD≥15 (median: 16, range: 15-22). Baseline demographics of the study cohort were as follows: etiology (HCV: 26, 72.2%), cirrhosis (n=32, 88.9%), ECOG 0 (n=16, 44.4%), Child-Pugh class (A=15, B=19, C=2), unilobar distribution (n=27, 75%), AFP>200 (n=11, 30.6%), portal vein thrombosis (PVT, n=7, 19.4%), metastasis (n=3, 8.3%). Outcomes analyzed included CTCAEv4.03 laboratory toxicities (120-day), imaging response (mRECIST), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). A total of 42 treatments were performed with mean dose of 2.02±1.23GBq. The cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity was 28% overall and 21% for bilirubin at 120-days. The objective response and disease control rates were 48.3% (14/29) and 69% (20/29) respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 5.9 (4.4-7.7) months. Ten (27.8%) patients received additional locoregional therapy at a median (IQR) of 138 (102-243) days post RE. The mean (95% CI) OS was 21.9 (14.8-29.0) months. The absence of PVT was associated with improved OS (p=0.005) Disease control at 90-days was also associated with an OS benefit (p=0.037). Patients with unresectable HCC and marginal functional hepatic reserve treated with RE had favorable objective response and disease control rates, both predictive of overall survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical assessment of hepatic functional reserve using 99mTc DTPA galactosyl human serum albumin SPECT to prognosticate chronic hepatic diseases. Validation of the use of SPECT and a new indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Yuya; Tamaki, Nagara; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Takahashi, Kazuei; Sugai, Yukio; Togashi, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    It is generally known that scintigraphy of 99m Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) is useful for assessing hepatic functional reserve. For hepatic functional indicators, the index of the calculated planar image has been used in previous studies. However, there have been few reports that suggest that the indicators calculated from static SPECT data would be useful for the assessment of hepatic function. The aims of this study were to establish a simple method for assessing hepatic functional reserve using the liver SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA and to apply this method for rich stratification in patients with chronic hepatic diseases. A liver phantom (a 50% concentration of 99m Tc solution) was used to compare the planar and SPECT methods. According to the definition of the new indicator, the liver SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA was divided by a syringe SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA and was called the liver uptake ratio (LUR). We correlated the LUR and the liver uptake ratio calculated according to the blood-sampling method. 99m Tc-GSA SPECT was performed in 137 patients with hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatic diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers. The LUR was correlated between the formed subtypes for all subjects. The acquired phantom-count ratio calculated by the SPECT method was more accurate than that acquired by the planar method. A good correlation was obtained between the LUR and the blood-sampling method (r=0.971). The LUR was significantly lower in subjects with severe cirrhosis than in healthy subjects or those with chronic hepatitis and mild cirrhosis, and it was significantly lower in subjects with chronic hepatitis and mild cirrhosis than in healthy subjects. The LUR was significantly correlated with other hepatic function tests. Based on LUR, the chronic hepatic diseases were divided into two groups: Group A, with LURs 30% and higher, and Group B, with LURs below 30%. An LUR of 30% marked the 25th percentile of the mild

  1. [EFFECT OF ACETYLCYSTEINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN RATS WITH PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXIC HEPATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonghadze, M; Antelava, N; Liluashvili, K; Okujava, M; Pachkoria, K

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays drug-induced hepatotoxicity is urgent problem worldwide. Currently more than 1000 drugs are hepatotoxic and most often are the reason of acute fulminant hepatitis and hepatocellular failure, the states requiring liver transplantation. The paracetamol induced liver toxicity is related with accumulation of its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is the free radical and enhances peroxidation of lipids, disturbs the energy status and causes death of hepatocytes. During our research we investigated and assessed the efficacy of acetylcysteine, corvitin and their combination in rat model of paracetamol induced acute toxic hepatitis. The study was performed on mature white male Wistar rates with body mass 150-180 g. 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group). To get the model of acute toxic hepatitis single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol solution was used (750 mg/kg). Toxic hepatitis was treated with intrapertoneal administration of 40mg/kg acetylcysteine or 100mg/kg corvitin, as well as with combination of these drugs. Monotherapy with acetylcysteine and corvitin of paracetamol induced toxic hepatitis improved the liver function, decreased relative mass of the liver and animal mortality. The treatment of toxic hepatitis was most effective in the case of simultaneous administration of acetylcysteine and corvitin. The normal value of laboratory tests (ALT, ACT, alkaline phosphatase, total and unconjugated bilirubin) was reached and mortality was not more observed. On the bases of obtained data was concluded that acetylcysteine and corvitin have almost equal hepatoprotective activity. The combination of two drugs actually improves the liver function. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect may be due to synergic action of acetylcysteine and corvitin and such regime can be recommended for correction of liver function.

  2. Neural Mechanism of Cognitive Control Impairment in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many studies have claimed the existence of attention alterations in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in this respect has been published. Purpose: To investigate the neural basis of cognitive control deficiency in cirrhotic patients using fMRI. Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus, and block-design fMRI was used to acquire resource data, including four stimulus blocks and five control blocks, each presented alternatively. Image analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping 99. After fMRI examinations were complete, behavior tests of Stroop interference were performed for all subjects. Overall reaction time and error numbers were recorded. Results: Both healthy volunteers and patients with hepatic cirrhosis had Stroop interference effects. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis had more errors and longer reaction time in performing an incongruous color-naming task than healthy volunteers (P<0.001); there was no significant difference in performing an incongruous word-reading task (P 0.066). Compared with controls, patients with hepatic cirrhosis had greater activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex when performing the incongruous word-reading task. With increased conflict, activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal lobe, and temporal fusiform gyrus (TFG) was decreased when patients with hepatic cirrhosis performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with hepatic cirrhostic have cognitive control deficiency. The abnormal brain network of the ACC-PFC-parietal lobe-TFG is the neural basis of cognitive control impairment in cirrhotic patients

  3. Neural Mechanism of Cognitive Control Impairment in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital of Tianjin Medical Univ, Tianjin (China)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Many studies have claimed the existence of attention alterations in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in this respect has been published. Purpose: To investigate the neural basis of cognitive control deficiency in cirrhotic patients using fMRI. Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus, and block-design fMRI was used to acquire resource data, including four stimulus blocks and five control blocks, each presented alternatively. Image analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping 99. After fMRI examinations were complete, behavior tests of Stroop interference were performed for all subjects. Overall reaction time and error numbers were recorded. Results: Both healthy volunteers and patients with hepatic cirrhosis had Stroop interference effects. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis had more errors and longer reaction time in performing an incongruous color-naming task than healthy volunteers (P<0.001); there was no significant difference in performing an incongruous word-reading task (P 0.066). Compared with controls, patients with hepatic cirrhosis had greater activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex when performing the incongruous word-reading task. With increased conflict, activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal lobe, and temporal fusiform gyrus (TFG) was decreased when patients with hepatic cirrhosis performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with hepatic cirrhostic have cognitive control deficiency. The abnormal brain network of the ACC-PFC-parietal lobe-TFG is the neural basis of cognitive control impairment in cirrhotic patients.

  4. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  5. Combining functional CT and FDG PET allows the calculation of FDG extraction fraction and hepatic glucose phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M R [Centre for Medical and Health Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Miles, K A [Centre for Medical and Health Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Southern X-ray Clinics, Brisbane [Australia; Keith, C J [Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    Perfusion data from Functional CT and FDG-PET data may be combined to provide additional information about the uptake of FDG. We have developed methods to calculate FDG extraction fraction in tissues and to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation in the liver. Extraction fraction: Functional CT and FDG-PET studies were used to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within ten pulmonary nodules. The net influx constant (Ki) was determined from SUV measurements for each lung mass Extraction fraction (E) for each mass lesion was determined from: E=Ki/(Px[1-Hct]). A pixel by pixel calculation allowed generation of extraction fraction maps. The extraction fraction measurements ranged (median) from 0.6% to 4.81% (2.7%). The values for a benign nodule and an organising pneumonia were 0.6% and 0.71% respectively. Extraction fraction measurements for the malignant nodules ranged from 2.01% to 4.81%. A clearer separation of benign and malignant lesions is seen with E values rather than with SUV. Hepatic Glucose Phosphorylation: Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Hepatic perfusion and the net influx constant were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). By combining functional CT measurements of blood flow with PET measurements of FDG uptake, it is possible to calculate the extraction fraction of FDG and Hepatic glucose phosphorylation. The use of the extraction fraction has improved the distinction between malignant and

  6. Combining functional CT and FDG PET allows the calculation of FDG extraction fraction and hepatic glucose phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.R.; Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Perfusion data from Functional CT and FDG-PET data may be combined to provide additional information about the uptake of FDG. We have developed methods to calculate FDG extraction fraction in tissues and to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation in the liver. Extraction fraction: Functional CT and FDG-PET studies were used to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within ten pulmonary nodules. The net influx constant (Ki) was determined from SUV measurements for each lung mass Extraction fraction (E) for each mass lesion was determined from: E=Ki/(Px[1-Hct]). A pixel by pixel calculation allowed generation of extraction fraction maps. The extraction fraction measurements ranged (median) from 0.6% to 4.81% (2.7%). The values for a benign nodule and an organising pneumonia were 0.6% and 0.71% respectively. Extraction fraction measurements for the malignant nodules ranged from 2.01% to 4.81%. A clearer separation of benign and malignant lesions is seen with E values rather than with SUV. Hepatic Glucose Phosphorylation: Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Hepatic perfusion and the net influx constant were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). By combining functional CT measurements of blood flow with PET measurements of FDG uptake, it is possible to calculate the extraction fraction of FDG and Hepatic glucose phosphorylation. The use of the extraction fraction has improved the distinction between malignant and

  7. Surgical hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis in adolescents: repercussions of the post-treatment schistosomotic burden on the hepatic functional reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni affects the hepatic functional reserve. Clinical treatment with oxamniquine is not 100% effective and there has been found strain of this parasite resistant to this drug. The aims of this investigation were: (1 to examine the presence of residual parasite burden after medical and surgical treatment on adolescents with surgical schistosomiasis mansoni and (2 to assess the effect on the hepatic functional reserve in patients with and without residual infection. Twenty nine children with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varices were treated with oxamniquine. They underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum. After a mean post-operative follow up of five years they underwent rectal biopsy for schistosomotic egg search. They were divided in patients with and without infection. In 20 patients the submucosal egg search was negative, however, in 9 it was positive. The hepatic functional reserve in the patients without infection was as follows: 17 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. In the patients who were still infected 6 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. The chi2 analysis of the hepatic functional reserve showed chi2 = 3.19 - p= 0.07. From the results the following conclusion can be drawn: residual infection or reinfection in the follow up period had not interfered with the distribution of the hepatic functional reserve of the patients in this series. However, there was a trend for a decrease of this parameter in patients with residual infection.

  8. Existence of Solutions of Abstract Nonlinear Mixed Functional Integrodifferential equation with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakne Machindra B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the existence of mild and strong solutions of abstract nonlinear mixed functional integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition by using Sadovskii’s fixed point theorem and theory of fractional power of operators.

  9. Herbivore-plant interactions: mixed-function oxidases and secondary plant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F; Eisner, T

    1977-06-17

    The mixed-function oxidases of a polyphagous insect larva (the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania) were found to be induced by a diversity of secondary plant substances. The induction proceeds rapidly and in response to a small quantity of secondary substance. Following induction, the larva is less susceptible to dietary poisoning. It is argued that mixed-function oxidases play a major role in protecting herbivores against chemical stress from secondary plant substances.

  10. Testosterone receptor blockade after trauma-hemorrhage improves cardiac and hepatic functions in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1997-12-01

    Although studies have shown that testosterone receptor blockade with flutamide after hemorrhage restores the depressed immune function, it remains unknown whether administration of flutamide following trauma and hemorrhage and resuscitation has any salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions. To study this, male rats underwent a laparotomy (representing trauma) and were then bled and maintained at a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg until the animals could not maintain this pressure. Ringer lactate was given to maintain a MAP of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate over 60 min. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the vehicle propanediol was injected subcutaneously 15 min before the end of resuscitation. Various in vivo heart performance parameters (e.g., maximal rate of the pressure increase or decrease), cardiac output, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined at 20 h after resuscitation. Additionally, hepatic microvascular blood flow (HMBF) was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter. The results indicate that left ventricular performance, cardiac output, HMBF, and hepatocellular function decreased significantly at 20 h after the completion of trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation. Administration of the testosterone receptor blocker flutamide, however, significantly improved cardiac performance, HMBF, and hepatocellular function. Thus flutamide appears to be a novel and useful adjunct for improving cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions in males following trauma and hemorrhagic shock.

  11. Polymer stability and function for electrolyte and mixed conductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paula; Davis, Nicole; Liu, David; Amanchukwu, Chibueze; Lewis, Nate; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Polymers exhibit a number of attractive properties as solid state electrolytes for electrochemical energy devices, including the light weight, flexibility, low cost and adaptive transport properties that polymeric materials can exhibit. For a number of applications, mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials are of interest to achieve transport of electrons and holes or ions within an electrode or at the electrode-electrolyte interface (e.g. aqueous batteries, solar water splitting, lithium battery electrode). Using layer-by-layer assembly, a mode of alternating adsorption of charged or complementary hydrogen bonding group, we can design composite thin films that contain bicontinuous networks of electronically and ionically conducting polymers. We have found that manipulation of salt concentration and the use of divalent ions during assembly can significantly enhance the number of free acid anions available for ion hopping. Unfortunately, for certain electrochemical applications, polymer stability is a true challenge. In separate studies, we have been investigating macromolecular systems that may provide acceptable ion transport properties, but withstand the harsh oxidative environment of lithium air systems. An investigation of different polymeric materials commonly examined for electrochemical applications provides insight into polymer design for these kinds of environments. NSF Center for Chemical Innovation, NDSEG Fellowship and Samsung Corporation.

  12. Mixed matrix microporous hollow fibers with ion-exchange functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyono, R.; Kiyono, R.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneous hollow fiber membranes with cation exchange functionality are prepared using a wet spinning technique. The spinning dope solutions are prepared by dispersing finely ground cation ion-exchange resin (CER) particles in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solution of polysulfone (PSF). The polymer

  13. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

  14. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M; Perales, Jose C; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

    2012-06-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo (2)H/(13)C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis.

  15. Natural course of changes hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver diseases evaluated by scintigraphy with GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu Shiomi; Etsushi Kawamura; Takehiro Hayashi; Ai Oe; Jin Kotani; Hirotaka Ishizu; Kenji Torii; Joji Kawabe; Takashi Tanaka; Daiki Habu; Shubei Nishiguchi

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: When evaluating the efficacy of therapies for cirrhosis such as branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), knowledge of the natural history of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease is essential. However, biochemical tests such as serum albumin level and prothrombin time do not faithfully reflect hepatic functional reserves since they are affected 'by the blood product supplementation used for treatment. On the other hand, hepatic receptor imaging with Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99m GSA) allows objective evaluation of hepatic functional reserve since it is not affected by blood preparations. This method allows hepatic functional reserve to be estimated quantitatively on the basis of the receptor index and index of blood clearance. The natural course of chronic liver diseases has been reported in terms of changes in liver histology and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there has been no report on the natural course of changes in hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease. We monitored hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis using scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed for all subjects who underwent scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA at our hospital. Of these, 324 were patients with chronic liver disease (86 with chronic hepatitis and 226 with cirrhosis) diagnosed at our hospital by examination of liver specimens obtained by laparoscopy or needle biopsy performed under ultrasonic guidance and 12 were subjects found to have a healthy liver when examined during the same period. Moreover, we selected for a longitudinal study all patients with underlying hepatic viral infection, without hepatocellular carcinoma, not treated by interferon, and not treated surgically or by sclerotherapy for varices, who agreed to return after discharge to our outpatient clinic for monitoring and who gave informed consent to

  16. Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sumeet; Das, Madhusweta

    2015-09-01

    Barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix (BFSM) was developed from whole barely flour (46.296%), roasted flaxseed powder (23.148%) and the seasoning (30.555%) comprising several flavoring compounds and anticaking agent, using simple processing technique. Developed BFSM was nutritious. On dry matter basis it contained: protein (14.31%), carbohydrate excluding crude fiber (54.70%), fat (8.70%), ash (17.45%) and crude fiber (4.84%). It was low glycemic soup, free of antinutritional risk and had calorific value of 319.77 kcal/100 g (wet or sample basis, sb) estimated from its composition. 100 g (sb) of BFSM contained 4.36 g β-glucans and 8.08 g total lipid of which 25.6% was ω-3 fatty acids. Different extracts of BFSM revealed the presence of total phenols (0.57-1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, sb) with antioxidants equivalence of DPPH (20.69-39.07%) and FRAP (120-331 μm Fe (II)/g, sb).

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics and safety of olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in subjects with impaired hepatic or renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Kunz,1 Doreen Luedtke,1 Anna Unseld,2 Alan Hamilton,3 Atef Halabi,4 Martina Wein,5 Stephan Formella6 1Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, 2Global Biometrics and Clinical Applications, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, Germany; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4CRS Clinical Research Services Kiel GmbH, Kiel, 5Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, 6Medicine Coordination, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany Purpose: In two trials, the influences of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of olodaterol, a novel long-acting inhaled β2-agonist for treatment of COPD, were investigated.Subjects and methods: The first trial included eight subjects with mild hepatic function impairment (Child–Pugh A, eight subjects with moderate impairment (Child–Pugh B, and 16 matched healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. The second trial included eight subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL·min-1 and 14 matched healthy subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received single doses of 20 or 30 µg olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.Results: Olodaterol was well tolerated in all subjects. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals of dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 4 hours (AUC0–4 for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects were 97% (75%–125% and 105% (79%–140%, respectively. Corresponding values for dose-normalized maximum concentration (Cmax were 112% (84%–151% (mild impairment and 99% (73%–135% (moderate impairment. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval of AUC0–4 for subjects with severe renal impairment compared to healthy subjects was 135% (94%–195%, and for Cmax was 137% (84%–222%. There was no significant relationship

  20. A multifaceted imbalance of T cells with regulatory function characterizes type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Silvia; Longhi, Maria Serena; De Molo, Chiara; Lalanne, Claudine; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Hussain, Munther J; Ma, Yun; Lenzi, Marco; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Bianchi, Francesco B; Vergani, Diego; Muratori, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    Immunotolerance is maintained by regulatory T cells (Tregs), including CD4(+)CD25(hi), CD8(+)CD28(-), gammadelta, and CD3(+)CD56(+) [natural killer T (NKT)] cells. CD4(+)CD25(hi) cells are impaired in children with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Little is known about Tregs in adults with AIH. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and function of Treg subsets in adult patients with AIH during periods of active disease and remission. Forty-seven AIH patients (16 with active disease and 31 in remission) and 28 healthy controls were studied. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate surface markers and function-related intracellular molecules in gammadelta, CD8(+)CD28(-), NKT, and CD4(+)CD25(hi) cells. CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cell function was determined by the ability to suppress proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production by CD4(+)CD25(-) target cells. Liver forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3(+)) cells were sought by immunohistochemistry. In AIH patients, particularly during active disease, CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells were fewer, expressed lower levels of FOXP3, and were less effective at inhibiting target cell proliferation versus healthy controls. Moreover, although the numbers of CD8(+)CD28(-) T cells were similar in AIH patients and healthy controls, NKT cells were numerically reduced, especially during active disease, and produced lower quantities of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-4 versus controls. In contrast, gammadelta T cells in AIH patients were more numerous versus healthy controls and had an inverted Vdelta1/Vdelta2 ratio and higher IFN-gamma and granzyme B production; the latter was correlated to biochemical indices of liver damage. There were few FOXP3(+) cells within the portal tract inflammatory infiltrate. Our data show that the defect in immunoregulation in adult AIH is complex, and gammadelta T cells are likely to be effectors of liver damage.

  1. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  2. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  3. Natural Killer Cell Function and Dysfunction in Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla A. Holder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses must continually adapt against dynamic innate and adaptive responses of the host immune system to establish chronic infection. Only a small minority (~20% of those exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV spontaneously clear infection, leaving approximately 200 million people worldwide chronically infected with HCV. A number of recent research studies suggest that establishment and maintenance of chronic HCV infection involve natural killer (NK cell dysfunction. This relationship is illustrated in vitro by disruption of typical NK cell responses including both cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Expression of a number of activating NK cell receptors in vivo is also affected in chronic HCV infection. Thus, direct in vivo and in vitro evidence of compromised NK function in chronic HCV infection in conjunction with significant epidemiological associations between the outcome of HCV infection and certain combinations of NK cell regulatory receptor and class I human histocompatibility linked antigen (HLA genotypes indicate that NK cells are important in the immune response against HCV infection. In this review, we highlight evidence suggesting that selective impairment of NK cell activity is related to establishment of chronic HCV infection.

  4. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu; Xu, Wei; Syed, Ahad; Chau, Yeungyeung; Chen, Longqing; Chew, Basil; Yassine, Omar; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Yibo; Zhang, Jingxian; Xiao, Xiao; Kosel, Jü rgen; Zhang, Xixiang; Yao, Zhaohui; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  5. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu

    2015-03-25

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  6. Hepatitis C virus replication and Golgi function in brefeldin a-resistant hepatoma-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Farhat

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV depends on the GBF1-Arf1-COP-I pathway. We generated Huh-7-derived cell lines resistant to brefeldin A (BFA, which is an inhibitor of this pathway. The resistant cell lines could be sorted into two phenotypes regarding BFA-induced toxicity, inhibition of albumin secretion, and inhibition of HCV infection. Two cell lines were more than 100 times more resistant to BFA than the parental Huh-7 cells in these 3 assays. This resistant phenotype was correlated with the presence of a point mutation in the Sec7 domain of GBF1, which is known to impair the binding of BFA. Surprisingly, the morphology of the cis-Golgi of these cells remained sensitive to BFA at concentrations of the drug that allowed albumin secretion, indicating a dichotomy between the phenotypes of secretion and Golgi morphology. Cells of the second group were about 10 times more resistant than parental Huh-7 cells to the BFA-induced toxicity. The EC50 for albumin secretion was only 1.5-1.8 fold higher in these cells than in Huh-7 cells. However their level of secretion in the presence of inhibitory doses of BFA was 5 to 15 times higher. Despite this partially effective secretory pathway in the presence of BFA, the HCV infection was almost as sensitive to BFA as in Huh-7 cells. This suggests that the function of GBF1 in HCV replication does not simply reflect its role of regulator of the secretory pathway of the host cell. Thus, our results confirm the involvement of GBF1 in HCV replication, and suggest that GBF1 might fulfill another function, in addition to the regulation of the secretory pathway, during HCV replication.

  7. Frequency of worsening liver function in severe dengue hepatitis patients receiving paracetamol: A retrospective analysis of hospital data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.A.; Aslam, F.; Hakeem, H.; Siddiqui, F.; Nasir, N.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of worsening liver function among hospital in-patients with severe dengue hepatitis receiving paracetamol. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of dengue patients with severe hepatitis who received paracetamol for control of fever between June 2007 and December 2014. Alanine aminotransferase at baseline and following paracetamol administration was noted, as well as dosage and duration of paracetamol, along with participants' demographic details. Frequency of patients who developed worsening or improvement of alanine aminotransferase was also noted. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 113 subjects, 73(64.6%) were male and 40(35.4%) were female. Overall improvement was observed in subsequent alanine aminotransferase levels (491 units per litre, IQR 356.5 TO 775 vs 151 units per litre, IQR 49.5 to 299.5). Most commonly prescribed dose of paracetamol was 2g (IQR 1 to 5 grams), which was taken for a median duration of 1 day (IQR 1 to 3 days). Moreover, 100(88.5 %) patients showed improvement in alanine aminotransferase. Only 13(11.5 %) patients developed worsening of alanine aminotransferase. Of those with worsening liver function, 8(61.5 %) were discharged home with no clinical deterioration and 5(38.5 %) deaths were observed. However, causes of deaths were unrelated to liver dysfunction. Conclusion: The frequency of worsening liver function following paracetamol administration in patients with severe dengue hepatitis was relatively low. (author)

  8. Trans-activation function of a 3' truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3' end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product

  9. Functional Group Analysis for Diesel-like Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Fioroni, Gina; George, Anthe; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-12-30

    This report addresses the suitability of hydrocarbon and oxygenate functional groups for use as a diesel-like fuel blending component in an advanced, mixing-controlled, compression ignition combustion engine. The functional groups are chosen from those that could be derived from a biomass feedstock, and represent a full range of chemistries. This first systematic analysis of functional groups will be of value to all who are pursuing new bio-blendstocks for diesel-like fuels.

  10. Thermoluminescence glow-curve deconvolution functions for mixed order of kinetics and continuous trap distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitis, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    New glow-curve deconvolution functions are proposed for mixed order of kinetics and for continuous-trap distribution. The only free parameters of the presented glow-curve deconvolution functions are the maximum peak intensity (I m ) and the maximum peak temperature (T m ), which can be estimated experimentally together with the activation energy (E). The other free parameter is the activation energy range (ΔE) for the case of the continuous-trap distribution or a constant α for the case of mixed-order kinetics

  11. Activated NKT cells facilitated functional switch of myeloid-derived suppressor cells at inflammation sites in fulminant hepatitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Danxiao; Shi, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Hanwen; Liu, Qiaoyun; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Lihuang; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2017-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) confer immunosuppressive properties, but their roles in fulminant hepatitis have not been well defined. In this study, we systematically examined the distribution of MDSCs in bone marrow (BM), liver and spleen, and their functional and differentiation status in an acute fulminant hepatitis mouse model induced by lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS-GalN). Moreover, the interaction between NKT cells and MDSCs was determined. Our study revealed that BM contained the largest pool of MDSCs during pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis compared with liver and spleen. MDSCs in liver/spleen expressed higher levels of chemokine receptors such as CCR2, CX3CR1 and CXCR2. At inflamed tissues such as liver or spleen, activated NKT cells induced differentiation of MDSCs through cell-cell interaction, which markedly dampened the immunosuppressive effects and promoted MDSCs to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and activate inflammatory cells. Our findings thus demonstrated an unexpected pro-inflammatory state for MDSCs, which was mediated by the activated NKT cells that precipitated the differentiation and functional evolution of these MDSCs at sites of inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. In vivo evidence for a functional role of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and transmembrane TNF in experimental hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, S; Tiegs, G; Alexopoulou, L; Pasparakis, M; Douni, E; Künstle, G; Bluethmann, H; Wendel, A; Pfizenmaier, K; Kollias, G; Grell, M

    1997-11-01

    The significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) for TNF function in vivo is well documented, whereas the role of TNFR2 so far remains obscure. In a model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, CD4+ T cell-dependent experimental hepatitis in mice, in which TNF is a central mediator of apoptotic and necrotic liver damage, we now provide evidence for an essential in vivo function of TNFR2 in this pathophysiological process. We demonstrate that a cooperation of TNFR1 and TNFR2 is required for hepatotoxicity as mice deficient of either receptor were resistant against Con A. A significant role of TNFR2 for Con A-induced hepatitis is also shown by the enhanced sensitivity of transgenic mice overexpressing the human TNFR2. The ligand for cytotoxic signaling via both TNF receptors is the precursor of soluble TNF, i.e. transmembrane TNF. Indeed, transmembrane TNF is sufficient to mediate hepatic damage, as transgenic mice deficient in wild-type soluble TNF but expressing a mutated nonsecretable form of TNF developed inflammatory liver disease.

  13. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  14. Functional recovery of denervated skeletal muscle with sensory or mixed nerve protection: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tian Li

    Full Text Available Functional recovery is usually poor following peripheral nerve injury when reinnervation is delayed. Early innervation by sensory nerve has been indicated to prevent atrophy of the denervated muscle. It is hypothesized that early protection with sensory axons is adequate to improve functional recovery of skeletal muscle following prolonged denervation of mixed nerve injury. In this study, four groups of rats received surgical denervation of the tibial nerve. The proximal and distal stumps of the tibial nerve were ligated in all animals except for those in the immediate repair group. The experimental groups underwent denervation with nerve protection of peroneal nerve (mixed protection or sural nerve (sensory protection. The experimental and unprotected groups had a stage II surgery in which the trimmed proximal and distal tibial nerve stumps were sutured together. After 3 months of recovery, electrophysiological, histological and morphometric parameters were assessed. It was detected that the significant muscle atrophy and a good preserved structure of the muscle were observed in the unprotected and protective experimental groups, respectively. Significantly fewer numbers of regenerated myelinated axons were observed in the sensory-protected group. Enhanced recovery in the mixed protection group was indicated by the results of the muscle contraction force tests, regenerated myelinated fiber, and the results of the histological analysis. Our results suggest that early axons protection by mixed nerve may complement sensory axons which are required for promoting functional recovery of the denervated muscle natively innervated by mixed nerve.

  15. Preemptive antiviral therapy with entecavir can reduce acute deterioration of hepatic function following transarterial chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hong Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Hepatic damage during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE is a critical complication in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Apart from its role in preventing HBV reactivation, there is some evidence for the benefits of preemptive antiviral therapy in TACE. This study evaluated the effect of preemptive antiviral therapy on acute hepatic deterioration following TACE. Methods This retrospective observational study included a prospectively collected cohort of 108 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent TACE between January 2007 and January 2013. Acute hepatic deterioration following TACE was evaluated. Treatment-related hepatic decompensation was defined as newly developed encephalopathy, ascites, variceal bleeding, elevation of the bilirubin level, prolongation of prothrombin time, or elevation of the Child-Pugh score by ≥2 within 2 weeks following TACE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors influencing treatment-related decompensation. Preemptive antiviral therapy involves directing prophylaxis only toward high-risk chronic hepatitis B patients in an attempt to prevent the progression of liver disease. We regarded at least 6 months as a significant duration of preemptive antiviral treatment before diagnosis of HCC. Results Of the 108 patients, 30 (27.8% patients received preemptive antiviral therapy. Treatment-related decompensation was observed in 25 (23.1% patients during the follow-up period. Treatment-related decompensation following TACE was observed more frequently in the nonpreemptive group than in the preemptive group (29.5% vs. 6.7%, P=0.008. In the multivariate analysis, higher serum total bilirubin (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.425, P=0.013, hypoalbuminemia (HR=3.990, P=0.015, and absence of antiviral therapy (HR=7.597, P=0.006 were significantly associated with treatment-related hepatic decompensation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that

  16. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerutti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS, but no nuclear export signal (NES has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133 region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126 in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173 significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  17. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Andrea; Maillard, Patrick; Minisini, Rosalba; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roohvand, Farzin; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Pirisi, Mario; Budkowska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS), but no nuclear export signal (NES) has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133) region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126) in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173) significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  18. Estradiol improves cardiac and hepatic function after trauma-hemorrhage: role of enhanced heat shock protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, László; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Suzuki, Takao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Rue, Loring W; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2006-03-01

    Although studies indicate that 17beta-estradiol administration after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves cardiac and hepatic functions, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) can protect cardiac and hepatic functions, we hypothesized that these proteins contribute to the salutary effects of estradiol after T-H. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300 g) underwent laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (35-40 mmHg for approximately 90 min) followed by resuscitation with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate. 17beta-estradiol (1 mg/kg body wt) was administered at the end of the resuscitation. Five hours after T-H and resuscitation there was a significant decrease in cardiac output, positive and negative maximal rate of left ventricular pressure. Liver function as determined by bile production and indocyanine green clearance was also compromised after T-H and resuscitation. This was accompanied by an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver perfusate lactic dehydrogenase levels. Furthermore, circulating levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 were also increased. In addition to decreased cardiac and hepatic function, there was an increase in cardiac HSP32 expression and a reduction in HSP60 expression after T-H. In the liver, HSP32 and HSP70 were increased after T-H. There was no change in heart HSP70 and liver HSP60 after T-H and resuscitation. Estradiol administration at the end of T-H and resuscitation increased heart/liver HSPs expression, ameliorated the impairment of heart/liver functions, and significantly prevented the increase in plasma levels of ALT, TNF-alpha, and IL-6. The ability of estradiol to induce HSPs expression in the heart and the liver suggests that HSPs, in part, mediate the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on organ functions after T-H.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  20. Estimates for the mixed derivatives of the Green functions on homogeneous manifolds of negative curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Urban

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Green functions for second-order left-invariant differential operators on homogeneous manifolds of negative curvature, being a semi-direct product of a nilpotent Lie group $N$ and $A=mathbb{R}^+$. We obtain estimates for mixed derivatives of the Green functions both in the coercive and non-coercive case. The current paper completes the previous results obtained by the author in a series of papers [14,15,16,19].

  1. Hepatitis C virus cure does not impact kidney function decline in HIV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carmine; Saeed, Sahar; Cox, Joseph; Vachon, Marie-Louise; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie; Walmsley, Sharon L; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, M John; Hull, Mark; Moodie, Erica E M; Klein, Marina B

    2018-03-27

    To examine the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) and illicit (injection and noninjection) drug use on kidney function among hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV co-infected individuals. Longitudinal observational cohort study of HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Data from 1631 patients enrolled in the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort between 2003 and 2016 were analyzed. Patients who achieved SVR were matched 1 : 2 with chronically infected patients using time-dependent propensity scores. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to model differences in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between chronic HCV-infected patients and those achieving SVR. The relationship between illicit drug use and eGFR was explored in patients who achieved SVR. We identified 384 co-infected patients who achieved SVR (53% treated with interferon-free antiviral regimens) and 768 propensity-score matched patients with chronic HCV infection. Most patients were men (78%) and white (87%), with a median age of 51 years (interquartile range: 45-56). During 1767 person-years of follow-up, 4041 eGFR measurements were available for analysis. Annual rates of decline in eGFR were similar between patients with SVR [-1.32 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.75 to -0.90] and chronic infection [-1.19 (ml/min per 1.73 m) per year, 95% CI -1.55 to -0.84]. Among SVR patients, recent injection cocaine use was associated with rapid eGFR decline [-2.16 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% CI -4.17 to -0.16]. SVR did not reduce the rate of kidney function decline among HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease in co-infection may not be related to persistent HCV replication but to ongoing injection cocaine use.

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  3. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  5. Analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic hepatic carcinoma via functional modules in a protein-protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to identify protein clusters with potential functional relevance in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and metastatic hepatic carcinoma using network analysis. Materials and Methods: We used human protein interaction data to build a protein-protein interaction network with Cytoscape and then derived functional clusters using MCODE. Combining the gene expression profiles, we calculated the functional scores for the clusters and selected statistically significant clusters. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology was used to assess the functionality of these clusters. Finally, a support vector machine was trained on the gold standard data sets. Results: The differentially expressed genes of HCC were mainly involved in metabolic and signaling processes. We acquired 13 significant modules from the gene expression profiles. The area under the curve value based on the differentially expressed modules were 98.31%, which outweighed the classification with DEGs. Conclusions: Differentially expressed modules are valuable to screen biomarkers combined with functional modules.

  6. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m...... excretion could be used as a marker of renal impairment before increased serum creatinine (S-Cr) concentration or decreased creatinine clearance (Cr-Cl). Finally, the use of beta 2m as a prognostic indicator was investigated. Eighteen patients in hepatic coma grade III-IV were entered in the study and were...... to the small number of patients. FE-beta 2m could not predict the development of renal failure earlier than the increase in S-Cr or decrease in Cr-Cl. However, a few patients who survived paracetamol intoxication had increased FE-beta 2M in the beginning of the coma and normal S-Cr and Cr-Cl. Patients who died...

  7. The Patient-Provider Relationship Is Associated with Hepatitis C Treatment Eligibility: A Prospective Mixed-Methods Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari S Rogal

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment has the potential to cure the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, only those deemed eligible for treatment have the possibility of this cure. Therefore, understanding the determinants of HCV treatment eligibility is critical. Given that effective communication with and trust in healthcare providers significantly influences treatment eligibility decisions in other diseases, we aimed to understand patient-provider interactions in the HCV treatment eligibility process. This prospective cohort study was conducted in the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System. Patients were recruited after referral for gastroenterology consultation for HCV treatment with interferon and ribavirin. Consented patients completed semi-structured interviews and validated measures of depression, substance and alcohol use, and HCV knowledge. Two coders analyzed the semi-structured interviews. Factors associated with patient eligibility for interferon-based therapy were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Of 339 subjects included in this analysis, only 56 (16.5% were deemed eligible for HCV therapy by gastroenterology (GI providers. In the multivariate logistic regression, patients who were older (OR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.92-0.99, p = .049, reported concerns about the GI provider (OR = 0.40, 95%CI = 0.10-0.87, p = 0.02 and had depression symptoms (OR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.17-0.63, p = 0.001 were less likely to be eligible. Patients described barriers that included feeling stigmatized and poor provider interpersonal or communication skills. In conclusion, we found that patients' perceptions of the relationship with their GI providers were associated with treatment eligibility. Establishing trust and effective communication channels between patients and providers may lower barriers to potential HCV cure.

  8. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of radiological prognostic factors of hepatic metastases in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Timm [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Baur, Alexander D.J., E-mail: alexander.baur@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Ihm, Claudia; Steffen, Ingo G. [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Tischer, Elisabeth [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Arsenic, Ruza [Institut für Pathologie, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Pascher, Andreas [Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Wiedenmann, Bertram; Pavel, Marianne [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: There are different therapeutic options in non-functional well to moderately differentiated (G1 and G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) with unresectable hepatic metastases including systemic chemotherapy and novel molecular targeted therapies. Treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSA) as antiproliferative agents is optional. At initial diagnosis watchful waiting until tumor progression is a well-established approach. Goal of this study was to evaluate imaging features as potential prognostic factors predicting early tumor progression in order to select patients that might benefit from an earlier initiation of medical treatment. Patients and methods: In 44 patients we correlated tumor grade, chromogranin A (CgA) levels, treatment with SSA and imaging features of hepatic metastases on contrast-enhanced multiphase CT and MR imaging with time to tumor progression (TTP) according to RECIST 1.0. Results: In the total patient cohort none of the tested imaging features was found to be a statistically significant prognostic factor for TTP. Since treatment with SSA was associated with an increased TTP we also analyzed a subgroup of 30 patients not treated with SSA. In this subgroup of patients hypoenhancement of hepatic metastases during early contrast phases was found to be a negative prognostic factor for early tumor progression within 12 months (p = 0.039). The other evaluated parameters including hepatic tumor load, number of metastases, and presence of regressive morphological changes did not reveal significant results. Conclusion: Hypovascularization of liver metastases from G1 and G2 pNET reflected by hypoenhancement during the early contrast phases seems to be associated with early tumor progression. In patients with hypoenhancing metastases repeated biopsy for reassessment of grading of these metastases, and early initiation of therapy should be considered.

  10. Erythrocytes 125I-Insulin Binding Studies in Viral Hepatitis and Schistosomiasis Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the alterations of insulin binding sites in human erythrocytes in patients with chronic viral B and C hepatitis and in schistosomiasis. Fifty men with ages ranged from 20-45 years were diagnosed into five groups; hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, mixed hepatitis B and C, schistosomiasis and normal healthy volunteers as a control group. Biochemical analyses as erythrocyte insulin radioreceptor, plasma insulin estimation, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels and liver function tests were performed. The results revealed significant decrease in insulin binding sites/cell in patients with hepatitis C virus, mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis compared to the control group. There were significant increase in fasting plasma glucose levels in groups of hepatitis C virus mixed B and C viruses, while there were highly significant increase in post prandial plasma glucose levels in patients with mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis groups compared to the normal control. Also, fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups of hepatitis C mixed B and C viruses and in schistosomiasis group. The obtained results revealed the importance of laboratory follow up of glucose and insulin levels in patients with chronic liver diseases

  11. Influence of autologous blood transfusion in liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis B on the function and hemorheology of red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangfu; Fan, Ruifang; Lu, Ying; Kuang, Lihua; Yuan, Qing; Chen, Yuchan; Lin, Zhesheng; Lin, Dongjun

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the function and hemorheology of red blood cells (RBCs) recovered during liver transplantation surgery in patients with hepatitis B and decompensation. A total of 15 hepatitis B patients with decompensation who underwent liver transplantation surgery were included in the present study. Blood samples were recovered during the liver transplantation surgery using an Autologous Blood Recovery System. The morphology and structure of RBCs were characterized a...

  12. T-bet-mediated Tim-3 expression dampens monocyte function during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenjing; Zhang, Peixin; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Shen, Huanjun; Fan, Chao; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces a high rate of chronic infection via dysregulation of host immunity. We have previously shown that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein-3 (Tim-3) is up-regulated on monocyte/macrophages (M/Mφ) during chronic HCV infection; little is known, however, about the transcription factor that controls its expression in these cells. In this study, we investigated the role of transcription factor, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), in Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ in the setting of HCV infection. We demonstrate that T-bet is constitutively expressed in resting CD14 + M/Mφ in the peripheral blood. M/Mφ from chronically HCV-infected individuals exhibit a significant increase in T-bet expression that positively correlates with an increased level of Tim-3 expression. Up-regulation of T-bet is also observed in CD14 + M/Mφ incubated with HCV + Huh7.5 cells, as well as in primary M/Mφ or monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to HCV core protein in vitro, which is reversible by blocking HCV core/gC1qR interactions. Moreover, the HCV core-induced up-regulation of T-bet and Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ can be abrogated by incubating the cells with SP600125 - an inhibitor for the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathway. Importantly, silencing T-bet gene expression decreases Tim-3 expression and enhances interleukin-12 secretion as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that T-bet, induced by the HCV core/gC1qR interaction, enhances Tim-3 expression via the JNK pathway, leading to dampened M/Mφ function during HCV infection. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for Tim-3 regulation via T-bet during HCV infection, providing new targets to combat this global epidemic viral disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Neuropsychological functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C: a comparison of pre- and post-transplant performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Sakamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available t is well established that patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD experience cognitive and mood problems; however, little is known about changes in cognitive and emotional functioning following liver transplantation, especially over the past decade with the epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection taking over as the leading indication for liver transplantation. Seventeen patients with ESLD secondary to chronic HCV were assessed pre- and post-liver transplantation using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. After an average of four years post-transplant, patients demonstrated significant improvements in most cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms. However, 18% of liver recipients continued to exhibit mild cognitive impairment mainly in areas of attention/executive functioning, motor speed, and learning. Liver transplantation is a life-extending surgery that reverses most, but not all, cognitive and mood difficulties. It is crucial to evaluate cognition after liver transplantation, especially in these three domains, and to consider the effect on daily functioning.

  14. T(14;18) is Not Associated with Mixed Cryoglobulinemia or with Clonal B Cell Expansion in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABBAS, O.M.; OMAR, N.A.; HASSAN, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aim: The mechanisms of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders in chronic hepatitis C virus (Hv) infection are unclear. An increased prevalence of circulating monoclonal B-cells and t(14;18) has been reported. Geographic heterogeneity of prevalence of t(14;18) has been shown to exist. We investigated the prevalence of t(14;18) and B-cell clonality as possible mechanisms of lymphoma genesis in chronic HCV patients, in whom cryoglobulinemia status was previously detected. Methods: A cohort of 111 patients was studied, including 87 patients with chronic HCV disease (18 cryoglobulinemic and 69 non- cryoglobulinemic); 24 HCV negative, cryoglobulin negative patients with other nonimmune chronic liver diseases were enrolled as controls. The t(14;18) and IgH rearrangement (as a marker of B cell clonality) were detected by the polymerase chain reaction. Results: t(14;18) was detected in 27.6% of HCV patients and in none of the controls. Detection rates were comparable in both cryoglobulin-positive and negative groups (22.2% and 29%, respectively), p=0.769. IgH rearrangement was detected in 39.1% of HCV patients and in none of the controls. The cryo globulin-positive group showed significantly higher prevalence of IgH rearrangement compared to the cryoglobulin-negative group (61.1% and 33.3%, respectively), p=0.03, OR=3.13 and 95% CI=1.07-9.17. t(14;18) and monoclonal IgH rearrangement detection rates were not associated with each other, p=0.467. Conclusion: t(14;18) is uncommon in HCV-mixed cryogoblulinemia Egyptian patients; it does not seem to play a role in HCV-associated MC and lymphoma genesis in our geographical area. HCV may play a role in mixed cryogoblulinemia and lymphoma genesis, probably by inducing clonal B-cell expansions.

  15. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ −/− mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. ► Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. ► C/EBPβ inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBPβ expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBPβ deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBPβ −/− mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBPβ −/− mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBPβ in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBPβ might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR activation-mediated adverse effects on liver TG metabolism without disrupting its beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  16. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shaikh M., E-mail: rmizanoor@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Miyazaki, Makoto [Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Friedman, Jacob E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  17. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  18. Biomarkers of fibrosis and impaired liver function in chronic hepatitis C: how well do they predict clinical outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L.; Rockstroh, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on the prognostic value of biomarkers of liver fibrosis and impaired liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis C with or without HIV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: A combination of standard blood tests seems to be useful in identifying...... levels of the fibrosis marker hyaluronic acid are a strong predictor of clinical complications. A smaller study found hyaluronic acid and two other fibrosis tests, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fib-4, to be independent predictors of mortality when included in models...

  19. Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse U; Krijnen, Wim P; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2017-09-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied. A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia. Linear mixed model analyses was used to study associations between AGE-levels (AGE reader) and mobility (Timed Up and Go), and ADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and Barthel index), respectively. A significant association between AGE levels and mobility (β = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43-5.73) was revealed; however, no significant association between AGE levels and ADL was found. Over a one-year time span, mean AGE levels significantly increased, and mobility and ADL performance decreased. Change in AGE levels was not significantly correlated with change in mobility. This study indicates that high AGE levels could be a contributing factor to impaired mobility but lacks evidence for an association with ADL decline in people with early stage AD or mixed dementia. Future research is necessary on the reduction of functional decline in dementia regarding the effectiveness of interventions such as physical activity programs and dietary advice possibly in combination with pharmacologic strategies targeting AGE accumulation.

  20. Determination of the integrated CT number of the whole liver in patients with severe hepatitis. As an indicator of the functional reserve of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Muto, Yasutoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshida, Takashi; Tomita, Eiichi (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the functional reserve of the liver of patients with severe hepatitis by computed tomography (CT), in particular employing the integrated CT number of the whole liver (ICTN). ICTN was calculated by integrating the product of 'area' times 'mean CT number' of the liver in each CT slice for the entire height of the liver. The following results were obtained: (1) In patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH) as well as those with subacute hepatitis (SAH), ICTN was found to be significantly lower as compared to that of patients with acute hepatitis (AH) or non-hepatic diseases. In addition, in FH and SAH patients, ICTN showed a larger degree of decrease when compared with such conventional parameters as either estimated liver volume or mean hepatic CT number. Thus, ICTN seems to more sensitively reflect the changes in functional reserve of the liver. (2) ICTN showed significant positive correlations with prothrombin time and plasma BCAA/AAA ratio, and a significant negative correlation with plasma methionine level. (3) Time course of changes in ICTN correlated well with the clinical features of severe hepatitis. In particular, patients with initial ICTN values above 20 lcenter dotHU/m/sup 2/ of body surface area showed significantly higher survival rate than those with initial ICTN below 20. In conclusion, ICTN well indicates the functional reserve of the liver, and is further suggested to be valuable as a parameter to predict the prognosis of patients with severe hepatitis. (author).

  1. Methadone hydrochloride: acute administration, disposition and effects on hepatic function in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, R C; Ecobichon, D J

    1981-01-01

    d,1-Methadone hydrochloride was administered orally to adult female albino guinea pigs at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight every 12 h for 10 consecutive days. Twelve hours after a dose, subgroups of animals were sacrificed at 2, 5 and 10 days for tissue (blood plasma, brain, liver and kidney) methadone residue analysis and the in vitro measurement of hepatic microsomal p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (OD), aniline hydroxylase (AH) and glucuronosyltransferase (GT) activities. No overt toxicity was observed during treatment other than a decrease in body weight. Withdrawal signs were absent during the 14-day post-treatment regression period. Tissue methadone levels were constant except for a decreased concentration in the liver at 5 and 10 days. No effect on hepatic OD and AH was observed during treatment but a significant decrease in GT activity was measured which returned to normal values 14 days after terminating treatment.

  2. Alcohol alters hepatic FoxO1, p53, and mitochondrial SIRT5 deacetylation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, Charles S.; Leo, Maria Anna; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects the gene expression of a NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC-1α). Our aim was to verify that it also alters the forkhead (FoxO1) and p53 transcription factor proteins, critical in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and regulated by SIRT1 through its deacetylating capacity. Accordingly, rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-containing liquid diets for 28 days. Alcohol increased hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.001) while corresponding protein levels remained unchanged. However phospho-FoxO1 and phospho-Akt (protein kinase) were both decreased by alcohol consumption (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively) while hepatic p53 was found hyperacetylated (p = 0.017). Furthermore, mitochondrial SIRT5 was reduced (p = 0.0025), and PGC-1α hyperacetylated (p = 0.027), establishing their role in protein modification. Thus, alcohol consumption disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial interactions by post-translation protein modifications, which contribute to alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis through the newly discovered reduction of SIRT5

  3. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  4. Test Functions for Three-Dimensional Control-Volume Mixed Finite-Element Methods on Irregular Grids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naff, R. L; Russell, T. F; Wilson, J. D

    2000-01-01

    .... For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error...

  5. Dose-effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayan Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yong-e; Chen, Xing-an

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dose effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. The methods we used is to carry out the measurement of each miner.s exhaled thoron activity and the thorium lung burden along with the four hepatic functions (thymol turbidity test, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, thymol flocculation test and alkaline phosphatase)of the dust exposed miners in Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. We have carried out three investigations in 1983, 1984-1987 and 1994 respectively. Results showed that during the period 1983-1994, 1158 measurements of thorium lung burden estimates and 1158 measurement of every four hepatic functions(altogether 4632 measurements) were performed on 638 dust-exposed miners. No adverse effects were observed. In the same time, none of the above-mentioned 638 exposed miners had a thorium lung burden higher than 11.11 Bq. It is concluded that if any miners. thorium lung burden not higher than 11.11 Bq, his four hepatic functions should not be affected. This first possible threshold for thorium lung burden affecting the hepatic functions was put forward by the authors and confirmed by the Information Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Science in 2003 after searching 23.6 million references. (author)

  6. Functional mapping of hospitals by diagnosis-dominant case-mix analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiguchi Hiromasa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Principles and methods for the allocation of healthcare resources among healthcare providers have long been health policy research issues in many countries. Healthcare reforms including the development of a new case-mix system, Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC, and the introduction of a DPC-based payment system are currently underway in Japan, and a methodology for adequately assessing the functions of healthcare providers is needed to determine healthcare resource allocations. Methods By two-dimensional mapping of the rarity and complexity of diagnoses for patients receiving treatment, we were able to quantitatively demonstrate differences in the functions of different healthcare service provider groups. Results On average, inpatients had diseases that were 3.6-times rarer than those seen in outpatients, while major teaching hospitals treated inpatients with diseases 3.0-times rarer on average than those seen at small hospitals. Conclusion We created and evaluated a new indicator for DPC, the diagnosis-dominant case-mix system developed in Japan, whereby the system was used to assess the functions of healthcare service providers. The results suggest that it is possible to apply the case-mix system to the integrated evaluation of outpatient and inpatient healthcare services and to the appropriate allocation of healthcare resources among health service providers.

  7. Models of mixed irradiation with a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shozo; Miura, Yuri; Mizuno, Shoichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Suzuki presented models for mixed irradiation with two and multiple types of radiation by extending the Zaider and Rossi model, which is based on the theory of dual radiation action. In these models, the repair function was simply assumed to be semi-logarithmically linear (i.e., monoexponential), or a first-order process, which has been experimentally contradicted. Fowler, however, suggested that the repair of radiation damage might be largely a second-order process rather than a first-order one, and presented data in support of this hypothesis. In addition, a second-order repair function is preferred to an n-exponential repair function for the reason that only one parameter is used in the former instead of 2n-1 parameters for the latter, although both repair functions show a good fit to the experimental data. However, according to a second-order repair function, the repair rate depends on the dose, which is incompatible with the experimental data. We, therefore, revised the models for mixed irradiation by Zaider and Rossi and by Suzuki, by substituting a 'reciprocal-time' pattern of the repair function, which is derived from the assumption that the repair rate is independent of the dose in a second-order repair function, for a first-order one in reduction and interaction factors of the models, although the underlying mechanism for this assumption cannot be well-explained. The reduction factor, which reduces the contribution of the square of a dose to cell killing in the linear-quadratic model and its derivatives, and the interaction factor, which also reduces the contribution of the interaction of two or more doses of different types of radiation, were formulated by using a 'reciprocal-time' patterns of the repair function. Cell survivals calculated from the older and the newly modified models were compared in terms of the dose-rate by assuming various types of single and mixed irradiation. The result implies that the newly modified models for

  8. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  10. Local hybrid functionals with orbital-free mixing functions and balanced elimination of self-interaction error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Piotr de; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    The recently introduced density overlap regions indicator (DORI) [P. de Silva and C. Corminboeuf, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10(9), 3745–3756 (2014)] is a density-dependent scalar field revealing regions of high density overlap between shells, atoms, and molecules. In this work, we exploit its properties to construct local hybrid exchange-correlation functionals aiming at balanced reduction of the self-interaction error. We show that DORI can successfully replace the ratio of the von Weizsäcker and exact positive-definite kinetic energy densities, which is commonly used in mixing functions of local hybrids. Additionally, we introduce several semi-empirical parameters to control the local and global admixture of exact exchange. The most promising of our local hybrids clearly outperforms the underlying semi-local functionals as well as their global hybrids

  11. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  12. Hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis in α1-antitrypsin deficiency: a prototype for chronic tissue damage in gain-of-function disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David H; Silverman, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    In α1-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency, a point mutation renders a hepatic secretory glycoprotein prone to misfolding and polymerization. The mutant protein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells and causes hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma by a gain-of-function mechanism. Genetic and/or environmental modifiers determine whether an affected homozygote is susceptible to hepatic fibrosis/carcinoma. Two types of proteostasis mechanisms for such modifiers have been postulated: variation in the function of intracellular degradative mechanisms and/or variation in the signal transduction pathways that are activated to protect the cell from protein mislocalization and/or aggregation. In recent studies we found that carbamazepine, a drug that has been used safely as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer, reduces the hepatic load of mutant AT and hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model by enhancing autophagic disposal of this mutant protein. These results provide evidence that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous proteostasis mechanisms is an appealing strategy for chemoprophylaxis in disorders involving gain-of-function mechanisms.

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in obstructive jaundice: an experimental study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Yol, Sinan; Teke, Zafer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Sakaogullari, Zisan; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2010-08-01

    The physiology of the patient during laparoscopy differs from that of open surgery. Both pneumoperitoneum and obstructive jaundice impair the hepatic function, but the combined insult has not been previously examined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in a rat model of obstructive jaundice. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 10), sham-operated group; group 2 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice group; group 3 (n = 10), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group; and group 4 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group. Common bile duct was ligated and divided in the obstructive jaundice groups. After 6 days, a 12-mmHg pneumoperitoneum was induced, maintained for 60 min, and released for 120 min. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of white blood cell and platelet counts, serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], total bilirubin). Tissue samples were obtained for analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. We evaluated the degree of liver injury on a grading scale from 0 to 4, histopathologically. Pneumoperitoneum after biliary obstruction resulted in an increase in AST and ALT levels and a decrease in white blood cell and platelet counts. However, changes in liver tissue MDA, GSH, and SOD levels did not correlate with the changes in AST and ALT levels and white blood cell and platelet counts. After sham operation with pneumoperitoneum, the GSH levels in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the group 3 when compared to the group 2. On the other hand, obstructive jaundice itself caused significant reduction in the SOD activity of liver homogenate in comparison to the group 3. Histopathologically, sinusoidal congestion and vacuolization were more severe in the group 3. Alterations in hepatic function occur in pneumoperitoneum applied

  14. [Phenotypic and functional features of NK and NKT cells in chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaofei; Li, Man; Sun, Xuehua; Zhou, Zhenhua; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    To detect the ratio of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cells in peripheral blood, the levels of NKG2D/NKG2A, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested from CHB patients. The ratio of NK/NKT cells in PBMCs and the levels of NKG2D and NKG2A were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α were analyzed by flow cytometry after the treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), brefeldin A (BFA) or ionomycin in vitro. The comparison between two groups was performed by independent sample t-test. The relationship of each index to hepatitis B virus load and serum alanine aminotransferase was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Compared with healthy controls, CHB patients presented with significantly decreased peripheral blood NK/NKT cell ratio and significantly elevated proportions of NKG2A+ NK and NKG2A+NKT cells, and after the treatment with PMA/BFA/ionomycin, IFN-γ+ NK and IFN-γ+ NKT cells were significantly reduced in CHB patients. NK and NKT cells showed a reduced ratio, disordered receptor expressions and decreased cytokine secretion capacity in CHB patients.

  15. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Johnson, J.L.; Blakesly, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 μmol/min/kg containing tracer [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 μmol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 μmol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ([ 3 H] specific activity in hepatic glycogen/[ 3 H] specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  18. A mixed-mode traffic assignment model with new time-flow impedance function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui-Hua; Hu, Yu; Zou, Yuan-Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, with the wide adoption of electric vehicles, transportation network has shown different characteristics and been further developed. In this paper, we present a new time-flow impedance function, which may be more realistic than the existing time-flow impedance functions. Based on this new impedance function, we present an optimization model for a mixed-mode traffic network in which battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and gasoline vehicles (GVs) are chosen. We suggest two approaches to handle the model: One is to use the interior point (IP) algorithm and the other is to employ the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm. Three numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of these approaches. In particular, our numerical results show that more travelers prefer to choosing BEVs when the distance limit of BEVs is long enough and the unit operating cost of GVs is higher than that of BEVs, and the SQP algorithm is faster than the IP algorithm.

  19. Administration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells restores liver regeneration and improves liver function in obese mice with hepatic steatosis after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bahamonde, Javiera; Huang, Ya-Lin; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2017-01-28

    The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage. Since HS is the most common form of chronic hepatic illness, in this study we evaluated the role of MSCs in liver regeneration in an animal model of severe HS with impaired liver regeneration. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a regular diet (normal mice) or with a high-fat diet (obese mice) to induce HS. After 30 weeks of diet exposure, 70% hepatectomy (Hpx) was performed and normal and obese mice were divided into two groups that received 5 × 10 5 MSCs or vehicle via the tail vein immediately after Hpx. We confirmed a significant inhibition of hepatic regeneration when liver steatosis was present, while the hepatic regenerative response was promoted by infusion of MSCs. Specifically, MSC administration improved the hepatocyte proliferative response, PCNA-labeling index, DNA synthesis, liver function, and also reduced the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These effects may be associated to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors by MSCs and the hepatic upregulation of key cytokines and growth factors relevant for cell proliferation, which ultimately improves the survival rate of the mice. MSCs represent a promising therapeutic strategy to improve liver regeneration in patients with HS as well as for increasing the number of donor organs available for transplantation.

  20. Functional and physical molecular size of the chicken hepatic lectin determined by radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.J.; Osborne, J.C. Jr.; Kempner, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis were used to determine the functional and physical size of the chicken hepatic membrane receptor that binds N-acetylglucosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Purified plasma membranes from chicken liver were irradiated with high energy electrons and assayed for 125I-agalactoorosomucoid binding. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation resulted in a monoexponential decay in binding activity due to a progressive loss of binding sites. The molecular mass of the chicken lectin, determined in situ by target analysis, was 69,000 +/- 9,000 Da. When the same irradiated membranes were solubilized in Brij 58 and assayed, the binding protein exhibited a target size of 62,000 +/- 4,000 Da; in Triton X-100, the functional size of the receptor was 85,000 +/- 10,000 Da. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements of the purified binding protein yielded a lower limit molecular weight of 79,000 +/- 7,000. However, the solubilized lectin was detected as a heterogeneous population of oligomers with molecular weights as high as 450,000. Addition of calcium or calcium plus N-acetylglucosamine decreased the higher molecular weight species, but the lower limit molecular weights remained invariant. Similar results were determined when the chicken lectin was solubilized in Brij 58, C12E9, or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonic acid (CHAPS). Results from the present study suggest that in the plasma membrane, the functional species of the chicken hepatic lectin exists as a trimer. However, in detergent solution, the purified receptor forms a heterogeneous population of irreversible oligomers that exhibit binding activity proportional to size

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  2. Reduced Rank Mixed Effects Models for Spatially Correlated Hierarchical Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lan

    2010-03-01

    Hierarchical functional data are widely seen in complex studies where sub-units are nested within units, which in turn are nested within treatment groups. We propose a general framework of functional mixed effects model for such data: within unit and within sub-unit variations are modeled through two separate sets of principal components; the sub-unit level functions are allowed to be correlated. Penalized splines are used to model both the mean functions and the principal components functions, where roughness penalties are used to regularize the spline fit. An EM algorithm is developed to fit the model, while the specific covariance structure of the model is utilized for computational efficiency to avoid storage and inversion of large matrices. Our dimension reduction with principal components provides an effective solution to the difficult tasks of modeling the covariance kernel of a random function and modeling the correlation between functions. The proposed methodology is illustrated using simulations and an empirical data set from a colon carcinogenesis study. Supplemental materials are available online.

  3. In vivo engineering of bone tissues with hematopoietic functions and mixed chimerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Ru; Kang, Heemin; Rao, Vikram; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Kwon, Seong Keun; Varghese, Shyni

    2017-05-23

    Synthetic biomimetic matrices with osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity have been developed to regenerate bone tissues. However, whether such systems harbor donor marrow in vivo and support mixed chimerism remains unknown. We devised a strategy to engineer bone tissues with a functional bone marrow (BM) compartment in vivo by using a synthetic biomaterial with spatially differing cues. Specifically, we have developed a synthetic matrix recapitulating the dual-compartment structures by modular assembly of mineralized and nonmineralized macroporous structures. Our results show that these matrices incorporated with BM cells or BM flush transplanted into recipient mice matured into functional bone displaying the cardinal features of both skeletal and hematopoietic compartments similar to native bone tissue. The hematopoietic function of bone tissues was demonstrated by its support for a higher percentage of mixed chimerism compared with i.v. injection and donor hematopoietic cell mobilization in the circulation of nonirradiated recipients. Furthermore, hematopoietic cells sorted from the engineered bone tissues reconstituted the hematopoietic system when transplanted into lethally irradiated secondary recipients. Such engineered bone tissues could potentially be used as ectopic BM surrogates for treatment of nonmalignant BM diseases and as a tool to study hematopoiesis, donor-host cell dynamics, tumor tropism, and hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  4. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  5. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE IMAGE DATA USING ISOMORPHIC FUNCTIONAL MIXED MODELS, WITH APPLICATION TO PROTEOMICS DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey S; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Herrick, Richard C; Sanna, Pietro; Gutstein, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Image data are increasingly encountered and are of growing importance in many areas of science. Much of these data are quantitative image data, which are characterized by intensities that represent some measurement of interest in the scanned images. The data typically consist of multiple images on the same domain and the goal of the research is to combine the quantitative information across images to make inference about populations or interventions. In this paper, we present a unified analysis framework for the analysis of quantitative image data using a Bayesian functional mixed model approach. This framework is flexible enough to handle complex, irregular images with many local features, and can model the simultaneous effects of multiple factors on the image intensities and account for the correlation between images induced by the design. We introduce a general isomorphic modeling approach to fitting the functional mixed model, of which the wavelet-based functional mixed model is one special case. With suitable modeling choices, this approach leads to efficient calculations and can result in flexible modeling and adaptive smoothing of the salient features in the data. The proposed method has the following advantages: it can be run automatically, it produces inferential plots indicating which regions of the image are associated with each factor, it simultaneously considers the practical and statistical significance of findings, and it controls the false discovery rate. Although the method we present is general and can be applied to quantitative image data from any application, in this paper we focus on image-based proteomic data. We apply our method to an animal study investigating the effects of opiate addiction on the brain proteome. Our image-based functional mixed model approach finds results that are missed with conventional spot-based analysis approaches. In particular, we find that the significant regions of the image identified by the proposed method

  6. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, H. A.; de Graaf, W.; Heger, M.; van Golen, R. F.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Bennink, R.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to reduce experimental hepatic steatosis and protect the liver from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 FAs on regeneration of steatotic liver. Steatosis was induced in rats by a 3-week

  7. Alcohol-induced defects in hepatic transcytosis may be explained by impaired dynein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Jennifer L; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Dean J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic liver disease has been clinically well described, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we determined that microtubules are hyperacetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells, VL-17A cells, liver slices, and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. From our recent studies, we believe that these modifications can explain alcohol-induced defects in microtubule motor-dependent protein trafficking including nuclear translocation of a subset of transcription factors. Since cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin is known to mediate both microtubule-dependent translocation and basolateral to apical/canalicular transcytosis, we predicted that transcytosis is impaired in ethanol-treated hepatic cells. We monitored transcytosis of three classes of newly synthesized canalicular proteins in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells, an emerging model system for the study of liver disease. As predicted, canalicular delivery of all proteins tested was impaired in ethanol-treated cells. Unlike in control cells, transcytosing proteins were observed in discrete sub-canalicular puncta en route to the canalicular surface that aligned along acetylated microtubules. We further determined that the stalled transcytosing proteins colocalized with dynein/dynactin in treated cells. No changes in vesicle association were observed for either dynein or dynactin in ethanol-treated cells, but significantly enhanced dynein binding to microtubules was observed. From these results, we propose that enhanced dynein binding to microtubules in ethanol-treated cells leads to decreased motor processivity resulting in vesicle stalling and in impaired canalicular delivery. Our studies also importantly indicate that modulating cellular acetylation levels with clinically tolerated deacetylase agonists may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating alcoholic liver disease.

  8. Functional proteomic analysis of corticosteroid pharmacodynamics in rat liver: Relationship to hepatic stress, signaling, energy regulation, and drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Vivaswath S; Almon, Richard R; DuBois, Debra C; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Qu, Jun; Jusko, William J

    2017-05-08

    Corticosteroids (CS) are anti-inflammatory agents that cause extensive pharmacogenomic and proteomic changes in multiple tissues. An understanding of the proteome-wide effects of CS in liver and its relationships to altered hepatic and systemic physiology remains incomplete. Here, we report the application of a functional pharmacoproteomic approach to gain integrated insight into the complex nature of CS responses in liver in vivo. An in-depth functional analysis was performed using rich pharmacodynamic (temporal-based) proteomic data measured over 66h in rat liver following a single dose of methylprednisolone (MPL). Data mining identified 451 differentially regulated proteins. These proteins were analyzed on the basis of temporal regulation, cellular localization, and literature-mined functional information. Of the 451 proteins, 378 were clustered into six functional groups based on major clinically-relevant effects of CS in liver. MPL-responsive proteins were highly localized in the mitochondria (20%) and cytosol (24%). Interestingly, several proteins were related to hepatic stress and signaling processes, which appear to be involved in secondary signaling cascades and in protecting the liver from CS-induced oxidative damage. Consistent with known adverse metabolic effects of CS, several rate-controlling enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty-acid metabolism were altered by MPL. In addition, proteins involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and therapeutic drugs including cytochrome P450 and Phase-II enzymes were differentially regulated. Proteins related to the inflammatory acute-phase response were up-regulated in response to MPL. Functionally-similar proteins showed large diversity in their temporal profiles, indicating complex mechanisms of regulation by CS. Clinical use of corticosteroid (CS) therapy is frequent and chronic. However, current knowledge on the proteome-level effects of CS in liver and

  9. Structural and functional abnormalities of default mode network in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a study combining DTI and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE, the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. CONCLUSION: MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the

  10. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on disease activity, functional status and ultrasonography findings in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Abd EI-Hamid Gohar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the most frequently encountered public health problems in Egypt. It is associated with many autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Aim of the work: To assess the impact of HCV infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA Egyptian patients; its relation to disease activity, functional status and ultrasonography findings. Patients and methods: The study included 155 RA patients further classified according to the presence of concomitant HCV infection into 2 groups; rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rheumatoid arthritis/hepatitis C virus (RA/HCV groups. All patients were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations, assessment of disease activity using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28 and assessment of functional status using the modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ. Ultrasonography (US assessment was done using the German US7 score. Results: Both DAS28 and MHAQ scores showed significant differences between both the RA and the RA/HCV groups (p < 0.001, with higher mean values observed in the RA/HCV group (5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.05 ± 0.79 respectively. Significantly higher US7 synovitis scores were found in the RA/HCV group compared to the RA group (p = 0.03. US7 synovitis tenosynovitis scores revealed significant correlations with DAS28 and US7 synovitis scores correlated with MHAQ in both groups. Conclusion: Concomitant HCV infection in RA patients had an impact on disease activity. RA patients with concomitant HCV infection (RA/HCV had higher DAS28 and MHAQ scores, with higher US7 synovitis scores compared to RA patients. US7 score is a valuable objective tool for the assessment of RA disease activity. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, HCV infection, Ultrasonography, DAS28, MHAQ

  11. Experiments performed with a functional model based on statistical discrimination in mixed nuclear radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Celarel, A.; Purghel, L.

    1999-01-01

    By using the statistical discrimination technique, the components of on ionization current, due to a mixed radiation field, may be simultaneously measured. A functional model, including a serially manufactured gamma-ray ratemeter was developed, as an intermediate step in the design of specialised nuclear instrumentation, in order to check the concept of statistical discrimination method. The obtained results are in good agreement with the estimations of the statistical discrimination method. The main characteristics of the functional model are the following: - dynamic range of measurement: >300: l; - simultaneous measurement of natural radiation background and gamma-ray fields; - accuracy (for equal exposure rates from gamma's and natural radiation background): 17%, for both radiation fields; - minimum detectable exposure rate: 2μR/h. (authors)

  12. Plasma exchange combining with plasma bilirubin adsorption effectively removes toxic substances and improves liver functions of hepatic failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, X-Q; Li, Z-Q; Chen, Z; Guo, D; Jia, Q-Y; Jiang, S-C; Cai, J

    2018-02-01

    Hepatic failure (HF) is a kind of complex disease characterizing with liver dysfunction and a few clinical complications. Artificial liver support system (ALSS) has been applied to HF patients to improve dysfunctional liver in recent years. This study aims to evaluate therapeutic effects of ALSS approaches, including plasma exchange (PE), plasma diafiltration (PDF) and plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA), on liver function of HF patients. This study is a retrospective analysis involving 516 patients diagnosed as HF between February 2014 and February 2015. Patients were randomly divided into PE, PDF, PE plus PBA, and PDF plus PBA group. Meanwhile, single-drug group and combined-drug group were also divided. The liver functions, capability of removing toxic substances and coagulation functions were evaluated both pre-treatment and post-treatment. The side effects and hospital improvement rate were also observed post-treatment. Hospital improvement rate achieves to 69.6%. TBIL levels and MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (phigher compared to PE and PDF group (p=0.002, 0.002, respectively). MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in each group (pbetter role in removing toxic substances, improving liver functions of HF patients.

  13. Family functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povee, K; Roberts, L; Bourke, J; Leonard, H

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child with Down syndrome on family holidays, family activities and general family functioning. Participants in this study were 224 primary caregivers of children with Down syndrome aged 4-25 years (57.1% male; 42.9% female) currently residing in Western Australia (74.0% in metropolitan Perth and 26.0% in rural Western Australia). Maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviour were associated with poorer family functioning. Mean total scores on the measures of family functioning and marital adjustment were comparable to that of families of typically developing children. Consistent with the quantitative findings, normality was the most common theme to emerge in the qualitative data. Child problem behaviours were also identified by parents/carers as having a negative impact on the family. This study has implications for the development of programs to support families with a child with Down syndrome and may dispel some of the myths surrounding the impact of intellectual disability on the family. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are not associated with decline in renal function in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, S J; Conway, B R; Hor, T J; Williamson, R M; McLachlan, S; Robertson, C; Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Price, J F

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether the presence of hepatic steatosis and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decline in renal function or onset of microalbuminuria in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes, including those managed in both primary and secondary care. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, a cohort of Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with Type 2 diabetes, underwent assessment for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography 1 year after recruitment. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as the presence of steatosis following exclusion of secondary causes of liver disease. Patients were followed for 4 years and decline in renal function was assessed by the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time. Of the 933 subjects, 530 had hepatic steatosis and, of those with hepatic steatosis, 388 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were significantly associated with rate of decline in renal function, with the mean rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate being -1.55 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year for participants with hepatic steatosis compared with -1.84 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) for those without steatosis (P = 0.19). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to participants with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (-1.44 vs. -1.64 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year, respectively; P = 0.44). Additionally, neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were associated with the onset or regression of albuminuria during follow-up (all P ≥ 0.05). The presence of hepatic steatosis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not associated with decline in renal function during a 4-year follow-up in our cohort of older people with Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  15. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Hepatic Arterial Chemoembolization Using Degradable Starch Microsphere Mixed with Mitomycin C for the Treatment of Liver Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Inaba, Yasutaka; Sato, Yozo; Yasumoto, Taku; Hayashi, Sadao; Yamanaka, Takashi; Nobata, Koji; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis phase II prospective study investigates possible benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with hepatic arterial chemoembolization using degradable starch microsphere (DSM) mixed with mitomycin C (MMC) in non-surgical candidates with colorectal liver metastases.Materials and MethodsThis study, approved by the respective institutional review board, included non-surgical candidates with 3 or fewer liver tumors of 3 cm or smaller, or a single lesion 5 cm or smaller. Percutaneous RFA was performed immediately after chemoembolization using DSM-MMC. Primary and secondary endpoints were the local tumor control rate, safety, and 2-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates.ResultsThis study examined 25 patients (22 males, 3 females) with 38 tumors of mean maximum diameter of 2.2 ± 0.9 cm (standard deviation) (range 1.0–4.2 cm). Their mean age was 70.2 ± 8.2 years (range 55–82 years). Local tumor progression developed in 3 tumors (7.9%, 3/38) of 3 patients (12%, 3/25) during the mean follow-up of 34.9 ± 9.2 months (range 18.3–50.1 months). The 2-year local tumor control rates were 92.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 81.4–100%] on a patient basis and 94.6% (95% CI, 87.3–100%) on a tumor basis. The respective 2-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 88.0% (95% CI, 75.3–98.5%) and 63.3% (95% CI, 44.2–82.5%), with median survival time of 48.4 months. Fever was the only adverse event requiring treatments in 2 patients (8%).ConclusionsThis combination therapy is safe, exhibiting strong anticancer effects on colorectal liver metastasis, which might contribute to patient survival.

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Hepatic Arterial Chemoembolization Using Degradable Starch Microsphere Mixed with Mitomycin C for the Treatment of Liver Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yamakado47@gmail.com [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Inaba, Yasutaka; Sato, Yozo [Aichi Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yasumoto, Taku [Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Hayashi, Sadao [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamanaka, Takashi [Mie University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nobata, Koji [Kouseiren Takaoka Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takaki, Haruyuki [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro [Mie University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeThis phase II prospective study investigates possible benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with hepatic arterial chemoembolization using degradable starch microsphere (DSM) mixed with mitomycin C (MMC) in non-surgical candidates with colorectal liver metastases.Materials and MethodsThis study, approved by the respective institutional review board, included non-surgical candidates with 3 or fewer liver tumors of 3 cm or smaller, or a single lesion 5 cm or smaller. Percutaneous RFA was performed immediately after chemoembolization using DSM-MMC. Primary and secondary endpoints were the local tumor control rate, safety, and 2-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates.ResultsThis study examined 25 patients (22 males, 3 females) with 38 tumors of mean maximum diameter of 2.2 ± 0.9 cm (standard deviation) (range 1.0–4.2 cm). Their mean age was 70.2 ± 8.2 years (range 55–82 years). Local tumor progression developed in 3 tumors (7.9%, 3/38) of 3 patients (12%, 3/25) during the mean follow-up of 34.9 ± 9.2 months (range 18.3–50.1 months). The 2-year local tumor control rates were 92.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 81.4–100%] on a patient basis and 94.6% (95% CI, 87.3–100%) on a tumor basis. The respective 2-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 88.0% (95% CI, 75.3–98.5%) and 63.3% (95% CI, 44.2–82.5%), with median survival time of 48.4 months. Fever was the only adverse event requiring treatments in 2 patients (8%).ConclusionsThis combination therapy is safe, exhibiting strong anticancer effects on colorectal liver metastasis, which might contribute to patient survival.

  18. [Serological tests of functional activity of the digestive system (gastrin, pepsinogen-I, trypsin), general IgE and serum cortisol levels in children with hepatitis A and B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagina, L S; Pavlov, Ch S; Fomin, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The mild form of hepatitis A and B with children is attended by a functional activity of pancreatic gland (tripsin), mucous coats of stomach and duodenum (gastrin) which permits to consider them as a factor of the risk of digestive organs combined pathology starting with the disease acuity. Differences in gastrin levels with children depending on hepatitis etiology were specified. Highest levels of gastrin were observed with persons suffering from hepatitis B.

  19. Acute and perinatal-programming effects of a fat-rich diet on rat muscle mitochondrial function and hepatic lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Jensen, Runa I.; Waterstradt, Michelle S. G.

    2014-01-01

    respiratory control ratio with pyruvate, increased post weaning (p hepatic steatosis......Objective. Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy may have long-term consequences in the offspring. Since this might relate to the capacity of mitochondrial metabolic adaptation and hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated how maternal high-fat intake affected mitochondrial function and hepatic...... steatosis in the offspring. Design. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (20% w/w) or a control diet (chow, C) from 10 days before pregnancy and throughout lactation. At weaning the litters were split into two groups; one was continued on the maternal diet and the other was fed low-fat chow. Sample...

  20. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild

    2004-01-01

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes

  1. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  2. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: Associations with risky drinking and functioning in high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Troxel, Wendy M; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school. Two surveys were conducted three years apart in adolescents initially recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. The analytic sample consists of 696 past month drinkers. Multivariable models compared AmED and AwoED users on alcohol use, mental health, social functioning, academic orientation, delinquency and other substance use at age 17, and on their alcohol use and related cognitions at age 14. AmED was reported by 13% of past month drinkers. AmED and AwoED users did not differ on alcohol use or cognitions in middle school, but AmED users drank more often, more heavily, and reported more negative consequences in high school. AmED users were also more likely to report poor grades, delinquent behavior, substance use-related unsafe driving, public intoxication, and drug use than AwoED users in high school. Group differences were not found on mental health, social functioning, or academic aspirations. AmED use is common among high school drinkers. The higher risk behavioral profile of these young AmED users, which includes drug use and substance use-related unsafe driving, is a significant cause for concern and warrants further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the microsomal mixed function oxidases and biological and pathological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur I. Cederbaum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of important endogenous substrates as well as in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. The liver P450 system is the most active in metabolism of exogenous substrates. This review briefly describes the liver P450 (CYP mixed function oxidase system with respect to its enzymatic components and functions. Electron transfer by the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase is required for reduction of the heme of P450, necessary for binding of molecular oxygen. Binding of substrates to P450 produce substrate binding spectra. The P450 catalytic cycle is complex and rate-limiting steps are not clear. Many types of chemical reactions can be catalyzed by P450 enzymes, making this family among the most diverse catalysts known. There are multiple forms of P450s arranged into families based on structural homology. The major drug metabolizing CYPs are discussed with respect to typical substrates, inducers and inhibitors and their polymorphic forms. The composition of CYPs in humans varies considerably among individuals because of sex and age differences, the influence of diet, liver disease, presence of potential inducers and/or inhibitors. Because of such factors and CYP polymorphisms, and overlapping drug specificity, there is a large variability in the content and composition of P450 enzymes among individuals. This can result in large variations in drug metabolism by humans and often can contribute to drug–drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Because of many of the above factors, especially CYP polymorphisms, there has been much interest in personalized medicine especially with respect to which CYPs and which of their polymorphic forms are present in order to attempt to determine what drug therapy and what dosage would reflect the best therapeutic strategy in treating individual patients.

  4. [Influence of functional dependence on the case mix in a geriatric unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, José Luis; Alonso-Fernández, Teresa; Gálvez, Noemí; García-Mayolín, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    To determine the influence of pre-admission functional status on the case mix in a geriatric unit, after adjustment by the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) patient classification system. We performed a retrospective observational study in patients admitted to the geriatric unit of a general hospital over a 2-year period. Patients with a length of stay of less than 2 days and transfers from other medical services and hospitals were excluded. The following data were obtained from the minimum data set and from chart review: age, sex, place of residence before admission, Charlson comorbidity index, pre-admission functional status and mobility, cognitive status, length of hospital stay, rate of in-hospital mortality, and the DRG (and DRG weight) for each patient. A total of 1065 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 84 years (64-102), and 64% were women. Patients with lower functional status were more often female (67.1 vs 55.8%; PDRG weight (P=.03). Once the more frequent DRG were reviewed, patients who were dependent had a greater number of respiratory infections and renal problems and had fewer cerebrovascular diseases. Some clinical characteristics differ in patients with functional dependence. This finding could influence the clinical management of medical services that treat more dependent patients.

  5. Systematic identification of anti-interferon function on hepatitis C virus genome reveals p7 as an immune evasion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hangfei; Chu, Virginia; Wu, Nicholas C; Chen, Zugen; Truong, Shawna; Brar, Gurpreet; Su, Sheng-Yao; Du, Yushen; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Olson, C Anders; Chen, Shu-Hua; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2017-02-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes mechanisms to evade the multilayered antiviral actions of the host immune system. Great progress has been made in elucidating the strategies HCV employs to down-regulate interferon (IFN) production, impede IFN signaling transduction, and impair IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms governing how viral proteins counteract the antiviral functions of downstream IFN effectors due to the lack of an efficient approach to identify such interactions systematically. To study the mechanisms by which HCV antagonizes the IFN responses, we have developed a high-throughput profiling platform that enables mapping of HCV sequences critical for anti-IFN function at high resolution. Genome-wide profiling performed with a 15-nt insertion mutant library of HCV showed that mutations in the p7 region conferred high levels of IFN sensitivity, which could be alleviated by the expression of WT p7 protein. This finding suggests that p7 protein of HCV has an immune evasion function. By screening a liver-specific ISG library, we identified that IFI6-16 significantly inhibits the replication of p7 mutant viruses without affecting WT virus replication. In contrast, knockout of IFI6-16 reversed the IFN hypersensitivity of p7 mutant virus. In addition, p7 was found to be coimmunoprecipitated with IFI6-16 and to counteract the function of IFI6-16 by depolarizing the mitochondria potential. Our data suggest that p7 is a critical immune evasion protein that suppresses the antiviral IFN function by counteracting the function of IFI6-16.

  6. Total parenteral nutrition effect on hepatic function, intestinal adaption and tumor growth : an experimental study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.U. Boelhouwer (Roelof Ubbo)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the experiments described in this thesis was to get an answer to the following questions: 1. Will nutrient substrates infused via the portal venous system prevent hepatic dysfunction as is associated with central venous infusion and optimize nitrogen balance and hepatic

  7. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  8. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  9. Structure function scaling in a Reλ = 250 turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Attili, Antonio

    2011-12-22

    A highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a spatially developing turbulent mixing layer is presented. In the fully developed region, the flow achieves a turbulent Reynolds number Reλ = 250, high enough for a clear separation between large and dissipative scales, so for the presence of an inertial range. Structure functions have been calculated in the self-similar region using velocity time series and Taylor\\'s frozen turbulence hypothesis. The Extended Self-Similarity (ESS) concept has been employed to evaluate relative scaling exponents. A wide range of scales with scaling exponents and intermittency levels equal to homogeneous isotropic turbulence has been identified. Moreover an additional scaling range exists for larger scales; it is characterized by smaller exponents, similar to the values reported in the literature for flows with strong shear.

  10. The concept of mixed organic ligands in metal-organic frameworks: design, tuning and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2015-03-28

    The research on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developing at an extraordinary pace in its two decades of existence, as judged by the exponential growth of novel structures and the constant expansion of its applicability and research scope. A major part of the research and its success are due to the vital role of the concept of mixed organic ligands in the design, tuning and functions. This perspective, therefore, reviews the recent advances in MOFs based on this concept, which is generally based on employing a small polydentate ligand (here labelled as "nodal ligand") to form either clusters, rods or layers, which are then connected by a second ditopic linker ligand to form the framework. The structures of the materials can be grouped into the following three categories: layer-spacer (usually known as pillared-layer), rod-spacer, and cluster-spacer based MOFs. Depending on the size and geometry of the spacer ligands, interpenetrations of frameworks are occasionally found. These MOFs show a wide range of properties such as (a) crystal-to-crystal transformations upon solvent modifications, post-synthetic metal exchange or ligand reactions, (b) gas sorption, solvent selectivity and purification, (c) specific catalysis, (d) optical properties including colour change, luminescence, non-linear optic, (e) short- and long range magnetic ordering, metamagnetism and reversible ground-state modifications and (f) drug and iodine carriers with controlled release. In the following, we will highlight the importance of the above concept in the design, tuning, and functions of a selection of existing MOFs having mixed organic ligands and their associated structures and properties. The results obtained so far using this concept look very promising for fine-tuning the pore size and shape for selective adsorption and specificity in catalytic reactions, which appears to be one way to propel the advances in the application and commercialization of MOFs.

  11. Optimized cryopreservation of mixed microbial communities for conserved functionality and diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof

    Full Text Available The use of mixed microbial communities (microbiomes for biotechnological applications has steadily increased over the past decades. However, these microbiomes are not readily available from public culture collections, hampering their potential for widespread use. The main reason for this lack of availability is the lack of an effective cryopreservation protocol. Due to this critical need, we evaluated the functionality as well as the community structure of three different types of microbiomes before and after cryopreservation with two cryoprotective agents (CPA. Microbiomes were selected based upon relevance towards applications: (1 a methanotrophic co-culture (MOB, with potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollutants removal and bioplastics production; (2 an oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND biofilm, with enhanced economic and ecological benefits for wastewater treatment, and (3 fecal material from a human donor, with potential applications for fecal transplants and pre/probiotics research. After three months of cryopreservation at -80 °C, we found that metabolic activity, in terms of the specific activity recovery of MOB, aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and anaerobic AOB (AnAOB, anammox in the OLAND mixed culture, resumes sooner when one of our selected CPA [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and DMSO plus trehalose and tryptic soy broth (DMSO+TT] was added. However, the activity of the fecal community was not influenced by the CPA addition, although the preservation of the community structure (as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was enhanced by addition of CPA. In summary, we have evaluated a cryopreservation protocol that succeeded in preserving both community structure and functionality of value-added microbiomes. This will allow individual laboratories and culture collections to boost the use of microbiomes in biotechnological applications.

  12. Functionalized carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membranes of polymers of intrinsic microporosity for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muntazim Munir; Filiz, Volkan; Bengtson, Gisela; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Rahman, Mushfequr; Abetz, Volker

    2012-09-06

    The present work reports on the gas transport behavior of mixed matrix membranes (MMM) which were prepared from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and dispersed within polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1) matrix. The MWCNTs were chemically functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for a better dispersion in the polymer matrix. MMM-incorporating functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) were fabricated by dip-coating method using microporous polyacrylonitrile membrane as a support and were characterized for gas separation performance. Gas permeation measurements show that MMM incorporated with pristine or functionalized MWCNTs exhibited improved gas separation performance compared to pure PIM-1. The f-MWCNTs MMM show better performance in terms of permeance and selectivity in comparison to pristine MWCNTs. The gas permeances of the derived MMM are increased to approximately 50% without sacrificing the selectivity at 2 wt.% of f-MWCNTs' loading. The PEG groups on the MWCNTs have strong interaction with CO2 which increases the solubility of polar gas and limit the solubility of nonpolar gas, which is advantageous for CO2/N2 selectivity. The addition of f-MWCNTs inside the polymer matrix also improved the long-term gas transport stability of MMM in comparison with PIM-1. The high permeance, selectivity, and long term stability of the fabricated MMM suggest that the reported approach can be utilized in practical gas separation technology.

  13. Fabrication of Functionalized MOFs Incorporated Mixed Matrix Hollow Fiber Membrane for Gas Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-organic framework (MOFs of MIL-53 was functionalized by aminosilane grafting and then incorporated into Ultem®1000 polymer matrix to fabricate mixed matrix hollow fiber membrane (MMHFM with high separation performance. SEM, XRD, and TGA were performed to characterize the functionalized MIL-53 and prepared MMHFM. The filler particles were embedded in membrane successfully and dispersed well in the polymer matrix. The incorporation of MOFs endowed MMHFM better thermal stability. Moreover, effects of solvent ratio in spinning dope, spinning condition, and testing temperature on gas separation performance of MMHFM were investigated. By optimizing dope composition, air gap distance, and bore fluid composition, MMHFM containing functionalized MIL-53 achieved excellent gas permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity. The CO2 permeance increased from 12.2 GPU for pure Ultem HFM to 30.9 GPU and the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity was enhanced from 25.4 to 34.7 simultaneously. Additionally, gas permeance increased but the selectivity decreased with the temperature increase, which followed the solution-diffusion based transport mechanism.

  14. Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Tarr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 26 years since the discovery of Hepatitis C virus (HCV a major global research effort has illuminated many aspects of the viral life cycle, facilitating the development of targeted antivirals. Recently, effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA regimens with >90% cure rates have become available for treatment of chronic HCV infection in developed nations, representing a significant advance towards global eradication. However, the high cost of these treatments results in highly restricted access in developing nations, where the disease burden is greatest. Additionally, the largely asymptomatic nature of infection facilitates continued transmission in at risk groups and resource constrained settings due to limited surveillance. Consequently a prophylactic vaccine is much needed. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are located on the surface of viral lipid envelope, facilitate viral entry and are the targets for host immunity, in addition to other functions. Unfortunately, the extreme global genetic and antigenic diversity exhibited by the HCV glycoproteins represents a significant obstacle to vaccine development. Here we review current knowledge of HCV envelope protein structure, integrating knowledge of genetic, antigenic and functional diversity to inform rational immunogen design.

  15. Hepatic sinusoid is not well-stirred: estimation of the degree of axial mixing by analysis of lobular concentration gradients formed during uptake of thyroxine by the perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, R.A.; Mendel, C.M.; Cavalieri, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Two general models have been proposed for predicting the effects of metabolism, protein binding, and plasma flow on the removal of drugs by the liver. These models differ in the degree of plasma mixing assumed to exist within each hepatic sinusoid. The venous equilibrium model treats the sinusoid as a single well-stirred compartment, whereas the sinusoidal model effectively breaks up the sinusoid into a large number of sequentially perfused compartments which do not exchange their contents except through plasma flow. As a consequence, the sinusoidal model, but not the venous equilibrium model, predicts that the concentration of highly extracted drugs will decline as the plasma flows through the hepatic lobule. To determine which of these alternative models best describes the hepatic uptake process, we looked for evidence that concentration gradients are formed during the uptake of [ 125 I]thyroxine by the perfused rat liver. Autoradiography of tissue slices after perfusion of the portal vein at physiologic flow rates with protein-free buffer containing [ 125 I]thyroxine demonstrated a rapid exponential fall in grain density with distance from the portal venule, declining by half for each 8% of the mean length of the sinusoid. Reversing the direction of perfusate flow reversed the direction of the autoradiographic gradients, indicating that they primarily reflect differences in the concentration of thyroxine within the hepatic sinusoids rather than differences in the uptake capacity of portal and central hepatocytes. Analysis of the data using models in which each sinusoid was represented by different numbers of sequentially perfused compartments (1-20) indicated that at least eight compartments were necessary to account for the magnitude of the gradients seen

  16. The effect of additional equilibrium stress functions on the three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gon; Park, Yong Kuk

    2008-01-01

    To develop an effective hybrid-mixed element, it is extremely critical as to how to assume the stress field. This research article demonstrates the effect of additional equilibrium stress functions to enhance the numerical performance of the locking-free three-node hybrid-mixed curved beam element, proposed in Saleeb and Chang's previous work. It is exceedingly complicated or even infeasible to determine the stress functions to satisfy fully both the equilibrium conditions and suppression of kinematic deformation modes in the three-node hybrid-mixed formulation. Accordingly, the additional stress functions to satisfy partially or fully equilibrium conditions are incorporated in this study. Several numerical examples for static and dynamic problems confirm that the newly proposed element with these additional stress functions is highly effective regardless of the slenderness ratio and curvature of arches in static and dynamic analyses

  17. Functional pathway analysis of genes associated with response to treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birerdinc, A; Afendy, A; Stepanova, M; Younossi, I; Manyam, G; Baranova, A; Younossi, Z M

    2010-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease. Approximately 50% of patients with CH-C treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN-α + RBV) achieve a sustained virological response (SVR). Several factors such as genotype 1, African American (AA) race, obesity and the absence of an early virological response (EVR) are associated with low SVR. This study elucidates molecular pathways deregulated in patients with CH-C with negative predictors of response to antiviral therapy. Sixty-eight patients with CH-C who underwent a full course of treatment with PEG-IFN-α + RBV were included in the study. Pretreatment blood samples were collected in PAXgene™ RNA tubes. EVR, complete EVR (cEVR), and SVR rates were 76%, 57% and 41%, respectively. Total RNA was extracted from pretreatment peripheral blood mononuclear cells, quantified and used for one-step RT-PCR to profile 154 mRNAs. The expression of mRNAs was normalized with six 'housekeeping' genes. Differentially expressed genes were separated into up and downregulated gene lists according to the presence or absence of a risk factor and subjected to KEGG Pathway Painter which allows high-throughput visualization of the pathway-specific changes in expression profiles. The genes were consolidated into the networks associated with known predictors of response. Before treatment, various genes associated with core components of the JAK/STAT pathway were activated in the cohorts least likely to achieve SVR. Genes related to focal adhesion and TGF-β pathways were activated in some patients with negative predictors of response. Pathway-centred analysis of gene expression profiles from treated patients with CH-C points to the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signalling cascade as the major pathogenetic component responsible for not achieving SVR. In addition, focal adhesion and TGF-β pathways are associated with some predictors of response.

  18. Detection of improvement in the masticatory function from old to new removable partial dentures using mixing ability test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, A; Fueki, K; Ohyama, T

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the Mixing Ability Test to detect improvement of masticatory function in subjects on transition from old to new removable partial dentures. Thirty-two subjects (seven males, 25 females, mean age 65.0 years) with distal extension partially edentulous area in mandible and/or maxilla participated in the study. The following reasons were presented for replacing the old removable partial dentures with new ones: fracture and/or poor fitness of retainers, extraction of abutment teeth, poor fitness of denture base, severe wear of artificial teeth and request for metal base dentures. Masticatory function with old and new removable partial dentures after an adaptation period (mean 27.4 weeks) was evaluated by the Mixing Ability Test. Subjects were asked to masticate five two-coloured wax cubes with each removable partial denture. Mixing Ability Index was obtained from the colour mixture and shape of the masticated cubes. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference of Mixing Ability Indexes between old and new removable partial dentures. The mixing ability indexes with new removable partial dentures (mean+/- s.d.: 0.70+/- 0.68) was significantly higher (Premovable partial dentures (-0.11+/-1.13). The results suggest that the Mixing Ability Test was capable of detecting improvement in masticatory function with new removable partial dentures.

  19. Improving access to health care for chronic hepatitis B among migrant Chinese populations: A systematic mixed methods review of barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedio, A; Liu, E Z H; Lee, A C K; Salway, S

    2017-07-01

    Migrant Chinese populations in Western countries have a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B but often experience poor access to health care and late diagnosis. This systematic review aimed to identify obstacles and supports to timely and appropriate health service use among these populations. Systematic searches resulted in 48 relevant studies published between 1996 and 2015. Data extraction and synthesis were informed by models of healthcare access that highlight the interplay of patient, provider and health system factors. There was strong consistent evidence of low levels of knowledge among patients and community members; but interventions that were primarily focused on increasing knowledge had only modest positive effects on testing and/or vaccination. There was strong consistent evidence that Chinese migrants tend to misunderstand the need for health care for hepatitis B and have low satisfaction with services. Stigma was consistently associated with hepatitis B, and there was weak but consistent evidence of stigma acting as a barrier to care. However, available evidence on the effects of providing culturally appropriate services for hepatitis B on increasing uptake is limited. There was strong consistent evidence that health professionals miss opportunities for testing and vaccination. Practitioner education interventions may be important, but evidence of effectiveness is limited. A simple prompt in patient records for primary care physicians improved the uptake of testing, and a dedicated service increased targeted vaccination coverage for newborns. Further development and more rigorous evaluation of more holistic approaches that address patient, provider and system obstacles are needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Designing mixed metal halide ammines for ammonia storage using density functional theory and genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter Bjerre; Lysgaard, Steen; Quaade, Ulrich J; Vegge, Tejs

    2014-09-28

    Metal halide ammines have great potential as a future, high-density energy carrier in vehicles. So far known materials, e.g. Mg(NH3)6Cl2 and Sr(NH3)8Cl2, are not suitable for automotive, fuel cell applications, because the release of ammonia is a multi-step reaction, requiring too much heat to be supplied, making the total efficiency lower. Here, we apply density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict new mixed metal halide ammines with improved storage capacities and the ability to release the stored ammonia in one step, at temperatures suitable for system integration with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). We use genetic algorithms (GAs) to search for materials containing up to three different metals (alkaline-earth, 3d and 4d) and two different halides (Cl, Br and I) - almost 27,000 combinations, and have identified novel mixtures, with significantly improved storage capacities. The size of the search space and the chosen fitness function make it possible to verify that the found candidates are the best possible candidates in the search space, proving that the GA implementation is ideal for this kind of computational materials design, requiring calculations on less than two percent of the candidates to identify the global optimum.

  1. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2007-11-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth and Pope [Phys. Fluids 29, 387 (1986)] with Durbin's [J. Fluid Mech. 249, 465 (1993)] method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous transport with a nonlocal representation of the near-wall Reynolds stress anisotropy. The presence of walls is incorporated through the imposition of no-slip and impermeability conditions on particles without the use of damping or wall-functions. Information on the turbulent time scale is supplied by the gamma-distribution model of van Slooten et al. [Phys. Fluids 10, 246 (1998)]. Two different micromixing models are compared that incorporate the effect of small scale mixing on the transported scalar: the widely used interaction by exchange with the mean and the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean model. Single-point velocity and concentration statistics are compared to direct numerical simulation and experimental data at Reτ=1080 based on the friction velocity and the channel half width. The joint model accurately reproduces a wide variety of conditional and unconditional statistics in both physical and composition space.

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  4. A trans-activator function is generated by integration of hepatitis B virus preS/S sequences in human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselmann, W.H.; Meyer, M.; Kekule, A.S.; Lauer, U.; Hofschneider, P.H.; Koshy, R.

    1990-01-01

    The X gene of wild-type hepatitis B virus or integrated DNA has recently been shown to stimulate transcription of a variety of enhancers and promoters. To further delineate the viral sequences responsible for trans-activation in hepatomas, the authors cloned the single hepatitis B virus insert from human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA M1. The plasmid pM1 contains 2004 base of hepatitis B virus DNA subtype adr, including truncated preS/S sequences and the enhancer element. The X promoter and 422 nucleotides of the X coding region are present. The entire preC/C gene is deleted. In transient cotransfection assays using Chang liver cells (CCL 13), pM1 DNA exerts a 6- to 10-fold trans-activating effect on the expression of the pSV2CAT reporter plasmid. The transactivation occurs by stimulation of transcription and is dependent on the simian virus 40 enhancer in the reporter plasmid. Deletion analysis of pM1 subclones reveals that the transactivator is encoded by preS/S and not by X sequences. A frameshift mutation within the preS2 open reading frame shows that this portion is indispensable for the trans-activating function. Initiation of transcription has been mapped to the S1 promoter. A comparable trans-activating effect is also observed with cloned wild-type hepatitis B virus sequences similarly truncated. These results show that a transcriptional trans-activator function not present in the intact gene is generated by 3' truncation of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA preS/S sequences

  5. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow and Liver Function during Closed Abdominal Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy following Cytoreduction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Dupont

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP during closed abdominal hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC leads to major haemodynamic changes and potential organ dysfunction. We investigated these effects on hepatic blood flow (HBF and liver function in patients undergoing HIPEC following cytoreductive surgery and fluid management guided by dynamic preload indices. Methods. In this prospective observational clinical study including 15 consecutive patients, we evaluated HBF by transesophageal echocardiography and liver function by determination of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR. Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance by ranks and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed for statistical analysis. Results. During HIPEC, HBF was markedly reduced, resulting in the loss of any pulsatile Doppler flow signal in all but one patient. The ICG-PDR, expressed as median (interquartile 25–75, decreased from 23 (20–30 %/min to 18 (12.5–19 %/min (p<0.001. Despite a generous crystalloid infusion rate (27 (22–35 ml/kg/h, cardiac index decreased during the increased IAP period, inferior vena cava diameter decreased, stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation increased, lung compliance dropped, and there was an augmentation in plateau pressure. All changes were significant (p<0.001 and reversed to baseline values post HIPEC. Conclusion. Despite optimizing intravenous fluids during closed abdominal HIPEC, we observed a marked decrease in HBF and liver function. Both effects were transient and limited to the period of HIPEC but could influence the choice between closed or open abdominal cavity procedure for HIPEC and should be considered in similar clinical situations of increased IAP.

  6. The effects of single dose TBI on hepatic and renal function in non-human primates and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bakker, B.; Davelaar, J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Niemer-Tucker, M.M.B.; Noordijk, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are common procedures in the treatment of severe combined immune deficiency syndromes, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other hematological disorders. Improved results following TBI and BMT have increased the number of patients in long term follow up. Late detrimental effects of TBI have been investigated in non-human primates and patients with emphasis on vital organs like liver and kidney. The response of monkeys to radiation is not significantly different from that in man. Long term effects of TBI could be studied by keeping 84 monkeys of different ages under continuous observation for a period up to 25 years. Effects on hepatic and renal function were demonstrated using serological and histological parameters. The values of the liver function parameters such as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the irradiated group are significantly increased after TBI. Also the parameters of kidney dysfunction, e.g., Ht and urea show a significant change in the irradiated old aged cohort with respect to the controls. Between 1967 and 1993, 336 bone marrow transplantations were performed at the University Hospital Leiden. The present Study was restricted to those patients who survived at least 18 months after transplantation. This retrospective analysis consequently amounts to 120 patients. The monkey data indicated subclinical organ damage for postirradiation intervals exceeding 15 years. However, up to the present time, the human data do not support these findings since the follow up time is still restricted to a median survival of 4,5 years. Detrimental effects in liver and kidney function at a later stage can not be excluded yet, and careful examinations of the patients remain indicated

  7. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  9. DYNAMICS OF CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS B WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOL USE IN HEPATOTOXIC DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Furyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of hepatitis B due to the high incidence complexity of pathogenesis, ineffective treatment, severe consequences of the disease. Among combined lesions of the liver, special attention is paid to viral-alcoholic type. One of the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis of different etiology is violation of the functional activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this work- to determine the dynamics of spectral indices of heart rate variability in patients with acute hepatitis B from chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses. Materials and methods. 133 patients with acute hepatitis B were under observation. Patients were divided into groups taking account the presence or absence of chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses and using the classification of alcohol consumption based on the frequency and dose of consumed alcohol. I group comprised 52 patients with chronic use of alcohol in the hepatotoxic doses, II group consisted of 81 patient without this factor. Heart rate variability was diagnosed using computer cardiointervalometry performed by electrocardiographic diagnostic system CardioLab-2000. 20 healthy individuals were in the control group. Results and discussion. Prodromal period in patients of the I group was longer (p0,05. However, only patients in group I had marked hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8 % and itching (7.7%. Average serum total bilirubin level was higher (p<0,05 in patients from the I group than in patients from II group. Functional state of autonomic nervous system in patients of both groups were decreased in acute period (vagotonia. Period of convalescence in patients from the I group was accompanied by more severe autonomic dysfunction in 33,6 % (p<0,05. Conclusions. 1. Acute hepatitis B in patients with chronic alcohol use in hepatotoxic doses is characterized by longer (p<0,05 prodrome, cholestatic (7,7% and hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8%, higher levels of hyperbilirubinemia (p<0,05, and during

  10. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Damiati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic oval cells (HOCs are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab, which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  11. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A.; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection. PMID:29443890

  12. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiati, Samar; Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A; Becker, Holger; Kodzius, Rimantas; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  13. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  16. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  17. Improving access to health care for chronic hepatitis B among migrant Chinese populations: A systematic mixed methods review of barriers and enablers

    OpenAIRE

    Vedio, A.; Liu, E. Z. H.; Lee, A. C. K.; Salway, S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Migrant Chinese populations in Western countries have a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B but often experience poor access to health care and late diagnosis. This systematic review aimed to identify obstacles and supports to timely and appropriate health service use among these populations. Systematic searches resulted in 48 relevant studies published between 1996 and 2015. Data extraction and synthesis were informed by models of healthcare access that highlight the interplay of ...

  18. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long; Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei [Central South University, School of Information Science and Engineering, Changsha (China)

    2017-09-15

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  1. Semipermeable membrane devices concentrate mixed function oxygenase inducers from oil sands and refinery wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.; Hewitt, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The health of fish in the Athabasca River was examined to determine the effects of both natural and anthropogenic oil sands exposure on liver mixed function oxygenase (MFO) enzymes. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) were used to concentrate bioavailable compounds that may result in MFO induction. The SPMDs were used for a period of 2 weeks in the Steepbank River as well as in oil refinery wastewater and intake ponds. They were then tested to see if they induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in hepatoma cells, a cell line derived from a liver cancer of a small fish. SPMDs from the wastewater pond contained potent EROD inducers in fish liver cells. SPMDs from the Athabasca River exhibited some EROD inducers, but they were 1/100 as potent as those of the refinery wastewater. The characteristics of MFO inducers from refinery wastewater were different from natural inducers from the oil sands in the Athabasca and Steepbank Rivers. For instance, log Kow was less than 5 for refinery wastewater, but it was greater than 5 for Athabasca River wastewater and from natural oil sands exposure. In the case of the Steepbank River, the pattern of MFO induction was similar to the MFO induction seen in wild fish.The highest MFO inducers were found to be in the area of the mine, suggesting and anthropogenic pollution source. The less potent inducers were in the area of the natural and undisturbed oil sands. Very few inducers were found outside of the oil sands formation

  2. A Bayesian Approach to Functional Mixed Effect Modeling for Longitudinal Data with Binomial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal growth patterns are routinely seen in medical studies where individual and population growth is followed over a period of time. Many current methods for modeling growth presuppose a parametric relationship between the outcome and time (e.g., linear, quadratic); however, these relationships may not accurately capture growth over time. Functional mixed effects (FME) models provide flexibility in handling longitudinal data with nonparametric temporal trends. Although FME methods are well-developed for continuous, normally distributed outcome measures, nonparametric methods for handling categorical outcomes are limited. We consider the situation with binomially distributed longitudinal outcomes. Although percent correct data can be modeled assuming normality, estimates outside the parameter space are possible and thus estimated curves can be unrealistic. We propose a binomial FME model using Bayesian methodology to account for growth curves with binomial (percentage) outcomes. The usefulness of our methods is demonstrated using a longitudinal study of speech perception outcomes from cochlear implant users where we successfully model both the population and individual growth trajectories. Simulation studies also advocate the usefulness of the binomial model particularly when outcomes occur near the boundary of the probability parameter space and in situations with a small number of trials. PMID:24723495

  3. A Bayesian approach to functional mixed-effects modeling for longitudinal data with binomial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-08-15

    Longitudinal growth patterns are routinely seen in medical studies where individual growth and population growth are followed up over a period of time. Many current methods for modeling growth presuppose a parametric relationship between the outcome and time (e.g., linear and quadratic); however, these relationships may not accurately capture growth over time. Functional mixed-effects (FME) models provide flexibility in handling longitudinal data with nonparametric temporal trends. Although FME methods are well developed for continuous, normally distributed outcome measures, nonparametric methods for handling categorical outcomes are limited. We consider the situation with binomially distributed longitudinal outcomes. Although percent correct data can be modeled assuming normality, estimates outside the parameter space are possible, and thus, estimated curves can be unrealistic. We propose a binomial FME model using Bayesian methodology to account for growth curves with binomial (percentage) outcomes. The usefulness of our methods is demonstrated using a longitudinal study of speech perception outcomes from cochlear implant users where we successfully model both the population and individual growth trajectories. Simulation studies also advocate the usefulness of the binomial model particularly when outcomes occur near the boundary of the probability parameter space and in situations with a small number of trials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Methodology to assay CYP2E1 mixed function oxidase catalytic activity and its induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur I. Cederbaum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes are the major catalysts involved in drug metabolism. There are many forms of P450. CYP2E1 metabolizes many toxicologically important compounds including ethanol and is active in generating reactive oxygen species. Since several of the contributions in the common theme series “Role of CYP2E1 and Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress in the Hepatotoxic Actions of Alcohol” discuss CYP2E1, this methodology review describes assays on how CYP2E1 catalytic activity and its induction by ethanol and other inducers can be measured using substrate probes such as the oxidation of para-nitrophenol to para-nitrocatechol and the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Approaches to validate that a particular reaction e.g. oxidation of a drug or toxin is catalyzed by CYP2E1 or that induction of that reaction is due to induction of CYP2E1 are important and specific examples using inhibitors of CYP2E1, anti-CYP2E1 IgG or CYP2E1 knockout and knockin mice will be discussed.

  5. Compensation phenomena of a mixed spin-2 and spin-12 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic model: Green function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wei Guozhu; Du An

    2005-01-01

    The compensation and critical behaviors of a mixed spin-2 and spin-12 Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice are investigated theoretically by the two-time Green's function technique, which takes into account the quantum nature of Heisenberg spins. The model can be relevant for understanding the magnetic behavior of the new class of organometallic ferromagnetic materials that exhibit spontaneous magnetic properties at room temperature. We carry out the calculation of the sublattice magnetizations and the spin-wave spectra of the ground state. In particular, we have studied the effects of the nearest, next-nearest-neighbor interactions, the crystal field and the external magnetic field on the compensation temperature and the critical temperature. When only the nearest-neighbor interactions and the crystal field are included, no compensation temperature exists; when the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between spin-12 is taken into account and exceeds a minimum value, a compensation point appears and it is basically unchanged for other parameters in Hamiltonian fixed. The next-nearest-neighbor interactions between spin-2 and the external magnetic field have the effects of changing the compensation temperature and there is a narrow range of parameters of the Hamiltonian for which the model has the compensation temperatures and compensation temperature exists only for a small value of them

  6. Role of diastolic function indices in the risk stratification of patients with mixed aortic valve disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Alexander C; Khan, Arooj R; Boler, Amber; Said, Sameh M; Geske, Jeffrey B; Miranda, William R; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Connolly, Heidi M; Warnes, Carole A; Oh, Jae K

    2018-06-01

    Determine the role of diastolic function indices in pre-operative and post-operative risk stratification in patients with moderate mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD). A retrospective study was conducted of asymptomatic patients with moderate MAVD (a combination of moderate aortic stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation) and an ejection fraction of 50% or more who were followed up at Mayo Clinic from 1 January 2004, to 31 December 2013. A pre-requisite for inclusion in the study was assessment of diastolic function involving at least three of the following indices: tissue Doppler early diastolic velocity (e'), mitral inflow early velocity (E), tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index. Primary endpoints were aortic valve replacement (AVR) or cardiac death while secondary endpoints were cardiovascular adverse events (CAEs) after AVR. We defined CAEs as stroke, heart failure hospitalization, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac death. There were 214 patients (age 61 ± 8 years, men 146 [68%]) followed for 6.1 ± 2.3 years during which 162 (76%) AVRs and 11 (5%) cardiac deaths occurred. The multivariable risk factors for cardiac death or AVR were relative wall thickness (RWT) > 0.42 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.88 [95% CI, 1.28-2.59]; P = 0.001] and average E/e' >14 (HR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29-3.01]; P = 0.02). Freedom from CAE after AVR was significantly lower in the patients with baseline RWT >0.42 or mean E/e' >14 than the other patients: 79% (95% CI 74-83%) vs. 94% (95% CI 89-98%) at 3 years (P = 0.03). The presence of RWT >0.42 or E/e' >14 identifies a high-risk patient subset whose risk for cardiovascular morbidities persists even after AVR.

  7. Incidence and characteristics of hepatitis E virus infection in children in Assiut, Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Gamal; Assiri, Asaad; Marzuuk, Naglaa; Daef, Enas; Abdelwahab, Sayed; Ahmed, Ahmed; Mohamad, Ismail; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Alhaboob, Ali; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani

    2016-10-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a cohort of children from Upper Egypt using data from a large multicentre prospective study of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). Methods Data from subjects aged 2-18 years with AVH or close contacts of those with AVH found to have asymptomatic AVH were included in the analysis. Information concerning medical history, clinical examination, liver function tests and screening for hepatotropic viruses was recorded and analysed. Results A total of 123 patients (73 boys, 50 girls) were included in the analysis. Of these, 33 (26.8%) had HEV infection, 17 (13.8%) had hepatitis A virus infection, 10 (8.1%) had hepatitis B virus infection, 14 (11.4%) had cytomegalovirus hepatitis, five (4.1%) had autoimmune hepatitis, 11 (8.9%) had hepatitis due to mixed viral infections and 33 (26.8%) had non A-E hepatitis. Overall, 38 (30.9%) had infection with HEV. HEV infection was significantly higher among those using underground wells as a water source compared with tap water. Liver enzymes were significantly raised in patients with non-HEV infection compared with those with HEV infection. Conclusions HEV is a significant cause of AVH among children in Upper Egypt. Contamination of drinking water appears to be a major source of infection. Screening for HEV should be considered in all Egyptian children with AVH.

  8. Configuration mixing of mean-field wave functions projected on angular momentum and particle number: Application to 24Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valor, A.; Heenen, P.-H.; Bonche, P.

    2000-01-01

    We present in this paper the general framework of a method which permits to restore the rotational and particle number symmetries of wave functions obtained in Skyrme HF + BCS calculations. This restoration is nothing but a projection of mean-field intrinsic wave functions onto good particle number and good angular momentum. The method allows us also to mix projected wave functions. Such a configuration mixing is discussed for sets of HF + BCS intrinsic states generated in constrained calculations with suitable collective variables. This procedure gives collective states which are eigenstates of the particle number and the angular momentum operators and between which transition probabilities are calculated. An application to 24 Mg is presented, with mean-field wave functions generated by axial quadrupole constraints. Theoretical spectra and transition probabilities are compared to the experiment

  9. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  10. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated

  12. A mechanistic model of an upper bound on oceanic carbon export as a function of mixed layer depth and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Export production reflects the amount of organic matter transferred from the ocean surface to depth through biological processes. This export is in large part controlled by nutrient and light availability, which are conditioned by mixed layer depth (MLD. In this study, building on Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, we derive a mechanistic model of an upper bound on carbon export based on the metabolic balance between photosynthesis and respiration as a function of MLD and temperature. We find that the upper bound is a positively skewed bell-shaped function of MLD. Specifically, the upper bound increases with deepening mixed layers down to a critical depth, beyond which a long tail of decreasing carbon export is associated with increasing heterotrophic activity and decreasing light availability. We also show that in cold regions the upper bound on carbon export decreases with increasing temperature when mixed layers are deep, but increases with temperature when mixed layers are shallow. A meta-analysis shows that our model envelopes field estimates of carbon export from the mixed layer. When compared to satellite export production estimates, our model indicates that export production in some regions of the Southern Ocean, particularly the subantarctic zone, is likely limited by light for a significant portion of the growing season.

  13. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; Rooijen, Nico van; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2009-01-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH

  14. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  15. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  16. Is psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes harmful? A mixed methods study on negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsting, A F; Pedersen, H F; Rask, M T; Frostholm, L; Schröder, A

    2017-07-01

    Concern for negative effects of psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been expressed by clinicians and some patient associations, which may prevent patients from seeking treatment. Therefore, we sought to explore the occurrence and characteristics of negative effects from group-based psychotherapy as experienced by patients with severe or multiple FSS. An adapted version of the explanatory sequential mixed methods design was applied. We used data from an on-going pilot study on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Negative effects were measured by Inventory for the assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy (INEP). In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with randomly chosen patients and patients who reported negative effects. The latter were asked to elaborate on their INEP response. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively while interview transcripts were explored by thematic analysis. Eighty patients responded to the questionnaire (89%). Negative effects to different extent (from 'slightly agree' to 'fully agree') were reported by 25 (31%). The most frequent negative effects were dependence on the therapist (12%), feeling down after therapy (6%) and insurance problems (7%). By exploring 27 participants' experiences of negative effects 3 main themes were identified: relations in therapy, outcome and transition from therapy to everyday life. Patients with FSS reported a few specific negative effects, all with low frequency. Generally, therapy was well-received. Some patients did however express negative effects both within and outside the therapeutic context. It is important to inform patients about potential negative effects prior to psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HAVCR1 (CD365) and Its Mouse Ortholog Are Functional Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Cellular Receptors That Mediate HAV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2018-05-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), classified as CD365, was initially discovered as an HAV cellular receptor using an expression cloning strategy. Due to the lack of HAV receptor-negative replication-competent cells, it was not possible to fully prove that HAVCR1 was a functional HAV receptor. However, biochemistry, classical virology, and epidemiology studies further supported the functional role of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Here, we show that an anti-HAVCR1 monoclonal antibody that protected African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells against HAV infection only partially protected monkey Vero E6 cells and human hepatoma Huh7 cells, indicating that these two cell lines express alternative yet unidentified HAV receptors. Therefore, we focused our work on AGMK cells to further characterize the function of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology allowed us to knock out the monkey ortholog of HAVCR1 in AGMK cells. The resulting AGMK HAVCR1 knockout (KO) cells lost susceptibility to HAV infection, including HAV-free viral particles (vpHAV) and exosomes purified from HAV-infected cells (exo-HAV). Transfection of HAVCR1 cDNA into AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells restored susceptibility to vpHAV and exo-HAV infection. Furthermore, transfection of the mouse ortholog of HAVCR1, mHavcr1, also restored the susceptibility of AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells to HAV infection. Taken together, our data clearly show that HAVCR1 and mHavcr1 are functional HAV receptors that mediate HAV infection. This work paves the way for the identification of alternative HAV receptors to gain a complete understanding of their interplay with HAVCR1 in the cell entry and pathogenic processes of HAV. IMPORTANCE HAVCR1, an HAV receptor, is expressed in different cell types, including regulatory immune cells and antigen-presenting cells. How HAV evades the immune response during a long incubation period of up to 4 weeks and the

  18. Cranial MRI in hepatic disease; Relationship between MR imaging and clinical symptoms and laboratory analysis of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, Masakazu; Kamitani, Toshiaki; Kamakura, Keiko; Nagata, Naokazu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro (National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies on 12 cases with hepatic disease were performed. In 11 adult patients with chronic hepatic failure, T[sub 1]-weighted images demonstrated increased signal in the globus pallidus in 7 patients (63.6%) and in some parts of the cerebral peduncles in 6 patients (54.5%), in the substantia innominata in 4 patients (36.3%). There might be some correlation between the abnormality of MR imaging and clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. There was a significant correlation between the intensity of the signal and Fischer's ratio of amino acid analysis. In one patient with Wilson's disease, who developed symptoms of central nervous system, T[sub 1]-weighted images demonstrated increased signal in the globus pallidus. After treatment of D-penicillamine, the signal of the globus pallidus decreased. (author).

  19. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  20. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  2. Inadmissibility of Usual and Mixed Estimators of Two Ordered Gamma Scale Parameters Under Reflected Gamma Loss Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Meghnatisi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let Xi1, · · · , Xini be a random sample from a gamma distribution with known shape parameter νi > 0 and unknown scale parameter βi > 0, i = 1, 2, satisfying 0 < β1 6 β2. We consider the class of mixed estimators for estimation of β1 and β2 under reflected gamma loss function. It has been shown that the minimum risk equivariant estimator of βi, i = 1, 2, which is admissible when no information on the ordering of parameters are given, is inadmissible and dominated by a class of mixed estimators when it is known that the parameters are ordered. Also, the inadmissible estimators in the class of mixed estimators are derived. Finally the results are extended to some subclass of exponential family

  3. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  5. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  6. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  9. Disrupted functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy: a resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in patients with cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE using resting state functional MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants included 67 cirrhotic patients (27 minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE and 40 cirrhotic patients without MHE (non-HE, and 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. rsfMRI were performed on 3 Telsa scanners. The pregenual ACC resting-state networks (RSNs were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the ACC RSNs and venous blood ammonia levels, neuropsychological tests (number connection test type A [NCT-A] and digit symbol test [DST] scores in cirrhotic patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, with false discovery rate corrected. Compared with controls, non-HE and MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC, bilateral middle frontal cortex (MFC, bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC, bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG/middle temporal gyri (MTG, bilateral thalami, bilateral putamen and bilateral insula, and increased functional connectivity of bilateral precuneus and left temporo-occipital lobe and bilateral lingual gyri. Compared with non-HE patients, MHE showed the decreased functional connectivity of right MCC, bilateral STG/MTG and right putamen. This indicates decreased ACC functional connectivity predominated with the increasing severity of HE. NCT-A scores negatively correlated with ACC functional connectivity in the bilateral MCC, right temporal lobe, and DST scores positively correlated with functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC and the right putamen. No correlation was found between venous blood ammonia levels and functional connectivity in ACC in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  11. Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to cadmium and lead on phenotypic variability of hepatic CYP2A6 and renal function biomarkers in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Ujjin, Pailin; Vanavanitkun, Yuvaree; Nishijo, Muneko; Baker, Jason R.; Moore, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to dietary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on urinary biomarkers of renal function and phenotypic variability of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) were investigated in a group of 96 healthy Thai men with mean age of 36.7 year (19-57 years). In non-smokers, Cd burden increased with age (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In current smokers, Cd burden increased with both age (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.32, P = 0.05). Cd-linked renal tubular dysfunction was seen in both smokers and non-smokers, but Pb-linked glomerular dysfunction was seen in smokers only, possibly due to more recent exposure to high levels of Cd and Pb, as reflected by 30-50% higher serum Cd and Pb levels in smokers than non-smokers (P < 0.05). Exposure to dietary Cd and Pb appeared to be associated with mild tubular dysfunction whereas dietary exposure plus cigarette smoking was associated with tubular plus glomerular dysfunction. Hepatic CYP2A6 activity in non-smokers showed a positive association with Cd burden (adjusted β = 0.38, P = 0.006), but it showed an inverse correlation with Pb (adjusted β = -0.29, P = 0.003), suggesting opposing effects of Cd and Pb on hepatic CYP2A6 phenotype. In contrast, CYP2A6 activity in current smokers did not correlate with Cd or Pb, but it showed a positive correlation with serum ferritin levels (r = 0.45, P = 0.01). These finding suggest that Pb concentrations in the liver probably were too low to inhibit hepatic synthesis of heme and CYP2A6 and that the concurrent induction of hepatic CYP2A6 and ferritin was probably due to cigarette smoke constituents other than Cd and Pb

  12. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  13. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  14. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  15. The diverse functions of the hepatitis B core/capsid protein (HBc) in the viral life cycle: Implications for the development of HBc-targeting antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ahmed; Foca, Adrien; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David; Andrisani, Ourania

    2018-01-01

    Virally encoded proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, and the core protein (HBc) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a perfect example. While HBc is the structural component of the viral nucleocapsid, additional novel functions for the nucleus-localized HBc have recently been described. These results extend for HBc, beyond its structural role, a regulatory function in the viral life cycle and potentially a role in pathogenesis. In this article, we review the diverse roles of HBc in HBV replication and pathogenesis, emphasizing how the unique structure of this protein is key to its various functions. We focus in particular on recent advances in understanding the significance of HBc phosphorylations, its interaction with host proteins and the role of HBc in regulating the transcription of host genes. We also briefly allude to the emerging niche for new direct-acting antivirals targeting HBc, known as Core (protein) Allosteric Modulators (CAMs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Interaction of Stress Granules, DDX3X, and IKK-α Mediates Multiple Functions in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Véronique; Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Liang, T Jake

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X is involved in many cellular functions, including innate immunity, and is a pivotal host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X specifically recognizes the HCV 3' untranslated region (UTR), leading to the activation of IKK-α and a cascade of lipogenic signaling to facilitate lipid droplet biogenesis and viral assembly (Q. Li, V. Pene, S. Krishnamurthy, H. Cha, and T. J. Liang, Nat Med 19:722-729, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3190). The interaction of DDX3X with HCV core protein seems to be dispensable for its proviral role. In this study, through systematic imaging and biochemical and virologic approaches, we identified a dynamic association between DDX3X and various cellular compartments and viral elements mediating multiple functions of DDX3X in productive HCV infection. Upon HCV infection, the HCV 3'UTR interacts with DDX3X and IKK-α, which redistribute to speckle-like cytoplasmic structures shown to be stress granules (SGs). As viral proteins accumulate in infected cells, DDX3X granules together with SG-associated proteins redistribute and colocalize with HCV core protein around lipid droplets (LDs). IKK-α, however, does not relocate to the LD but translocates to the nucleus. In HCV-infected cells, various HCV nonstructural proteins also interact or colocalize with DDX3X in close proximity to SGs and LDs, consistent with the tight juxtaposition of the replication complex and the assembly site at the surface of LDs. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of DDX3X and multiple SG components markedly inhibits HCV infection. Our data suggest that DDX3X initiates a multifaceted cellular program involving dynamic associations with HCV RNA and proteins, IKK-α, SG, and LD surfaces for its crucial role in the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE DDX3X is a proviral host factor for HCV infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X binds to the HCV 3'UTR, activating IKK-α and

  17. Theory of quark mixing matrix and invariant functions of mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1987-10-01

    The outline of this talk is as follows: The origin of the quark mixing matrix. Super elementary theory of flavour projection operators. Equivalences and invariances. The commutator formalism and CP violation. CP conditions for any number of families. The 'angle' between the quark mass matrices. Application to Fritzsch and Stech matrices. References. (author)

  18. Persistent Use of Mixed Code: An Exploration of Its Functions in Hong Kong Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Winnie W. M.; Lu, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Codemixing of Cantonese Chinese and English is a common speech behaviour used by bilingual people in Hong Kong. Though codemixing is repeatedly criticised as a cause of the decline of students' language competence, there is little hard evidence to indicate its detrimental effects. This study examines the use of mixed code in the context of the…

  19. Dissolution of mixed oxide fuel as a function of fabrication variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Dissolution properties of mechanically blended mixed oxide fuel were very dependent on the six fuel fabrication variables studied. Fuel sintering temperature, source of PuO 2 and PuO 2 content of the fuel had major effects: (1) as the sintering temperature was increased from 1400 to 1700 0 C, pellet dissolution was more complete; (2) pellets made from burned metal derived PuO 2 were more completely dissolved than pellets made from calcined nitrate derived PuO 2 which in turn were more completely dissolved than pellets made from calcined nitrate derived PuO 2 ; (3) as the PuO 2 content decreased from 25 to 15 wt % PuO 2 , pellet dissolution was more complete. Preferential dissolution of uranium occurred in all the mechanically blended mixed oxide. Unirradiated mixed oxide fuel pellets made by the Sol Gel process were generally quite soluble in nitric acid. Unirradiated mixed oxide fuel pellets made by the coprecipitation process dissolved completely and rapidly in nitric acid. Fuel made by the coprecipitation process was more completely dissolved than fuel made by the Sol Gel process which, in turn, was more completely dissolved than fuel made by mechanically blending UO 2 and PuO 2 as shown below. Addition of uncomplexed fluoride to nitric acid during fuel dissolution generally rendered all fuel samples completely dissolvable. In boiling 12M nitric acid, 95 to 99% of the plutonium which was going to dissolve did so in the first hour. Irradiated mechanically blended mixed oxide fuel with known fuel fabrication conditions was also subjected to fuel dissolution tests. While irradiation was shown to increase completeness of plutonium dissolution, poor dissolubility due to adverse fabrication conditions (e.g., low sintering temperature) remained after irradiation

  20. IFN-λ: A New Class of Interferon with Distinct Functions-Implications for Hepatitis C Virus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV is widely used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection with notorious adverse reactions since the broad expression of IFN-α receptors on all nucleated cells. Accordingly, a Type III IFN with restricted receptors distribution is much safer as an alternative for HCV therapy. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs near the human IFN-λ3 gene, IL-28B, correlate strongly with the ability to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR to therapy with pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, we also discuss the most recent findings: IFN-λ4 predicts treatment outcomes of HCV infection. In consideration of the apparent limitations of current HCV therapy, especially high failure rate and universal side effects, prediction of treatment outcomes prior to the initiation of treatment and developing new alternative drugs are two important goals in HCV research.

  1. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated

  2. Probability distribution functions of δ15N and δ18O in groundwater nitrate to probabilistically solve complex mixing scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Davis, P.; Syme, J.; Hagerty, S.; Perkins, G.; Larson, T. E.; Longmire, P.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in drinking water pose a health risk to the public. The dual stable isotopic signatures of δ15N and δ18O in NO3- in surface- and groundwater are often used to identify and distinguish among sources of NO3- (e.g., sewage, fertilizer, atmospheric deposition). In oxic groundwaters where no denitrification is occurring, direct calculations of mixing fractions using a mass balance approach can be performed if three or fewer sources of NO3- are present, and if the stable isotope ratios of the source terms are defined. There are several limitations to this approach. First, direct calculations of mixing fractions are not possible when four or more NO3- sources may be present. Simple mixing calculations also rely upon treating source isotopic compositions as a single value; however these sources themselves exhibit ranges in stable isotope ratios. More information can be gained by using a probabilistic approach to account for the range and distribution of stable isotope ratios in each source. Fitting probability density functions (PDFs) to the isotopic compositions for each source term reveals that some values within a given isotopic range are more likely to occur than others. We compiled a data set of dual isotopes in NO3- sources by combining our measurements with data collected through extensive literature review. We fit each source term with a PDF, and show a new method to probabilistically solve multiple component mixing scenarios with source isotopic composition uncertainty. This method is based on a modified use of a tri-linear diagram. First, source term PDFs are sampled numerous times using a variation of stratified random sampling, Latin Hypercube Sampling. For each set of sampled source isotopic compositions, a reference point is generated close to the measured groundwater sample isotopic composition. This point is used as a vertex to form all possible triangles between all pairs of sampled source isotopic compositions

  3. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  4. Identification of emotions in mixed disgusted-happy faces as a function of depressive symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Romero, Nuria; Maurage, Pierre; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-12-01

    Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars). Participants were asked to identify the corresponding depicted emotion as "clearly disgusted", "mixed", or "clearly happy". Higher depression levels were associated with lower identification of positive emotions in 50% disgusted - 50% happy faces. The study was conducted with an analogue sample reporting individual differences in subclinical depression levels. Further research must replicate these findings in a clinical sample and clarify whether differential emotional identification patterns emerge in depression for different mixed negative-positive emotions (sad-happy vs. disgusted-happy). Depression may account for a lower bias to perceive positive states when ambiguous states from others include subtle signals of social threat (i.e., disgust), leading to an under-perception of positive social signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and properties of functional mixed-lipid liposomes by γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoi, Fumio; Omichi, Hideki; Akama, Kazuhiro; Awai, Kouji; Yano, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yoshio

    1998-01-01

    The feature of mixed-lipid liposomes such as polymerization and polymerized liposomes stability were investigated to find means for producing red cells containing hemoglobin inside the liposomes. The surface pressure-area isotherm values of the mixed-lipid monolayer indicated 1-stearoyl-2-(2,4-octadecadienoyl)-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) to be immiscible in cholesterol (Chol) and stearic acid (SA), and each component to contain separate domains in the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Radiation induced polymerization of mixed-SOPC liposomes was carried out using γ-rays from 60 Co at 4degC to stabilize lipid bilayers. The polymer yield increased significantly by adding Chol and SA to SOPC. The rate of polymerization of SOPC liposomes increased linearly with increasing of dose rate. The molecular weight of the polymer decreased with an increase in irradiation time. Irradiated SOPC/Chol/SA liposome vesicle size was affected by freeze-thawing. The vesicle size did not change when SOPC/Chol/SA was present in the system due to the addition of immiscible saturated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). (author)

  6. Functional results of Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implants in conductive and mixed hearing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeschi, Daniele; Hoffman, Caroline; Benchaa, Tarek; Labassi, Samia; Beliaeff, Michel; Sterkers, Olivier; Grayeli, Alexis Bozorg

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the results of Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in conductive or mixed hearing loss. Twenty-five adult patients (29 ears) with a mixed or conductive hearing loss and various etiologies were included in this retrospective study. The preoperative ipsilateral pure tone average was 71 ± 3.0 dB, and the average bone conduction threshold was 42 ± 2.8 dB (n = 29). The transducer was placed on the long apophysis of the incus (n = 16), in the round window (n = 10) or on the stapes (n = 3). No complications were noted. The bone conduction threshold remained unchanged. VSB was activated in all cases. The postoperative pure tone average without VSB was 63 ± 3.9 dB (n = 24) and with VSB in free-field condition 24 ± 2.1 dB (n = 22). VSB is safe and efficacious for auditory rehabilitation in conductive and mixed hearing losses. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Zhang Xuelin; Qiu Shijun; Zhang Yuzhong; Wen Ge; Zhong Qun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  8. Mixed DNA/Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Gold Surface Improve DNA Hybridization in Complex Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Gamble, L.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.

    2006-01-01

    Reliable, direct 'sample-to-answer' capture of nucleic acid targets from complex media would greatly improve existing capabilities of DNA microarrays and biosensors. This goal has proven elusive for many current nucleic acid detection technologies attempting to produce assay results directly from complex real-world samples, including food, tissue, and environmental materials. In this study, we have investigated mixed self-assembled thiolated single-strand DNA (ssDNA) monolayers containing a short thiolated oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) surface diluent on gold surfaces to improve the specific capture of DNA targets from complex media. Both surface composition and orientation of these mixed DNA monolayers were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS results from sequentially adsorbed ssDNA/OEG monolayers on gold indicate that thiolated OEG diluent molecules first incorporate into the thiolated ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer OEG exposures, competitively displace adsorbed ssDNA molecules from the gold surface. NEXAFS polarization dependence results (followed by monitoring the N 1s→π* transition) indicate that adsorbed thiolated ssDNA nucleotide base-ring structures in the mixed ssDNA monolayers are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure ssDNA monolayers. This supports ssDNA oligomer reorientation towards a more upright position upon OEG mixed adlayer incorporation. DNA target hybridization on mixed ssDNA probe/OEG monolayers was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Improvements in specific target capture for these ssDNA probe surfaces due to incorporation of the OEG diluent were demonstrated using two model biosensing assays, DNA target capture from complete bovine serum and from salmon genomic DNA mixtures. SPR results demonstrate that OEG incorporation into the ssDNA adlayer improves surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and protein

  9. Increased expressions of NKp44, NKp46 on NK/NKT-like cells are associated with impaired cytolytic function in self-limiting hepatitis E infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rumki; Tripathy, Anuradha

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the NK/NKT-like cells in patients with self-limiting hepatitis E infection. The distribution of peripheral NK/NKT-like cells, expressions of activation receptors, cytotoxic potential and effector function of NK/NKT-like cells from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 86 acute patients, 101 recovered and 54 control individuals were assessed. Activated NKT-like (CD16(+) CD56(+) CD3(+)) cells were high in the patient groups. On CD56(+) CD3(-) cells, NKp44 and NKp46 expressions were high in the acute patients, whereas NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D were high in the recovered individuals. On CD56(+) CD3(+) cells, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D expressions were high in the recovered but NKp30 was low in both the patient groups. Collectively, the current study elucidates the role of NK/NKT-like cells demonstrating phenotypic alterations of activated NKT-like cells and activation receptors, lack of CD107a expression and functional impairment of peripheral NK/NKT-like cells in self-limiting hepatitis E infection.

  10. Liver Function in Areas of Hepatic Venous Congestion After Hepatectomy for Liver Cancer: 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT Fused Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Morikatsu; Beppu, Toru; Shiraishi, Shinya; Tsuda, Noriko; Sakamoto, Fumi; Kuramoto, Kunitaka; Okabe, Hirohisa; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Imai, Katsunori; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Baba, Hideo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Background/Aim: The sacrifice of a major hepatic vein can cause hepatic venous congestion (HVC). We evaluated the effects of HVC on regional liver function using the liver uptake value (LUV), that was calculated from 99m Tc-labeled-galactosyl-human-serum-albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) /contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) fused images. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients underwent 99m Tc-GSA SPECT/CE-CT prior to hepatectomy for liver cancer and at 7 days after surgery were divided into groups with (n=8) and without HVC (n=54). In the HVC group, CT volume (CTv) and LUV were separately calculated in both congested and non-congested areas. Results: The remnant LUV/CTv of the HVC group was significantly smaller than that of the non-HVC group (pliver function per unit volume in the congested areas was approximately 40% of that in the non-congested areas. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  5. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  10. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  13. Comparative Study of Early Childhood High-Function Autism and Developmental Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchen Yang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal cognitive profile and general social functioning were compared between two groups of children aged 5 to 7 years, one with high-function autism and the other with developmental mixed receptive-expressive language disorders. The two groups, totaling 50 children, were matched for age and non-verbal IQ (mean, 90. Both groups had impaired verbal cognitive profile and social adaptive functioning, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The implications of our findings are discussed. Current preschool and early childhood medical-educational intervention programs in Taiwan must design and implement curricula in which children with language delay, whether autistic or not, can develop essential social skills.

  14. Coevolution analysis of Hepatitis C virus genome to identify the structural and functional dependency network of viral proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeimont, Raphaël; Laine, Elodie; Hu, Shuang-Wei; Penin, Francois; Carbone, Alessandra

    2016-05-01

    A novel computational approach of coevolution analysis allowed us to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) at the residue resolution. For the first time, coevolution analysis of an entire viral genome was realized, based on a limited set of protein sequences with high sequence identity within genotypes. The identified coevolving residues constitute highly relevant predictions of protein-protein interactions for further experimental identification of HCV protein complexes. The method can be used to analyse other viral genomes and to predict the associated protein interaction networks.

  15. Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Terrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations.

  16. Developing an appropriate staff mix for anticoagulation clinics: functional job analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Desta A.; Shan, Xiaojun; Chung, Sung H.; Khasawneh, Mohammad T.; Lukesh, William; Park, Angela; Rose, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Anticoagulation clinics (ACCs) are specialty clinics that manage patients with blood clotting problems. Since labor costs usually account for a substantial portion of a healthcare organization's budget, optimizing the number and types of staff required was often the focus, especially for ACCs, where labor-intensive staff-patient interactions occur. A significant portion of tasks performed by clinical pharmacists might be completed by clinical pharmacist technicians, which are less-expensive resources. While nurse staffing models for a hospital inpatient unit are well established, these models are not readily applicable to staffing ACCs. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a framework for determining the right staff mix of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy technicians that increases the efficiency of care delivery process and improves the productivity of ACC staff. A framework is developed and applied to build a semi-automated full-time equivalent (FTE) calculator and compare various staffing scenarios using a simulation model. The FTE calculator provides the right staff mix for a given staff utilization target. Data collected from the ACCs at VA Boston Healthcare System is used to illustrate the FTE calculator and the simulation model. The result of the simulation model can be used by ACC managers to easily determine the number of FTEs of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacy technicians required to reach the target utilization and the corresponding staffing cost.

  17. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S

    1999-01-01

    40-65, palcoholic cirrhosis. Size-chromatography revealed no significant change in the ratio of the high and low molecular forms of PINP following extraction in liver and kidney......The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP....... It is concluded that circulating PINP is extracted in the normal liver and kidney, and that the serum concentration of PINP is significantly higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in patients with normal liver function. Both the hepatic and the renal clearance of PINP are seriously impaired...

  18. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  19. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  20. Limit theorems for functionals of mixing processes with applications to U-statistics and dimension estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovkova, Svetlana; Burton, Robert; Dehling, Herold

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general approach for investigating the asymptotic distribution of functional Xn = f((Zn+k)k∈z) of absolutely regular stochastic processes (Zn)n∈z. Such functional occur naturally as orbits of chaotic dynamical systems, and thus our results can be used to study

  1. A Case of Mixed Motives? : Formal and Informal Functions of Administrative Immigration Detention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn most EU countries and the United States, immigration detention is defined as an administrative, non-punitive measure to facilitate expulsion. This paper argues that immigration detention in the Netherlands serves three informal functions in addition to its formal function as an

  2. Comparison of functional and nutritional characteristics of barley and oat mixed linkage ß-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    -functionality relationship of β-glucans, the exact functional principle remain elusive. The overall aim of this project was to provide new knowledge into the relation between β-glucan and health at a molecular level. For the first time two barley and one oat fractions of well-defined and structurally different β...

  3. Balancing Exchange Mixing in Density-Functional Approximations for Iron Porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Victoria E J; Boyd, Russell J; Johnson, Erin R

    2015-07-14

    Predicting the correct ground-state multiplicity for iron(II) porphyrin, a high-spin quintet, remains a significant challenge for electronic-structure methods, including commonly employed density functionals. An even greater challenge for these methods is correctly predicting favorable binding of O2 to iron(II) porphyrin, due to the open-shell singlet character of the adduct. In this work, the performance of a modest set of contemporary density-functional approximations is assessed and the results interpreted using Bader delocalization indices. It is found that inclusion of greater proportions of Hartree-Fock exchange, in hybrid or range-separated hybrid functionals, has opposing effects; it improves the ability of the functional to identify the ground state but is detrimental to predicting favorable dioxygen binding. Because of the uncomplementary nature of these properties, accurate prediction of both the relative spin-state energies and the O2 binding enthalpy eludes conventional density-functional approximations.

  4. Inadmissibility of Usual and Mixed Estimators of Two Ordered Gamma Scale Parameters Under Reflected Gamma Loss Function

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Meghnatisi; N. Nematollahi

    2009-01-01

    Let Xi1, · · · , Xini be a random sample from a gamma distribution with known shape parameter νi > 0 and unknown scale parameter βi > 0, i = 1, 2, satisfying 0 < β1 6 β2. We consider the class of mixed estimators for estimation of β1 and β2 under reflected gamma loss function. It has been shown that the minimum risk equivariant estimator of βi, i = 1, 2, which is admissible when no information on the ordering of parameters are given, is inadmissible and dominated by a cla...

  5. Estimation of the four-wave mixing noise probability-density function by the multicanonical Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokosmidis, Ioannis; Kamalakis, Thomas; Chipouras, Aristides; Sphicopoulos, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The performance of high-powered wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks can be severely degraded by four-wave-mixing- (FWM-) induced distortion. The multicanonical Monte Carlo method (MCMC) is used to calculate the probability-density function (PDF) of the decision variable of a receiver, limited by FWM noise. Compared with the conventional Monte Carlo method previously used to estimate this PDF, the MCMC method is much faster and can accurately estimate smaller error probabilities. The method takes into account the correlation between the components of the FWM noise, unlike the Gaussian model, which is shown not to provide accurate results.

  6. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  7. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Soren M; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Duque, Anouk F; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2018-01-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The transition in feedstock resulted in an adaptation of the acidogenic community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1±0.5 and 1.7±0.7 gCOD/L, respectively). As for the PHA storing culture, the genera Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus were enriched with fermented molasses (average 89% of Bacteria). Later, fermented cheese whey fostered a higher diversity, including some less characterised PHA-storers such as the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. Although the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the feedstock shift, the acidogenic and PHA storing performance of the 3-stage system was very similar once a pseudo steady state was attained, showing that a reliable level of functional redundancy was attained in both mixed cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coherent mode decomposition using mixed Wigner functions of Hermite-Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-04-15

    A new method of coherent mode decomposition (CMD) is proposed that is based on a Wigner-function representation of Hermite-Gaussian beams. In contrast to the well-known method using the cross spectral density (CSD), it directly determines the mode functions and their weights without solving the eigenvalue problem. This facilitates the CMD of partially coherent light whose Wigner functions (and thus CSDs) are not separable, in which case the conventional CMD requires solving an eigenvalue problem with a large matrix and thus is numerically formidable. An example is shown regarding the CMD of synchrotron radiation, one of the most important applications of the proposed method.

  9. Antecedents of individuals' interteam coordination: Broad functional experiences as a mixed blessing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, T.A. de; Walter, F.; Vegt, G.S. van der; Essens, P.J.M.D.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the role of individual team members' breadth of functional experience for their interteam coordination behavior. Integrating personal construct and social identity theories, we examine interpersonal cognitive complexity as a mediating variable and organizational

  10. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitti...

  11. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  12. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Morris, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.

  13. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.

  14. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  16. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  17. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  18. Functional completeness of the mixed λ-calculus and combinatory logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1990-01-01

    Functional completeness of the combinatory logic means that every lambda-expression may be translated into an equivalent combinator expression and this is the theoretical basis for the implementation of functional languages on combinator-based abstract machines. To obtain efficient implementations...... it is important to distinguish between early and late binding times, i.e. to distinguish between compile-time and run-time computations. The authors therefore introduce a two-level version of the lambda-calculus where this distinction is made in an explicit way. Turning to the combinatory logic they generate...

  19. Risk factors of hepatic dysfunction in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism and the efficacy of 131iodine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfei; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; Zheng, Wei; Li, Chengxia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic dysfunction is often observed in patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism. The aims of this study were to investigate the risk factors for hepatic dysfunction and to analyze the efficacy of 131I (radioactive iodine-131) treatment. In total, 2385 patients with Graves’ hyperthyroidism (478 males, 1907 females; age 42.8 ± 13.5 years) were involved in our study. Of these, 1552 cases with hepatic dysfunction received 131I treatment. All clinical data were retrospectively reviewed to explore the risk factors associated with hepatic dysfunction using logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, we observed thyroid and liver function indices for the 1552 subjects at 3, 6 and 12 months after 131I treatment, in order to evaluate efficacy. Overall, 65% patients were affected by hepatic dysfunction. The most common abnormality was elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP), of which the prevalence was 52.3%. The percentages of hepatocellular injury type, bile stasis, and mixed type were 45.8%, 32.4%, and 21.8%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that age, duration of Graves hyperthyroidism, free triiodothyronine (FT3)level, and thyrotrophin receptor antibody (TRAb) concentration were the most significant risk factors predicting hepatic dysfunction. Additionally, the patients with mild hepatic dysfunction, or hepatocellular injury type were more likely to attain normal liver function after 131I treatment. Furthermore, after 131I treatment, liver function was more likely to return to normal in the cured group of patients compared with the uncured group. Older patients and cases with a longer history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, higher FT3 or TRAb concentration were more likely to be associated with hepatic dysfunction, and the prognosis of hepatic dysfunction was closely associated with the outcomes of Graves’ hyperthyroidism after 131I treatment. PMID:28151911

  20. Hybrid Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Controlling Framework Porosity and Functionality by Mixed-Linker Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Joshua A.

    2012-05-22

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a subclass of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that exhibit zeolite-like structural topologies and have interesting molecular recognition properties, such as molecular sieving and gate-opening effects associated with their pore apertures. The synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZIFs with mixed linkers in the framework are described in this work, producing materials with properties distinctly different from the parent frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-90, and ZIF-7). NMR spectroscopy is used to assess the relative amounts of the different linkers included in the frameworks, whereas nitrogen physisorption shows the evolution of the effective pore size distribution in materials resulting from the framework hybridization. X-ray diffraction shows these hybrid materials to be crystalline. In the case of ZIF-8-90 hybrids, the cubic space group of the parent frameworks is continuously maintained, whereas in the case of the ZIF-7-8 hybrids there is a transition from a cubic to a rhombohedral space group. Nitrogen physisorption data reveal that the hybrid materials exhibit substantial changes in gate-opening phenomena, either occurring at continuously tunable partial pressures of nitrogen (ZIF-8-90 hybrids) or loss of gate-opening effects to yield more rigid frameworks (ZIF-7-8 hybrids). With this synthetic approach, significant alterations in MOF properties may be realized to suit a desired separation or catalytic process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  2. Neuromorphological and wiring pattern alterations effects on brain function: a mixed experimental and computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Manubens-Gil

    2015-04-01

    In addition, the study of fixed intact brains (by means of the state of the art CLARITY technique brings us closer to biologically and medically relevant situations, allowing not only to confirm whether the functional links in neuronal cultures are also present in vivo, but also enabling the introduction of functional information (like behavioral studies and functional imaging and another layer of structural alterations such as brain region morphology, neuronal density, and long-range connectivity. Taking together the experimental information from these systems we want to feed self-developed computational models that allow us to understand what are the fundamental characteristics of the observed connectivity patterns and the impact of each of the alterations on neuronal network function. These models will also provide a framework able to account for the emergent properties that bridge the gap between spontaneous electrical activity arousal/transmission and higher order information processing and memory storage capacities in the brain. As an additional part of the project we are now working on the application of the clearing, labeling and imaging protocols to human biopsy samples. Our aim is to obtain neuronal architecture and connectivity information from focal cortical dysplasia microcircuits using samples from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients that undergo deep-brain electrode recording diagnosis and posterior surgical extraction of the tissue. Our computational models can allow us to discern the contributions of the observed abnormalities to neuronal hyperactivity and epileptic seizure generation.

  3. Approximation of Mixed-Type Functional Equations in Menger PN-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be vector spaces. We show that a function f:X→Y with f(0=0 satisfies Δf(x1,…,xn=0 for all x1,…,xn∈X, if and only if there exist functions C:X×X×X→Y, B:X×X→Y and A:X→Y such that f(x=C(x,x,x+B(x,x+A(x for all x∈X, where the function C is symmetric for each fixed one variable and is additive for fixed two variables, B is symmetric bi-additive, A is additive and Δf(x1,…,xn=∑k=2n(∑i1=2k∑i2=i1+1k+1⋯∑in-k+1=in-k+1nf(∑i=1,i≠i1,…,in-k+1nxi-∑r=1n-k+1xir+f(∑i=1nxi-2n-2∑i=2n(f(x1+xi+f(x1-xi+2n-1(n-2f(x1 (n∈N, n≥3 for all x1,…,xn∈X. Furthermore, we solve the stability problem for a given function f satisfying Δf(x1,…,xn=0, in the Menger probabilistic normed spaces.

  4. Enhanced mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites by mixing noncovalently functionalized boron nitride nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongju; Song, Sung Ho; Hwang, Jaewon; Jin, Sung Hwan; Park, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Bo Hyun; Hong, Soon Hyung; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2013-08-12

    The influence of surface modifications on the mechanical properties of epoxy-hexagonal boron nitride nanoflake (BNNF) nanocomposites is investigated. Homogeneous distributions of boron nitride nanoflakes in a polymer matrix, preserving intrinsic material properties of boron nitride nanoflakes, is the key to successful composite applications. Here, a method is suggested to obtain noncovalently functionalized BNNFs with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) molecules and to synthesize epoxy-BNNF nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties. The incorporation of noncovalently functionalized BNNFs into epoxy resin yields an elastic modulus of 3.34 GPa, and 71.9 MPa ultimate tensile strength at 0.3 wt%. The toughening enhancement is as high as 107% compared to the value of neat epoxy. The creep strain and the creep compliance of the noncovalently functionalized BNNF nanocomposite is significantly less than the neat epoxy and the nonfunctionalized BNNF nanocomposite. Noncovalent functionalization of BNNFs is effective to increase mechanical properties by strong affinity between the fillers and the matrix. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  6. The association of exposure to hepatitis B and C viruses with lung function and respiratory disease: a population based study from the NHANES III database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Li Yen; Card, Tim; Fogarty, Andrew W; McKeever, Tricia M

    2014-12-01

    Globally, 500 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). While these viruses are notorious for their detrimental effect on the liver they are also known to affect multiple organs in the body including the lungs. To investigate if exposure to HBV and HCV is associated with lung function and respiratory diseases. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) was analysed using multiple linear regressions to investigate the association between exposure to HBV and HCV with the various measures of lung function, while multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association with the respiratory diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to HCV was significantly associated with an increase in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s, FEV1 (Coef: 97.94 ml, 95% CI: 38.87 to 157.01) and Full Vital Capacity, FVC (Coef: 90 ml, 95% CI: 14.50 to 166.24). Individuals who had been exposed to both HBV and HCV also had a significantly higher FEV1 (Coef: 145.82, CI: 60.68 to 230.94) and FVC (Coef: 195.09, CI: 78.91 to 311.26). There was also a significant association between exposure to HBV and asthma (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.58). These associations were no longer significant after additionally adjusting for cocaine and marijuana use as well as poverty income ratio. Our research implies that hepatotropic viruses may affect the respiratory system, but more work at a population level is needed to further explore these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Superselective transarterial chemoembolization vs hepatic resection for resectable early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class a liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chu, Chi-Hung; Chan, De-Chuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to hepatic resection (HR) for resectable early-stage HCC, the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is controversial. This study is designed to compare the long-term outcome of TACE using superselective technique with hepatic resection for the treating resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Methods: In total, 185 consecutive patients with resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function were included: 73 patients received superselective TACE (group I) and 112 patients underwent HR (group II). We evaluated the therapy-related recurrence and long-term outcome and in both groups. The risk factors of recurrence and mortality were assessed by Cox's model. Results: The mean survival time of group 1 patient was similar to that of group 2 patient (40.8 ± 19.8 vs 46.7 ± 24.6 months respectively, p = 0.91). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after TACE (group I)and HR (group II) were 91%, 66%, and 52% and 93%, 71%, and 57%, respectively (p = 0.239). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates in groups 1 and 2 were 68%, 28%, and 17% and 78%, 55%, and 35%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Serum albumin, tumour size, tumour number and recurrence interval were independent risk factors for mortality. Serum albumin level, tumour size, tumour number, and treatment modality of TACE or HR could predict HCC recurrence. Conclusion: TACE is an efficient and safe treatment for resectable early-stage HCC with overall survival rates similar to that of HR. Thus, TACE is indicated in selected patients with resectable early-stage HCC.

  8. In Search of functionality-diversity relationships in anaerobic mixed culture fermentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Temudo, M.; Muyzer Van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the work described in this paper we will postulate that in environmental ecosystems with a weak selective pressure no clear relationship exists between the ecosystem functionality and the microbial diversity and microbial composition. In the past years we have been investigating the anaerobic fermentation of glucose, xylose, and glycerol, and mixtures of these substrates in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) inoculated with an activated sludge characterized by a very rich microbial diversity. (Author)

  9. Probability density function modeling of scalar mixing from concentrated sources in turbulent channel flow

    OpenAIRE

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion of a passive scalar from concentrated sources in fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied with the probability density function (PDF) method. The joint PDF of velocity, turbulent frequency and scalar concentration is represented by a large number of Lagrangian particles. A stochastic near-wall PDF model combines the generalized Langevin model of Haworth & Pope with Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation to provide a mathematically exact treatment of convective and viscous ...

  10. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  11. Effective Leadership of Surgical Teams: A Mixed Methods Study of Surgeon Behaviors and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Juliana L; Aveling, Emma-Louise; Frean, Molly; Shields, Morgan C; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Sundt, Thoralf M; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    The importance of effective team leadership for achieving surgical excellence is widely accepted, but we understand less about the behaviors that achieve this goal. We studied cardiac surgical teams to identify leadership behaviors that best support surgical teamwork. We observed, surveyed, and interviewed cardiac surgical teams, including 7 surgeons and 116 team members, from September 2013 to April 2015. We documented 1,926 surgeon/team member interactions during 22 cases, coded them by behavior type and valence (ie, positive/negative/neutral), and characterized them by leadership function (conductor, elucidator, delegator, engagement facilitator, tone setter, being human, and safe space maker) to create a novel framework of surgical leadership derived from direct observation. We surveyed nonsurgeon team members about their perceptions of individual surgeon's leadership effectiveness on a 7-point Likert scale and correlated survey measures with individual surgeon profiles created by calculating percentage of behavior types, leader functions, and valence. Surgeon leadership was rated by nonsurgeons from 4.2 to 6.2 (mean, 5.4). Among the 33 types of behaviors observed, most interactions constituted elucidating (24%) and tone setting (20%). Overall, 66% of interactions (range, 43%-84%) were positive and 11% (range, 1%-45%) were negative. The percentage of positive and negative behaviors correlated strongly (r = 0.85 for positive and r = 0.75 for negative, p leadership. Facilitating engagement related most positively (r = 0.80; p = 0.03), and negative forms of elucidating, ie, criticism, related most negatively (r = -0.81; p = 0.03). We identified 7 surgeon leadership functions and related behaviors that impact perceptions of leadership. These observations suggest actionable opportunities to improve team leadership behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  13. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  14. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  15. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  16. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  19. Morphological evaluation of changes in velopharyngeal function following maxillary distraction in patients with repaired cleft palate during mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Koichi; Nagata, Junko; Shomura, Kenji; Wada, Takeshi; Tachimura, Takashi; Fukuda, Jinichi; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2004-07-01

    To describe the morphological changes of nasopharyngeal components after maxillary distraction and clarify whether the morphological characteristics are related to velopharyngeal function (VPF). Perceptual judgments of hypernasality and nasendoscopy were performed before and after treatment. Lateral cephalograms were obtained to describe the morphological changes. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Miyazaki Medical College, Miyazaki, Japan. Nine patients with repaired cleft palate in the mixed dentition stage underwent maxillary distraction using a face mask and an intraoral fixed appliance system. The severity of hypernasality, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and measurements such as pharyngeal depth, velar length, and the rotation of the palatal plane were evaluated. Increase in pharyngeal depth was not always proportional to the amount of advancement. It depended on the posture of the posterior pharyngeal wall and the rotation of palatal plane. Cephalometric measurements of the nasopharynx before and after surgery confirmed subsequent changes in VPF. These were suggested to be useful in predicting future VPF. When performing maxillary distraction in patients with cleft palate in the mixed dentition stage, and when velopharyngeal closure is found to occur by velar contact against the hypertrophied adenoid, patients should be counseled about risks of subsequent deterioration in their speech before surgery.

  20. Enhanced selectivity in mixed matrix membranes for CO2 capture through efficient dispersion of amine-functionalized MOF nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalei, Behnam; Sakurai, Kento; Kinoshita, Yosuke; Wakimoto, Kazuki; Isfahani, Ali Pournaghshband; Song, Qilei; Doitomi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Hirao, Hajime; Kusuda, Hiromu; Kitagawa, Susumu; Sivaniah, Easan

    2017-07-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for gas separation applications have enhanced selectivity when compared with the pure polymer matrix, but are commonly reported with low intrinsic permeability, which has major cost implications for implementation of membrane technologies in large-scale carbon capture projects. High-permeability polymers rarely generate sufficient selectivity for energy-efficient CO2 capture. Here we report substantial selectivity enhancements within high-permeability polymers as a result of the efficient dispersion of amine-functionalized, nanosized metal-organic framework (MOF) additives. The enhancement effects under optimal mixing conditions occur with minimal loss in overall permeability. Nanosizing of the MOF enhances its dispersion within the polymer matrix to minimize non-selective microvoid formation around the particles. Amination of such MOFs increases their interaction with thepolymer matrix, resulting in a measured rigidification and enhanced selectivity of the overall composite. The optimal MOF MMM performance was verified in three different polymer systems, and also over pressure and temperature ranges suitable for carbon capture.

  1. T2{sup *} mapping from multi-echo dixon sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the hepatic fat quantification: Can it be used for hepatic function assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Hyun Kyung; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon gradient echo acquisition on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to evaluate hepatic function. This retrospective study was approved by the IRB and the requirement of informed consent was waived. 242 patients who underwent liver MRIs, including 3D multi-echo Dixon fast gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequence at 3T, before and after administration of gadoxetic acid, were included. Based on clinico-laboratory manifestation, the patients were classified as having normal liver function (NLF, n = 50), mild liver damage (MLD, n = 143), or severe liver damage (SLD, n = 30). The 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence was obtained before, and 10 minutes after, gadoxetic acid administration. Pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values, as well as T2{sup *} reduction rates, were measured from T2{sup *} maps, and compared among the three groups. There was a significant difference in T2{sup *} reduction rates between the NLF and SLD groups (−0.2 ± 4.9% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002), and between the MLD and SLD groups (3.2 ± 6.0% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both the pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values among different liver function groups (p = 0.735 and 0.131, respectively). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve for using T2{sup *} reduction rates to differentiate the SLD group from the NLF group was 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.63–0.83). Incorporation of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI protocol may provide supplemental information for liver function deterioration in patients with SLD.

  2. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  3. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  4. Bifurcation and Stability in a Delayed Predator-Prey Model with Mixed Functional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafia, R.; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Merdan, H.; Tewa, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    The model analyzed in this paper is based on the model set forth by Aziz Alaoui et al. [Aziz Alaoui & Daher Okiye, 2003; Nindjin et al., 2006] with time delay, which describes the competition between the predator and prey. This model incorporates a modified version of the Leslie-Gower functional response as well as that of Beddington-DeAngelis. In this paper, we consider the model with one delay consisting of a unique nontrivial equilibrium E* and three others which are trivial. Their dynamics are studied in terms of local and global stabilities and of the description of Hopf bifurcation at E*. At the third trivial equilibrium, the existence of the Hopf bifurcation is proven as the delay (taken as a parameter of bifurcation) that crosses some critical values.

  5. Functional results after Bonebridge implantation in adults and children with conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahne, Torsten; Seiwerth, Ingmar; Götze, Gerrit; Heider, Cornelia; Radetzki, Florian; Herzog, Michael; Plontke, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    In patients with conductive hearing loss caused by middle ear disorders or atresia of the ear canal, a Bonebridge implantation can improve hearing by providing vibratory input to the temporal bone. The expected results are improved puretone thresholds and speech recognition. In the European Union, approval of the Bonebridge implantation was recently extended to children. We evaluated the functional outcome of a Bonebridge implantation for eight adults and three children. We found significant improvement in the puretone thresholds, with improvement in the air-bone gap. Speech recognition after surgery was significantly higher than in the best-aided situation before surgery. The Bonebridge significantly improved speech recognition in noisy environments and sound localization. In situations relevant to daily life, hearing deficits were nearly completely restored with the Bonebridge implantation in both adults and children.

  6. Hermite-Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities for Functions Whose Second-Order Mixed Derivatives Are Coordinated (s,m-P-Convex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Bai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some new Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities for functions whose second-order mixed derivatives are coordinated (s,m-P-convex. An expression form of Hermite-Hadamard type integral inequalities via the beta function and the hypergeometric function is also presented. Our results provide a significant complement to the work of Wu et al. involving the Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for coordinated (s,m-P-convex functions in an earlier article.

  7. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  8. [Effect of inducers and inhibitors of mixed function oxidases on body resistance to endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liniuchev, M N; Zubik, T M; Kovelenov, A Iu; Bulyko, V I; Sergeev, V V

    1989-06-01

    Experimental typhoid intoxication in white mice leads to the inhibition of microsomal oxidation in the liver, which is manifested by the prolongation of hexenal-induced sleep and a decrease in the toxic action of parathion. Phenobarbital, capable of inducing oxidases with mixed function (OMF), enhances the process of the detoxification of endotoxin injected into the animals, which is manifested by the increase of its LD50. Soluble levomycetin succinate, widely used for the treatment of typhoid-paratyphoid infections, is a powerful inhibitor of OMF (as shown by the hexenal test). Benzonal, the analog of phenobarbital, removes the inhibitory effect of the antibiotic. Experimental studies carried out in the course of this investigation make it possible to substantiate the clinical trial of these preparations (OMF inducers) used in the complex therapy of typhoid-paratyphoid infections for the stimulation of natural detoxification mechanisms of the body. Benzonal is the preparation of choice for use in clinical practice.

  9. Green function study of a mixed spin-((3)/(2)) and spin-((1)/(2)) Heisenberg ferrimagnetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wei Guozhu; Du An

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a mixed spin-((3)/(2)) and spin-((1)/(2)) Heisenberg ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice are investigated theoretically by a multisublattice Green-function technique which takes into account the quantum nature of Heisenberg spins. This model can be relevant for understanding the magnetic behavior of the new class of organometallic materials that exhibit spontaneous magnetic moments at room temperature. We discuss the spontaneous magnetic moments and the finite-temperature phase diagram. We find that there is no compensation point at finite temperature when only the nearest-neighbor interaction and the single-ion anisotropy are included. When the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between spin-((1)/(2)) is taken into account and exceeds a minimum value, a compensation point appears and it is basically unchanged for other values in Hamiltonian fixed. The next-nearest-neighbor interaction between spin-((3)/(2)) has the effect of changing the compensation temperature

  10. Modeling the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of mixed finite plant canopies and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, G.; Dickinson, R. E.; Privette, J. L.; Emery, W. J.; Kokaly, R.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical model of the bidirectional reflectance for optically semi-infinite plant canopies has been extended to describe the reflectance of finite depth canopies contributions from the underlying soil. The model depends on 10 independent parameters describing vegetation and soil optical and structural properties. The model is inverted with a nonlinear minimization routine using directional reflectance data for lawn (leaf area index (LAI) is equal to 9.9), soybeans (LAI, 2.9) and simulated reflectance data (LAI, 1.0) from a numerical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model (Myneni et al., 1988). While the ten-parameter model results in relatively low rms differences for the BRDF, most of the retrieved parameters exhibit poor stability. The most stable parameter was the single-scattering albedo of the vegetation. Canopy albedo could be derived with an accuracy of less than 5% relative error in the visible and less than 1% in the near-infrared. Sensitivity were performed to determine which of the 10 parameters were most important and to assess the effects of Gaussian noise on the parameter retrievals. Out of the 10 parameters, three were identified which described most of the BRDF variability. At low LAI values the most influential parameters were the single-scattering albedos (both soil and vegetation) and LAI, while at higher LAI values (greater than 2.5) these shifted to the two scattering phase function parameters for vegetation and the single-scattering albedo of the vegetation. The three-parameter model, formed by fixing the seven least significant parameters, gave higher rms values but was less sensitive to noise in the BRDF than the full ten-parameter model. A full hemispherical reflectance data set for lawn was then interpolated to yield BRDF values corresponding to advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) scan geometries collected over a period of nine days. The resulting parameters and BRDFs are similar to those for the

  11. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  12. Lower doses venlafaxine-associated toxic hepatitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, I.; Sahin, I.; Ozcetin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis is observed with high doses of Venlafaxine. But toxic hepatitis has not been yet reported at lower doses of Venlafaxine such as 37.5 mg per day. In this case report, a case of Venlafaxine associated toxic hepatitis with lower doses in patient with history of chronic hepatitis is presented. We suggest that liver function should be regularly monitored in patients with history of chronic hepatitis receiving Venlafaxine even at lower doses and even when their liver enzymes are normal. (author)

  13. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  14. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  15. Power and limitation of soil properties as predictors of rangeland health and ecosystem functioning in a Northern mixed-grass prairie[Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil properties are thought to affect rangeland ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity, hydrology), and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with key ecosystem functions may be general indicators of rangeland health. We summarize results from several studies in mixed-grass...

  16. Functional analysis of miR-181a and Fas involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis

  17. Functional analysis of miR-181a and Fas involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua, E-mail: tanghua86162003@aliyun.com

    2015-02-15

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis.

  18. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  19. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  20. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in nephrology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaing, Lionel; Izopet, Jacques; Kamar, Nassim

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic liver disease, but also to extra-hepatic manifestations. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Herein, we provide an overview of renal diseases related to HCV and their therapies, as well as the treatment options available for HCV (+)/RNA (+) dialysis patients. We will not mention, however, HCV infection-related complications in the post-kidney transplantation setting. Extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV infection include mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, and renal disease. HCV infection has been reported in association with distinct histological patterns of glomerulonephritis in native kidneys.

  3. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jie; Zhao Naiqin; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun; Nash, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application

  4. Tunable properties of novel tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines from mixed amines: Synthesis, characterization and curing kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Tiantian; Wang, Jun; Pan, Lan; Derradji, Mehdi; Ramdani, Noureddine; Liu, Wenbin; Zhou, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines with tunable properties. • Cure reaction could be successfully described with the autocatalytic model. • The benzoxazines show an excellent heat resistance with T_g of 291–307 °C. • The benzoxazines exhibit good thermal stability with T_5 over 340 °C. - Abstract: A series of tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines containing both flexible linear aliphatic chain and rigid aromatic structure in their backbones were synthesized using mixed amines such as aniline and n-octylamine, 2,7-dihydroxy-9,9-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene (THPF) and paraformaldehyde as raw materials via Mannich reaction. The prepared benzoxazine monomers were identified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ("1H NMR). In addition, the curing behavior, curing kinetics and rheological properties of these monomers as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of their cured resins were studied using a rheometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and dynamic thermomechanical analyzer (DMA). The newly developed benzoxazines show good processibility, excellent thermal stability and high glass transition temperature (T_g) values ranging from 291 to 307 °C. By varying the proportion of n-octylamine to aniline, the properties of these resins are tuned.

  5. Reinforcing copper matrix composites through molecular-level mixing of functionalized nanodiamond by co-deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Zhao Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)], E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn; Shi Chunsheng; Du Xiwen; Li Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 30072 (China); Nash, Philip [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-08-25

    This work reports a chemical method called 'co-deposition route' for fabricating ND (nanodiamond)/Cu composite at a molecular-level mixing. The main procedure of 'co-deposition route' includes four steps. ND particles have been functionalized by HF acid before co-deposition. SEM, HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectrum analysis) and optical microscope were carried out to characterize the as-prepared composite powders and bulk composites. Results indicated that copper matrix composite with a homogeneous dispersion of functionalized ND particles can be prepared. The modification of ND particles was performed by HF (30 vol%) acid at 70 deg. C, and C-F bond was successfully detected by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrum) and IR (Infrared spectroscopy). The properties of relative density, microhardness and electric conductivity of ND/Cu composites have been measured. With the comparison of conventional methods, it showed that the as-prepared ND/Cu composites with good combined performances have a promising future for industry application.

  6. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  7. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  8. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  9. Using the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Model to Understand Viral Polymerase Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sesmero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral polymerases replicate and transcribe the genomes of several viruses of global health concern such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Ebola virus. For this reason they are key targets for therapies to treat viral infections. Although there is little sequence similarity across the different types of viral polymerases, all of them present a right-hand shape and certain structural motifs that are highly conserved. These features allow their functional properties to be compared, with the goal of broadly applying the knowledge acquired from studying specific viral polymerases to other viral polymerases about which less is known. Here we review the structural and functional properties of the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B in order to understand the fundamental processes underlying the replication of viral genomes. We discuss recent insights into the process by which RNA replication occurs in NS5B as well as the role that conformational changes play in this process.

  10. Altered regional homogeneity in the development of minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about how spontaneous brain activity progresses from non-hepatic encephalopathy (non-HE to minimal HE (MHE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution pattern of spontaneous brain activities in cirrhotic patients using resting-state fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI data were acquired in 47 cirrhotic patients (minimal HE [MHE], n = 20, and non-HE, n = 27 and 25 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity. The regional homogeneity maps were compared with ANOVA tests among MHE, non-HE, and healthy control groups and t-tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationships between regional ReHo values and Child-Pugh scores, number connection test type A (NCT-A, digit symbol test (DST scores, venous blood ammonia levels. Compared with healthy controls, both MHE and non-HE patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and increased ReHo in the bilateral caudate. Compared with the non-HE, MHE patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus and supplementary motor area (SMA. The NCT-A of cirrhotic patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the precuneus, cuneus and lingual gyrus. DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the cuneus, precuneus and lingual gyrus, and negatively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral caudate (P<0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Diffused abnormal homogeneity of baseline brain activity was nonspecific for MHE, and only the progressively decreased ReHo in the SMA and the cuneus, especially for the latter, might be associated with the development of MHE. The ReHo analysis may be potentially valuable for detecting the development from non-HE to MHE.

  11. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. → Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. → PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  12. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  13. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  14. Community proteomics provides functional insight into polyhydroxyalkanoate production by a mixed microbial culture cultivated on fermented dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Guho, Nicholas M; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bio-based, biodegradable polyesters that can be produced from organic-rich waste streams using mixed microbial cultures (MMCs). To maximize PHA production, MMCs are enriched for bacteria with a high polymer storage capacity through the application of aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which consequently induces a feast-famine metabolic response. Though the feast-famine response is generally understood empirically at a macro-level, the molecular level is less refined. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial community composition and proteome profile of an enriched MMC cultivated on fermented dairy manure. The enriched MMC exhibited a feast-famine response and was capable of producing up to 40 % (wt. basis) PHA in a fed-batch reactor. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a microbial community dominated by Meganema, a known PHA-producing genus not often observed in high abundance in enrichment SBRs. The application of the proteomic methods two-dimensional electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS revealed PHA synthesis, energy generation, and protein synthesis prominently occurring during the feast phase, corroborating bulk solution variable observations and theoretical expectations. During the famine phase, nutrient transport, acyl-CoA metabolism, additional energy generation, and housekeeping functions were more pronounced, informing previously under-determined MMC functionality under famine conditions. During fed-batch PHA production, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and PHA granule-bound phasin proteins were in increased abundance relative to the SBR, supporting the higher PHA content observed. Collectively, the results provide unique microbial community structural and functional insight into feast-famine PHA production from waste feedstocks using MMCs.

  15. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  16. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  17. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook

    1987-01-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  18. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  19. The effect of TACE plus PSE on the liver function of hepatic cancer with portal hypertension and hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhenglong; Jin Hongxian; Cheng Yongde; Zhan Yingjiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus partial spleen embolization (PSE) on the liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 85 patients with HCC complicated with portal hypertension and hypersplenism, including group A 45 patients with treatment of TACE plus PSE and group B 40 patients with single TACE were observed. The liver function was evaluated with Child Pugh scores before and after the procedure. Results: There was no difference in the levels of TBIL, ALT, ALB and Child Pugh scores between groups A and B (P>0.05) but remarkable change after therapy was shown at one week later (P<0.05, P<0.01). The liver function tests showed remarkable improvement in the TACE plus PSE group. Conclusion: TACE combined with PSE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with HCC associated with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hypersplenism. (authors)

  20. Mixed functional monomers-based monolithic adsorbent for the effective extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhu, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-01-05

    Effective extraction is a key step in the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) in complicated samples. According to the chemical properties of SUHs, a new monolithic adsorbent utilizing acrylamidophenylboronic acid and vinylimidazole as mixed functional monomers was synthesized. The new adsorbent was employed as the extraction phase of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) of SUHs, and the extracted SUHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results well evidence that the prepared adsorbent could extract SUHs in environmental waters and soil effectively through multiply interactions such as boronate affinity, dipole-dipole and π-π interactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the limits of detection for target SUHs in environmental water and soil samples were 0.018-0.17μg/L and 0.14-1.23μg/kg, respectively. At the same time, the developed method also displayed some analytical merits including wide linear dynamic ranges, good method reproducibility, satisfactory sensitivity and low consume of organic solvent. Finally, the developed were successfully applied to monitor trace SUHs in environmental water and soil samples. The recoveries at three fortified concentrations were in the range of 70.6-119% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The obtained results well demonstrate the excellent practical applicability of the developed MMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD method for the monitoring of SUHs in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A guide to developing resource selection functions from telemetry data using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Koper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource selection functions (RSF are often developed using satellite (ARGOS or Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry datasets, which provide a large amount of highly correlated data. We discuss and compare the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM and generalized estimating equations (GEE for using this type of data to develop RSFs. GLMMs directly model differences among caribou, while GEEs depend on an adjustment of the standard error to compensate for correlation of data points within individuals. Empirical standard errors, rather than model-based standard errors, must be used with either GLMMs or GEEs when developing RSFs. There are several important differences between these approaches; in particular, GLMMs are best for producing parameter estimates that predict how management might influence individuals, while GEEs are best for predicting how management might influence populations. As the interpretation, value, and statistical significance of both types of parameter estimates differ, it is important that users select the appropriate analytical method. We also outline the use of k-fold cross validation to assess fit of these models. Both GLMMs and GEEs hold promise for developing RSFs as long as they are used appropriately.

  2. Metabolism of benzene and phenol by a reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 and the electron-donor, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were isolated from phenobarbital induced rat liver microsomes. Both benzene and its primary metabolite phenol, were substrates for the reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system. Benzene was metabolized to phenol and the polyhydroxylated metabolites; catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4 benzenetriol. Benzene elicited a Type I spectral change upon its interaction with the cytochrome P-450 while phenol's interaction with the cytochrome P-450 produced a reverse Type I spectra. The formation of phenol showed a pH optimum of 7.0 compared with 6.6-6.8 for the production of the polyhyrdoxylated metabolites. Cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, such as metyrapone and SKF 525A, diminished the production of phenol from benzene but not the production of the polyhydroxylated metabolites from phenol. The radical trapping agents, DMSO, KTBA and mannitol, decreased the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites, from 14 C-labeled benzene and/or phenol. As KTBA and DMSO interacted with OH. There was a concomitant release of ethylene and methane, which was measured. Desferrioxamine, an iron-chelator and catalase also depressed the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites. In summary, benzene and phenol were both substrates for this reconstituted purified enzyme system, but they differed in binding to cytochrome P-450, pH optima and mode of hydroxylation

  3. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalo, Marta; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carretero, Marta; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Alejandra; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Lai, Michael M.C.; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH 2 -terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  4. Functional and toxicological consequences of metabolic bioactivation of methapyrilene via thiophene S-oxidation: Induction of cell defence, apoptosis and hepatic necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, Amy E.; Regan, Sophie L.; Hirst, Charlotte M.; Graham, Emma E.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Benson, Craig A.; Williams, Dominic P.; Foster, John; Kenna, J. Gerry; Park, B. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Methapyrilene, [N,N-dimethyl-N'-pyridyl-N'(2-thienylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine] (MP) was withdrawn from, clinical use due to reported periportal hepatic necrosis and hepatocarcinogenicity in the rat, via S-oxidation of the thiophene group. In this study MP is used as a model hepatotoxin to further characterise the functional consequences of S-oxidation of the thiophene group in vivo, in rat models and in vitro, in freshly isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. In vivo histological studies revealed the early depletion of glutathione (GSH), which was confined to the damaged periportal area, in contrast to an increase in GSH levels in the centrilobular region. Additionally, the induction of cell defence was demonstrated by an increase in the protein levels of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) in vivo. Histological examination demonstrated that cytotoxicity progresses initially via apoptosis before an increase in necrosis over the 3-day administration. An apoptotic-like mechanism was observed in vitro via the measurement of cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a complex pathway of MP-induced hepatotoxicity which progresses through early adaptation, apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation, all underpinned by the zonal induction and depletion of GSH within the liver.

  5. Differential functions of C- and N-terminal hepatitis B x protein in liver cells treated with doxorubicin in normoxic or hypoxic condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Kin-Fan Chau

    Full Text Available Hepatitis viral B x protein (HBx, a hepatocarcinogen, is frequently mutated. Hypoxia influences the growth of HCC and also the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatments. We aimed to test the role of HBx and acute hypoxia in the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we established 4 Chang liver cell lines with the full-length HBx (HBx, the first 50 amino acids of N-terminal HBx (HBx/50, the last 104 amino acids of C-terminal HBx (HBx/51 and empty vector (CL, respectively. MTT and TNUEL assays were used to assess cell viability and apoptosis respectively. Western blot was used to determine the expression of relevant proteins. Results showed that among 4 cell lines, doxorubicin was most effective in decreasing the viability and enhancing apoptosis in HBx/51 cells, while HBx/50 cells were most resistant to the treatment. Cells in hypoxia were more susceptible to doxorubicin than cells in normoxia. Hypoxia facilitated the Bid cleavage especially in HBx/51 cells via phosphorylating p38 MAPK. p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the tBid level and increased cell viability. In conclusion, N-terminal HBx and C-terminal HBx function differentially in their ability to regulate cell growth, with the former being promotive but the latter being inhibitory. The acute hypoxia may overcome the HBx-induced resistance and facilitate the chemotherapy.

  6. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H

    2010-10-01

    Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T1-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku

    1995-01-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T 1 -weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T 1 W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186±0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987±0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p 2 -weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239±0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174±0.097) (p 15 (r=0.501, p 1 -WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author)

  8. Hepatic acute-phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F.; Trautwein, C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  9. Hepatic acute phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, Leif E.; Dutton Sackett, Sara; Dierssen, Uta; Beraza, Naiara; Linke, Reinhold P.; Muller, Michael; Magarian Blander, Julie; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  10. Preparation of polymer monolithic column functionalized by arsonic acid groups for mixed-mode capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhang-Na; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Wang, Ren-Qi; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2018-04-27

    A mixed-mode polymer monolithic column functionalized by arsonic acid groups was prepared by single-step in situ copolymerization of monomers p-methacryloylaminophenylarsonic acid (p-MAPHA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). The prepared poly(p-MAPHA-co-PETA) monolithic column has a homogeneous monolithic structure with good permeability and mechanical stability. Zeta potential measurements reveal that the monolithic stationary phase holds a negative surface charge when the mobile phase resides in the pH range of 3.0-8.0. The retention mechanisms of prepared monolithic column are explored by the separation of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nucleosides, and three basic compounds. The results indicate that the column functions in three different separation modes associated with reversed-phase chromatography based on hydrophobic interaction, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, and cation-exchange chromatography. The column efficiency of prepared monolithic column is estimated to be 70,000 and 76,000 theoretical plates/m for thiourea and naphthalene, respectively, at a linear flow velocity of 0.85 mm/s using acetonitrile/H 2 O (85/15, v/v) as the mobile phase. Furthermore, an analysis of the retention factors obtained for the PAHs indicates that the prepared monolithic column exhibits good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of 2.9%, 4.0%, and 4.7% based on run-to-run injections, column-to-column preparation, and batch-to-batch preparation, respectively. Finally, we investigate the separation performance of the proposed monolithic column for select phenols, sulfonamides, nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymorphisms in IRG1 gene associated with immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population and function to restrain the HBV life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiao-Pan; Zhu, Xi-Lin; Pan, Li-Ping; Li, Tao; Yan, Bing-Yu; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extensively used as an effective method to prevent HBV infection. However, nearly 10% of healthy adults fail to produce a protective level of antibodies against the hepatitis B vaccine, and multiple genetic variants are known to affect the immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) gene and the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the IRG1 gene were genotyped in 1230 high-responders and 451 non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. The SNPs rs17470171 and rs17385627 were associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination (P = 0.014 and 0.029, respectively). In addition, the haplotypes G-A-A-A (rs614171-rs17470171-rs9530614-rs17385627, P = 0.0042, OR = 0.68) and A-A (rs17470171-rs17385627, P = 0.0065, OR = 0.72) exerted a protective role in the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. Allele 'A' of rs17470171 and allele 'A' of rs17385627 show higher levels of expression for the IRG1 gene compared with allele 'C' of rs17470171 and allele 'T' of rs17385627 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter and overexpression assays. In addition, we observed that IRG1 inhibited the HBV life cycle and that IRG1 rs17385627 allele 'A' was more effective than rs17385627 allele 'T' at eliminating HBV in HepG2.2.15 cells. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the IRG1 gene are associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. The antiviral effect of IRG1 was confirmed using HBV infection cell models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The use of a continuous-action centrifugal-screw mixer for improving the quality of flour baking mixes for functional purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Borodulin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of screw turns of a centrifugal-screw mixer, the number of holes in the screw turns and the rotor speed on the quality of mixing of flour baking mixes of functional purpose enriched with amino acids was studied. Flour baking mix is composed of wheat flour, whole wheat flour, chickpeas flour, rye flour, buckwheat flour, oat bran, gluten, dry milk powder, sesame seeds, flax seed, dried onions, table salt and sugar. The homogeneity of the mixture reflects table salt because it has a minimal weight relative to other components of the mix. The coefficient of heterogeneity was calculated to assess the quality of mixing. The centrifugal-screw mixer optimal operation parameters were investigated for different flour baking mixes. For the mix № 1 and mix № 2 optimal parameters are rotor rotating speed of 900 rpm, the number of turns of the screw 4 and the number of holes on the threads of the screw 4. For the mix № 3 optimal parameters are rotor speed of 500 rpm, the number of turns of the screw 2 and the number of holes on the threads of the screw 8. The centrifugal–screw mixer allow to obtain enriched with amino acids flour baking mix of good quality. The coefficient of heterogeneity of mixes does not exceed 5%. For all samples of bread amino acid content is significantly higher compared to the control sample. Depending on the bread recipe contents of amino acids increased by 83–97% for arginine, 52–61% for tyrosine, 52–66% for phenylalanine, 72–74% for histidine, 91% for leucine+ isoleucine, 53–56% for methionine, 90–97% for valine, 64–72% for proline, 87–93% for threonine, 58–87% for serine and 74% for alanine. The greatest biological value is attributed to flour the baking mix № 1 and № 2. The economic effect of selling an enriched flour bakery mixture prepared on a centrifugal–screw mixer has been determined. It is established that the operating costs for the production of 1 kg of such

  13. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  14. Analysis of Nonequivalent Assessments across Different Linguistic Groups Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Understanding the Causes of Differential Item Functioning by Cognitive Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) can undermine the validity of cross-lingual comparisons. While a lot of efficient statistics for detecting DIF are available, few general findings have been found to explain DIF results. The objective of the article was to study DIF sources by using a mixed method design. The design involves a quantitative phase…

  15. Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix for cluster tool workstations using EPT-based aggregate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, C.P.L.; Etman, L.F.P.; Herk, van J.; Rooda, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the mean cycle time as a function of throughput and product mix is helpful in making the production planning for cluster tools. To predict the mean cycle time, detailed simulation models may be used. However, detailed models require much development time, and it may not be possible to

  16. Pure- and mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separation properties of PIM-1 and an amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja; Ghanem, Bader; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    to the design and evaluation of PIMs for economical natural gas sweetening is a high and stable CO2/CH4 selectivity under realistic, mixed-gas conditions. Here, amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1 (AO-PIM-1) was prepared and examined for fundamental structure

  17. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-κB in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-κB expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that in the OG

  18. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  19. Hepatic and renal function with successful long-term support on a continuous flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Salil V; Sharma, Vikas; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Hasin, Tal; Dillon, John; Shah, Ishan K; Durham, Lucian A; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Park, Soon J

    2014-03-01

    Data regarding the long-term clinical effects of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) on hepato-renal function is limited. Hence our aim was to assess changes in hepato-renal function over a one-year period in patients supported on a CF-LVAD. During the study period 126 patients underwent CF-LVAD implant. Changes in hepato-renal laboratory parameters were studied in 61/126 patients successfully supported on a CF-LVAD for period of one year. A separate cohort of a high-risk group (HCrB) of patients (56/126) with a serum creat>1.9 mg/dL (168 μmol/L) (75th percentile) or a serum bil>1.5 mg/dL (25.65 μmol/L) (75th percentile) was created. Changes in serum creatinine and bilirubin were analysed at regular intervals for this group along with the need for renal replacement therapy. Baseline creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the entire cohort was 1.4[1.2,1.9 mg/dL] [123.7(106,168) μmol/L) and 27[20,39.5 mg/dL] [9.6(7.1,14.1) mmol/L] respectively. After an initial reduction at the end of one month [1(0.8,1.2) mg/dL; 88(70,105) μmol/L] (passist device support for one year. High-risk patients demonstrate a higher 30-day mortality and temporary need for renal replacement therapy. Yet even in this cohort, improvement is present over a period of one year on the device, with a minimal need for permanent haemodialysis. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  2. Study of the response to neutrons of a personal dosemeter in mixed fields (n, γ) in function of Hp(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzate, J.; Gregori, B.; Carelli, J.; Aguerre, L.; Discacciatti, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work it is presented the theoretical study and their experimental validation of the answer of the personal dosimetro in terms of the component of neutrons of the personal equivalent dose Hpn(10) in function of the energy, in presence of fields of neutrons and range. The personal dosimetro, based on detecting termoluminiscentes (TLD), it consists of two detectors 7LiF and two 6LiF, located low filters of plastic and cadmium starting from whose information is evaluated the component range and of neutrons of the dose. Additionally it consists of a detecting CaF2, used basically to discriminate against the energy of the component range and to make the corresponding corrections on the evaluation of the dose range obtained with the 7LiF. The answer to neutrons in function of the energy, defined as the quotient among the one I number of reactions 6Li(n, a)4He taken place in each TLD and the Hpn(10), it was calculated using the code MCNPX and the library ENDF/B-VI. You model the dosimetro under the irradiation conditions proposed by the ISO8529-3. Faces monoenergeticos were simulated in the range of energy understood between 70 keV and 5 MeV. The dispersion in each one of the results of the simulation is smaller than 3%. You I study the existent relationship among the answer te6rica, reactions (n,a)/Hpn(10) and the experimental one, nC/Hpn(10), for a given thermal treatment. The factor of resulting conversion is constant in the energy and similar to 1,71 104 reacciones(n, a)/nC, with a smaller standard deviation to 10%. The experimental answer was obtained starting from the irradiations carried out in the mark of the International Intercomparacion of Dosimetria in Mixed Campos (n,) 2004 organized by the OIEA next to the PTB (Germany) and the IRSN (France). The extension of these calculations to other spectra of neutrons of fields real they will allow to obtain group of factors of application conversion in routine and accidental situations. (Author)

  3. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  4. The influence of chronic intake of saccharin on rat hepatic and pancreatic function and morphology: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana M. Andrejić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are opposite hypotheses on the effect of saccharin. Our aim was reviewing the influence of chronically ingested saccharin on the function and histological structure of liver and pancreas and all this in light of gender differences.The rats were divided into control group – (Group C and saccharin-treated group – (Group S which was given a normal diet and 0.0005% saccharin in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver and pancreas were histologically processed and quantitative histological analysis was performed. Glucose blood levels and plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT, body weight, and food intake were analyzed.Quantitative histological analysis determined that the values of diameter and volume density of both Langerhans islets and exocrine acini were significantly higher in S group, especially in males. AST levels were significantly higher in treated group. Glucose levels were higher in treated group, mainly due to the values of the female subgroup. Food intake was significantly higher in control group, while weight gain was higher in treated group. Treated males had significantly higher food intake and weight gain in comparison with treated females.The data presented here suggests that chronic saccharin intake affects the examined parameters. Reported facts reflect various metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in males and females.

  5. Impairment of Hepatic and Renal Functions by 2,5-Hexanedione Is Accompanied by Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac A. Adedara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD is the toxic metabolite of n-hexane which is widely used as solvent in numerous industries. The present study elucidated the precise mechanism of 2,5-HD in hepatorenal toxicity by determining the involvement of oxidative stress in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% 2,5-HD in drinking water for 21 days. Exposure to 2,5-HD caused liver and kidney atrophy evidenced by significant elevation in serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and electrolytes levels compared with control. The marked dose-dependent increase in total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL was accompanied with significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in 2,5-HD-exposed animals when compared with the control. Administration of 2,5-HD significantly diminished glutathione (GSH level but increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST concomitantly with marked elevation in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in liver and kidney of the treated groups compared with control. These findings suggest that undue exposure to 2,5-HD at environmentally relevant levels may impair liver and kidney functions through induction of oxidative stress.

  6. Novel function of the endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins in the human hepatitis B virus life cycle, mediated by the middle envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Catalin; Uta, Mihaela; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-02-01

    Cells replicating the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) express high levels of degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs), a family of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, one of the pathways activated during the unfolded protein response. Owing to their α-1,2 mannosidase activity, the EDEM1-3 proteins are able to process the N-linked glycans of misfolded or incompletely folded proteins, providing the recognition signal for their subsequent degradation. The HBV small (S), medium (M), and large (L) surface proteins bear an N-linked glycosylation site in the common S domain that is partially occupied in all proteins. The M protein contains an additional site in its preS2 domain, which is always functional. Here, we report that these oligosaccharides are processed by EDEMs, more efficiently by EDEM3, which induces degradation of L and S proteins, accompanied by a reduction of subviral particles production. In striking contrast, M not only is spared from degradation but its trafficking is also accelerated leading to an improved secretion. This unusual behavior of the M protein requires strictly the mannose trimming of the preS2 N-linked glycan. Furthermore, we show that HBV secretion is significantly inhibited under strong endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions when M expression is prevented by mutagenesis of the viral genome. These observations unfold unique properties of the M protein in the HBV life cycle during unfolded protein response and point to alternative mechanisms employed by EDEMs to alleviate this stress in case of necessity by promoting glycoprotein trafficking rather than degradation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and the activities of respiratory chain-related enzymes in ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M

    2005-10-01

    1. One hundred and sixty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were fed with maize-soybean based diets for 6 weeks in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The factors were CoQ10 supplementation (0 or 40 mg/kg) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (LPS or saline). 2. CoQ10 was supplemented from d 1. From d 18, the chickens received three weekly i.p. injections of LPS (1.0 mg/kg BW) or an equivalent amount of sterile saline as control. From d 10 on, all chickens were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 15 degrees C) to induce ascites. 3. The blood packed cell volume and ascites heart index of broiler chickens were reduced by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. Mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration, respiratory control ratio and phosphate oxygen ratio were not changed, but H+/site stoichiometry of complex II + III was elevated by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. 4. Cytochrome c oxidase and H+-ATPase activity were increased by CoQ10 supplementation, whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase and succinate cytochrome c reductase were not influenced. Mitochondrial anti-ROS capability was increased and malondialdehyde content was decreased by CoQ10 supplementation. 5. The work suggested that dietary CoQ10 supplementation could reduce broiler chickens' susceptibility to ascites, which might be the result of improving hepatic mitochondrial function, some respiratory chain-related enzymes activities and mitochondrial antioxidative capability.

  8. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T{sub 1}-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T{sub 1} W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186{+-}0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987{+-}0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p<0.001), while T{sub 2}-weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239{+-}0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174{+-}0.097) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and deterioration of ICG R{sub 15} (r=0.501, p<0.005), prolongation of prothrombine time (r=-0.392, p<0.05) and decrease of choline esterase (r=-0.336, p<0.05). There was, however, little correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and ammonia and Fisher ratio. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between high intensity of globus pallidus on T{sub 1}-WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author).

  9. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.; Schaefer, Ulf; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava Seshadri; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Christoffels, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers

  10. Toolbox for non-intrusive structural and functional analysis of recombinant VLP based vaccines: a case study with hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke M Mulder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fundamental to vaccine development, manufacturing consistency, and product stability is an understanding of the vaccine structure-activity relationship. With the virus-like particle (VLP approach for recombinant vaccines gaining popularity, there is growing demand for tools that define their key characteristics. We assessed a suite of non-intrusive VLP epitope structure and function characterization tools by application to the Hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg VLP-based vaccine. METHODOLOGY: The epitope-specific immune reactivity of rHBsAg epitopes to a given monoclonal antibody was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR and quantitatively analyzed on rHBsAg VLPs in-solution or bound to adjuvant with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The structure of recombinant rHBsAg particles was examined by cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM and in-solution atomic force microscopy (AFM. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SPR and competitive ELISA determined relative antigenicity in solution, in real time, with rapid turn-around, and without the need of dissolving the particulate aluminum based adjuvant. These methods demonstrated the nature of the clinically relevant epitopes of HBsAg as being responsive to heat and/or redox treatment. In-solution AFM and cryoTEM determined vaccine particle size distribution, shape, and morphology. Redox-treated rHBsAg enabled 3D reconstruction from CryoTEM images--confirming the previously proposed octahedral structure and the established lipid-to-protein ratio of HBsAg particles. Results from these non-intrusive biophysical and immunochemical analyses coalesced into a comprehensive understanding of rHBsAg vaccine epitope structure and function that was important for assuring the desired epitope formation, determinants for vaccine potency, and particle stability during vaccine design, development, and manufacturing. SIGNIFICANCE: Together, the methods presented here comprise a novel

  11. Targeted therapy for human hepatic carcinoma cells using folate-functionalized polymeric micelles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide and sorafenib in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1 Faming Gong,2 Fang Zhang,3 Jing Ma,1 Peidong Zhang,1 Jun Shen3 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 2PCFM Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of targeted folate-functionalized micelles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and sorafenib on human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2 cells in vitro, and to observe the feasibility of surveillance of this targeting therapeutic effect by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Sorafenib and SPIONs were loaded into polymeric micelles. The targeted nanocarrier was synthesized by functionalizing the micelles with folate. Folate-free micelles loaded with sorafenib and SPIONs were used as control (nontargeted micelles. Uptake of the nanocarrier by cells was assessed using Prussian blue staining after 1 hour of incubation with the polymeric micelles. The inhibitory effect of the targeted micelles on HepG2 cell proliferation at various concentrations of sorafenib was assessed in vitro using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and apoptotic analysis using flow cytometry. Magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 1.5 T scanner was performed to detect changes in the signal intensity of cells after incubation with the targeted micelles. Results: Prussian blue staining showed significantly more intracellular SPIONs in cells incubated with the targeted micelles than those incubated with nontargeted micelles. The MTT assay showed that the average inhibitory ratio in the targeted group was significantly higher than that in the nontargeted group (38.13% versus 22.54%, P = 0.028. The mean apoptotic rate in the targeted cells, nontargeted cells, and untreated cells was 17.01%, 11.04%, and 7.89%, respectively. The apoptotic rate in the

  12. No oxygen delivery limitation in hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    to choose between cause and effect in three groups of volunteers, including healthy control subjects (HC), patients with cirrhosis of the liver without hepatic encephalopathy (CL), and patients with cirrhosis with acute hepatic encephalopathy. Compared to HC subjects, blood flow and energy metabolism had......Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of reduced brain functioning in which both blood flow and brain energy metabolism declined. It is not known whether blood flow or metabolism is the primary limiting factor of brain function in this condition. We used calculations of mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  13. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  14. Hypercalcemia due to Primary Hepatic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old female with a history of mixed connective tissue disease and pulmonary fibrosis on azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisone (osteoporosis on teriparatide presented with a 1-month history of hypercalcemia. After discontinuation of teriparatide, the patient’s hypercalcemia persisted. Further evaluation revealed primary hepatic lymphoma as the source of her hypercalcemia.

  15. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main...... production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  16. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  17. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  18. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  19. The effect of adding fish oil to parenteral nutrition on hepatic mononuclear cell function and survival after intraportal bacterial challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Ikezawa, Fumie; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Miyazaki, Masaru; Hase, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Junji

    2012-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indispensable for meeting caloric and substrate needs of patients who cannot receive adequate amounts of enteral nutrition; however, PN impairs hepatic immunity. We examined the effects of ω-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, added individually to fat-free PN, on hepatic immunity in a murine model. We focused on serum liver enzymes, cytokine production, histopathology, and the outcomes after intraportal bacterial challenge. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized into 4 groups; ad libitum chow (CHOW), fat-free PN (FF-PN), PN + fish oil (FO-PN), or PN + safflower oil (SO-PN). After the mice had been fed for 5 days, hepatic mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated. The number of MNCs was counted and cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and interleukin [IL]-10) by hepatic MNCs in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured. Blood samples were analyzed for hepatobiliary biochemical parameters. Moreover, 1.0 × 10(7) pseudomonas aeruginosa were delivered by intraportal injection. Survival and histology were examined. Hepatic MNC numbers were significantly less in the FO-PN and FF-PN than in the CHOW group, whereas the SO-PN group showed moderate recovery of hepatic MNC numbers. The CHOW, FO-PN, and SO-PN groups showed LPS dose-dependent increases in TNF-α levels. These increases were blunted in the FF-PN group. IL-10 levels were increased LPS dose-dependently in the CHOW and FO-PN groups, but no marked changes were observed with LPS stimulation in the SO-PN and FF-PN groups. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly greater in the FF-PN than in the FO- and SO-PN and CHOW groups. The FO-PN group showed significantly improved survival compared with the SO-PN and FF-PN groups, showing essentially no morphologic hepatic abnormalities. Addition of fish oil to PN was advantageous in terms of reversing PN-induced deterioration of hepatic

  20. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  1. Novel nucleotide and amino acid covariation between the 5'UTR and the NS2/NS3 proteins of hepatitis C virus: bioinformatic and functional analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Molecular covariation of highly polymorphic viruses is thought to have crucial effects on viral replication and fitness. This study employs association rule data mining of hepatitis C virus (HCV sequences to search for specific evolutionary covariation and then tests functional relevance on HCV replication. Data mining is performed between nucleotides in the untranslated regions 5' and 3'UTR, and the amino acid residues in the non-structural proteins NS2, NS3 and NS5B. Results indicate covariance of the 243(rd nucleotide of the 5'UTR with the 14(th, 41(st, 76(th, 110(th, 211(th and 212(th residues of NS2 and with the 71(st, 175(th and 621(st residues of NS3. Real-time experiments using an HCV subgenomic system to quantify viral replication confirm replication regulation for each covariant pair between 5'UTR₂₄₃ and NS2-41, -76, -110, -211, and NS3-71, -175. The HCV subgenomic system with/without the NS2 region shows that regulatory effects vanish without NS2, so replicative modulation mediated by HCV 5'UTR₂₄₃ depends on NS2. Strong binding of the NS2 variants to HCV RNA correlates with reduced HCV replication whereas weak binding correlates with restoration of HCV replication efficiency, as determined by RNA-protein immunoprecipitation assay band intensity. The dominant haplotype 5'UTR₂₄₃-NS2-41-76-110-211-NS3-71-175 differs according to the HCV genotype: G-Ile-Ile-Ile-Gly-Ile-Met for genotype 1b and A-Leu-Val-Leu-Ser-Val-Leu for genotypes 1a, 2a and 2b. In conclusion, 5'UTR₂₄₃ co-varies with specific NS2/3 protein amino acid residues, which may have significant structural and functional consequences for HCV replication. This unreported mechanism involving HCV replication possibly can be exploited in the development of advanced anti-HCV medication.

  2. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  3. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ...

  6. Evolution of association between renal and liver functions while awaiting heart transplant: An application using a bivariate multiphase nonlinear mixed effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H; Barnard, John

    2018-07-01

    In many longitudinal follow-up studies, we observe more than one longitudinal outcome. Impaired renal and liver functions are indicators of poor clinical outcomes for patients who are on mechanical circulatory support and awaiting heart transplant. Hence, monitoring organ functions while waiting for heart transplant is an integral part of patient management. Longitudinal measurements of bilirubin can be used as a marker for liver function and glomerular filtration rate for renal function. We derive an approximation to evolution of association between these two organ functions using a bivariate nonlinear mixed effects model for continuous longitudinal measurements, where the two submodels are linked by a common distribution of time-dependent latent variables and a common distribution of measurement errors.

  7. Microalgae cultivation in air-lift reactors: modelling biomass yield and growth rate as a function of mixing frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa, M.J.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Ham, N.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The slow development of microalgal biotechnology stems from the failure in the design of large-scale photobioreactors where light energy is efficiently utilized. Due to the light gradient inside the reactor and depending on the mixing properties, algae are subjected to certain light/dark cycles

  8. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  9. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  10. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  11. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  12. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  13. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  14. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  16. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  17. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  18. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  19. Sortilin 1 Loss-of-Function Protects Against Cholestatic Liver Injury by Attenuating Hepatic Bile Acid Accumulation in Bile Duct Ligated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibiao; Woolbright, Benjamin L; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Matye, David; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Li, Tiangang

    2018-01-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 knockout (KO) mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after bile duct ligation (BDL), which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger BA pool size than sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic BA accumulation and smaller BA pool size. After 14 days BDL, Sort1 KO mice showed significantly lower hepatic BA concentration and reduced expression of inflammatory and fibrotic marker genes, but similar degree of liver fibrosis compared with WT mice. Unbiased quantitative proteomics revealed that Sort1 KO mice had increased hepatic BA sulfotransferase 2A1, but unaltered phase-I BA metabolizing cytochrome P450s or phase-III BA efflux transporters. Consistently, Sort1 KO mice showed elevated plasma sulfated taurocholate after BDL. Finally, we found that liver Sort1 was repressed after BDL, which may be due to BA activation of farnesoid x receptor. In conclusion, we report a role of Sort1 in the regulation of hepatic BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in mice. The mechanisms underlying increased hepatic BA elimination in Sort1 KO mice after BDL require further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  1. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  2. The Functional Fitness MOT Test Battery for Older Adults: Protocol for a Mixed-Method Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; Peters, Andy; Hooper, Julie; Chalmers, Nina; Henderson, Claire; Laventure, Robert Me; Skelton, Dawn A

    2016-06-20

    Increasing physical activity (PA) brings many health benefits, but engaging people in higher levels of PA after their 60s is not straightforward. The Functional Fitness MOT (FFMOT) is a new approach which aims to raise awareness about the importance of components of fitness (strength, balance, flexibility), highlight benefits of PA, engages older people in health behavior change discussions, and directs them to local activity resources. This battery of tests combined with a brief motivational interview has not been tested in terms of feasibility or effectiveness. To assess whether the FFMOT, provided in a health care setting, is appealing to older patients of a community physiotherapy service and to understand the views and perceptions of the older people undergoing the FFMOT regarding the intervention, as well as the views of the physiotherapy staff delivering the intervention. Secondary aims are to assess the feasibility of carrying out a phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial of the FFMOT, in the context of a community physiotherapy service, by establishing whether enough patients can be recruited and retained in the study, and enough outcome data can be generated. A mixed-methods feasibility study will be conducted in two physiotherapy outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom. A total of 30 physically inactive, medically stable older adults over the age of 60 will be provided with an individual FFMOT, comprising a set of six standardized, validated, age-appropriate tests aimed at raising awareness of the different components of fitness. The results of these tests will be used to provide the participants with feedback on performance in comparison to sex and age-referenced norms. This will be followed by tailored advice on how to become more active and improve fitness, including advice on local opportunities to be more active. Subsequently, participants will be invited to attend a focus group to discuss barriers and motivators to being more active, health

  3. Hepatitis Associated Aplastic Anemia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anemia in which pancytopenia appears two to three months after an acute attack of hepatitis. HAAA occurs most frequently in young male children and is lethal if leave untreated. The etiology of this syndrome is proposed to be attributed to various hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses. Several hepatitis viruses such as HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and HGV have been associated with this set of symptoms. Viruses other than the hepatitis viruses such as parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein bar virus, Transfusion Transmitted virus (TTV) and non-A-E hepatitis virus (unknown viruses) has also been documented to develop the syndrome. Considerable evidences including the clinical features, severe imbalance of the T cell immune system and effective response to immunosuppressive therapy strongly present HAAA as an immune mediated mechanism. However, no association of HAAA has been found with blood transfusions, drugs and toxins. Besides hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses and immunopathogenesis phenomenon as causative agents of the disorder, telomerase mutation, a genetic factor has also been predisposed for the development of aplastic anemia. Diagnosis includes clinical manifestations, blood profiling, viral serological markers testing, immune functioning and bone marrow hypocellularity examination. Patients presenting the features of HAAA have been mostly treated with bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched donor, and if not available then by immunosuppressive therapy. New therapeutic approaches involve the administration of steroids especially the glucocorticoids to augment the immunosuppressive therapy response. Pancytopenia following an episode of acute hepatitis response better to hematopoietic cell transplantation than immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:21352606

  4. Multiple periodic solutions to a class of second-order nonlinear mixed-type functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bao Shu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of variational structure and Z2 group index theory, we obtain multiple periodic solutions to a class of second-order mixed-type differential equations x''(t−τ+f(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=0 and x''(t−τ+λ(tf1(t,x(t,x(t−τ,x(t−2τ=x(t−τ.

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it ...

  6. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  7. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  8. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  9. Pure- and mixed-gas CO2/CH4 separation properties of PIM-1 and an amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-05-01

    The prototypical solution-processable polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, and derivatives thereof offer combinations of permeability and selectivity that make them potential candidate materials for membrane-based gas separations. Paramount to the design and evaluation of PIMs for economical natural gas sweetening is a high and stable CO2/CH4 selectivity under realistic, mixed-gas conditions. Here, amidoxime-functionalized PIM-1 (AO-PIM-1) was prepared and examined for fundamental structure/property relationships. Qualitative NLDFT pore-size distribution analyses of physisorption isotherms (N2 at -196 oC; CO2 at 0 oC) reveal a tightened microstructure indicating size-sieving ultra-microporosity (<7Å). AO-PIM-1 demonstrated a three-fold increase in αD(CO2/CH4) over PIM-1, surpassing the 2008 upper bound with P(CO2)=1153Barrer and ideal α(CO2/CH4)=34. Under a 50:50 CO2:CH4 mixed-gas feed, AO-PIM-1 showed less selectivity loss than PIM-1, maintaining a mixed-gas α(CO2/CH4) ~21 across a 20bar pressure range. Conversely, PIM-1 endured up to 60% increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability over pure-gas values concurrent with a selectivity of only ~8 at 20bar. A pervasive intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in AO-PIM-1 predominantly yields a rigidified microstructure that mitigates CO2-induced matrix dilations, reducing detrimental mixed-gas CH4 copermeation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Programs About Liver Disease Ask the Experts People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information ... that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS Brochures for Patients YOUR HEALTH & WELLNESS Nutrition TAKE ACTION Advocacy READ, WATCH, LISTEN Brochures Webinars ... Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... filtering everything that enters your body, such as food, drink and medicine. After your intestines break down ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ...

  15. [FUNCTION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION A, FIBRINOGEN BINDING PROTEIN, AND ACCUMULATION-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN GENES IN FORMATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-CANDIDA ALBICANS MIXED SPECIES BIOFILMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Youquan; Zhao, Guangqiang; Ye, Lianhua; Lei, Yujie; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of intercellular adhesion A (icaA), fibrinogen binding protein (fbe), and accumulation-associated protein (aap) genes in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed species biofilms. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: single culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC35984 (S. epidermidis group) or Candida albicans ATCC10231 (C. albicans group), and co-culture of two strains (mixed group) to build in vitro biofilm model. Biofilm mass was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after incubation. XTT assay was performed to determine the growth kinetics in the same time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the biofilms after 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The expressions of icaA, fbe, and aap genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilms thickened at 12 hours in the S. epidermidis and mixed groups; after co-cultured for 72 hours the thickness of biofilm in mixed group was more than that in the S. epidermidis group, and there was significant difference between 2 groups at the other time (P 0.05). In C. albicans group, the biofilm started to grow at 12 hours of cultivation, but the thickness of the biofilm was significantly lower than that in the mixed group in all the time points (P 0.05) except at 12 hours (P 0.05); the A value of mixed group was significantly higher than that of the C. albicans group after 6 hours (P biofilms with complex structure formed in all groups. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR showed the expressions of fbe, icaA, and aap genes in mixed group increased 1.93, 1.52, and 1.46 times respectively at 72 hours compared with the S. epidermidis group (P biofilms have more complex structure and are thicker than single species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Candida albicans, which is related to

  16. Improvement in ferroelectric properties of Pt/PZT/Pt capacitors etched as a function of Ar/O2 gas mixing ratio into Cl2/CF4 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Seong-Mo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Il

    2004-01-01

    In this work, to investigate improvement of the damage using oxygen containing plasma, we etched PZT films as a function of Ar (x%)/O 2 (y%) gas mixing ratio in Cl 2 (56%)/CF 4 (14%) plasma (where the sum of x and y is 30). The maximum etch rate of the PZT thin films was 146 nm/min for Ar (30%)/O 2 (0%) added into the Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma. After the etching, the plasma-induced damages were characterized in terms of hysteresis curves, leakage current, switching polarization and retention capacity as a function of the gas mixing ratio. When the ferroelectric properties of PZT films were etched as a function of O 2 and Ar and the gas mixing ratios were compared, the value of remnant polarization in O 2 (30%) added Cl 2 /CF 4 plasma is higher than that in Ar (30%). The results showed that after the etching the charges accumulated by oxygen vacancies prevented further domain switching at the top electrode-ferroelectric interface and created leakage current because of modification of the interfacial Schottky barrier during the etching process. The physical damage to the near surface and the crystal structure of the etched PZT thin films was evaluated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The remnant polarization, leakage current, retention and fatigue properties are improved with increasing O 2 content. From XRD results, the improvement in the ferroelectric properties of PZT capacitors etched in O 2 containing plasma was consistent with the increased intensities of the (100) and (200) peaks

  17. Hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Hirai, Y.; Koga, N.; Tomokuni, K.

    1983-01-01

    The hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal recovery of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/ was investigated with specific reference to the oxygen utilization of liver slices. In control rats, the major oxygen utilization of the liver slices was attributed to mitochondrial particles. Since the mitochondrial oxygen utilization was inhibited by cyanide, the microsomal oxygen utilization was induced by NADPH and phenobarbital (a substrate for microsomal mixed function oxidase). Changes in oxygen utilization were observed in the recovery course of rats intoxicated with CCl/sub 4/, and the recovery of mitochondria was found to be faster than that of microsomes. A sex difference was present in the recovery mechanism of the microsomes.

  18. Primary hepatic lymphoma presenting as fulminant hepatic failure with hyperferritinemia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Fyeza S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary hepatic lymphoma is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents with constitutional symptoms, hepatomegaly and signs of cholestatic jaundice. Diffuse hepatic infiltration is uncommon and presentation with acute hepatic failure even more rare. The presence of markedly elevated ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process and suggest alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a middle-aged woman exhibiting pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia and rapidly deteriorating to develop acute hepatic failure. Her initial clinical picture led to a working diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease with probable hemophagocytic syndrome before her worsening liver function necessitated a percutaneous liver biopsy and establishment of the final diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma. Conclusion Primary hepatic lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy and its manifestation as progressive hepatitis or acute fulminant hepatic failure can be difficult to diagnose. The presence of constitutional symptoms, pancytopenia and high ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process. A liver biopsy early in the course of liver dysfunction may establish the diagnosis without a higher risk of bleeding complications seen once liver failure sets in.

  19. Mixed-meal tolerance test versus glucagon stimulation test for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; McGee, Paula Friedenberg

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study...... Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects...

  20. A Fixed Point Approach to the Stability of a General Mixed AQCQ-Functional Equation in Non-Archimedean Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the fixed point methods, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the general mixed additive-quadratic-cubic-quartic functional equation f(x+ky+f(x−ky=k2f(x+y+k2f(x−y+2(1−k2f(x+((k4−k2/12[f(2y+f(−2y−4f(y−4f(−y] for a fixed integer k with k≠0,±1 in non-Archimedean normed spaces.

  1. Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties of a Mixed Bipyridyl-Phenanthrolyl Ligand Ru(II Heteroleptic Complex Having trans-2-Methyl-2-butenoic Acid Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two ligands: 4-(trans-2-Methyl-2-butenoic acid-2,2'-bipyridine (L1 and 5-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline (L2, with the corresponding mixed-ligand heteroleptic Ru(II complex were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The influence of the mixed functionalized polypyridyl ruthenium(II complex on the photophysical and electrochemical properties were investigated and compared to individual single-ligand homoleptic complexes. Interestingly, the mixed-ligand complex formulated as [RuL1L2(NCS2] exhibits broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient (λmax = 514 nm, ε = 69,700 M−1 cm−1, better than those of individual single-ligand complexes, [Ru(L12(NCS2] and [Ru(L22(NCS2], and a strong photoluminescence intensity ratio in the red region at λem = 686 nm. The electrochemical properties of the complex indicated that the redox processes are ligand-based.

  2. Hepatic infarction in HELLP syndrome; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hong [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    Hepatic infarction is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy-associated preeclampsia or HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) syndrome. We present a case of hepatic infarction subsequent to HELLP syndrome and occurring during the immediate postpartum, and the associated radiologic findings. Sonography revealed poorly defined hypoechoic zones of infarction. Computed tomography(CT) demonstrated the characteristic features of nonenhancing, low attenuation, relatively well-defined, wedge shaped or geographic hepatic lesions, without mass effect.

  3. Hepatic infarction in HELLP syndrome; a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic infarction is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy-associated preeclampsia or HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) syndrome. We present a case of hepatic infarction subsequent to HELLP syndrome and occurring during the immediate postpartum, and the associated radiologic findings. Sonography revealed poorly defined hypoechoic zones of infarction. Computed tomography(CT) demonstrated the characteristic features of nonenhancing, low attenuation, relatively well-defined, wedge shaped or geographic hepatic lesions, without mass effect

  4. [Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis A and E in Montenegro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Dragica; Mijović, Gordana; Dupanović, Brankica; Drasković, Nenad; Svirtlih, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E has many similarities in with hepatitis A concerning clinical picture, route of transmission and nonexistence of chronicity. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with hepatitis A and E to estimate characteristics of these diseases. Total of 54 patients divided into two groups was investigated: 27 had hepatitis A, others had hepatitis E. Detailed history past, clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, were done in all patients. Aetiology of viral hepatitis was investigated serologically by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using commercial kits for following viruses: Hepatitis A-E viruses, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Asymptomatic infections (29.6%) and clinical forms without jaundice (59.3%) were more frequent in patients with hepatitis E. Splenomegaly was found more frequent in patients with hepatitis A than in hepatitis E (66.7% vs. 33.3%). Patients with hepatitis E had significantly lower activity of aminotransferases than patients with hepatitis A. A significant increase of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was found in patients with hepatitis E (mean value: 120 IU/L). Our results are in concordance with other reports that hepatitis E virus infection is more common asymptomatic disease than hepatitis A. In addition, hepatocyte necrosis in hepatitis E is less extensive than in hepatitis A measured by the activity of aminotransferases. Contrary to that the value of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is more increased in hepatitis E than in hepatitis A without exact explanation so far: Viral hepatitis E and A have differences in some clinical features and laboratory parameters although both diseases principally have resolved without consequences after 6-8 weeks.

  5. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassir, Fatiha; Rector, R. Scott; Hammoud, Ghassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is defined as intrahepatic fat of at least 5% of liver weight. Simple accumulation of triacylglycerols in the liver could be hepatoprotective; however, prolonged hepatic lipid storage may lead to liver metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, and advanced forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Several mechanisms are involved in the accumulation of intrahepatic fat, including increased flux of fatty acids to the liver, increased de novo lipogenesis, and/or reduced clearance through β-oxidation or very-low-density lipoprotein secretion. This article summarizes the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of triacylglycerols in the liver, the clinical implications, and the prevention of hepatic steatosis, with a focus on the role of mitochondrial function and lifestyle modifications. PMID:27099587

  6. A juicy future for functional beverages : Analysis of the main drivers of the purchase intention for functional fruit and vegetable mixed juices in Italy : evaluating consumer attitudes, demographics and segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Zamengo, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Consumer´s changing beverage habits and their demand for healthier drinks with ´functional´ benefits resulted in the launch of an innovative drink: functional fruit and vegetable mixed juices. Launching a new product in the food category is always challenging, and in order to be successful, product development needs to be guided by concept testing and consumer research. In this context, this study firstly investigates the socio-demographic and attitudinal factors able to predict Italian´s pur...

  7. An Extreme Learning Machine Based on the Mixed Kernel Function of Triangular Kernel and Generalized Hermite Dirichlet Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senyue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics that the kernel function of extreme learning machine (ELM and its performance have a strong correlation, a novel extreme learning machine based on a generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was proposed in this paper. First, the generalized triangle Hermitian kernel function was constructed by using the product of triangular kernel and generalized Hermite Dirichlet kernel, and the proposed kernel function was proved as a valid kernel function of extreme learning machine. Then, the learning methodology of the extreme learning machine based on the proposed kernel function was presented. The biggest advantage of the proposed kernel is its kernel parameter values only chosen in the natural numbers, which thus can greatly shorten the computational time of parameter optimization and retain more of its sample data structure information. Experiments were performed on a number of binary classification, multiclassification, and regression datasets from the UCI benchmark repository. The experiment results demonstrated that the robustness and generalization performance of the proposed method are outperformed compared to other extreme learning machines with different kernels. Furthermore, the learning speed of proposed method is faster than support vector machine (SVM methods.

  8. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Niemann-Pick C1-deficient mice lacking sterol O-acyltransferase 2 have less hepatic cholesterol entrapment and improved liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adam M; Jones, Ryan Dale; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2018-06-07

    Cholesteryl esters are generated at multiple sites in the body by sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) or sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) in various cell types, and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma. Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triacylglycerol (TAG) contained in lipoproteins cleared from the circulation via receptor-mediated or bulk-phase endocytosis are hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) within the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. Then, through the successive actions of Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), unesterified cholesterol (UC) is exported from the E/L compartment to the cytosol. Mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2 lead to continuing entrapment of UC in all organs, resulting in multisystem disease which includes hepatic dysfunction and in some cases liver failure. These studies investigated primarily whether elimination of SOAT2 in NPC1-deficient mice impacted hepatic UC sequestration, inflammation, and transaminase activities. Measurements were made in 7 wk-old mice fed a low-cholesterol chow diet or one enriched with cholesterol starting 2 wk before study. In the chow-fed mice, NPC1:SOAT2 double knockouts, compared to their littermates lacking only NPC1, had 20% less liver mass, 28% lower hepatic UC concentrations, and plasma ALT and AST activities that were decreased by 48% and 36%, respectively. mRNA expression levels for several markers of inflammation were all significantly lower in the NPC1 mutants lacking SOAT2. The existence of a new class of potent and selective SOAT2 inhibitors provides an opportunity for exploring if suppression of this enzyme could potentially become an adjunctive therapy for liver disease in NPC1 deficiency.

  10. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  11. Hepatic Falciform Ligament Artery in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases: Detection on Computed Tomography Hepatic Arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Yoshimitsu, K.; Irie, H.; Nishie, A.; Hirakawa, M.; Ishigami, K.; Ushijima, Y.; Okamoto, D.; Honda, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The detection rate of hepatic falciform ligament artery (FLA) has been reported as ranging from 2-25%. The rate of FLA on laparotomy, however, is reported to be higher, at 68%. Purpose: To compare the detection rate of FLA on computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) with that on angiography and dynamic CT, and to clarify the clinical significance of FLA in patients with chronic liver disease. Material and Methods: 126 consecutive patients underwent CTHA angiography and dynamic CT to evaluate suspected liver tumors. Liver function was classified as follows: normal, n=5; Child-Pugh class A, n=94; B, n=21; and C, n=6. All CT images were obtained using multidetector (MDCT) scanners (Aquilion; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). For CTHA, CT images were obtained during contrast material injection through the left hepatic, proper, or common hepatic artery. On CT, FLAs were retrospectively identified within the hepatic falciform ligament and the hepatic round ligament by the paging method on a workstation (TWS-5000; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). The detection rates were compared among the three modalities (hepatic arterial phase of dynamic CT, CTHA, and angiography). The calibers of FLA were also correlated with the hepatic function of the patients. Results: The detection rates of FLA by angiography, dynamic CT, and CTHA were 37% (47/126), 10% (13/126), and 77% (97/126), respectively. The calibers of FLA increased as the hepatic function deteriorated (P=0.001). Conclusion: The detection rates of FLA with CTHA are far higher than those with angiography and dynamic CT. Careful interpretation with recognition of FLA on CTHA images is important, as inadvertent embolization or chemotherapeutic infusion of the FLA may result in supraumbilical skin rash

  12. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  13. THE DRUG-INDUCED HEPATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Molochkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among toxic lesions of the liver, an important place belongs to medicinal hepatitis. Among patients with hepatitis, drug disease of the liver occurs in 0.7—1.4% of cases, and in the presence of jaundice — in 5%. A family case of sisters 9 and 4-year-old life development  of acute drug hepatitis caused by ibuprofen in a daily dose of 32 mg / kg (total 3.2 g and 25 mg / kg (total 2 g, respectively, was demonstrated in siblings. Hepatitis developed after an acute respiratory infection. Weakness, nausea, vomiting, jaundice of the skin and sclera, pruritus, multiple increase in serum transaminases and markers of cholestasis are revealed. Viral hepatitis and some hereditary liver diseases were excluded. The drug lesion of the liver was of a mixed nature: hepatocellular (cytotoxic and cholestatic. Timely administration of therapy (detoxification, glucocorticosteroids, ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursosan led to a regression of clinical symptoms of the disease and positive dynamics of laboratory indicators.

  14. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  15. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  16. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  17. Studies on some biochemical parameters in viral hepatitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation deals with studying liver amino transferases (ALT. AST). Cholesterol and triglycerides. As well as testosterone and protection hormones in blood of Egyptian men infected with hepatitis C virus.hepatitis B virus and mixed B and C viruses. These biochemical parameters were evaluated to be used in diagnosis and prognosis of viral hepatitis. Which considered the most important health problem in Egypt and developing countries. Biochemical analysis were performed using spectrophotometric and radioimmunoassay techniques. All data will be subjected to statistical analysis in order to detect the most suitable biochemical analysis that can be used as specific tests for early diagnosis of viral hepatitis and to detect the parameters that show abnormalities among the different groups of infected patients. The data revealed that AST and ALT levels were increased in all patient groups. Concerning the level of triglycerides, it was increased only in the group of mixed viral hepatitis B and C, while cholesterol showed non-significant changes in all viral hepatitis groups. The sex hormone testosterone was decreased in all infected patients while the prolactin level was increased only in case of patients infected with mixed B and C viruses. However, these abnormal values in such sex hormones play a serious role in male sterility

  18. Calculation of wave-functions with frozen orbitals in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. Part I. Application of the Huzinaga equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G

    2013-04-05

    Mixed quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics (QM/QM) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods make computations feasible for extended chemical systems by separating them into subsystems that are treated at different level of sophistication. In many applications, the subsystems are covalently bound and the use of frozen localized orbitals at the boundary is a possible way to separate the subsystems and to ensure a sensible description of the electronic structure near to the boundary. A complication in these methods is that orthogonality between optimized and frozen orbitals has to be warranted and this is usually achieved by an explicit orthogonalization of the basis set to the frozen orbitals. An alternative to this approach is proposed by calculating the wave-function from the Huzinaga equation that guaranties orthogonality to the frozen orbitals without basis set orthogonalization. The theoretical background and the practical aspects of the application of the Huzinaga equation in mixed methods are discussed. Forces have been derived to perform geometry optimization with wave-functions from the Huzinaga equation. Various properties have been calculated by applying the Huzinaga equation for the central QM subsystem, representing the environment by point charges and using frozen strictly localized orbitals to connect the subsystems. It is shown that a two to three bond separation of the chemical or physical event from the frozen bonds allows a very good reproduction (typically around 1 kcal/mol) of standard Hartree-Fock-Roothaan results. The proposed scheme provides an appropriate framework for mixed QM/QM and QM/MM methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  20. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)