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Sample records for hepatic injury caused

  1. Branched Chain Amino Acids Cause Liver Injury in Obese/Diabetic Mice by Promoting Adipocyte Lipolysis and Inhibiting Hepatic Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD + BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress, increased hepatic apoptosis, and elevated circulation hepatic enzymes. Compared to solely HFD-fed animals, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA in the HFD + BCAA group are significantly further increased, due largely to AMPKα2-mediated adipocyte lipolysis. Lipolysis inhibition normalized plasma FFA levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, blocking lipolysis failed to abolish BCAA-induced liver injury. Mechanistically, hepatic mTOR activation by BCAA inhibited lipid-induced hepatic autophagy, increased hepatic apoptosis, blocked hepatic FFA/triglyceride conversion, and increased hepatocyte susceptibility to FFA-mediated lipotoxicity. These data demonstrated that BCAA reduces HFD-induced body weight, at the expense of abnormal lipolysis and hyperlipidemia, causing hepatic lipotoxicity. Furthermore, BCAA directly exacerbate hepatic lipotoxicity by reducing lipogenesis and inhibiting autophagy in the hepatocyte.

  2. Branched Chain Amino Acids Cause Liver Injury in Obese/Diabetic Mice by Promoting Adipocyte Lipolysis and Inhibiting Hepatic Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyang; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Xia, Yunlong; Chen, Xiyao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Peng, Cheng; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Huishou; Lian, Kun; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xinliang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD+BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress, increased hepatic apoptosis, and elevated circulation hepatic enzymes. Compared to solely HFD-fed animals, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD+BCAA group are significantly further increased, due largely to AMPKα2-mediated adipocyte lipolysis. Lipolysis inhibition normalized plasma FFA levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, blocking lipolysis failed to abolish BCAA-induced liver injury. Mechanistically, hepatic mTOR activation by BCAA inhibited lipid-induced hepatic autophagy, increased hepatic apoptosis, blocked hepatic FFA/triglyceride conversion, and increased hepatocyte susceptibility to FFA-mediated lipotoxicity. These data demonstrated that BCAA reduces HFD-induced body weight, at the expense of abnormal lipolysis and hyperlipidemia, causing hepatic lipotoxicity. Furthermore, BCAA directly exacerbate hepatic lipotoxicity by reducing lipogenesis and inhibiting autophagy in the hepatocyte. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  3. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  4. Two clinically relevant pressures of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum cause hepatic injury in a rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Liu, Ying-Hai; Ye, Zhan-Yong; Liu, He-Nian; Ou, Shan; Tian, Fu-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To observe the hepatic injury induced by carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum (CDP) in rabbits, compare the effects of low- and high-pressure pneumoperitoneum, and to determine the degree of hepatic injury induced by these two clinically relevant CDP pressures.

  5. Coagulation defects in experimental hepatic injury in the dog.

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    Osbaldiston, G W; Hoffman, M W

    1971-04-01

    Alteration in activity of blood coagulation factors in dogs with acute hepatic injury caused by oral carbon tetrachloride dosing was studied. Coagulation Factors II, VII and IX were dramatically reduced within 48 hours but recovered to normal in the next five days. Because surgery is rarely performed on dogs with hepatic necrosis, the use of fresh whole blood tranfusion to improve the coagulation defect in hepatic injury was also studied. Transfusion was found to have only a temporary beneficial effect.

  6. Treatment of penetrating hepatic injuries: a retrospective analysis of 50 patients.

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    Gonullu, D; Koksoy, F N; Ilgun, S; Demiray, O; Yucel, O; Yucel, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of non-operative treatment via retrospective analysis of our patients. Fifty patients with penetrating hepatic injuries were examined retrospectively with respect to trauma scores, associated injuries, complications, and mortality parameters. Thirteen injuries were caused by firearms, whereas 37 injuries were caused by stab wounds. Forty-three patients (86%) underwent laparotomy and 7 patients (14%) were monitored by CT and clinical findings (nonoperative group, NO group). The laparotomies were evaluated as non-therapeutic in 11 patients (22%) (NTL group) and therapeutic in 32 patients (64%) (TL group). The morbidity and mortality rates were 40 and 10%, respectively. RTS and ISS scores of the nonsurviving and the surviving patients were significantly different. The rates of major venous, grade IV-V hepatic injuries, and gunshot wounds were significantly higher in the nonsurviving patients when compared to the surviving patients. Major venous and grade IV-V hepatic injuries were the primary factors determining mortality and these injuries generally occurred as a result of firearm injuries. NTL occurring at a rate of 22% would decrease to 2% if 'RTS <7' criteria was added to the hemodynamic instability and/or peritoneal irritation findings determining surgical candidacy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. CT and MRI diagnosis of acute hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rengui; Fumio Yamamoto; Pu Yonglin; Gao Yujie.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate and compare MR and CT in diagnosis of acute traumatic hepatic laceration, ten patients with acute hepatic rupture underwent CT scan and/or MRI in the first 24 hours after injury. The injury was graded as mild ( 50% of one lobe). In the first 24 hours after injury, 33.3% (3/9) and 28.6%(2/7) of the hepatic injury demonstrated isodensity and isointensity on plain CT scan and T 1 -weighted images. All the lesions (100%) were clearly identified as marked hyperintensity on T 2 -weighted images. On T 2 WI, T 1 WI and non-contrast CT, 100%, 57.1% and 55.6% of the acute hepatic injuries could be graded respectively. Delayed complications occurred in four patients with deep hepatic injury about 1 to 3 weeks after injury. T 2 -weighted MR imaging is more sensitive and useful for detection of the type and severity of acute hepatic rupture. Follow-up MRI or CT within the first few weeks after injury is needed in patients with deep hepatic injury for detection of delayed complications

  8. Role of CT in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Joo; Yang, Dal Mo; Kang, Sook Wook; Kim, Hyung Sik; Chung, Hyo Sun; Lee, Young Seok

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the CT scan in blunt hepatic injury and the significance of CT degree of hepatic injury in the decision making of treatment plan. We retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 22 patients with hepatic injury. We graded hepatic injury on CT scan into five according to the severity. Clinical records, type of management and clinical outcome of the patients were also reviewed. Of the 22 patients, 17 had conservative treatment and five had surgery. The numbers of patients treated conservatively were 0, 4, 11, 2 and 0 in the grade 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, retrospectively and the numbers of surgically treated cases were 0, 0, 3, 2 and 0 respectively. There was no significant statistical difference between surgically and conservatively treated groups(p-value > 0.05). All patients with conservatively treated group were hemodynamically stable and had no complication during hospitalization. Hemoperitoneum was observed in 11 of 22 patients. In blunt hepatic injury, CT plays an important role in the demonstration of location and extent of the hepatic injury, size of hemoperitoneum and the post operative course. However, we believe that physiologic status of the patients may be more important than the extent of CT based hepatic injury for determining a mode of treatment

  9. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

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    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  10. The role of computed tomography in blunt hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Tatsumi

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) images and medical records of 283 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. There were 67 patients with hepatic injury. Liver was the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Most hepatic injuries occurred in the right lobe of the liver. Of the 67 patients with hepatic injury, 60 patients had associated other injuries. There was a high incidence of associated lung injuries (35.8 %). Of importance is the high incidence of associated head injuries (22.4 %), because, in some patients such as those with concomitant head trauma, abdominal symptom is not obvious. The associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs. nonoperative). 32 patients with hepatic injury but no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. 9 patients with hepatic injury and little hemoperitoneum were also managed conservatively. 22 patients with high density hemoperitoneum were surgically treated. By combining information on the clinical state of the patient and CT finding, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased. (author)

  11. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eggert

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL, while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  12. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

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    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  13. Hepatic enzymes have a role in the diagnosis of hepatic injury after blunt abdominal trauma.

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    Tan, Ker-Kan; Bang, Shieh-Ling; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2009-09-01

    Delayed diagnosis of patients with severe liver injuries is associated with an adverse outcome. As computed tomographic (CT) scan is not always available in the management of blunt abdominal trauma worldwide, the present study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of selected haematological markers in predicting the presence of hepatic injury and its severity after blunt abdominal trauma. A retrospective review of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma presented to our institution over a 3-year period was performed. Patients were excluded if they suffered penetrating injuries, died in the emergency department or if the required blood tests were not performed within 24h of the accident. The grading of the hepatic injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings. Ninety-nine patients with blunt abdominal trauma had the required blood tests performed and were included in the study. The median injury severity score was 24 (range 4-75). Fifty-five patients had hepatic injuries, of which 47.3% were minor (Grades I and II) while 52.7% had major hepatic injuries (Grades III-V). There were no patients with Grade VI injuries. A raised ALT was strongly associated with presence of hepatic injuries (OR, 109.8; 95% CI, 25.81-466.9). This relation was also seen in patients with raised AST>2 times (OR, 21.33; 95% CI, 7.27-62.65). This difference was not seen in both bilirubin and ALP. ALT>2 times normal was associated with major hepatic injuries (OR, 7.15; 95% CI, 1.38-37.14; p=0.012) while patients with simultaneous raised AST>2 times and ALT>2 times had a stronger association for major hepatic injuries (OR, 8.44; 95% CI, 1.64-43.47). Abnormal transaminases levels are associated with hepatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with ALT and AST>2 times normal should be assumed to possess major hepatic trauma and managed accordingly. Patients with normal ALT, AST and LDH are unlikely to have major liver injuries.

  14. Partial Portal Vein Arterialization Attenuates Acute Bile Duct Injury Induced by Hepatic Dearterialization in a Rat Model.

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    Jiang, Jun; Wei, Jishu; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic infarcts or abscesses occur after hepatic artery interruption. We explored the mechanisms of hepatic deprivation-induced acute liver injury and determine whether partial portal vein arterialization attenuated this injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either complete hepatic arterial deprivation or partial portal vein arterialization, or both. Hepatic ischemia was evaluated using biochemical analysis, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hepatic ATP levels, the expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and the expression of bile transporter genes were assessed. Complete dearterialization of the liver induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the histological changes, significantly increased serum biochemical markers, decreased ATP content, increased expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and decreased expression of bile transporter genes. These detrimental changes were extenuated but not fully reversed by partial portal vein arterialization, which also attenuated ductular reaction and fibrosis in completely dearterialized rat livers. Collectively, complete hepatic deprivation causes severe liver injury, including bile infarcts and biloma formation. Partial portal vein arterialization seems to protect against acute ischemia-hypoxia-induced liver injury.

  15. Partial Portal Vein Arterialization Attenuates Acute Bile Duct Injury Induced by Hepatic Dearterialization in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic infarcts or abscesses occur after hepatic artery interruption. We explored the mechanisms of hepatic deprivation-induced acute liver injury and determine whether partial portal vein arterialization attenuated this injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either complete hepatic arterial deprivation or partial portal vein arterialization, or both. Hepatic ischemia was evaluated using biochemical analysis, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hepatic ATP levels, the expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and the expression of bile transporter genes were assessed. Complete dearterialization of the liver induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the histological changes, significantly increased serum biochemical markers, decreased ATP content, increased expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and decreased expression of bile transporter genes. These detrimental changes were extenuated but not fully reversed by partial portal vein arterialization, which also attenuated ductular reaction and fibrosis in completely dearterialized rat livers. Collectively, complete hepatic deprivation causes severe liver injury, including bile infarcts and biloma formation. Partial portal vein arterialization seems to protect against acute ischemia-hypoxia-induced liver injury.

  16. Limitations of nonoperative management of type IIIb blunt hepatic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients after fluid resuscitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kitano, Mitsuhide; Shimizu, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Shokei; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Aikawa, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of hepatic injuries caused by blunt trauma in hemodynamically stable patients is widely accepted, but the feasibility of NOM for severe hepatic injuries has not been fully evaluated. Among all patients with blunt severe hepatic injury (type IIIb) admitted to Saiseikai Kanagawa-ken Hospital and Keio University Hospital from 1988 to 2004, those who had been hemodynamically stable after fluid resuscitation at the emergency department were initially managed nonoperatively. We reviewed demographic, physiological, and laboratory data; computed tomography (CT) findings; 80-day cumulative laparotomy rate; and complications. The anatomical severity of the hepatic injuries was evaluated based on the CT findings, such as hepatic vein injuries and area lacerated according to the Couinaud liver segment. In patients who underwent surgery after admission, the surgical indications and operative findings were reviewed. Overall, 34 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Five patients underwent surgery, and all of their surgical indications were attributable to liver-related complications after injury. The indication for surgery was hemodynamic instability in 3 patients with hepatic vein injures in the early phase (<15 hours after estrogen receptor (ER) arrival) and intra-abdominal septic complications in 2 patients in the late phase (hospital days 14 and 64). The cumulative 80-day laparotomy rate in the early phase was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the patients suspected of having hepatic vein injury, and in the late phase it was higher (p=0.002) in those with injuries in 4 or more segments of hepatic injuries. For the successful NOM of blunt hepatic injury type IIIb in patients who are hemodynamically stable after fluid resuscitation, a strong suspicion of concurrent hepatic vein injury is critical in the early phase, and laceration in 4 or more segments should be noted in the late phase. (author)

  17. Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries.

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    Kozar, Rosemary A; Moore, John B; Niles, Sarah E; Holcomb, John B; Moore, Ernest E; Cothren, C Clay; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Moore, Frederick A

    2005-11-01

    Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries is highly successful. Complications associated with high-grade injuries, however, have not been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was therefore to define hepatic-related complications and associated treatment modalities in patients undergoing nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. Three hundred thirty-seven patients from two regional Level I trauma centers with grade 3 to 5 blunt hepatic injuries during a 40-month period were reviewed. Complications and treatment of hepatic-related complications in patients not requiring laparotomy in the first 24 hours were identified. Of 337 patients with a grade 3 to 5 injury, 230 (68%) were managed nonoperatively. There were 37 hepatic-related complications in 25 patients (11%); 63% (5 of 8) of patients with grade 5 injuries developed complications, 21% (19 of 92) of patients with grade 4 injuries, but only 1% (1 of 130) of patients with grade 3 injuries. Complications included bleeding in 13 patients managed by angioembolization (n = 12) and laparotomy (n = 1), liver abscesses in 2 patients managed with computed tomography-guided drainage (n = 2) and subsequent laparotomy (n = 1). In one patient with bleeding, hepatic necrosis followed surgical ligation of the right hepatic artery and required delayed hepatic lobectomy. Sixteen biliary complications were managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stenting (n = 7), drainage (n = 5), and laparoscopy (n = 4). Three patients had suspected abdominal sepsis and underwent a negative laparotomy, whereas an additional three patients underwent laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Nonoperative management of high-grade liver injuries can be safely accomplished. Mortality is low; however, complications in grade 4 and 5 injuries should be anticipated and may require a combination of operative and nonoperative management strategies.

  18. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

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    Baris Akca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  19. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

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    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP

  20. Right hepatic vein injury after blunt abdominal trauma in a 12-year-old boy- case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, D.; Konecka, A.; Brzewski, M.; Marcinski, A.; Kaminski, A.; Piotrowska, A.; Jasinska, A.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma in children is one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization. We present a rare case of traumatic liver injury. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to the Surgery Department after a bicycle fall and handlebar impact injury to the right infracostal area. At admission he was stable, with no abnormalities except for a subcutaneous hepatoma found in the injured area. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed free intraperitoneal fluid. Computed tomography (CT) revealed irregular branching laceration of the right superior hepatic segments with extension into the hepatic veins. No active extravasation of contrast material was seen. On the next day, cause of the deterioration of the patient's condition, CT examination was repeated and revealed focal extravasation of contrast material in the portal hilum posterior to the gallbladder. An injury of the right hepatic vein was found on laparotomy. Hepatic vein injury is a rare but very serious complication after blunt liver trauma and it is an indication for surgical treatment. Diagnostic imaging is essential for therapeutic decisions, but its value is sometimes limited.The precise analysis of injury mechanism and localization may be very helpful.CT is currently the modality of choice for the evaluation of blunt liver trauma. If an active bleeding is suspected the delayed scans seem to be recommended. (author)

  1. Characterization of Microparticles after Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

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    Freeman, Christopher M.; Quillin, Ralph C.; Wilson, Gregory C.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Johnson, Bobby L.; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Schuster, Rebecca M.; Blanchard, John; Edwards, Michael J.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a well-studied model of liver injury and has demonstrated a biphasic injury followed by recovery and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs) are a developing field of study and these small membrane bound vesicles have been shown to have effector function in other physiologic and pathologic states. This study was designed to quantify the levels of MPs from various cell origins–platelets, neutrophils, and endolethial cells–following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods A murine model was used with mice undergoing 90 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia followed by various times of reperfusion. Following reperfusion, plasma samples were taken and MPs of various cell origins were labeled and levels were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, cell specific MPs were further assessed by Annexin V, which stains for the presence of phosphatidylserine, a cell surface marker linked to apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls test with data presented as the mean and standard error of the mean. Results MPs from varying sources show an increase in circulating levels following hepatic I/R injury. However, the timing of the appearance of different MP subtypes differs for each cell type. Platelet and neutrophil-derived MP levels demonstrated an acute elevation following injury whereas endothelial-derived MP levels demonstrated a delayed elevation. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize circulating levels of cell-specific MPs after hepatic I/R injury and suggests that MPs derived from platelets and neutrophils serve as markers of inflammatory injury and may be active participants in this process. In contrast, MPs derived from endothelial cells increase after the injury response during the reparative phase and may be important in angiogenesis that occurs in the regenerating liver. PMID:24879335

  2. Diphenhydramine as a Cause of Drug-Induced Liver Injury

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    Yunseok Namn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the Unites States and accounts for 10% of acute hepatitis cases. We report the only known case of diphenhydramine-induced acute liver injury in the absence of concomitant medications. A 28-year-old man with history of 13/14-chromosomal translocation presented with fevers, vomiting, and jaundice. Aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase levels peaked above 20,000 IU/L and 5,000 IU/L, respectively. He developed coagulopathy but without altered mental status. Patient reported taking up to 400 mg diphenhydramine nightly, without concomitant acetaminophen, for insomnia. He denied taking other medications, supplements, antibiotics, and herbals. A thorough workup of liver injury ruled out viral hepatitis (including A, B, C, and E, autoimmune, toxic, ischemic, and metabolic etiologies including Wilson’s disease. A liver biopsy was consistent with DILI without evidence of iron or copper deposition. Diphenhydramine was determined to be the likely culprit. This is the first reported case of diphenhydramine-induced liver injury without concomitant use of acetaminophen.

  3. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

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    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis.

  5. Concomitant hollow viscus injuries in patients with blunt hepatic and splenic injuries: an analysis of a National Trauma Registry database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Forat; Peleg, Kobi; Alfici, Ricardo; Matter, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2014-09-01

    Non-operative management has become the standard approach for treating stable patients sustaining blunt hepatic or splenic injuries in the absence of other indications for laparotomy. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) has reduced the rate of unnecessary immediate laparotomies; however, due to its limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of hollow viscus injuries (HVI), this may be at the expense of a rise in the incidence of missed HVI. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of concomitant HVI in blunt trauma patients diagnosed with hepatic and/or splenic injuries, and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between this incidence and the severity of hepatic or splenic injuries. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with splenic and/or liver injuries, between the years 1998 and 2012 registered in the Israel National Trauma Registry. The association between the presence and severity of splenic and/or liver injuries and the incidence of HVI was examined. Of the 57,130 trauma victims identified as suffering from blunt torso injuries, 2335 (4%) sustained hepatic injuries without splenic injuries (H group), 3127 (5.4%) had splenic injuries without hepatic injuries (S group), and 564 (1%) suffered from both hepatic and splenic injuries (H+S group). Overall, 957 patients sustained 1063 HVI. The incidence of HVI among blunt torso trauma victims who sustained neither splenic nor hepatic injuries was 1.5% which is significantly lower than in the S (3.1%), H (3.1%), and H+S (6.7%) groups. In the S group, there was a clear correlation between the severity of the splenic injury and the incidence of HVI. This correlation was not found in the H group. The presence of blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries predicts a higher incidence of HVI, especially if combined. While in blunt splenic injury patients there is a clear correlation between the incidence of HVI and the severity of splenic injury, such a correlation does not exist in patients

  6. Lithium Carbonate in the Treatment of Graves’ Disease with ATD-Induced Hepatic Injury or Leukopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendong Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. GD with ATD-induced hepatic injury or leukopenia occurs frequently in clinical practice. The purpose of the present study was to observe the clinical effect of lithium carbonate on hyperthyroidism in patients with GD with hepatic injury or leukopenia. Methods. Fifty-one patients with GD with hepatic injury or leukopenia participated in the study. All patients were treated with lithium carbonate, in addition to hepatoprotective drugs or drugs that increase white blood cell count. Thyroid function, liver function, and white blood cells were measured. Clinical outcomes were observed after a 1-year follow-up. Results. After treatment for 36 weeks, symptoms of hyperthyroidism and the level of thyroid hormones were improved and liver function, and white blood cells returned to a normal level. Twelve patients (23.5% obtained clinical remission, 6 patients (11.8% relapsed after withdrawal, 25 patients (49.0% received radioiodine therapy, and 8 patients (15.7% underwent surgical procedures after lithium carbonate treatment. Conclusion. Lithium carbonate has effects on the treatment of mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism caused by GD, and it is particularly suitable for patients with ATD-induced hepatic injury or leukopenia.

  7. Severe Juxtahepatic Venous Injury: Survival after Prolonged Hepatic Vascular Isolation Without Shunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. J. Krige

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival following major juxtahepatic venous injury is rare in blunt liver trauma despite the use of intracaval shunting. Prolonged liver arterial inflow control, total hepatic venous isolation and lobectomy without shunting was used in a patient to repair a combined vena caval and hepatic venous injury after blunt liver injury. An extended period of normothermic hepatic ischemia was tolerated. Early recognition of retrohepatic venous injury and temporary liver packing to control bleeding and correct hypovolemia are essential before caval occlusion. Hepatic vascular isolation without shunting is an effective simple alternative technique allowing major venous repair in complex liver trauma.

  8. Non-operative management versus operative management in high-grade blunt hepatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Trastulli, Stefano; Pressi, Eleonora; Farinella, Eriberto; Avenia, Stefano; Morales Uribe, Carlos Hernando; Botero, Ana Maria; Barrera, Luis M

    2015-08-24

    Surgery used to be the treatment of choice in cases of blunt hepatic injury, but this approach gradually changed over the last two decades as increasing non-operative management (NOM) of splenic injury led to its use for hepatic injury. The improvement in critical care monitoring and computed tomographic scanning, as well as the more frequent use of interventional radiology techniques, has helped to bring about this change to non-operative management. Liver trauma ranges from a small capsular tear, without parenchymal laceration, to massive parenchymal injury with major hepatic vein/retrohepatic vena cava lesions. In 1994, the Organ Injury Scaling Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) revised the Hepatic Injury Scale to have a range from grade I to VI. Minor injuries (grade I or II) are the most frequent liver injuries (80% to 90% of all cases); severe injuries are grade III-V lesions; grade VI lesions are frequently incompatible with survival. In the medical literature, the majority of patients who have undergone NOM have low-grade liver injuries. The safety of NOM in high-grade liver lesions, AAST grade IV and V, remains a subject of debate as a high incidence of liver and collateral extra-abdominal complications are still described. To assess the effects of non-operative management compared to operative management in high-grade (grade III-V) blunt hepatic injury. The search for studies was run on 14 April 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (Ovid), PubMed, ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registries, conference proceedings, and we screened reference lists. All randomised trials that compare non-operative management versus operative management in high-grade blunt hepatic injury. Two authors independently

  9. Relation between blood clearance and hepatic uptake of sup 99m Tc-phytate in rats with hepatic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Hisano, Tomoyuki; Kohno, Masahiro (Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-10-01

    The relation among the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-phytake ({sup 99m}Tc-P), the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the severity of hepatic injury was investigated by using the rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCL{sub 4}), D-galactosamine (Gal N), alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) or DL-ethionine (EthN) induced hepatic injury. After the administration of CCL{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT, serum GPT activity increased significantly with the increase of dose level, and the degree of this increase was in the order: GalN>CCl{sub 4}>ANIT. However, the mild increase in serum GPT activity was observed after EthN administration. The blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P decreased with the increase of dose level after CCl{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT administration, but significant changes were not found after EthN administration. The degree of decrease in the blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT, and the degree of decrease in the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT. These results suggest that the disorder in the hepatocytes may be one of causes for inducing the decrease in the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P, and the consequence of this decrease may induce the decrease in the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-P. (author).

  10. Systematic review of severe acute liver injury caused by terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Shengli

    2014-08-01

    Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended.

  11. Prophylactic Treatment with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Attenuate Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini D.P.K. Manne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion is one the main causes for graft failure following transplantation. Although, the molecular events that lead to hepatic failure following ischemia reperfusion (IR are diverse and complex, previous studies have shown that excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS are responsible for hepatic IR injury. Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been previously shown to act as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: Control, CeO2 nanoparticle only, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR group and hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR plus CeO2 nanoparticle group (IR+ CeO2. Partial warm hepatic ischemia was induced in left lateral and median lobes for 1h, followed by 6h of reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 6h of reperfusion and blood and tissue samples were collected and processed for various biochemical experiments. Results: Prophylactic treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5mg/kg i.v (IR+CeO2 group 1 hour prior to hepatic ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury lead to a decrease in serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase at 6 hours after reperfusion. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in hepatocyte necrosis along with reduction in several serum inflammatory markers such as macrophage derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC/GRO, myoglobin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, immunoblotting demonstrated no significant changes in the levels of apoptosis related protein markers such as bax, bcl2 and caspase 3 in IR and IR+ CeO2 groups at 6 hours suggesting necrosis as the main pathway for hepatocyte death. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles attenuate IR induced cell death and can be used as a prophylactic

  12. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CT of hepatic and splenic injury in children: Role in the decision for laparotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brick, S.H.; Taylor, G.A.; Potter, B.M.; Eichelberger, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two hundred seventy-four children were examined with CT after incurring blunt trauma to the abdomen. Hepatic and/or splenic injuries were detected in 36 patients. Of 12 children with moderate to severe hepatic injuries, only one required operative intervention. Of 13 children with moderate to sever splenic injuries, only one required splenorrhaphy. Only two of 16 patients with a moderate to large hemoperitoneum required surgery for hepatic or splenic injury. The authors conclude that the decision for laparotomy should not be based on the extent of injury as seen on CT, but on the physiologic condition of the child

  14. Osthole attenuates hepatic injury in a rodent model of trauma-hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

  15. Efficacy of 131I treatment for 840 cases of Graves' disease combined with hepatic function injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Liang; Tan Jian; Wang Renfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease (GD) complicated with hepatic function injury in order to provide guidance for clinical practice. Methods: A total of 840 GD cases complicated with hepatic function injury were retrospectively reviewed after 131 I treatment. Analysis of variance and Dunnett t test were used to compare serum FT 3 , FT 4 , and TSH levels before and 1, 3, and 6 months after 131 I therapy. R × C table χ 2 test was used to compare therapeutic efficacies among cases with different degrees and types of hepatic function injuries. Analysis of variance and Dunnett t test were used to evaluate recovery time of different degrees of hepatic function injuries. Cross classification 2 × 2 table correlation analysis was adopted to assess the correlation between 131 I therapeutic efficacies of GD and recovery efficacies of hepatic function. Results: The curative rate for GD was 76.8% (645/840). There were significant changes of FT 3 ((25.74 ± 5.81), (15.54 ± 4.12), (12.76 ± 2.35) and (7.95 ± 1.64) pmol/L, respectively; F=5007.958, t=54.455, 69.297 and 94.976, all P<0.05), FT 4 ((75.84 ± 16.78), (45.69 ±8.96), (36.81 ± 5.03) and (25.17 ±.4.46) pmol/L, respectively; F=3876.410, t=513.602, 664.871 and 863.157, all P<0.05) and TSH ((0.01 ±0.02), (0.02±0.08), (0.85 ±0.36) and (1.26 ± 0.54) mU/L, respectively; F=3050.430, t=2.627, 46.989 and 78.315, all P<0.05) before and 1,3,and 6 months after 131 I treatment. The curative rate of hepatic function abnormality was 79.2% (665/840). For mild, medium and severe hepatic function injury patients, curative rates were 88.4% (420/475), 68.8% (214/311) and 57.4% (31/54), respectively. The curative rate of patients with mild hepatic function injury was significantly higher than those with medium and severe hepatic function injury (χ 2 =46.338, 37.100, respectively, both P<0.01), and the recovery time was significantly shorter in patients with mild hepatic function injury

  16. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma in children: correlation of a CT injury severity scale with clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Sivit, C.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Eichelberger, M.R. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Dept. of Surgery, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, DC (United States); Taylor, G.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Bond, S.J. [Dept. of Surgery, Children`s National Medical Center, and George Washington Univ. School of Medicine and Health Sciences Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare a computed tomography (CT) injury severity scale for hepatic and splenic injury with the following outcome measures: requirement for surgical hemostasis, requirement for blood transfusion and late complications. Sixty-nine children with isolated hepatic injury and 53 with isolated splenic injury were prospectively classified at CT according to extent of parenchymal involvement. Clinical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcome. Ninety-seven children (80%) were managed non-operatively without transfusion. One child with hepatic injury required surgical hemostasis, and 17 (25%) required transfusion of blood. Increasing severity of hepatic injury at CT was associated with progressively greater frequency of transfusion (P = 0.002 by {chi}{sup 2}-test). One child with splenic injury underwent surgery and eight (15%) required transfusion of blood. Splenic injury grade at CT did not correlate with frequency (P = 0.41 by {chi}{sup 2}-test) or amount (P = 0.35 by factorial analysis of variance) of transfusion. There was one late complication in the nonsurgical group. A majority of children with hepatic and splenic injury were managed non-operatively without requiring blood transfusion. The severity of injury by CT scan did not correlate with need for surgery. Increasing grade of hepatic injury at CT was associated with increasing frequency of blood transfusion. CT staging was not discriminatory in predicting transfusion requirement in splenic injury. (orig.)

  17. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma in children: correlation of a CT injury severity scale with clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, L.; Sivit, C.J.; Eichelberger, M.R.; Taylor, G.A.; Bond, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare a computed tomography (CT) injury severity scale for hepatic and splenic injury with the following outcome measures: requirement for surgical hemostasis, requirement for blood transfusion and late complications. Sixty-nine children with isolated hepatic injury and 53 with isolated splenic injury were prospectively classified at CT according to extent of parenchymal involvement. Clinical records were reviewed to determine clinical outcome. Ninety-seven children (80%) were managed non-operatively without transfusion. One child with hepatic injury required surgical hemostasis, and 17 (25%) required transfusion of blood. Increasing severity of hepatic injury at CT was associated with progressively greater frequency of transfusion (P = 0.002 by χ 2 -test). One child with splenic injury underwent surgery and eight (15%) required transfusion of blood. Splenic injury grade at CT did not correlate with frequency (P = 0.41 by χ 2 -test) or amount (P = 0.35 by factorial analysis of variance) of transfusion. There was one late complication in the nonsurgical group. A majority of children with hepatic and splenic injury were managed non-operatively without requiring blood transfusion. The severity of injury by CT scan did not correlate with need for surgery. Increasing grade of hepatic injury at CT was associated with increasing frequency of blood transfusion. CT staging was not discriminatory in predicting transfusion requirement in splenic injury. (orig.)

  18. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sam Uel; Choi, Don Gil; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage

  19. Serum sphingomyelin has potential to reflect hepatic injury in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Jun Zheng; Feng Qu; Jun-Feng Li; Jing Zhao; Jing-Yun Zhang; Mei Liu; Feng Ren; Yu Chen; Jin-Lan Zhang; Zhong-Ping Duan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation between serum sphingolipids and hepatic injury in chronic HBV infection. Methods: A cohort of participants including 48 healthy persons, 103 chronic HBV-infected patients containing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and HBV-related cirrhosis were included. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed to detect serum sphingolipids. The serological indicators were detected and quantified. The valid liver biop...

  20. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  1. [Management of hepatic injuries with multiple trauma in the emergency unit. Report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamouss, Y; Belyamani, L; Azendour, H; Balkhi, H; Haimeur, C; Atmani, M

    2006-01-01

    The problems put by the blunt hepatic injuries at the multiple traumas are discussed after the exposition of three observations. 60% of the blunt hepatic injuries are due to the accidents of the public way. The strategy diagnosis and therapeutic facing a hepatic lesion remains guided by the patient's state haemodynamic. The exam essential to the arrival in the sieve of the emergencies is the abdominal scan that searches for one extrusion intra and possibly retroperitoneal and analyze the hepatic parenchyrma. However, it depends extensively on the experience of the echographist. The city scan stood to the first plan of the medical imagery: it permits a precise diagnosis of the parenchymateuses hepatic lesions, specify the abundance of the hemoperitoine, facilitate the therapeutic conduct in presence of associated lesions and the surveillance of the blunt hepatic injuries.

  2. Causes and Prevention of Laparoscopic Bile Duct Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Lawrence W.; Stewart, Lygia; Gantert, Walter; Liu, Kingsway; Lee, Crystine M.; Whang, Karen; Hunter, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7%; class II, 22%; class III, 61%; and class IV, 10%. The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25%) were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6%). In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class II injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not

  3. Mesh wrapping for severe hepatic injury: a beneficial option in the trauma surgeon's armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan; Brevard, Sidney B; Bosarge, Patrick; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammed A; Baker, Jeremy A; Tuart, Lynda; Pritchett, Cindy; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of absorbable mesh wrapping (MW) versus perihepatic packing (HP) for severe hepatic injury. From January 2001 to December 2012, data were collected for MW patients with hepatic injury. Patients who underwent HP were matched with MW patients by injury mechanism, liver injury grade, Injury Severity Score, and age. Twenty-six MW and twenty-six HP patients were matched. Eighteen blunt and 8 penetrating injuries were present in each group. There were 9 (35%) mortalities in the MW group and 16 (62%) in the HP groups (P = .03). Average transfusions were 12.0 and 24.5 (P = .03) packed red blood cells in the MW and HP groups, respectively. Average laparotomies per survivors were 1.3 for the MW and 3.1 for the HP groups (P = .01). Average length of stay for survivors was 19 and 47 (P = .04) days in the MW and HP groups, respectively. MW for hepatic injuries can significantly decrease mortality, transfusions, laparotomies, and length of stay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P; Prakash, S; Gupta, S; Singh, K P; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D D; Singh, J; Jain, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I viral diagnostic laboratory over a 1-year period. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV total antibodies, anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-HEV IgM by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PCR for nucleic acid detection of HBV and HCV was also carried out. Those positive for HBV infection were tested for anti-HDV antibodies. Fisher's exact test was used and a P hepatitis cases, 62 (23.22%) patients presented as acute hepatic failure. HAV (26.96%) was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV (17.97%), HBV (16.10%) and HCV (11.98%). Co-infections with more than one virus were present in 34 cases; HAV-HEV co-infection being the most common. HEV was the most important cause of acute hepatic failure followed by co-infection with HAV and HEV. An indication towards epidemiological shift of HAV infection from children to adults with a rise in HAV prevalence was seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report indicating epidemiological shift of HAV in Uttar Pradesh.

  5. Effect of selective versus non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury in rats.

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    Abdel-Gaber, Seham A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Mohammed, Rehab K; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2015-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR-indomethacin-treated group; and IR-celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective inhibition of iNOS attenuates trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic injury.

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    Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jun-Te; Schwacha, Martin G; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Raju, Raghavan; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2008-10-01

    Although trauma-hemorrhage produces tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction, the mechanisms responsible for these alterations are not clear. Using a potent selective inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl]acetamidine (1400W), and a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we investigated whether inducible NO synthase plays any role in producing hepatic injury, inflammation, and changes of protein expression following trauma-hemorrhage. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to midline laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (mean blood pressure 35-40 mmHg for approximately 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. Animals were treated with either vehicle (DMSO) or 1400W (10 mg/kg body wt ip), or L-NAME (30 mg/kg iv), 30 min before resuscitation and killed 2 h after resuscitation. Trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation induced a marked hypotension and increase in markers of hepatic injury (i.e., plasma alpha-glutathione S-transferase, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine formation). Hepatic expression of iNOS, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, ICAM-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neutrophil chemoattractant (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) protein levels were also markedly increased following trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. Administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W significantly attenuated hypotension and expression of these mediators of hepatic injury induced by trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. However, administration of L-NAME could not attenuate hepatic dysfunction and tissue injury mediated by trauma-hemorrhage, although it improved mean blood pressure as did 1400W. These results indicate that increased expression of iNOS following trauma-hemorrhage plays an important role in the induction of hepatic damage under such conditions.

  7. Bile ductal injury and ductular reaction are frequent phenomena with different significance in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Lozano, Mallaki F; van den Berg, Aad P; Gouw, Annette S H

    2016-09-01

    The significance of bile duct injury and ductular reaction in biopsies from autoimmune hepatitis patients is not clear. We aim to establish the prevalence and clinical relevance of both phenomena in autoimmune hepatitis. Cases of newly diagnosed, untreated autoimmune hepatitis without overlap syndrome were selected. Pretreatment and follow up biopsies were scored for inflammation, fibrosis, bile ductal injury and ductular reaction. Thirty-five cases were studied of whom 14 cases had follow up biopsies. Bile duct injury was present in 29 cases (83%), mostly in a PBC-like pattern and was not correlated with demographical or laboratory findings. Ductular reaction, observed in 25 of 35 cases (71%) using conventional histology and in 30 of 32 cases (94%) using immunohistochemistry, was correlated with portal and lobular inflammation, interface hepatitis and centrilobular necrosis as well as bile duct injury and fibrosis. In 11 of 14 cases (79%) ductular reaction remained present on post-treatment biopsy whereas bile duct injury persisted in six of 14 (43%) of cases. Bile duct injury and ductular reaction are very common in newly diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis and cannot be predicted biochemically. Bile duct injury may subside in the majority of treated AIH cases while DR tends to persist during follow up. These findings show that the two phenomena are part of the spectrum of AIH with dissimilar responses to treatment and do not necessarily point towards an overlap syndrome. Persistence of ductular reaction after treatment supports the notion that it represents a regenerative response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential Effects of Three Techniques for Hepatic Vascular Exclusion during Resection for Liver Cirrhosis on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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    Changjun Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a serious concern during hepatic vascular occlusion. The objectives of this study were to assess effects of three techniques for hepatic vascular occlusion on I/R injury and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Liver cirrhotic rats had undertaken Pringle maneuver (PR, hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HH, or hepatic blood inflow occlusion without hemihepatic artery control (WH. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF, and hemeoxygenase 1 (HMOX1 were assayed. Results. The histopathologic analysis displayed that liver harm was more prominent in the PR group, but similar in the HH and WH groups. The HH and WH groups responded to hepatic I/R inflammation similarly but better than the PR group. Mechanical studies suggested that TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and TLR4/TRIF transduction pathways were associated with the differential effects. In addition, the HH and WH groups had significantly higher levels of hepatic HMOX1 (P<0.05 than the PR group. Conclusions. HH and WH confer better preservation of liver function and protection than the Pringle maneuver in combating I/R injury. Upregulation of HMOX1 may lead to better protection and clinical outcomes after liver resection.

  9. Methimazole protects lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: an effect not induced by hypothyroidism.

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    Tütüncü, Tanju; Demirci, Cagatay; Gözalan, Ugur; Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2007-05-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may lead to remote organ failure with mortal respiratory dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible protective effects of methimazole on lungs after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into five groups: a control group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done; a hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion; a thyroidectomy-ischemia-reperfusion group (total thyroidectomy followed by, 7 days later, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); a methimazole-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); and a methimazole +L-thyroxine-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole and L-thyroxine administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was performed after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion). Pulmonary tissue specimens were evaluated histopathologically and for myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels. All of the ischemia-reperfusion intervention groups had higher pulmonary injury scoring indices than the control group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary injury index of the ischemia-reperfusion group was higher than that of both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups (P = 0028; P = 0,038, respectively) and was similar to that of the thyroidectomized group. Pulmonary tissue myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in the ischemia-reperfusion group were similar with that in the thyroidectomized rats but were significantly higher than that in the control, and both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups. Methimazole exerts a protective role on lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which can be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects rather than hypothyroidism alone.

  10. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH - and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH + ) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼ 1.5-fold greater in ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH - deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  11. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by [ 131 I]-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers

  12. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Nicole A; Bhullar, Indermeet; Cheng, Julius D; Crandall, Marie; Friese, Randall; Guillamondegui, Oscar; Jawa, Randeep; Maung, Adrian; Rohs, Thomas J; Sangosanya, Ayodele; Schuster, Kevin; Seamon, Mark; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Zarzuar, Ben L; Kerwin, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    During the last century, the management of blunt force trauma to the liver has changed from observation and expectant management in the early part of the 1900s to mainly operative intervention, to the current practice of selective operative and nonoperative management. These issues were first addressed by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma in the Practice Management Guidelines for Nonoperative Management of Blunt Injury to the Liver and Spleen published online in 2003. Since that time, a large volume of literature on these topics has been published requiring a reevaluation of the previous Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma guideline. The National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database were searched using PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov). The search was designed to identify English-language citations published after 1996 (the last year included in the previous guideline) using the keywords liver injury and blunt abdominal trauma. One hundred seventy-six articles were reviewed, of which 94 were used to create the current practice management guideline for the selective nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury. Most original hepatic guidelines remained valid and were incorporated into the greatly expanded current guidelines as appropriate. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries currently is the treatment modality of choice in hemodynamically stable patients, irrespective of the grade of injury or patient age. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries should only be considered in an environment that provides capabilities for monitoring, serial clinical evaluations, and an operating room available for urgent laparotomy. Patients presenting with hemodynamic instability and peritonitis still warrant emergent operative intervention. Intravenous contrast enhanced computed tomographic scan is the diagnostic modality of choice for evaluating blunt hepatic injuries. Repeated imaging should be

  13. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  14. NKT cells are important mediators of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, James A; Wigmore, Stephen J; Anderton, Stephen M; Howie, Sarah E M

    2017-12-01

    IRI results from the interruption then reinstatement of an organ's blood supply, and this poses a significant problem in liver transplantation and resectional surgery. In this paper, we explore the role T cells play in the pathogenesis of this injury. We used an in vivo murine model of warm partial hepatic IRI, genetically-modified mice, in vivo antibody depletion, adoptive cell transfer and flow cytometry to determine which lymphocyte subsets contribute to pathology. Injury was assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransfersase (ALT) and by histological examination of liver tissue sections. The absence of T cells (CD3εKO) is associated with significant protection from injury (p=0.010). Through a strategy of antibody depletion it appears that NKT cells (p=0.0025), rather than conventional T (CD4+ or CD8+) (p=0.11) cells that are the key mediators of injury. Our results indicate that tissue-resident NKT cells, but not other lymphocyte populations are responsible for the injury in hepatic IRI. Targeting the activation of NKT cells and/or their effector apparatus would be a novel approach in protecting the liver during transplantation and resection surgery; this may allow us to expand our current criteria for surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmented hepatic injury followed by impaired regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after treatment with thioacetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Jordan R.; Jiang, Sean; Cherian, M. George

    2006-01-01

    A previous study (Oliver, J.R., Mara, T.W., Cherian, M.G. 2005. Impaired hepatic regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after partial hepatectomy. Exp. Biol. Med. 230, 61-67) has shown an impairment of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) in metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II gene knockout (MT-null) mice, thus suggesting a requirement for MT in cellular growth. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether MT may play a similar role in hepatic injury and regeneration after acute treatment with thioacetamide (TAA). Hepatotoxicity of TAA is caused by the generation of oxidative stress. TAA was injected ip to both wild-type (WT) and MT-null mice. Mice were killed at 6, 12, 24, 48, 60, and 72 h after injection of TAA (125 mg/kg) or 48 h after injection of saline (vehicle control), and different parameters of hepatic injury were measured. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation were increased at 12 h in both types of mice; however, lipid peroxidation was significantly less in WT mice than MT-null mice at 48 h after injection of TAA. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels after TAA injection showed depletion of GSH at 12 h in WT mice and at 6 h in MT-null mice; however, significantly more GSH was depleted early (6-24 h) in MT-null mice than WT mice. An increase in hepatic iron (Fe) levels was observed in both types of mice after injection of TAA, but Fe levels were significantly higher in MT-null mice than WT mice at 6-60 h. The levels of hepatic copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were significantly higher in WT mice than MT-null mice at 6-60 h for Cu, and at 24 h and 60 h for Zn, respectively. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic necrosis in the liver of both types of mice at 12-72 h, with hepatic injury being more prominent in MT-null mice than WT mice. The hepatic MT levels were increased in WT mice after injection of TAA, and were highest at 24-72 h. Immunohistochemical staining for MT in WT mice indicated the presence

  16. Total Flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rats

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    Xufeng Tao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of total flavonoids (TFs from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, myeloperoxidase (MPO, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and electron microscope observation. In addition, TFs significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, which indicated that TFs alleviated oxidative stress caused by I/R injury. RT-PCR results proved that TFs downregulated the gene levels of inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, interleukin-1 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Further research indicated that TF-induced hepatoprotection was completed through inhibiting TLR4/MyD88 and activating Sirt1/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Blockade of the TLR4 pathway by TFs inhibited NF-κB and AP-1 transcriptional activities and inflammatory reaction. Activation of Sirt1/Nrf2 pathway by TFs increased the protein levels of HO-1 and GST to improve oxidative stress. Collectively, these findingsconfirmed the potent effects of TFs against hepatic I/R injury, which should be developed as a candidate for the prevention of this disease.

  17. Hemobilia caused by a ruptured hepatic cyst: a case report

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    Dutta Sudhir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. More than 50% of hemobilia cases are related to iatrogenic trauma from hepatobiliary procedures, and needle biopsy of the liver represents the most common cause. A minority of hemobilia cases are due to hepatobiliary disorders such as cholangitis, hepatobiliary cancers, choledocholithiasis, and vascular abnormalities in the liver. The classic presentation of hemobilia is the triad of right upper quadrant (biliary pain, obstructive jaundice, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a rare case of hemobilia caused by a spontaneous hepatic cyst rupture, where our patient presented without the classical symptoms, in the absence of therapeutic or pathological coagulopathy, and in the absence of spontaneous or iatrogenic trauma. Case presentation A 91-year-old African-American woman was referred to our out-patient gastroenterology clinic for evaluation of mild epigastric pain and intermittent melena. An abdominal computed tomography scan was remarkable for multiple hepatic cysts. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple blood clots at the ampulla of Vater. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a single 18 mm-sized filling defect in the common hepatic duct wall at the junction of the right and left hepatic duct, adjacent to one of the hepatic cysts. The ruptured hepatic cyst communicated to the bile ducts and was the cause of hemobilia with an atypical clinical presentation. Conclusion Hemobilia is an infrequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and rarely occurs due to hepatic cyst rupture. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case report in the literature that describes hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture. However, it is the first case in the literature of hemobilia due to hepatic cyst rupture in the absence of iatrogenic or spontaneous trauma, and in the absence of a spontaneous or pathological coagulopathy.

  18. Hepatitis E virus is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian, Scotland

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    I. Kokki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis affects all ages worldwide. Hepatitis E virus (HEV is increasingly recognized as a major cause of acute hepatitis in Europe. Because knowledge of its characteristics is limited, we conducted a retrospective study to outline demographic and clinical features of acute HEV in comparison to hepatitis A, B and C in Lothian over 28 months (January 2012 to April 2014. A total of 3204 blood samples from patients with suspected acute hepatitis were screened for hepatitis A, B and C virus; 913 of these samples were also screened for HEV. Demographic and clinical information on patients with positive samples was gathered from electronic patient records. Confirmed HEV samples were genotyped. Of 82 patients with confirmed viral hepatitis, 48 (59% had acute HEV. These patients were older than those infected by hepatitis A, B or C viruses, were more often male and typically presented with jaundice, nausea, vomiting and/or malaise. Most HEV cases (70% had eaten pork or game meat in the few months before infection, and 14 HEV patients (29% had a recent history of foreign travel. The majority of samples were HEV genotype 3 (27/30, 90%; three were genotype 1. Acute HEV infection is currently the predominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in Lothian and presents clinically in older men. Most of these infections are autochthonous, and further studies confirming the sources of infection (i.e. food or blood transfusion are required.

  19. Maraviroc attenuates trauma-hemorrhage-induced hepatic injury through PPAR gamma-dependent pathway in rats.

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    Fu-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Maraviroc is a CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 antagonist with potent antiviral and cancer preventive effects. Recent evidence suggests that the co-existence of CCR5 in various cell types is involved in inflammation. However, the effects that CCR5 antagonists produce in trauma-hemorrhage remain unknown. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR(γ pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. In this study, we hypothesized that maraviroc administration in male rats, after trauma-hemorrhage, decreases cytokine production and protects against hepatic injury through a PPAR(γ-dependent pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes, followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of maraviroc (3 mg/kg, intravenously with and without a PPAR(γ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg, intravenously, GW9662 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT with aspartate aminotransferase (AST concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n=8 rats/group at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the maraviroc-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Maraviroc treatment also increased hepatic PPAR(γ expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of GW9662 with maraviroc abolished the maraviroc-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of maraviroc administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through PPAR(γ-dependent pathway.

  20. Comparison of isolated and concomitant liver injuries: is hepatic trauma entirely responsible for the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, P; Aydin, U; Sozbilen, M

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine both isolated and concomitant liver injuries to clarify the role of liver trauma on outcome. This retrospective study was a review of all abdominal trauma patients who presented with liver injuries, with or without concomitant injury at Ege University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Presentation, injury grade, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with isolated hepatic injury (Group A) were compared with patients who had concomitant hepatic injury (liver and spleen/small bowel) (Group B). Significance was set at 95% confidence intervals. Of 368 patients, 80 (21%) presented with liver injury. Of these, the aetiology was as follows: 53 (66.2%) blunt injury, 19 (23%) penetrating injury, and 8 (10%) gun shot trauma. There were 38 patients in Group A and 42 in Group B. Of these 42 patients, 19 were diagnosed with serious types of injury ; eight thoracic, three open long bone fracture, one intra-cardiac, one intracranial. Six additional patients were observed with injuries to large abdominal vessels. Eleven patients (28.9%) with isolated hepatic injury were managed non-operatively. Mortality, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and transfusion requirements were significantly higher in Group B. Only the number of transfused blood units and the grade of liver injury were found to be effective on outcome whereas stepwise regression analysis revealed that injury type (penetrating) and blood transfusion were predictive for mortality. This study highlighted that although isolated liver injury results in good outcome with non-operative management, concomitant injuries to the liver lead to a higher failure and mortality rate. However, liver injury itself is rarely responsible for death.

  1. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chen Ju; Wong, Yon Cheong; Tsang, Yuk Ming; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Ku, Yi Kang; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Chen, Huan Wen; Kang, Shih Ching

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma.

  2. Nuclear imaging of hepatic impact injury on rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rongbing; Wen Jianliang; Tang Weijia; Ma Xiaolin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect and clinic application value of nuclear imaging on hepatic impact experiment. Methods: Experimental rabbits were impact injured on liver with BIM-IV bio-impact machine. Liver imaging was performed with sodium phytate labeled by 99m Tc. Liver blood pool imaging was performed with labeled red blood cells. The results of imaging were similar with the results of anatomy. Results: There were significant difference between normal liver and injured liver. Radio diminution and defect were showed on injured liver areas in labeled hepatic cells. Many types of abnormal radioactivity distribution were observed in liver pool imaging. The results of liver imaging and liver blood pool imaging were corresponded to the results of anatomy. Conclusion: Changes of hepatic cell structures and function after injury could be showed by nuclear imaging. Nuclear imaging was valuable in determining injured liver position or injured degree

  3. Protection of the Extracts of Lentinus edodes Mycelia against Carbon-Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in Rats

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    Mei-Fen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentinus edodes is the medicinal macrofungus showing potential for therapeutic applications in infectious disorders including hepatitis. In an attempt to develop the agent for handling hepatic injury, we used the extracts of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM to screen the effect on hepatic injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 not only increased plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT but also decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels in rats. Similar to the positive control silymarin, oral administration (three times daily of this product (LEM for 8 weeks significantly reduced plasma GOT and GPT. Also, the activities of antioxidant enzymes of SOD and GPx were elevated by LEM. in liver from CCl4-treated rats, indicating that mycelium can increase antioxidant-like activity. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of SOD and GPx were both markedly raised by LEM. The obtained results suggest that oral administration of the extracts of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM has the protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats, mainly due to an increase in antioxidant-like action.

  4. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

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    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  5. [Morbimortality in patients with hepatic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Ehrhardt, Rogério; Miranda, Antonio Lopes de

    2013-06-01

    The liver is the intra-abdominal organ more injured in patient victims of trauma. The injury occurs more frequently in the penetrating trauma. The incidence of mortality for injuries of the liver is 10%. To evaluate the mortality of the patients with hepatic trauma, the treatment applied and its evolution. Were analyzed, retrospectively, the charts of all patients with hepatic trauma and surgical indication. Were analyzed: gender, age, ISS (injury severity score), classification of the abdominal trauma type (open or closed), causing instrument of the open traumas, degree of the injury, hepatic segments involved, presence of associated injuries, type of surgical treatment: not-therapeutic laparotomy and therapeutic laparotomy, reoperations, complications, time of hospitalization in days and mortality. One hundred and thirty-seven patients participated. Of these, 124 were men (90.5%). The majority (56.2%) had 20-29 years old. Closed abdominal trauma was most prevalent (67.9%). Of the penetrating traumas, the originated with firearms were in 24.8%. One hundred and three patients had only one injured hepatic segment (75.2%) and 34 (24.8%) two. Grade II injuries were in 66.4%. Of the 137 patients with laparotomy, 89 had been not-therapeutic, while in 48 it was necessary to repair associated injuries. Spleen and diaphragm had been the more frequently injured structures, 30% and 26%, respectively. The ISS varied of eight to 72, being the ISS > 50 (eight patients) associate with fatal evolution (five patients). Biliary fistula and hepatic abscess had been the main complications. Seven deaths had occurred. Concomitant injuries, hepatic and other organs, associated with ISS > 50 presented higher possibility of complications and death.

  6. Association Between MC-2 Peptide and Hepatic Perfusion and Liver Injury Following Resuscitated Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Paul J; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Smith, Jason W; Matheson, Samuel A; Downard, Cynthia D; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, Richard N

    2016-03-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) due to trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, despite continuing progression of advanced life support and treatment. Trauma is the third most common cause of death worldwide and is the leading cause of death in the 1- to 44-year-old age group. Hemorrhagic shock often progresses to multiple organ failure despite conventional resuscitation (CR) that restores central hemodynamics. To examine whether MC-2 would bind glycosaminoglycans to decrease proinflammatory cytokines' influence in the liver, minimize organ edema, prevent liver injury, and improve hepatic perfusion. MC-2, a synthetic octapeptide derived from the heparin-binding domain of murine interferon gamma (IFN-γ), binds glycosaminoglycans to modulate serum and interstitial cytokine levels and activity. A controlled laboratory study of 3y male Sprague-Dawley rats that were randomized to 4 groups of 8 each: sham, sham+MC-2 (50 mg/kg), HS/CR, or HS/CR+MC-2 (HS = 40% of baseline mean arterial pressure for 60 minutes; CR = return of shed blood and 2 volumes of saline). The study began in March, 2013. Effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF) by galactose clearance, wet-dry weights, cytokines, histopathology, complete metabolic panel, and complete blood cell count were performed at 4 hours after CR. MC-2 partially reversed the HS/CR-induced hepatic hypoperfusion at 3 and 4 hours postresuscitation compared with HS/CR alone. Effective hepatic blood flow decreased during the HS period from a mean (SD) of 7.4 (0.3) mL/min/100 g and 7.5 (0.5) mL/min/100g at baseline to 3.7 (0.4) mL/min/100g and 5.9 (0.5) mL/min/100g for the HS/CR and HS/CR+MC-2 groups, respectively (P hepatic blood flow remained constant in the sham groups throughout the experimental protocol. Organ edema was increased in the ileum and liver in the HS/CR vs sham group, and MC-2 decreased edema in the ileum vs the HS/CR group. MC-2 in HS also decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase

  7. The protective effect of huperzine A against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Yang, J; Jiang, Q

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury is regarded as a serious concern in clinical practices. Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese folk medicine huperzia serrate, which has possessed diverse pharmacological actions. A mouse model of HI/R was caused by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein, and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 6 hours under anesthesia. The sham group experienced the identical procedure without hepatic ischemia. The HupA group received an injection into the tail vein 5 minutes prior to HI/R at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg. The vehicle group was injected with physiological saline instead of HupA. The liver function was assessed by determinations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the activities of hepatic inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 were also measured. Furthermore, the apoptotic damage was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity in hepatic tissues. Treatment with HupA in mice at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg remarkably reduced serum ALT and AST activities in HupA-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, HupA treatment could enhance the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT, and GSH but decrease MDA tissue content. The activities of inflammatory cytokines including NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were all decreased in ischemic mice treated with HupA. Colorimetric test results illustrated that a marked reduction of caspase-3 activity was found in the HupA-treated group compared with the vehicle group. Our present data suggest that HupA has a protective role against HI/R injury of mice and antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic

  8. Severe Aplastic Anemia following Acute Hepatitis from Toxic Liver Injury: Literature Review and Case Report of a Successful Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis associated aplastic anemia (HAAA is a rare syndrome in which severe aplastic anemia (SAA complicates the recovery of acute hepatitis (AH. HAAA is described to occur with AH caused by viral infections and also with idiopathic cases of AH and no clear etiology of liver injury. Clinically, AH can be mild to fulminant and transient to persistent and precedes the onset SAA. It is assumed that immunologic dysregulation following AH leads to the development of SAA. Several observations have been made to elucidate the immune mediated injury mechanisms, ensuing from liver injury and progressing to trigger bone marrow failure with the involvement of activated lymphocytes and severe T-cell imbalance. HAAA has a very poor outcome and often requires bone marrow transplant (BMT. The findings of immune related myeloid injury implied the use of immunosuppressive therapy (IST and led to improved survival from HAAA. We report a case of young male who presented with AH resulting from the intake of muscle building protein supplements and anabolic steroids. The liver injury slowly resolved with supportive care and after 4 months of attack of AH, he developed SAA. He was treated with IST with successful outcome without the need for a BMT.

  9. Long-Time Choledochal Clamping in Wistar Rats Causes Biliary Obstruction Progressing to Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, G D L; Tártaro, R R; Escanhoela, C A F; Boin, I D F S F

    2016-09-01

    Biliary complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hepatic surgery. The aim of the study was to evaluate late liver alterations after a long period of choledochal clamping in Wistar rats. Ten male Wistar rats, weighing 304 grams, anesthetized with sodium thiopental (25 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) intravenously, were distributed into 2 groups: the choledochal clamping group (CCG) and the operation sham group (OSG), with 5 animals each submitted to an abdominal incision. In the CCG, the choledochal was isolated, dissected, and clamped with a microvascular clamp for 40 minutes. After this occlusion time, the clamp was removed and the incision was closed. In the OSG the animals, under normal conditions, were submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy for choledochal manipulation. In all animals, after the 31st day, a hepatic biopsy was carried out for histology and blood biochemical tests: total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA, Unicamp, No. 2511-1). In the CCG, 100% of the animals showed bile duct dilatation, ductular proliferation, and portal inflammatory infiltrate; 60% showed regenerative nodule formation; and 80% had porta-porta septa and foci of necrosis, all of which were not found in the OSG. All CCG group biochemical tests had significant increases (P Wistar rats caused hepatic dysfunction and biochemical and histological injuries with degrees of distortion to the hepatic architecture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

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    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  11. A small solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst causing an intra-hepatic bile duct stricture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Taeho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an unusual presentation of a small hepatic cyst causing cholangitis. Case presentation A 70-year-old Asian man was hospitalized for aggravated chronic pain in the right upper portion of his abdomen. Fever developed after admission. Laboratory tests revealed elevated hepatobiliary enzymes, inflammatory markers and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 without hyperbilirubinemia. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated dilatation of the left intra-hepatic bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed that the right intra-hepatic bile ducts were normally filled with contrast medium, but the left intra-hepatic bile ducts were not seen in the confluence. A left hepatectomy was performed because a hidden malignancy could not be excluded. The surgical findings showed no tumor around the bile duct but rather a 2 cm cyst in segment four of Couinaud's category of the liver around the hilum. The pathology report was a solitary non-parasitic hepatic cyst compressing the bile duct. Conclusion A very small solitary hepatic cyst might cause hepatic duct stricture if it is located near the hepatic hilum, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic duct stricture.

  12. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery for the treatment of acute hepatic injury: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinghe; Han Jinling; Liu Yanping; Gao Jue; Xu Ke; Zhang Xitong; Ding Guomin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery in treating acute hepatic injury in experimental rabbit models and to clarify the synergistic effect of hepatocyte growth-promoting factor (pHGF) in stem cell transplantation therapy for liver injury. Methods Acute hepatic injury models were established in 15 experimental rabbits by daily subcutaneous injection of CCl 4 olive oil solution with the dose of 0.8 ml/kg for 4 days in succession. The experimental rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups: study group A (stem cell transplant, n = 5), study group B (stem cell transplant + pFHG, n = 5), and control group (n = 5). Bone marrow of 5 ml was drawn from the tibia in all rabbits of both study groups, from which bone marrow stem cells were isolated by using density gradient centrifugation, and 5 ml cellular suspension was prepared. Under fluoroscopic guidance, catheterization through the femoral artery was performed and the cellular suspension was infused into the liver via the hepatic artery. Only injection of saline was carried out in the rabbits of control group. For the rabbits in group B, pFHG (2.0 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every other day for 20 days. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks after stem cell transplantation, hepatic function was determined. Eight weeks after the transplantation all the rabbits were sacrificed and the liver specimens were collected and sent for pathological examination. Results After stem cell transplantation, the hepatic function was gradually improved.Eight weeks after the transplantation, the activity of AST, ALT and the content of ALB, TBIL were significantly lower than that before the procedure, while the content of GOLB was markedly increased in all rabbits. In addition, the difference in the above parameters between three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pathologically, the hepatocyte degeneration and the fiberous hyperplasia in the study groups

  13. Study on pretreatment of FPS-1 in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiqing; Liu, Kexuan; Wu, Weikang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Xuanhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether FPS-1, the water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from fuzi, protected against hepatic damage in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and its mechanism. SD rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. FPS-1 (160 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 5 days before ischemia-reperfusion injury in treatment group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and albumin (ALB) were assayed to evaluate liver functions. Liver samples were taken for histological examination and determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), that catalase (CAT) in liver. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method. Morphological changes were also investigated by using both light microscopy and electron microscopy (EM). In addition, apoptosis and oncosis were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Serum AST and ALT levels were elevated in groups exposed to ischemia-reperfusion (p FPS-1 reversed all these biochemical parameters as well as histological alterations, evidently by increased SOD, CAT, reduced MDA and histological scores compared to the model group (p FPS-1 could attenuate the necrotic states by the detection of immunofluorescent flow cytometry analysis. Pretreatment with FPS-1 reduced hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through its potent antioxidative effects and attenuation of necrotic states.

  14. Concomitant injuries are an important determinant of outcome of high-grade blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnüriger, B; Inderbitzin, D; Schafer, M; Kickuth, R; Exadaktylos, A; Candinas, D

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical importance of concomitant injuries in polytraumatized patients with high-grade blunt liver injury. A retrospective single-centre study was performed to investigate the safety of non-operative management of liver injury and the impact of concomitant intra- and extra-abdominal injuries on clinical outcome. Some 183 patients with blunt liver injury were admitted to Berne University Hospital, Switzerland, between January 2000 and December 2006. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Immediate laparotomy was required by 35 patients (19.1 per cent), owing to extrahepatic intra-abdominal injury (splenic and vascular injuries, perforations) in 21 cases. The mortality rate was 16.9 per cent; 22 of the 31 deaths were due to concomitant lesions. Of 81 patients with high-grade liver injury, 63 (78 per cent) were managed without surgery; liver-related and extra-abdominal complication rates in these patients were 11 and 17 per cent respectively. Grades 4 and 5 liver injury were associated with hepatic-related and extra-abdominal complications. Concomitant injuries are a major determinant of outcome in patients with blunt hepatic injury and should be given high priority by trauma surgeons. An algorithm for the management of blunt liver injury is proposed. Copyright (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan; Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures

  16. [Surgical management, prognostic factors, and outcome in hepatic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, R; Schön, M R; Seidel, S; Schuster, E; Josten, C; Hauss, J

    2005-02-01

    Hepatic trauma is a rare surgical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Extensive experience in liver surgery is a prerequisite for the management of these injuries. The medical records of 68 consecutive patients with hepatic trauma were retrospectively reviewed for the severity of liver injury, management, morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Of the patients, 14 were treated conservatively and 52 surgically (24 suture/fibrin glue, 16 perihepatic packing, 11 resections, 1 liver transplantation). Two patients died just before emergency surgery could be performed. Overall mortality was 21% (14/68), and 13, 14, 6, 27, and 50% for types I, II, III, IV, and V injuries, respectively. Only nine deaths (all type IV and V) were liver related, while four were caused by extrahepatic injuries and one by concomitant liver cirrhosis. With respect to treatment, conservative management, suture, and resection had a low mortality of 0, 4, and 9%, respectively. In contrast, mortality was 47% in patients in whom only packing was performed (in severe injuries). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis proved prothrombin values 30, and transfusion requirements of more than 10 red packed cells to be significant risk factors for post-traumatic death. Type I-III hepatic injuries can safely be treated by conservative or simple surgical means. However, complex hepatic injuries (types IV and V) carry a significant mortality and may require hepatic surgery, including liver resection or even transplantation. Therefore, patients with severe hepatic injuries should be treated in a specialized institution.

  17. Mechanism of estrogen-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage: Akt-dependent HO-1 up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jun-Te; Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2007-10-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be involved in proinflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. Akt activation also leads to the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 mediates potent, anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates organ injury. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) prevents organ damage following trauma-hemorrhage, it remains unknown whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in E2-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. To study this, male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure, approximately 40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. At the onset of resuscitation, rats were treated with vehicle, E2 (1 mg/kg body weight), E2 plus the PI-3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182,780). At 2 h after sham operation or trauma-hemorrhage, plasma alpha-GST and hepatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL-6, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and MIP-2 levels were measured. Hepatic Akt and HO-1 protein levels were also determined. Trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic injury markers (alpha-GST and MPO activity), cytokines, ICAM-1, and chemokine levels. These parameters were markedly improved in the E2-treated rats following trauma-hemorrhage. E2 treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated, trauma-hemorrhage rats, which were abolished by coadministration of Wortmannin or ICI 182,780. These results suggest that the salutary effects of E2 on hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage are in part mediated via an ER-related, Akt-dependent up-regulation of HO-1.

  18. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  19. Application of radionuclide imaging to hepatic impact injury in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金榕兵; 麻晓林; 温建良; 唐维佳

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role and clinical value of radionuclide imaging in hepatic impact injuries in rabbits.Methods: Rabbits were experimentally impacted on the liver with BIM-IV bio-impact machine. Liver imaging was performed with 99mTc labeled sodium phytate. Liver blood pool imaging was performed with 99mTc -stannous pyrophosphate labeled red blood cells. The results of radionuclide imaging were compared with the anatomic results.Results: There was significant difference between the images of the injured liver and the control. Radio diminution and defect were shown in the injured liver areas. Various sorts of abnormal radioactivity distribution were observed with hepatic blood pool imaging. The results of the liver imaging and liver blood pool imaging were accorded with the results of the anatomic findings.Conclusions: Radionuclide imaging may well display the changes of hepatocellular structures and functions after injury, which is valuable in locating the concrete injured position and differentiating the injured degrees of liver.

  20. Effects of model traumatic injury on hepatic drug metabolism in the rat. IV. Glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffeth, L K; Rosen, G M; Rauckman, E J

    1985-01-01

    A previously validated small mammal trauma model, hind-limb ischemia secondary to infrarenal aortic ligation in the rat, was utilized to investigate the effects of traumatic injury on hepatic glucuronidation activity. As was previously observed with hepatic oxidative drug metabolism, model trauma resulted in a significant decrease in the in vivo glucuronidation of chloramphenicol, with a 23% drop in clearance of this drug. The effect on in vivo pharmacokinetics appeared to result from a complex interaction between trauma's differential influences on conjugating enzyme(s), deconjugating enzyme(s), and hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid levels, as well as the relative physiological importance of these variables. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities towards both p-nitrophenol and chloramphenicol were elevated (44-54%) after model injury when measured in native hepatic microsomes. However, microsomes which had been "activated" by treatment with Triton X-100 showed no significant difference between control and traumatized animals. Serum beta-glucuronidase activities were elevated by 58%, while hepatic beta-glucuronidase rose by about 16%. Nevertheless, in vivo deconjugation showed no significant change. Model trauma also resulted in a 46% decrease in hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content. Thus, the observed post-traumatic depression of in vivo chloramphenicol glucuronidation could be due either to a diminished availability of a necessary cofactor (UDP-glucuronic acid) or to an alteration in enzyme kinetics or function in vivo.

  1. Hepatic steatosis does not cause insulin resistance in people with familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. E.; Lammers, N. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; van der Graaf, M.; Heerschap, A.; Ackermans, M. T.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Stroes, E. S.; Serlie, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is strongly associated with hepatic and whole-body insulin resistance. It has proved difficult to determine whether hepatic steatosis itself is a direct cause of insulin resistance. In patients with familial hypobetalipoproteinaemia (FHBL), hepatic steatosis is a direct consequence

  2. Renalase as a Novel Biomarker for Evaluating the Severity of Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a serious complication in clinical practice. However, no efficient biomarkers are available for the evaluation of the severity of I/R injury. Recently, renalase has been reported to be implicated in the I/R injury of various organs. This protein is secreted into the blood in response to increased oxidative stress. To investigate the responsiveness of renalase to oxidative stress, we examined the changes of renalase in cell and mouse models. We observed a significant increase of renalase expression in HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when treated with H2O2. Renalase expression also increased significantly in liver tissues that underwent the hepatic I/R process. The increased renalase levels could be efficiently suppressed by antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, serum renalase levels were significantly increased in the mouse models and also efficiently suppressed by antioxidants treatment. The variation trends are consistent between renalase and liver enzymes in the mouse models. In conclusion, renalase is highly sensitive and responsive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, renalase can be detected in the blood. These properties make renalase a highly promising biomarker for the evaluation of the severity of hepatic I/R injury.

  3. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  4. Hepatic parenchymal atrophy induction for intractable segmental bile duct injury after liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury.

  5. Hepatitis E virus as a Cause of Acute Hepatitis in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta T R Tholen

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that 27% of Dutch blood donors have evidence of past infection with HEV. However, the low number of diagnosed HEV infections indicates either an asymptomatic course or under diagnosis.We investigated whether HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in Dutch patients and which diagnostic modality (serology or PCR should be used for optimal detection.Serum samples were retrospectively selected from non-severely immuno-compromised patients from a university hospital population, suspected of having an infectious hepatitis. Criteria were: elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT> 34 U/l and request for antibody testing for CMV, EBV or Hepatitis A (HAV.All samples were tested for HEV using ELISA and PCR. Ninety patients/sera were tested, of which 22% were HEV IgG positive. Only one serum was IgM positive. HEV PCR was positive in two patients: one patient was both HEV IgM and IgG positive, the other patient was only IgG positive. Both HEV RNA positive samples belonged to genotype 3. Evidence of recent infection with CMV, EBV and HAV was found in 13%, 10% and 3% respectively.Although our study is limited by small numbers, we conclude that HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in hospital associated patients in The Netherlands. Moreover, in our study population the prevalence of acute HAV (3% was almost similar to acute HEV (2%. We propose to incorporate HEV testing in panels for acute infectious hepatitis. Negative results obtained for HEV IgM in a HEV PCR positive patient, indicates that antibody testing alone may not be sufficient and argues for PCR as a primary diagnostic tool in hospital associated patients. The high percentage of HEV IgG seropositivity confirms earlier epidemiological studies.

  6. Bilirubin nanoparticle preconditioning protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Kang, Sukmo; Miao, Wenjun; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major concern in liver transplantation and resection, despite continuing efforts to prevent it. Accumulating evidence suggests that bilirubin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, despite obvious potential health benefits of bilirubin, its clinical applications are limited by its poor solubility. We recently developed bilirubin nanoparticles (BRNPs) consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bilirubin. Here, we sought to investigate whether BRNPs protect against IRI in the liver by preventing oxidative stress. BRNPs exerted potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity in primary hepatocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide, a precursor of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a model of hepatic IRI in mice, BRNP preconditioning exerted profound protective effects against hepatocellular injury by reducing oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and recruitment of neutrophils. They also preferentially accumulated in IRI-induced inflammatory lesions. Collectively, our findings indicate that BRNP preconditioning provides a simple and safe approach that can be easily monitored in the blood like endogenous bilirubin, and could be a promising strategy to protect against IRI in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  8. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...

  9. Management of adult blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Rosemary A; McNutt, Michelle K

    2010-12-01

    To review the nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury in the adult trauma population. Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to a patient at increased risk of hepatic complications following nonoperative management. Blunt hepatic injury remains a frequent intraabdominal injury in the adult trauma population. The management of blunt hepatic injury has undergone a major paradigm shift from mandatory operative exploration to nonoperative management. Hemodynamic instability with a positive focused abdominal sonography for trauma and peritonitis are indications for emergent operative intervention. Although surgical intervention for blunt hepatic trauma is not as common as in years past, it is imperative that the current trauma surgeon be familiar with the surgical skill set to manage complex hepatic injuries. This study represents a review of both nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury.

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy: cause and possible management with botanicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Suyash; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain functional disorder, characterized by neuropsychiatric abnormalities with liver failure. High blood ammonia, causing glutamate neurotoxicity is the basic cause, finally leading to low-grade cerebral edema. Its manifestation is more likely in patients of sepsis, oxidative stress, generalized inflammation, gut mal-functioning, amoebiaesis, viral hepatitis, nervous imbalance, etc. Thus, the therapeutic goals primarily include the maintenance of proper blood supply and prevention of hypoxic condition in liver, along with management of factors responsible for high blood ammonia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and high GI- serotonin. The drugs in clinical practice include lactulose, sodium benzoate, flumazenil and rifaximin, supplementation of zinc, branched chain amino acids (BCAA), l-ornithine-l aspartate, antioxidants and iNOS inhibitors. However, herbal formulations would be of great importance as it shows multi-targeted action because it possesses a natural cocktail of secondary metabolites. It can collectively act as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, prebiotic, hepatoprotective and neuron-protective agents. We have briefly outlined some of these plants and also recent patents useful in the management of hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  12. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury by emulsified Antrodia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Antrodia cinnamomea (AC is found with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-hepatitis effect of the emulsified AC extract from RO water or supercritical fluid CO2 with ethanol co-solvent extract methods of AC preparations. Materials and Methods: Five groups of eight to ten weeks male rats with a count of ten for each group were studied to evaluate the protection of two kinds of AC extract from hepatic injury. Acute liver injury of rats was induced by injecting 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Positive and negative control groups rats were perfused with CCl4 or isotonic saline, respectively. Experimental groups received oral administration once/day of AC preparations before CCl4 treatment: water AC extract (WAE group, or emulsified AC extract from supercritical fluid extraction (EAE group for 5 days, and sacrificed on the 6th day and the blood and liver samples were collected under chloral hydrate anesthesia. The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant markers, and relevant signaling pathways were measured (AST, ALT, ROS, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and COX-2, MAPKs, and caspase-3. Results: EAE at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the serum AST, ALT, IL-1, IL-6, NO, and ROS levels. Both extracts reduced the activation of p-ERK in the liver samples, but EAE inhibited COX-2 and caspase-3 protein expression better than WAE. The EAE ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury significantly; as compared with WAE and the positive control. Conclusion: The hepatoprotection of EAE could be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Antrodia.

  14. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-10-01

    Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.

  15. Hepatitis E virus as a Cause of Acute Hepatitis in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, Aletta T. R.; Schinkel, Janke; Molenkamp, Richard; Ang, C. Wim

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that 27% of Dutch blood donors have evidence of past infection with HEV. However, the low number of diagnosed HEV infections indicates either an asymptomatic course or under diagnosis. We investigated whether HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in Dutch patients and which

  16. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  17. Protective effect of tropisetron on rodent hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock through P38 MAPK-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chao Liu

    Full Text Available Tropisetron can decrease inflammatory cell responses and alleviate organ damage caused by trauma-hemorrhage, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/hemeoxygenase-1 (p38 MAPK/HO-1 pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects on different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK/HO-1 plays any role in the tropisetron-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 min, followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, several treatment regimens were administered: four doses of tropisetron alone (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg body weight, or a single dose of tropisetron (1 mg/kg body weight with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-203580, 2 mg/kg body weight or HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin, 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Various parameters were measured, and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h post-resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased the following parameters: plasma concentrations of aspartate (AST and alanine aminotransferases (ALT, hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and -3 (CINC-1 and CINC-3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α. These parameters were significantly improved in the tropisetron-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Tropisetron treatment also increased hepatic p38 MAPK and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 or chromium-mesoporphyrin with tropisetron abolished the tropisetron-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of tropisetron administration on alleviation of hepatic

  18. Protective effect of tropisetron on rodent hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock through P38 MAPK-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tsai, Yung-Fong

    2012-01-01

    Tropisetron can decrease inflammatory cell responses and alleviate organ damage caused by trauma-hemorrhage, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/hemeoxygenase-1 (p38 MAPK/HO-1) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects on different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK/HO-1 plays any role in the tropisetron-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, several treatment regimens were administered: four doses of tropisetron alone (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg body weight), or a single dose of tropisetron (1 mg/kg body weight) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-203580, 2 mg/kg body weight) or HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin, 2.5 mg/kg body weight). Various parameters were measured, and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h post-resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased the following parameters: plasma concentrations of aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT), hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and -3 (CINC-1 and CINC-3), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). These parameters were significantly improved in the tropisetron-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Tropisetron treatment also increased hepatic p38 MAPK and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 or chromium-mesoporphyrin with tropisetron abolished the tropisetron-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of tropisetron administration on alleviation of hepatic injury

  19. [CLAVICLE FRACTURES IN CHILDREN--CIRCUMSTANCES AND CAUSES OF INJURY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antabak, Anko; Matković, Nikša; Papeš, Dino; Karlo, Robert; Romić, Ivan; Fuchs, Nino; Madarić, Miroslav; Stilinović, Marina; Stanić, Lana; Luetić, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children occur twice as often as in adults. During a child's growth period they account for 10-15% of all fractures sustained. The questions which should be asked are how these fractures are sustained and under which circumstances are the children injured. In the study 256 children with clavicle fractures treated during the period 2008-2013 were analyzed. The underlying cause and place of injuries were classified using the ICD-10 classification system, using environmental causes of injury. The circumstances were in each case accidental injury. Environmental causes were traffic accidents (V01-V99) or mishaps/accidents (W00-X59). Fracture injuries were caused in traffic accidents in 24 (9.4%), and in mishaps/accidents in 232 (90.6%) children. Of the injuries caused by mishaps/accidents, in 204 children these were caused by falls (W00-W19). In 123 of them the injuries were caused by falls from a ground level, and in 81 were from a greater height. Direct blow injuries, caused by another person or a blunt instrument, weere the causes of fractures seen in 28 children. Place of fracture sustainment was dominantly at home. This was followed by injuries sustained outside in recreational areas, while least were suffered at school or kindergarden facilities. Bicycle riding was the cause of clavicle fractures in 48 children, which was 18.7% of all fractures seen. Sports related injuries and fractures were seen in 47 (18.4%) out of 256 children: 30 in football, 10 in defensive sports (wrestling, judo, karate), three in hockey, while basketball and gymnastics accounted for two each. Preschool children were injured more often while in the care of their parents while school aged children were adaquately protected, but in after-school activities they were often injured. The most common injuries after school were those suffered in traffic accidents and recreational sports activities. In the adolescent period, the most common injuries seen were again those in

  20. Scrub typhus causing neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure-A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpayee, Shailja; Gupta, R K; Gupta, M L

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure due to varied etiology including various infections is reported in the past. Scrub typhus as a cause of neonatal hepatitis has rarely been reported in literature. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely treatment. Severity and prognosis of the disease varies widely because several different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi exist with different virulence. Delayed diagnosis can result in complication and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we report three cases of neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure caused by scrub typhus to increase awareness.

  1. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  2. Review of liver injury associated with dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix; Kessebohm, Kerstin; Weimann, Rosemarie; Seitz, Helmut K

    2011-05-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are easily available and increasingly used, and adverse hepatic reactions have been reported following their intake. To critically review the literature on liver injury because of DSs, delineating patterns and mechanisms of injury and to increase the awareness towards this cause of acute and chronic liver damage. Studies and case reports on liver injury specifically because of DSs published between 1990 and 2010 were searched in the PubMed and EMBASE data bases using the terms 'dietary/nutritional supplements', 'adverse hepatic reactions', 'liver injury'; 'hepatitis', 'liver failure', 'vitamin A' and 'retinoids', and reviewed for yet unidentified publications. Significant liver injury was reported after intake of Herbalife and Hydroxycut products, tea extracts from Camellia sinensis, products containing usnic acid and high contents of vitamin A, anabolic steroids and others. No uniform pattern of hepatotoxicity has been identified and severity may range from asymptomatic elevations of serum liver enzymes to hepatic failure and death. Exact estimates on how frequent adverse hepatic reactions occur as a result of DSs cannot be provided. Liver injury from DSs mimicking other liver diseases is increasingly recognized. Measures to reduce risk include tighter regulation of their production and distribution and increased awareness of users and professionals of the potential risks. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Lisanne C [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Yeo, Heegook; Kaelin, Brenna R; Lang, Anna L; Bushau, Adrienne M; Douglas, Amanda N [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Cave, Matt [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Robley Rex Louisville VAMC, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); Arteel, Gavin E [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); McClain, Craig J [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hepatobiology and Toxicology Program, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Robley Rex Louisville VAMC, Louisville, KY 40206 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeks after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated fat and CE

  4. Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Lisanne C; Yeo, Heegook; Kaelin, Brenna R; Lang, Anna L; Bushau, Adrienne M; Douglas, Amanda N; Cave, Matt; Arteel, Gavin E; McClain, Craig J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinyl chloride (VC) causes toxicant-associated steatohepatitis at high exposure levels. Recent work by this group suggests that underlying liver disease may predispose the liver to VC hepatotoxicity at lower exposure levels. The most common form of underlying liver disease in the developed world is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is well-known that the type of dietary fat can play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, whether the combination of dietary fat and VC/metabolites promotes liver injury has not been studied. Methods: Mice were administered chloroethanol (CE - a VC metabolite) or vehicle once, 10 weeks after being fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids (HSFA), rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (HPUFA), or the respective low-fat control diets (LSFA; LPUFA). Results: In control mice, chloroethanol caused no detectable liver injury, as determined by plasma transaminases and histologic indices of damage. In HSFA-fed mice, chloroethanol increased HSFA-induced liver damage, steatosis, infiltrating inflammatory cells, hepatic expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Moreover, markers of inflammasome activation were increased, while markers of inflammasome inhibition were downregulated. In mice fed HPUFA all of these effects were significantly attenuated. Conclusions: Chloroethanol promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. This effect is far more exacerbated with saturated fat, versus poly-unsaturated fat; and strongly correlates with a robust activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the saturated fed animals only. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH. - Highlights: • CE promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids. • This effect is stronger with saturated than with unsaturated fatty acids. • Damage caused by saturated fat and CE

  5. Car surfing: an uncommon cause of traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T; Timberlake, G; Yeager, A; Jadali, M; Royer, K

    1999-02-01

    Car surfing is an infrequent cause of traumatic injuries treated by emergency physicians. This very dangerous activity can result in serious injury or death. We report 5 cases of injuries caused by car surfing seen at our hospital during 1996 and 1997. All involved head injuries after a fall from a moving motor vehicle. There were 3 male and 2 female patients, and 3 cases were fatal. Health care providers should be aware of this type of injury and support efforts to prevent it.

  6. Mechanism of salutary effects of astringinin on rodent hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage: Akt-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lau, Ying-Tung; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Astringinin can attenuate organ injury following trauma-hemorrhage, the mechanism remains unknown. Protein kinase B/hemeoxygenase-1 (Akt/HO-1) pathway exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in astringinin-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. For study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure 35-40 mmHg for 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. A single dose of astringinin (0.3 mg/kg body weight) with or without a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or a HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin) was administered during resuscitation. Various parameters were measured at 24 h post-resuscitation. Results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased plasma aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) concentrations and hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interleukin-6 levels. These parameters were significantly improved in the astringinin-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Astringinin treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression as compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of wortmannin or chromium-mesoporphyrin abolished the astringinin-induced beneficial effects on post-resuscitation pro-inflammatory responses and hepatic injury. These findings collectively suggest that the salutary effects of astringinin administration on attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage are likely mediated via Akt dependent HO-1 up-regulation.

  7. Hepatic pseudoaneurysm after traumatic liver injury; is CT follow-up warranted?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Lene; Helgstrand, Frederik; Axelsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hepatic pseudoaneurysm (HPA) is a rare complication after liver trauma, yet it is potentially fatal, as it can lead to sudden severe haemorrhage. The risk of developing posttraumatic HPA is one of the arguments for performing follow-up CT of patients with liver injuries. The aim...... no treatment failures. There was no correlation between the severity of the liver injury and development of HPA. 5 out of 7 patients were asymptomatic and would have been discharged without treatment if the protocol did not include a default follow-up CT. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study shows that HPA...

  8. Operative management and outcomes in 103 AAST-OIS grades IV and V complex hepatic injuries: trauma surgeons still need to operate, but angioembolization helps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Juan A; Roldán, Gustavo; Petrone, Patrizio; Rojo, Esther; Tillou, Areti; Kuncir, Eric; Demetriades, Demetrios; Velmahos, George; Murray, James; Shoemaker, William C; Berne, Thomas V; Chan, Linda

    2003-04-01

    American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grades IV and V complex hepatic injuries are highly lethal. Our objectives were to review experience and identify predictors of outcome and to evaluate the role of angioembolization in decreasing mortality. This was a retrospective 8-year study of all patients sustaining AAST-OIS grades IV and V hepatic injuries managed operatively. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The main outcome measure was survival. The study included 103 patients, with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 5.61 +/- 2.55 and a mean Injury Severity Score of 33 +/- 9.5. Mechanism of injury was penetrating in 80 (79%) and blunt in 23 (21%). Emergency department thoracotomy was performed in 21 (25%). AAST grade IV injuries occurred in 51 (47%) and grade V injuries occurred in 52 (53%). Mean estimated blood loss was 9,414 mL. Overall survival was 43%. Adjusted overall survival rate after emergency department thoracotomy patients were excluded was 58%. Results stratified to AAST-OIS injury grade were as follows: grade IV, 32 of 51 (63%); grade V, 12 of 52 (23%); grade IV versus grade V (p Trauma Score (adjusted p hepatic veins (adjusted p hepatic injuries.

  9. Hyperglycemia Aggravates Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inducing Chronic Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

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    Yihan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether hyperglycemia will aggravate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion. Liver histology, transferase, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress were assessed accordingly. Similarly, BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R after high (25 mM or low (5.5 mM glucose culture. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB were determined. Results. Compared with control, diabetic rats presented more severe hepatic injury and increased hepatic inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. HIRI in diabetic rats could be ameliorated by pretreatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC or apocynin. Excessive ROS generation and consequent Nrf2 and NF-κB translocation were determined after high glucose exposure. NF-κB translocation and its downstream cytokines were further increased in high glucose cultured group after H/R. While proper regulation of Nrf2 to its downstream antioxidases was observed in low glucose cultured group, no further induction of Nrf2 pathway by H/R after high glucose culture was identified. Conclusion. Hyperglycemia aggravates HIRI, which might be attributed to chronic oxidative stress and inflammation and potential malfunction of antioxidative system.

  10. Successful use of N-acetylcysteine to treat severe hepatic injury caused by a dietary fitness supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rahi, Cynthia; Thompson-Moore, Nathaniel; Mejia, Patricia; De Hoyos, Patricio

    2015-06-01

    In the absence of adequate premarketing efficacy and safety evaluations, adverse events from over-the-counter supplements are emerging as a public health concern. Specifically, bodybuilding products are being identified as a frequent cause of drug-induced liver injury. We present a case of a 20-year-old Hispanic male who presented with acute nausea and vomiting accompanied by severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, shivering, and shortness of breath. Laboratory data pointed to mixed cholestatic and hepatocellular damage, and after exclusion of known alternate etiologies, the patient was diagnosed with acute drug-induced liver injury secondary to the use of "Friction," a bodybuilding supplement. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 20% oral solution was initiated empirically at a dose of 4000 mg [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] (70 mg/kg) every 4 hours and was continued once the diagnosis was made. Within 48 hours of admission to our hospital, the patient began to show clinical resolution of right abdominal pain and tolerance to oral diet associated with a significant decline toward normal in his liver function tests and coagulopathy. The WHO-UMC causality assessment system suggested a "certain causality" between exposure to the supplement and the acute liver injury. In the event of suspected drug-induced liver injury, treatment with NAC should be considered given its favorable risk-benefit profile. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Causes of electrical deaths and injuries among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Michael; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith; Chowdhury, Risana; Welch, Laura

    2003-04-01

    Contact with electrical current is the fourth leading cause of deaths of construction workers. This study evaluates electrical deaths and injuries to construction workers. Two sources of data were analyzed in detail: (1) 1,019 electrical deaths identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for the years 1992-1998; and (2) 61 electrical injuries identified between November 1, 1990 and December 31, 1998 from a George Washington University Emergency Department injury surveillance database. Contact with "live" electrical wiring, equipment, and light fixtures was the main cause of electrical deaths and injuries among electrical workers, followed by contact with overhead power lines. Among non-electrical workers, contact with overhead power lines was the major cause of death. Other causes included contact with energized metal objects, machinery, power tools, and portable lights. Arc flash or blast caused 31% of electrical injuries among construction workers, but less than 2% of electrical deaths. Adoption of a lockout/tagout standard for construction, and training for non-electrical workers in basic electrical safety would reduce the risk of electrical deaths and injuries in construction. Further research is needed on ways to prevent electrical deaths and injuries while working "live". Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  13. Pretreatment with soluble ST2 reduces warm hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hui; Huang Baojun; Yang Heng; Huang Yafei; Xiong Ping; Zheng Fang; Chen Xiaoping; Chen Yifa; Gong Feili

    2006-01-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor-like protein ST2 exists in both membrane-bound (ST2L) and soluble form (sST2). ST2L has been found to play an important regulatory role in Th2-type immune response, but the function of soluble form of ST2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we report the protective effect of soluble ST2 on warm hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. We constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid, psST2-Fc, which expresses functional murine soluble ST2-human IgG1 Fc (sST2-Fc) fusion protein. The liver damage after ischemia/reperfusion was significantly attenuated by the expression of this plasmid in vivo. sST2-Fc remarkably inhibited the activation of Kupffer cells and the production of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, the levels of TLR4 mRNA and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB were also suppressed by pretreatment with sST2-Fc. These results thus identified soluble ST2 as a negative regulator in hepatic I/R injury, possibly via ST2-TLR4 pathway

  14. The role of non-operative management (NOM in blunt hepatic trauma

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    Ayman Zaki Azzam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: NOM in blunt hepatic trauma is the preferred treatment in otherwise stable patients. Aim: To evaluate the role of NOM in blunt hepatic trauma, avoiding unnecessary surgery. Methods and patients: Forty-four patients who presented with blunt hepatic trauma were admitted to the Emergency Unit. The patients were evaluated clinically. Abdominal computerized tomography was done to all hemodynamically stable patients and who were stabilized by the initial resuscitation. Staging of liver injury was done according to the scoring of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST. Initially, all patients were treated conservatively and the patients who needed laparotomy later were considered as failure of NOM. Liver injuries due to penetrating causes were excluded. An informed consent was taken from each patient. Results: Blunt trauma was the mechanism of injury in 44 patients (60.2% including road traffic accidents in 42.5%. The peak age was between 20 and 30 years. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The majority of patients have multiple injuries with 10% having isolated liver injury. Thirty-six patients (82% had one or more associated extra-abdominal injuries. Surgery was indicated in 14 patients (32%. The mean admission systolic pressure was lower in the NOM failure group (90 vs. 122 mmHg with p < 0.04. Complications occurred more in the operative group, chest infection occurred in 21.4% with a p value of 0.001, hyperpyrexia occurred in 21.4% with a p value of 0.001, and wound infection in 14.2% with a p value of 0.025. Mortality occurred in 7 patients. The cause of death in patients with blunt hepatic trauma was liver related in 2 patients due to hemorrhage and DIC. Conclusion: NOM in blunt hepatic trauma is the preferred treatment in otherwise stable patients. The factors that can suspect failure of NOM were the development of hemodynamic instability or the presence of associated injury that mandates immediate exploration

  15. Huperzine A attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury may occur during liver transplantation and remains a serious concern in clinical practice. Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Huperzia serrata, has been demonstrated to possess anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic properties. In the present study, a rat model of HI/R was established by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. HupA was injected into the tail vein 5 min prior to the induction of HI/R at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg. The histopathological assessment of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in the serum samples. The tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax in hepatic tissues was detected via western blot analysis. Treatment of Wistar rats with HupA at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg markedly attenuated HI/R injury as observed histologically. In addition, the significant reductions of serum ALT and AST were observed in HupA‑treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, HupA treatment enhanced the activity of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT and GSH, but decreased the MDA tissue content. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of Bcl‑2 expression but decreased Bax and caspase‑3 tissue expression at the protein level in the HupA‑treated group. The present data suggest that HupA attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways.

  16. As bases experimentais da lesão por isquemia e reperfusão do fígado: revisão The experimental basis of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: review

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    Luiz Eduardo C. Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O transplante hepático tornou-se o procedimento de escolha para o tratamento da doença hepática terminal. Não obstante o sucesso da cirurgia, a disfunção pós-operatória do fígado enxertado ainda representa importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade. O restabelecimento do fluxo sangüíneo ao fígado recém transplantado impõe a ele nova agressão, agravando a lesão causada pelo período de isquemia. Este fenômeno pouco compreendido é conhecido como lesão por isquemia e reperfusão e envolve disfunção endotelial, seqüestro de leucócitos e agregação de plaquetas, lesão por radicais livre de oxigênio, e distúrbios da microcirculação hepática. Essa revisão discute os vários aspectos fisiopatológicos que estão envolvidos na lesão por isquemia e reperfusão do fígado.Hepatic transplantation has become the main treatment for patients with terminal hepatic disease. Whatever the success of such surgery, the hepatic dysfunction associated with liver transplantation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Paradoxically, on restoring the blood supply, the liver is subjected to a further insult, aggravating the injury already caused by ischemia. This complex phenomenon is termed ischemia-reperfusion injury and involves endothelial cell dysfunction, leukocyte entrapment, platelet aggregation, oxidant stress and hepatic microcirculatory perfusion failure. This review discusses the physiopathlogicals mechanisms of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  17. Pharmacological inhibition of the chemokine CXCL16 diminishes liver macrophage infiltration and steatohepatitis in chronic hepatic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wehr

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, resulting in steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Modulating inflammatory mediators such as chemokines may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for NAFLD. We recently demonstrated that the chemokine receptor CXCR6 promotes hepatic NKT cell accumulation, thereby controlling inflammation in experimental NAFLD. In this study, we first investigated human biopsies (n = 20, confirming that accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages is a hallmark of progressive NAFLD. Moreover, CXCR6 gene expression correlated with the inflammatory activity (ALT levels in human NAFLD. We then tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of CXCL16 might hold therapeutic potential in NAFLD, using mouse models of acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4- and chronic methionine-choline-deficient (MCD diet-induced hepatic injury. Neutralizing CXCL16 by i.p. injection of anti-CXCL16 antibody inhibited the early intrahepatic NKT cell accumulation upon acute toxic injury in vivo. Weekly therapeutic anti-CXCL16 administrations during the last 3 weeks of 6 weeks MCD diet significantly decreased the infiltration of inflammatory macrophages into the liver and intrahepatic levels of inflammatory cytokines like TNF or MCP-1. Importantly, anti-CXCL16 treatment significantly reduced fatty liver degeneration upon MCD diet, as assessed by hepatic triglyceride levels, histological steatosis scoring and quantification of lipid droplets. Moreover, injured hepatocytes up-regulated CXCL16 expression, indicating that scavenging functions of CXCL16 might be additionally involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Targeting CXCL16 might therefore represent a promising novel therapeutic approach for liver inflammation and steatohepatitis.

  18. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-10

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications.

  19. [The effect of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion in a rabbit model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yang, Jia-mei; Hou, Yuan-kai; Li, Dian-qi; Hu, Ming-hua; Liu, Peng

    2008-04-15

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. A rabbit hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by hepatic portal occlusion and in situ hypothermic irrigation for 30 min. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were employed and randomly divided into 3 groups equally by different dosage of portal blood stasis removal: group A5 (5 ml blood removal), group A10 (10 ml blood removal),and group B (no blood removal). Eight rabbits were served as controls with no hepatic portal occlusion and hypothermic irrigation. After reperfusion 4 h serum endotoxin content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) were examined respectively, meantime lung and kidney tissues were sampled to determine the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), the pathology, and wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues. Removing portal blood stasis ameliorated lung and renal injury as shown by decreasing the level of serum endotoxin, TNF-alpha, BUN, Cr, wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content, MDA, SOD. TNF-alpha, Cr, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues and MDA in kidney tissue in group A5 were significantly reduced compared with those in group B (P portal blood stasis before the resume of splanchnic circulation may ameliorate the lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. The possible mechanism may be that portal blood stasis removal reduces endotoxin absorption, and further decreases production of serum TNF-alpha.

  20. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training.

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    Fang Du

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS, and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT. Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were significantly higher (p<0.05 in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05 of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05 of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage.

  1. [Epidemiological study on disability caused by injury in the Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin-fang; Wang, Sheng-yong; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Guo-xiang; Dong, Xiao-mei

    2010-10-01

    To describe and analyze the prevalence and epidemiological features of people with disability caused by injury in the Chinese population, and to provide scientific basis for developing the prevention and control programs on injuries. Statistics and intervention measures were used to analyze the data from the Second China National Sample Survey on injury-caused Disability. Cluster analysis was used to analyze the differences in regions. The overall prevalence of disability caused by injury was 99.68/10 000 which occupied 15.59% of all the disability, with multiple disability excluded. Physical disability and hearing disability accounted for 65.59% and 23.35% of all the injury-caused disability respectively, while those ranked Grade IV and III making up the majority (55.14% and 25.83%) of the disability, respectively. There were significant differences in the distribution of injury-caused disability among different age groups (χ(2) = 23 106.14, P Problems discovered by injury-caused disability in the Chinese population should not be ignored. Both physical and hearing disabilities appeared to be the two main types of disability while age, gender and region were related to injury-caused disability. Targeted strategies should be developed to decrease the injury-caused disability in China.

  2. The hepatic stellate cell in sight : targeting antiproliferative drugs to the fibrotic liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greupink, Albert Hendrikus

    2006-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of scar tissue in response to chronic liver injury. Important causes of chronic liver injury are viral hepatitis, metabolic disorders such as Wilson’s disease, autoimmune diseases and chronic exposure to certain chemicals,

  3. Evolving Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Management of Extrahepatic Hepatic Ductal Injuries due to Blunt Trauma: Diagnostic and Treatment Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil P. Jaik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic hepatic ductal injuries (EHDIs due to blunt abdominal trauma are rare. Given the rarity of these injuries and the insidious onset of symptoms, EHDI are commonly missed during the initial trauma evaluation, making their diagnosis difficult and frequently delayed. Diagnostic modalities useful in the setting of EHDI include computed tomography (CT, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS, nuclear imaging (HIDA scan, and cholangiography. Traditional options in management of EHDI include primary ductal repair with or without a T-tube, biliary-enteric anastomosis, ductal ligation, stenting, and drainage. Simple drainage and biliary decompression is often the most appropriate treatment in unstable patients. More recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP allowed for diagnosis and potential treatment of these injuries via stenting and/or papillotomy. Our review of 53 cases of EHDI reported in the English-language literature has focused on the evolving role of ERCP in diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms incorporating ERCP have been designed to help systematize and simplify the management of EHDI. An illustrative case is reported of blunt traumatic injury involving both the extrahepatic portion of the left hepatic duct and its confluence with the right hepatic duct. This injury was successfully diagnosed and treated using ERCP.

  4. A rare case of hepatic duct injury from blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaniya, Nahidh W; Premaratne, Shyamal; Premaratne, Ishani D; McNamara, J Judson

    2013-01-01

    A 25 year-old male was brought to the emergency room following an apparent suicide attempt by jumping from the fourth floor. Patient had a large abdominal laceration in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). CT scan showed a sub-scapular hematoma of the liver. Due to the repeated episodes of hypotension, a laporotomy was performed and the left hepatic artery was ligated while the ductal injury was managed with a Roux-en-Y left hepatic jejunostomy and stent. Bile leakage was resolved post-operatively by day 5 and the patient was discharged home on day 13 after clearance from psychiatry. While non-iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary trauma is rare, a high degree of suspicion is essential, especially in cases like the one discussed in this report. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients undergoing observation.

  5. Placement of a covered self-expandable nitinol stent for bile duct stricture that caused by ischemic injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Kweon; Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Huh, Sik; Byun, Kwan Soo [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The authors report here on a case of focal stricture in the common hepatic duct that was caused by ischemic bile duct injury after repeat TACE procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the patient was successfully treated with a covered self-expandable nitinol stent.

  6. Predictive factors for early failure of transarterial embolization in blunt hepatic injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-H.; Wu, C.-H.; Wang, L.-J.; Wong, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-W.; Wang, C.-J.; Lin, B.-C.; Hsu, Y.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the early success of transarterial embolization (TAE) in patients with traumatic liver haemorrhage and to determine independent factors for its failure. Materials and methods: From January 2009 to December 2012, TAE was performed in 48 patients for traumatic liver haemorrhage. Their medical charts were reviewed for demographic information, pre-TAE vital signs and laboratory data, injury grade, type of contrast medium extravasation (CME) at CT, angiography findings, and early failure. “Early failure” was defined as the need for repeated TAE or a laparotomy for hepatic haemorrhage within 4 days after TAE. Variables were compared between the early success and early failure groups. Variables with univariate significance were also analysed using multivariate logistic regression for predictors of early failure. Results: Among 48 liver TAE cases, nine (18.8%) were early failures due to liver haemorrhage. Early failure was associated with injury grade (p = 0.039), major liver injury (grades 4 and 5; p = 0.007), multiple CMEs at angiography (p = 0.031), incomplete TAE (p = 0.002), and elevated heart rate (p = 0.026). Incomplete embolization (OR = 8; p = 0.042), and heart rate >110 beats/min (bpm; OR = 8; p = 0.05) were independent factors for early failure of TAE in the group with major liver injuries. Conclusion: Major hepatic injury is an important factor in early failure. Patients with a heart rate >110 bpm and incomplete embolization in the major injury group have an increased rate of early failure. The success rate of proximal TAE was comparable to that of the more time-consuming, superselective, distal TAE. - Highlights: • Early failure of TAE is associated with a higher grade of liver injury. • Incomplete embolization is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • A heart rate greater than 110 bpm is more likely to suffer early failure of TAE. • We recommend proximal embolization to prevent early failure of TAE

  7. Small simple hepatic cysts causing obstructive jaundice: a case report of sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    A 62-year-old man visited our hospital for a regular follow-up of a known liver cirrhosis. Laboratory tests revealed recently elevated total and direct bilirubin levels. Imaging studies showed two small hepatic cysts (2.7 and 2.9 cm in the largest diameter) compressing both central intrahepatic ducts, respectively. Obstructive jaundice caused by the cysts was diagnosed. Sclerotherapy of the cysts was performed with 100% ethanol after aspiration of the cyst contents. An follow-up CT obtained after 3 months showed decreased cyst size and improved bile duct dilatation. It is known that obstructive jaundice due to a hepatic cyst is rare, and the cysts were unusually large and centrally located. We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by very small hepatic cysts that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy.

  8. Small simple hepatic cysts causing obstructive jaundice: a case report of sclerotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    A 62-year-old man visited our hospital for a regular follow-up of a known liver cirrhosis. Laboratory tests revealed recently elevated total and direct bilirubin levels. Imaging studies showed two small hepatic cysts (2.7 and 2.9 cm in the largest diameter) compressing both central intrahepatic ducts, respectively. Obstructive jaundice caused by the cysts was diagnosed. Sclerotherapy of the cysts was performed with 100% ethanol after aspiration of the cyst contents. An follow-up CT obtained after 3 months showed decreased cyst size and improved bile duct dilatation. It is known that obstructive jaundice due to a hepatic cyst is rare, and the cysts were unusually large and centrally located. We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by very small hepatic cysts that was successfully treated with sclerotherapy

  9. Squat Winnowing: Cause of Meniscus Injuries in Non-Athletic Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Younis; Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Ahmad Latoo, Irfan; Gani, Naseemul; Farooq, Munir; Gul, Snobar

    2016-02-01

    Sports activities were thought to be the major cause of meniscus injury in both men and woman, but our observations of non-athletic females show that the cause of meniscus injury was unrelated to any type of sports activity. This study revealed squat winnowing to be a major cause of meniscus injury in non-athletic females. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care orthopaedic hospital which caters to a population of 10 million people. We assessed 120 non-athletic females who had received treatment in our hospital over a period of 2 years. The most probable cause of knee injury, per initial patient history, was recorded for all non-athletic females who presented clinical signs and symptoms of meniscus injury. The diagnoses were confirmed by relevant MRI and arthroscopy of patients' knees. All females who engaged in athletic activity and other females with unrelated, non-traumatic knee pathologies were excluded from the study. Through our study, we found that 42% (n = 50) of females suffered an injury during squat winnowing of rice, either at home or at work. Another 29% (n = 35) of females cited a history of slipping and spraining their knee as a cause of knee injury, while 19% (n = 16) of females suffered a knee injury during complex accidents such as a traffic accident. Finally, 13% (n = 16) of the females had no definite history of knee injury. Our observations add to the knowledge base of the various causes of meniscus tears; this study also revealed that socio-cultural factors influence and contribute to the mechanism of various types of knee injury.

  10. Hepatic Parasitic Abscess Caused by Clonorchiasis: Unusual CT Findings of Clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Jin; Byun, Jae Ho; Yoon, Seong Eon; Yu, Eun Sil [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We report here on the CT findings of an unusual case of hepatic parasitic abscess that was caused by clonorchiasis; this malady mimicked cholangiocarcinoma, and there was no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. lonorchiasis is a snail-transmitted, parasitic disease of the bile ducts; this is caused by chronic infestation of liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis, which reside mainly in the medium- and small-sized intrahepatic bile ducts. The CT, ultrasonograms and cholangiograms of clonorchiasis patients usually show diffuse, uniform, minimal or mild dilatation of the small intrahepatic bile ducts, particularly in the periphery, without dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct. We report here on the CT findings of an unusual case of hepatic parasitic abscess caused by clonorchiasis; this malady mimicked cholangiocarcinoma, and there was no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts.

  11. Hepatic Parasitic Abscess Caused by Clonorchiasis: Unusual CT Findings of Clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yun Jin; Byun, Jae Ho; Yoon, Seong Eon; Yu, Eun Sil

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the CT findings of an unusual case of hepatic parasitic abscess that was caused by clonorchiasis; this malady mimicked cholangiocarcinoma, and there was no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. lonorchiasis is a snail-transmitted, parasitic disease of the bile ducts; this is caused by chronic infestation of liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis, which reside mainly in the medium- and small-sized intrahepatic bile ducts. The CT, ultrasonograms and cholangiograms of clonorchiasis patients usually show diffuse, uniform, minimal or mild dilatation of the small intrahepatic bile ducts, particularly in the periphery, without dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct. We report here on the CT findings of an unusual case of hepatic parasitic abscess caused by clonorchiasis; this malady mimicked cholangiocarcinoma, and there was no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

  12. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Sengstaken-Blakemore intrahepatic balloon: an alternative for liver-penetrating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Silveira, Henrique Jose Virgili

    2012-09-01

    Severe lesions in the liver are associated with a high mortality rate. Alternative surgical techniques such as the use of an intrahepatic balloon may be effective and reduce mortality in severe hepatic lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the experience of a university hospital in the use of the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in patients with transfixing penetrating hepatic injury as an alternative way to treat these challenging injuries. A retrospective study based on the trauma registry of a university hospital was performed. All patients admitted with hepatic penetrating injuries and treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon within the period 1990-2010 were reviewed. Forty-six patients with transfixing hepatic injuries were treated with the Sengstaken-Blakemore balloon in the study period. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot wound (87 % of the patients). The mean trauma scores on admission were Revised Trauma Score (RTS) = 7.12 ± 1.46, Injury Severity Score (ISS) = 22.4 ± 9.7, and Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) = 19.5 ± 11. According to the severity of the hepatic trauma, 71.8 % of patients had grade III, 23.9 % grade IV, and 4.3 % grade V injuries. Associated abdominal injuries were found in 89.1 % of the patients. The most frequent liver-related complications were hepatic abscess postoperative bleeding (8.6 %), biliary fistula (8.6 %), (4.3 %), and biliary peritonitis (2.1 %). Surgical reintervention was necessary in 14 patients (31.1 %). From those 14, only 3 had the balloon removed. The overall morbidity and mortality rates were 56.5 % and 23.9 % (11 patients), respectively. The knowledge of alternative surgical techniques is essential in improving survival in patients with severe penetrating hepatic injuries. The use of intrahepatic balloon is a viable surgical strategy.

  14. Effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Tian Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: A total of 68 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent left liver resection in our hospital between May 2012 and August 2015 were selected for study and divided into group A (selective hepatic inflow occlusion of left liver and group B (Prignle hepatic inflow occlusion according to different intraoperative blood occlusion methods, serum was collected before and after operation to determine liver enzyme content, the removed liver tissue was collected to determine energy metabolism indexes, inflammation indexes and oxidative stress indexes. Results: 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation, GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of both groups were significantly higher than those before operation, and GPT, GOT, GGT, LDH and ALP content in serum of group A 1 d, 3 d and 5 d after operation were significantly lower than those of group B; ATP, ADP, AMP, PI3K, AKT, GSK3β, T-AOC, PrxI and Trx content in liver tissue of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while PTEN, IL-12p40, MDA and MPO content were significantly lower than those of group B. Conclusions: Selective hepatic inflow occlusion during liver cancer resection can reduce the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, improve the energy metabolism of liver cells and inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  15. Only Moderate Intra- and Inter-observer Agreement between Radiologists and Surgeons when Grading Blunt Paediatric Hepatic Injury on CT Scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nellensteijn, D. R.; ten Duis, H. J.; Oldenziel, J.; Polak, W. G.; Hulscher, J. B. F.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The American Pediatric Surgical Association developed guidelines for the management of haemodynamically stable children with hepatic or splenic injury, based on grade of injury on CF scan. This study investigated the intra- and inter-observer agreement of radiologists, paediatric

  16. CHOLECYSTITIS AS A CAUSE OF ABDOMINAL PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS A AND B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Radunović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall, usually caused by gallstones in the cystic duct, which causes attacks of severe pain. At least 95% of the population with acute inflammation of the gallbladder have gallstones. Acute viral hepatitis is the liver inflammation accompanied by nausea, faintness, vomiting, pain below the right rib arch, jaundice. The presence of acute cholecystitis intensifies the existing symptoms. The aim of the paper was to show the incidence of the gallbladder inflammation in patients with acute hepatitis A or B. This retrospective-prospective study involved 110 patients treated for viral hepatitis A or B and had severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. The selected sample involved more male examinees - 63 (62% compared to female ones - 47 (38%. The most frequent age of examinees was 30-50 years, 82 (83%, and cholecystitis during hepatitis was also most common in the age group 30-50 years, 28 (73% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B - 21 (55% examinees than in patients with acute hepatitis A - 17 (45% examinees. Ultrasound examination, performed in 24 (63% examinees showed gallstones in inflamed gallbladder, while 14 (37% examinees had the inflammation of the gallbladder without gallstones. The most common cause of severe abdominal pain in patients with acute liver infection caused by HAV and HBV infection was the gallbladder, 38 (34.5% patients. Cholecystitis was more common in patients with acute hepatitis B, 21 (55% examinees, than in those with an acute hepatitis A, 17 (45% examinees.

  17. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K M; Yuan, Y; Li, C K; Chien, P; Tsang, G

    1993-01-01

    A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different in...

  19. Ultra Low Dose Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protects Mouse Liver from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Hochhauser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is the main cause of both primary graft dysfunction and primary non-function of liver allografts. Cannabinoids has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R oxidative injury. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a cannabinoid agonist, is the active components of marijuana. In this study we examined the role of ultralow dose THC (0.002mg/kg in the protection of livers from I/R injury. This extremely low dose of THC was previously found by us to protect the mice brain and heart from a variety of insults. Methods: C57Bl Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70% ischemia for 60min followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. Results: THC administration 2h prior to the induction of hepatic I/R was associated with significant attenuated elevations of: serum liver transaminases ALT and AST, the hepatic oxidative stress (activation of the intracellular signaling CREB pathway, the acute proinflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-10 and c-FOS hepatic mRNA levels, and ERK signaling pathway activation. This was followed by cell death (the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL after 6 hours of reperfusion. Significantly less hepatic injury was detected in the THC treated I/R mice and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria compared with untreated mice. Conclusion: A single ultralow dose THC can reduce the apoptotic, oxidative and inflammatory injury induced by hepatic I/R injury. THC may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation, liver resection and trauma.

  20. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed......: feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...... inferior alveolar nerve injury. All grades of loss of neurosensory and gustatory functions were found, and a range of persisting neurogenic malfunctions was reported. Subjective complaints and neurosensory function tests indicate that lingual nerve lesions are more incapacitating than inferior alveolar...

  1. [Work injuries of 13-17-year-old Icelanders: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Margret; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate work injuries among 13-17-year-old teenagers in Iceland, their causes and seriousness. Firstly, the prevalence of work injuries among the age-group is examined, as is the length of their absence from work, as well as the gender and age differences of both factors. Secondly, the type and the cause of the injuries are investigated. Thirdly, the most serious injuries and their causes are studied further. A survey was carried out amongst 2000 teenagers, aged 13-17, randomly selected from the Registers Iceland. The response rate was 48.4%. The teenagers were asked in a closed question about whether they had had an accident at work, and in an open one about the type and cause of the injury. A Chi-square test was used to test statistical significance: 95% confidence interval (CI). A fifth of the young people had had an accident at work, one quarter of the injured workers were absent from work because of the injury of which 5.9% for more than a week. The percentage of injured workers increases with age and has reached 30,7% among the 17-year-olds. Cuts and sprains were the most common injuries, whereas back injuries and bone fractures caused the longest absences. Sharp instruments were the most common cause of an injury, but lifting/carrying a (heavy) object as well as a fall of an object caused the longest absences. The prevalence of young workers' injuries and the seriousness of some of these injuries are of concern. In addition to education on occupational health and safety (OHS) and OHS training, future research must analyse if their labour market position threaten the young people's safety, and if it is the case, how to prevent it.

  2. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Shaoshan [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China); He, Qin [Department of Heptobiliary Surgery, 1st Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Shengnan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China); Yang, Junqing, E-mail: 1139627371@qq.com [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2016-08-15

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al{sup 3+} 200 mg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 20 weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30 mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1 h after aluminum administration. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. - Highlights: • 5-LO signaling contributes to mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of aluminum overload. • Oxidative and inflammatory reaction involve in chonic aluminum hepatotoxicity. • 5-LO inhibitor has a protective effect on aluminum-overload liver injury. • 5-LO signaling is a potential therapeutic target for non-infection liver diseases.

  3. Occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäniemi, Ari; Haapiainen, Reijo

    2003-10-01

    Missed diaphragmatic perforation caused by penetrating trauma can lead to subsequent strangulation of a hollow viscus, which has prompted the use of invasive diagnostic procedures to exclude occult diaphragmatic injuries in asymptomatic, high-risk patients. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries caused by stab wounds of the lower chest and upper abdomen, and to examine the natural history and consequences of missed diaphragmatic injuries. On the basis of patient data from two previous randomized studies from our institution, a retrospective analysis was performed on 97 patients treated for anterior stab wounds located between the nipple line, the umbilical level, and the posterior axillary lines not having indications for immediate surgical exploration. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their initial randomized management (open or laparoscopic exploration vs. expectant observation). In the exploration group (n = 47), four diaphragmatic injuries (9%) were detected (three left-sided and one right-sided). Excluding patients with associated injuries requiring surgical repair, the incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries was 3 of 43 (7%). In the observation group (n = 50), there were two patients (4%) with delayed presentation of missed left-sided diaphragmatic injury 2 and 23 months later, respectively. Both injuries resulted from stab wounds of the left flank and presented with herniation of the stomach or small bowel and colon. The overall incidence of occult diaphragmatic injuries in left-sided thoracoabdominal stab wounds was 4 of 24 (17%), and was much lower after stab wounds of left epigastrium (0%), right lower chest (0%), and right epigastrium (4%). In asymptomatic patients with anterior or flank stab wounds of the lower chest or upper abdominal area, the risk of an occult diaphragmatic injury is approximately 7% which, if undetected, is associated with a high risk of subsequent

  4. [Hepatitis C in women planning a pregnancy: current opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, P; Lasser, L; Sidi, B

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (VHC) is a worldwide public health issue. The mother-to-child transmission could be the main cause of hepatitis C infection in children. Despite the risk of histological injuries, chronic hepatitis C is not a contra-indication to pregnancy. In patients with VHC, there is no evidence that the outcome could be modified. In co-infected patients (VIH-VHC), a caesarean should be proposed taking into account the significant risk of mother-to-child transmission. Breast-feeding is not contra-indicated. Systematic screening of VHC, discussed in this article, could be proposed in woman planning a pregnancy.

  5. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-08-24

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections.

  6. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Wedged-shaped, segmental changes in the liver caused by occlusion of a single hepatic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Susumu; Akaki, Shiro; Yasui, Kotaro; Tanaka, Akio; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated wedged-shaped, segmental changes in the liver caused by occlusion of a single hepatic vein in seven patients. The causes of occlusion were due to liver tumors in three patients, metastasis of the right adrenal gland in one, and postoperative changes in three. Changes included low attenuating on unenhanced CT, high attenuation on enhanced CT, low signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI, high signal intensity on enhanced MRI, dense hepatogram and retrograde arterioportal shunt on hepatic arteriography. MRI and hepatic arteriography are more sensitive than CT in demonstration of those changes. (author)

  8. Bee's honey attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced hepatic injury through the regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jia; Liu, Yingxia; Xing, Feiyue; Leung, Tung Ming; Liong, Emily C; Tipoe, George L

    2016-06-01

    We aim to examine whether honey ameliorates hepatic injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) animal and cell line steatosis models. NASH was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rat by 8-week feeding with a high-fat diet. During the experiment, 5 g/kg honey was intragastrically fed daily. Rat normal hepatocyte BRL-3A cell was treated with sodium palmitate (SP) to induce steatosis in the absence or presence of honey pre-treatment or specific siRNA/overexpress plasmid of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) or antagonist/agonist of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). Honey significantly improved the high-fat-diet-induced hepatic injury, steatosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats. Honey also inhibited the overexpression of TXNIP and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These effects were replicated in BRL-3A cell line which showed that the down-regulation of TXNIP or inhibition of NLRP3 contributed to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, and re-balanced lipid metabolism. In contrast, overexpression of TXNIP or agonism of NLRP3 exacerbated the cellular damage induced by SP. Suppression of the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway may partly contribute to the amelioration of hepatic injury during the progression of NASH by honey. Targeting hepatic TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is a potential therapeutic way for the prevention and treatment of NASH.

  9. Liver injury caused by a herbal and dietary supplement: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a previously healthy male admitted with acute hepatitis while using a body building supplement. An exhaustive laboratory workup for causes of hepatitis was unrevealing. He responded well to withdrawal of the supplement and a course of corticosteroids.

  10. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  11. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  12. Correlates of undefined cause of injury coded mortality data in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kirsten; Chen, Linping; Walker, Susan M

    The objective of this research was to identify the level of detail regarding the external causes of death in Australia and ascertain problematic areas where data quality improvement efforts may be focused. The 2003 national mortality dataset of 12,591 deaths with an external cause of injury as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) or multiple cause of death (MCOD) based on ICD-10 code assignment from death certificate information was obtained. Logistic regression models were used to examine the precision of coded external cause of injury data. It was found that overall, accidents were the most poorly defined of all intent code blocks with over 30% of accidents being undefined, representing 2,314 deaths in 2003. More undefined codes were identified in MCOD data than for UCOD data. Deaths certified by doctors were more likely to use undefined codes than deaths certified by a coroner or government medical office. To improve the quality of external cause of injuries leading to or associated with death, certifiers need to be made aware of the importance of documenting all information pertaining to the cause of the injury and the intent behind the incident, either through education or more explicit instructions on the death certificate and accompanying instructional materials. It is important that researchers are aware of the validity of the data when they make interpretations as to the underlying causes of fatal injuries and causes of injury associated with deaths.

  13. An Update on Drug-induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarbhavi, Harshad

    2012-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI. Asymptomatic elevation in liver tests must be differentiated from adaptation. Drugs producing DILI have a signature pattern although no single pattern is characteristic. Antimicrobial and central nervous system agents including antiepileptic drugs are the leading causes of DILI worldwide. In the absence of a diagnostic test or a biomarker, the diagnosis rests on the evidence of absence of competing causes such as acute viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and others. Recent studies show that antituberculosis drugs given for active or latent disease are still a major cause of drug-induced liver injury in India and the West respectively. Presence of jaundice signifies a severe disease and entails a worse outcome. The pathogenesis is unclear and is due to a mix of host, drug metabolite and environmental factors. Research has evolved from incriminating candidate genes to genome wide analysis studies. Immediate cessation of the drug is key to prevent or minimize progressive damage. Treatment is largely supportive. N-acetylcysteine is the antidote for paracetamol toxicity. Carnitine has been tried in valproate injury whereas steroids and ursodeoxycholic acid may be used in DILI associated with hypersensitivity or cholestatic features respectively. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, the patterns of

  14. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl 4 twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl 4 -intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl 4 -treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl 4 -induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: → The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared. → These effects were

  15. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  16. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress in NLRC5 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong; Ding, Tao; Ma, Chuan-Gen

    2017-11-18

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury could arise as a complication of liver surgery and transplantation. No specific therapeutic strategies are available to attenuate I/R injury. NOD-, LRR-and CARD-containing 5 (NLRC5), a member of the NOD-like protein family, has been suggested to negatively regulate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through interacting with IKKα and blocking their phosphorylation. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been shown to attenuate liver injury. In the current study, we investigated the pre-treatment of DEX on hepatic I/R injury in wild type (WT) and NLRC5 knockout (NLRC5 -/- ) mice. Our results indicated that NLRC5 -/- showed significantly stronger histologic damage, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis after I/R compared to the WT group of mice, indicating the protective role of NLRC5 against liver I/R injury. Importantly, I/R-induced increase of NLRC5 was reduced by DEX pre-treatment. After hepatic I/R injury, WT and NLRC5 -/- mice pre-treated with DEX exhibited attenuated histological disruption, and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which was associated with the inactivated NF-κB pathway. Moreover, suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis was observed in DEX-treated mice with I/R injury, probably through enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reducing mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) pathways. In vitro, the results were further confirmed in WT and NLRC5 -/- hepatocytes pre-treated with or without DEX. Together, the findings illustrated that lack of NLRC5 resulted in severer liver I/R injury, which could be alleviated by DEX pre-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatic Mass Caused by Fasciola Hepatica: A Tricky Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Bülent; Köklü, Seyfettin; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and eosinophilia to ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms in the acute phase. However, it may often be overlooked, especially in the acute phase, because of uncertain symptoms. Fasciola hepatica can have an initial presentation similar to the presentation of malignancy. Here, we report a case of a hepatic mass caused by fasciola hepatica. PMID:24080633

  18. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  19. First report of hepatic hematoma after presumed Bothrops envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn Latin America, Bothrops envenomation is responsible for the majority of accidents caused by venomous snakes. Patients usually present local edema, bleeding and coagulopathy. Visceral hemorrhage is extremely rare and considered a challenge for diagnosis and management. We report the first case of hepatic hematoma owing to the bothropic envenomation in a 66-year-old man who was bitten in the left leg. He presented local edema, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. Radiological findings suggested hepatic hematoma, with a volume of almost 3 liters. The hepatic hematoma was gradually absorbed without the need for surgical intervention with complete resolution in 8 months.

  20. Pains and Injuries Caused by Practicing Martial Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Diviš, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Title: Pains and Injuries Caused by Practicing Martial Arts Objective: To ascertain, by the means of survey, the most common kinetic system pains and sports injuries as a result of practicing martial arts. Additionally, to collect the data about warm-up, compensation exercises and regeneration and determine the effectofthese on the frequency ofkinetic system pains and sport injuries. Methods: 81 respondents from 5 different martial arts took part in the survey. Each questionnaire illustrates ...

  1. Diosmin Attenuates Methotrexate-Induced Hepatic, Renal, and Cardiac Injury: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hesham A.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the beneficial role of diosmin, a biologically active flavonoid, against methotrexate- (MTX-) induced hepatic, renal, and cardiac injuries in mice. Male Swiss albino mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (at 20 mg/kg, body weight) either alone or in combination with oral diosmin (at 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight, for 10 days). Serum was used to evaluate tissue injury markers, while hepatic, renal, and cardiac tissue samples were obtained for determination of antioxidant activity as well as histopathological examination. Diosmin treatment ameliorated the MTX-induced elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinases as well as plasma proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). Additionally, both diosmin doses significantly reduced tissue levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and increased those of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, compared to the MTX-intoxicated group. Histopathological examination showed that diosmin significantly minimized the MTX-induced histological alterations and nearly restored the normal architecture of hepatic, renal, and cardiac tissues. Based on these findings, diosmin may be a promising agent for protection against MTX-induced cytotoxicity in patients with cancer and autoimmune diseases. PMID:28819543

  2. Radiation injury caused by internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petyrek, P.

    1988-01-01

    Basic data are given of radiation injury of the respiratory organs, digestive tract, hematogenous tissues and the thyroid due to internal contamination. Attention is drawn to the complexity of the problem and to the effect of the various factors affecting the picture and course of the radiation damage. The treatment is based on the assumption that fundamental is the damage of the stem cells of the critical organs. Discussed are also the basic clinical pictures that can occur due to internal contamination with activities causing radiation injury. (B.S.). 27 refs

  3. Effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury on the blood-brain barrier permeability to [14C] and [13C]sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy that is associated with severe liver failure may compromise the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the effects of less severe liver diseases, in the absence of overt encephalopathy, on the BBB are not well understood. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury on the BBB tight junction permeability to small, hydrophilic molecules using the widely used [ 14 C]sucrose and recently-proposed alternative [ 13 C]sucrose as markers. Rats were subjected to 20 min of hepatic ischemia or sham surgery, followed by 8 h of reperfusion before administration of a single bolus dose of [ 14 C] or [ 13 C]sucrose and collection of serial (0-30 min) blood and plasma and terminal brain samples. The concentrations of [ 14 C] and [ 13 C]sucrose in the samples were determined by measurement of total radioactivity (nonspecific) and LC-MS/MS (specific), respectively. IR injury significantly increased the blood, plasma, and brain concentrations of both [ 14 C] and [ 13 C]sucrose. However, when the brain concentrations were corrected for their respective area under the blood concentration-time curve, only [ 14 C]sucrose showed significantly higher (30%) BBB permeability values in the IR animals. Because [ 13 C]sucrose is a more specific BBB permeability marker, these data indicate that our animal model of hepatic IR injury does not affect the BBB tight junction permeability to small, hydrophilic molecules. Methodological differences among studies of the effects of liver diseases on the BBB permeability may confound the conclusions of such studies.

  4. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Hao, Liang; Dong, Fei; Mao, Jian-Shan; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Ding, Wen-Hong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the features of biochemical metabolic changes detected by hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) with the liver damage score (LDS) and pathologic changes in rabbits and to investigate the diagnostic value of 31P MRS in acute hepatic radiation injury. METHODS: A total of 30 rabbits received different radiation doses (ranging 5-20 Gy) to establish acute hepatic injury models. Blood biochemical tests, 31P MRS and pathological examinations were carried out 24 h after irradiation. The degree of injury was evaluated according to LDS and pathology. Ten healthy rabbits served as controls. The MR examination was performed on a 1.5 T imager using a 1H/31P surface coil by the 2D chemical shift imaging technique. The relative quantities of phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured. The data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: (1) Relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites: (a) ATP: there were significant differences (P < 0.05) (LDS-groups: control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group, 1.83 ± 0.33 vs 1.55 ± 0.24 vs 1.27 ± 0.09 vs 0.98 ± 0.18; pathological groups: control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group, 1.83 ± 0.33 vs 1.58 ± 0.25 vs 1.32 ± 0.07 vs 1.02 ± 0.18) of ATP relative quantification among control group, mild injured group, moderate injured group, and severe injured group according to both LDS grading and pathological grading, respectively, and it decreased progressively with the increased degree of injury (r = -0.723, P = 0.000). (b) PME and Pi; the relative quantification of PME and Pi decreased significantly in the severe injured group, and the difference between the control group and severe injured group was significant (P < 0.05) (PME: LDS-control group vs LDS-severe group, 0.86 ± 0.23 vs 0.58 ± 0.22, P = 0.031; pathological control group vs pathological severe group, 0.86 ± 0.23 vs 0.60

  5. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syhavong, Bounkong; Rasachack, Bouachanh; Smythe, Lee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Soukkhaserm, Vimone; Phongmany, Simmaly; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Soukkhaserm, Sune; Thammavong, Te; Mayxay, Mayfong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Barnes, Eleanor; Parola, Philippe; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Raoult, Didier; Humphreys, Isla; Klenerman, Paul; White, Nicholas J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary There is little information on the diverse infectious causes of jaundice and hepatitis in the Asiatic tropics. Serology (hepatitis A, B, C and E, leptospirosis, dengue, rickettsia), antigen tests (dengue), PCR assays (hepatitis A, C and E) and blood cultures (septicaemia) were performed on samples from 392 patients admitted with jaundice or raised transaminases (≥ × 3) to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos over 3 years. Conservative definitions suggested diagnoses of dengue (8.4%), rickettsioses (7.3%), leptospirosis (6.8%), hepatitis B (4.9%), hepatitis C (4.9%), community-acquired septicaemia (3.3%) and hepatitis E (1.6%). Although anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody results suggested that 35.8% of patients had acute HAV infections, anti-HAV IgG antibody avidity and HAV PCR suggested that 82% had polyclonal activation and not acute HAV infections. Scrub typhus, murine typhus or leptospirosis were present in 12.8% of patients and were associated with meningism and relatively low AST and ALT elevation. These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis. PMID:20378138

  6. Mechanical ventilation using non-injurious ventilation settings causes lung injury in the absence of pre-existing lung injury in healthy mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Esther K; Vlaar, Alexander P J; Choi, Goda; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Juffermans, Nicole P; Schultz, Marcus J

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation (MV) may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Present models of VILI use exceptionally large tidal volumes, causing gross lung injury and haemodynamic shock. In addition, animals are ventilated for a relative short period of time and only after a

  7. Branched-chain amino acids alleviate hepatic steatosis and liver injury in choline-deficient high-fat diet induced NASH mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Luo, Fangqiong; Lingyun, Ma; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Nakano, Isao; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Feng, Guo-Gang; Katano, Yoshiaki; Kohama, Tomoya; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    For successful treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it may be important to treat the individual causative factors. At present, however, there is no established treatment for this disease. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been used to treat patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the effects of BCAAs on hepatic steatosis and disease progression, we investigated the effects of BCAA supplementation in mice fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF), which induces NASH. Male mice were divided into four groups that received (1) choline-sufficient high fat (HF) diet (HF-control), (2) HF plus 2% BCAA in drinking water (HF-BCAA), (3) CDHF diet (CDHF-control), or (4) CDHF-BCAA for 8weeks. We monitored liver injury, hepatic steatosis and cholesterol, gene expression related to lipid metabolism, and hepatic fat accumulation. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic triglyceride (TG) were significantly elevated in CDHF-control relative to HF-control. Liver histopathology revealed severe steatosis, inflammation, and pericellular fibrosis in CDHF-control, confirming the NASH findings. Serum ALT levels and hepatic TG and lipid droplet areas were significantly lower in CDHF-BCAA than in CDHF-control. Gene expression and protein level of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which catalyzes the final step in fatty acid biosynthesis, was significantly decreased in CDHF-BCAA than in CDHF-control (PBCAA was significantly lower than those of CDHF-control. BCAA can alleviate hepatic steatosis and liver injury associated with NASH by suppressing FAS gene expression and protein levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  9. CT-based injury classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Whitley, N.O.; Vainright, J.; Gens, D.

    1988-01-01

    Review of preoperative abdominal CT scans obtained in adults after blunt trauma during a 2.5-year period demonstrated isolated or predominant liver injury in 35 patients and splenic injury in 33 patients. CT-based injury scores, consisting of five levels of hepatic injury and four levels of splenic injury, were correlated with clinical outcome and surgical findings. Hepatic injury grades I-III, present in 33 of 35 patients, were associated with successful nonsurgical management in 27 (82%) or with findings at celiotomy not requiring surgical intervention in four (12%). Higher grades of splenic injury generally required early operative intervention, but eight (36%) of 22 patients with initial grade III or IV injury were managed without surgery, while four (36%) of 11 patients with grade I or II injury required delayed celiotomy and splenectomy (three patients) or emergent rehospitalization (one patient). CT-based injury classification is useful in guiding the nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury in hemodynamically stable adults but appears to be less reliable in predicting the outcome of blunt splenic injury

  10. [Status quo and influencing factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin-fang; Dong, Xiao-mei; Song, Zhuo-ping; Jiang, Ming-xu; Wang, Chang; Wang, Sheng-yong

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the epidemiology status and risk factors of disabilities caused by injury in Guangdong province. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to identify 1530 subjects with disabilities (among them, 415 disabilities caused by injury), in the villages or districts in the four regions of Guangzhou, Qingyuan, Zhaoqing and Huizhou in 2010. Subjects were interviewed by trained staff with self-made questionnaires about the status of the disabled, then 415 disabled caused by injury were interviewed about the process of the injury causing disability. The variables in this survey included gender, regions, rural (urban) residences, occupation, age and injury style. The difference of injury were analyzed through χ(2) test, and the influencing factors were explored through classification tree model. The top five causes of disability were road traffic injury, fall, work-related injury, medical accident, scald or burn, accounting for 32.53% (135/415), 21.45% (89/415), 12.77% (53/415), 8.43% (35/415) and 5.06% (21/415), respectively. The proportion of male was higher than female in all disabilities caused by injury (295 male, 117 female, 3 unknown). Female had higher proportion 8.55% (10/117) than male 3.05% (9/295) with the cause of scald or burn (χ(2) = 6.302, P = 0.012), the proportion of rural residents 38.89%(84/216)was also higher than urban residents 25.63% (51/199) in disabilities caused by traffic accident (χ(2) = 43.850, P work-injury mainly caused disability in 25 - 44 age group, 85.71% (30/35) medical accident and 76.20% (16/21) scald or burn mainly caused disability in 0 - 14 age group, the injury caused by the fall was 62.50% (5/8) in 65- age group. The proportions of fall in Qingyuan 29.09% (16/55) and Huizhou 28.23% (37/131) were significantly higher than that in Guangzhou 13.38% (21/157) and Zhaoqing 21.13% (15/71) (χ(2) = 11.904, P = 0.008). The proportions of work-injury in Guangzhou 19.11% (30/157) and Zhaoqing 19.72% (14/71) were

  11. Mechanical ventilation using non-injurious ventilation settings causes lung injury in the absence of pre-existing lung injury in healthy mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Esther K.; Vlaar, Alexander Pj; Choi, Goda; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Mechanical ventilation (MV) may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Present models of VILI use exceptionally large tidal volumes, causing gross lung injury and haemodynamic shock. In addition, animals are ventilated for a relative short period of time and only after a 'priming'

  12. Milrinone-induced postconditioning reduces hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Tomomi; Tosaka, Shinya; Tosaka, Reiko; Maekawa, Takuji; Cho, Sungsam; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sumikawa, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) protects the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, has been reported to exhibit preconditioning properties against hepatic IR injury; however, its PostC properties remain unknown. This study investigated whether milrinone has PostC properties against hepatic IR injury and the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats were separated into six groups: (1) group S: animals that underwent sham operation without ischemia, (2) group C: ischemia followed by reperfusion with no other intervention, (3) group M: milrinone administered immediately after reperfusion, (4) group MW: wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, injected before milrinone administration, (5) group MN: l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor, injected before milrinone administration, and (6) group MD, milrinone administered 30 min after reperfusion. Except for group S, all groups underwent 1 h of warm ischemia of median and left lateral lobes, followed by 5 h of reperfusion. Biochemical liver function analysis and histologic examination were performed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase levels, histologic damage scores, and apoptotic rate in group M were significantly lower than those in group C. The inhibition of PI3K or NOS prevented this protective effect. Milrinone administered 30 min after reperfusion did not show obvious protective effects. Milrinone-induced PostC protects against hepatic IR injury when it is administered immediately after reperfusion, and PI3K and NOS may play an important role in this protective effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed Hepatic Adaptation to Weaning in ACBP(-/-) Mice Is Caused by Disruption of the Epidermal Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bek, Signe; Bloksgaard, Maria

    2013-01-01

    in the skin rather than in the liver. Similarly to ACBP(-/-) mice, K14-ACBP(-/-) mice exhibit an increased transepidermal water loss, and we show that the hepatic phenotype is caused specifically by the epidermal barrier defect, which leads to increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Our data demonstrate......We previously reported that mice deficient in acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) display a delayed metabolic adaptation to weaning. This includes a delayed activation of the hepatic lipogenic gene program, which may result from hepatic accumulation of triacylglycerol and/or cholesteryl esters...... in the late suckling period. To further investigate the basis for this phenotype, we generated mice deficient in ACBP in hepatocytes (Alb-ACBP(-/-)) and keratinocytes (K14-ACBP(-/-)). Surprisingly, the delayed adaptation to weaning, including hepatic lipid accumulation, is caused by ACBP deficiency...

  14. Cardiopulmonary bypass after severe blunt hepatic injury: management of multi-system blunt trauma in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Stephanie; Kavarana, Minoo; Scheurer, Mark A; Cina, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    A 16-year-old adolescent male sustained combined injuries to the tricuspid valve and liver. This injury is exceptional due to the mechanism and the circumstances in which it took place: a flying pumpkin thrown from a sport utility vehicle. An echocardiogram demonstrated a flail chordal apparatus associated with the posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve, creating substrate for severe tricuspid regurgitation with preserved right heart function. He was treated with non-operative management for the liver injury; he remained hemodynamically stable and was discharged home. He underwent successful repair of the tricuspid valve 17 days following the initial injury necessitating systemic anticoagulation and was discharged home two days later. The patient recovered fully without residual valvular pathology or hepatic sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of toll-like receptors in hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Dai, J J; Hu, W F; Wang, J

    2016-07-14

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can specifically identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by recognizing structural patterns in diverse microbial molecules, and can provide an effective defense against multiple microbial infectious. A variety of TLRs can be expressed on the surface of liver parenchymal as well as nonparenchymal cells. Kupffer cells are a type of hepatic nonparenchymal macrophage, and are positively associated with the severity of liver fibrosis. They play an important role in the synthesis and deposition of the extracellular matrix by upregulating the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and downregulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Cirrhosis, a chronic diffuse lesion usually accompanying extensive liver fibrosis and nodular regeneration, is caused by liver parenchymal cells repeating injury-repair following reconstruction of organizational structure in the hepatic lobules. Hepatocellular carcinoma is caused by repeated and persistent chronic severe liver injury, and partial hepatocytes can eventually transform into hepatoma cells. Multiple TLRs such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9, as well as other receptors, can be expressed in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. About 53 and 85% of hepatocellular carcinoma patients frequently express TLR3 and TLR9, respectively. The chronic and repeated liver injury caused by alcohol, and HBV, HCV, or other pathogens can be recognized by TLRs through the PAMP pathway, which directly increases the risk for hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we briefly present evidence that the novel cellular molecular mechanisms of TLRs may provide more information about new therapeutics targets of the anti-inflammatory immune response.

  16. Multidisciplinary approach for the management of complex hepatic injuries AAST-OIS grades IV-V: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, J A; Petrone, P; García-Núñez, L; Kimbrell, B; Kuncir, E

    2007-01-01

    Complex hepatic injuries grades IV-V are highly lethal. The objective of this study is to assess the multidisciplinary approach for their management and to evaluate if survival could be improved with this approach. Prospective 54-month study of all patients sustaining hepatic injuries grades IV-V managed operatively at a Level I Trauma Center. survival. univariate and stepwise logistic regression. Seventy-five patients sustained penetrating (47/63%) and blunt (28/37%) injuries. Seven (9%) patients underwent emergency department thoracotomy with a mortality of 100%. Out of the 75 patients, 52 (69%) sustained grade IV, and 23 (31%) grade V. The estimated blood loss was 3,539+/-3,040 ml. The overall survival was 69%, adjusted survival excluding patients requiring emergency department thoracotomy was 76%. Survival stratified to injury grade: grade IV 42/52-81%, grade V 10/23-43%. Mortality grade IV versus V injuries (p < 0.002; RR 2.94; 95% CI 1.52-5.70). Risk factors for mortality: packed red blood cells transfused in operating room (p=0.024), estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), dysryhthmia (p < 0.0001), acidosis (p = 0.051), hypothermia (p = 0.04). The benefit of angiography and angioembolization indicated: 12% mortality (2/17) among those that received it versus a 36% mortality (21/58) among those that did not (p = 0.074; RR 0.32; 95% CI 0.08-1.25). Stepwise logistic regression identified as significant independent predictors of outcome: estimated blood loss (p= 0.0017; RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08-1.41) and number of packed red blood cells transfused in the operating room (p = 0.0358; RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01-1.34). The multidisciplinary approach to the management of these severe grades of injuries appears to improve survival in these highly lethal injuries. A prospective multi-institutional study is needed to validate this approach.

  17. Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona; Woodward, Randall W

    2012-02-01

    Unintended hepatic injury associated with the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-containing products has been growing. The aim of the study was to seek a better understanding of the causes of this observation in order to evaluate the potential impact of proposed preventive measures. Retrospective analysis of a large database containing prospectively collected patient exposure data, clinical symptomatology and outcome. The National Poison Data System database for 2000-7 involving exposures to paracetamol and an opioid was obtained and analysed. This dataset was limited to non-suicidal cases in patients 13 years of age and older. For comparison, the parallel, mutually exclusive dataset involving exposures to one or more non-opioid containing paracetamol products was analysed. Trends in the numbers of patients exposed, treated, and mildly and severely injured were obtained and compared with each other and with trends calculated from publicly available data on sales and population. The association of injury with the number of paracetamol-containing products and the reason for taking them were also assessed. Comparators: During the study period, the US population of those 15 years of age and over rose 8.5%; all pharmaceutical-related calls to all US poison centres rose 25%. For the 8-year period from 2001 to 2008, sales of over-the-counter paracetamol products rose 5% (single-ingredient products fell 3%; paracetamol-containing combination cough and cold products rose 11%) and prescription paracetamol combination products rose 67%. Opioids with paracetamol: A total of 119 731 cases were identified, increasing 70% over the period. The exposure merited acetylcysteine treatment in 8995 cases (252% increase). In total, 2729 patients (2.3%) experienced some hepatic injury (500% increase). Minor injuries rose faster than severe injuries (833% vs 280%) and most injuries (73.0%) were from overuse of a single combination product only, but the injury rate increased with use of

  18. Contrasting effects of cord injury on intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of diclofenac: a drug with intermediate hepatic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Antonio, L; Arauz, J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Guízar-Sahagún, G; Castañeda-Hernández, G

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory investigation in rats submitted to experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine the effect of acute SCI on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac, a marker drug of intermediate hepatic extraction, administered by the intravenous and the oral routes. Female Wistar rats were submitted to complete section of the spinal cord at the T8 level. SCI and sham-injured rats received 3.2 mg kg(-1) of diclofenac sodium either intravenously or orally, diclofenac concentration was measured in whole blood samples and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Diclofenac was not selected as test drug because of its therapeutic properties, but because to its biopharmaceutical properties, that is, intermediate hepatic extraction. Diclofenac bioavailability after intravenous administration was increased in injured rats compared with controls due to a reduced clearance. In contrast, oral diclofenac bioavailability was diminished in SCI animals due to a reduction in drug absorption, which overrides the effect on clearance. Acute SCI induces significant pharmacokinetic changes for diclofenac, a marker drug with intermediate hepatic extraction. SCI-induced pharmacokinetic changes are not only determined by injury characteristics, but also by the route of administration and the biopharmaceutical properties of the studied drug.

  19. Chronic hepatitis C and fibrosis: evidences for possible estrogen benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Codes

    Full Text Available The main injury caused by hepatitis C virus is the hepatic fibrosis, as a result of a chronic inflammatory process in the liver characterized by the deposit of components from the extracellular matrix. The fibrosis development leads to the modification of the hepatic architecture, of the hepatocellular function and to irregularities in the microcirculation. The tissue remodeling process observed in fibrosis has stellate cells, located at the space of Disse, as main acting agents. These cells, in response to a harmful stimulus, undergo phenotypic changes from non-proliferating cells to proliferating cells that express a- smooth-muscle actin (a-SMA, a process called as transdifferentiation. There are evidences that the oxidative stress is involved in the chronic liver disease and serves as bond between the injury and the hepatic fibrosis. A number of studies suggest that the estrogen, at physiological levels, presents an antifibrogenic action probably through an antioxidant effect, decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation products in the liver and blood, thus inhibiting the myofibroblastic transformation of stellate cells and contributing for gender-associated differences in relation to the fibrosis development. The aim of this paper was to describe data from literature concerning the interaction between chronic hepatitis C and estrogens, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives, menopause and hormone reposition therapy.

  20. GSK-3β Inhibition Attenuates CLP-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing Inflammation and Hepatic Cell Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver dysfunction has been known to occur frequently in cases of sepsis. Excessive inflammation and apoptosis are pathological features of acute liver failure. Recent studies suggest that activation of glycogen synthase kinase- (GSK- 3β is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of GSK-3β inhibition on polymicrobial sepsis-induced liver injury and to explore the possible mechanisms. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, and SB216763 was used to inhibit GSK-3β in C57BL/6 mice. GSK-3β was activated following CLP. Administration of SB216763 decreased mortality, ameliorated liver injury, and reduced hepatic apoptosis. The inhibition of GSK-3β also reduced leukocyte infiltration and hepatic inflammatory cytokine expression and release. Moreover, GSK-3β inhibition suppressed the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB but enhanced the transcriptional activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB in the liver. In in vitro studies, GSK-3β inhibition reduced inflammatory cytokine production via modulation of NF-κB and CREB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GSK-3β blockade protects against CLP-induced liver via inhibition of inflammation by modulating NF-κB and CREB activity and suppression of hepatic apoptosis.

  1. Role of berberine in ameliorating Schistosoma mansoni-induced hepatic injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Dkhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is caused by helminth parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Berberine chloride (BER, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has been used in vivo for its antiparasitic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this study, the protective effect of BER and praziquantel has been compared for the extent of schistosomiasis-induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of mice. RESULTS: S. mansoni was able to induce inflammation and injury to the liver, evidenced (i by an increase in inflammatory cellular infiltrations, dilated sinusoids and vacuolated hepatocytes, (ii by decreased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and increased levels of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase in the liver homogenate, (iii by increased production of nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and (iv by lowered glutathione levels and decreased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during BER treatment. In particular, berberine counteracted the S. mansoni-induced loss of glutathione and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it is concluded that berberine could ameliorate pre-existing liver damage and oxidative stress conditions due to schistosomiasis.

  2. Complications and Causes of Death in Spinal Cord Injury Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Most common complication and cause of death following SCI are muscle spasm and respiratory failure respectively. The risk factors associated with mortality are age, GCS<9, cervical spinal injury, and complete neurologic injury and those for complications were cervical spinal injury and Frankel Type A injury.

  3. Injuries caused by firewood splitting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, P H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the types of injury caused by firewood splitting machines and also to elucidate the accident mechanism. The study is based on 15 cases. The machine has a rotating spiral cone, and usually the victims' gloved fingertips were caught by the point of the cone. This led to either amputations, usually of radial fingers and/or penetrating wounds through the middle of the hand. In most cases the accidents could not be blamed on bad working techniques. The study of the mechanisms of injury points to insufficient protective devices in a machine construction which has a potentially dangerous working principle.

  4. Characteristics of injuries caused by paragliding accidents: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbek, Umut; İmerci, Ahmet; Akgün, Ulaş; Yeşil, Murat; Aydin, Ali; Balci, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics and risk factors relating to fatalities and injuries caused by paragliding. The judicial examination reports and hospital documents of 82 patients traumatized in 64 accidents during 242 355 paragliding jumps between August 2004 and September 2011 were analyzed. In these accidents, 18 of the 82 patients lost their lives. In the patients with a confirmed cause of accident, most of them were involved with multiple fractures and internal organ injuries (n=8, 44.4%). We investigated the incidence of paragliding injuries, the types of the injuries, and the severity of affected anatomical regions. The findings are significant for the prevention of paragliding injuries and future research.

  5. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  6. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Laarakkers, Coby M.M. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Rosalinde [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Russel, Frans G.M., E-mail: F.Russel@pharmtox.umcn.nl [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p < 0.01). Kidney injury was confirmed by histology and increased Kim1 and Il-6 mRNA expression levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Liver histology and plasma ALT levels in DF-treated mice were not different from control, but mRNA expression of Stat3 (p < 0.001) and protein expression of PCNA (p < 0.05) were increased, indicating liver regeneration. In conclusion, urinary proteome analysis revealed that DF treatment in mice induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.

  7. DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein suppresses lipogenesis and ameliorates hepatic steatosis and acute-on-chronic liver injury in alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanqing; Shen, Feng; Sherban, Alex; Nocon, Allison; Li, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Rui, Xianliang; Han, Jinyan; Jiang, Bingbing; Lee, Donghwan; Li, Na; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Fan, Jian-Gao; Liu, Feng; Kamat, Amrita; Musi, Nicolas; Guarente, Leonard; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin; Zang, Mengwei

    2018-02-19

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, how chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic lipid accumulation remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a causal role in alcoholic steatosis, inflammation, and liver injury. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to hyperactivation of mTORC1, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinase S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in hepatocytes. Aberrant activation of mTORC1 was likely attributed to the defects of the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the liver of chronic-plus-binge ethanol-fed mice and in the liver of patients with ALD. Conversely, adenoviral overexpression of hepatic DEPTOR suppressed mTORC1 signaling and ameliorated alcoholic hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and acute-on-chronic liver injury. Mechanistically, the lipid-lowering effect of hepatic DEPTOR was attributable to decreased proteolytic processing, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). DEPTOR-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 also attenuated alcohol-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of the lipogenic regulator lipin 1 and prevented alcohol-mediated inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Pharmacological intervention with rapamycin alleviated the ability of alcohol to up-regulate lipogenesis, to down-regulate fatty acid oxidation, and to induce steatogenic phenotypes. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to activation of SREBP-1 and lipin 1 through S6K1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 disrupted DEPTOR function, enhanced mTORC1 activity, and exacerbated alcoholic fatty liver, inflammation, and liver injury in mice. The dysregulation of SIRT1

  8. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  9. Radiographic evaluation of hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of significant abdominal trauma continues to rise and accounts currently for approximately 10 percent of the annual 130,000 trauma-related deaths in the United States. Over 60 percent of patients are from 10 to 40 years of age, with a striking predominance of males. Children are mostly victims of blunt trauma, while some large reviews of liver trauma in adults show a prevalence of penetrating injuries. Injury to the liver is second only to the spleen in incidence of intraperitoneal injuries. Morbidity and mortality from hepatic trauma are related to the mechanism and extent of injury. Penetrating injuries generally have a lower mortality, about 5 percent, especially if they are due to stab wounds or low velocity gunshot wounds. Shotgun and high velocity gunshot wounds may cause massive fragmentation of the liver and are associated with proportionately greater mortality. The mortality from blunt trauma is from 15 to 45 percent in many large series. Death from isolated liver injury is uncommon, but is usually due to uncontrolled hemorrhage. Injury to other abdominal organs is associated in many cases, as are injuries to the head, chest, and limbs. The extraabdominal injuries are frequently more apparent clinically, but may mask potentially life-threatening abdominal visceral injuries

  10. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoworms for magnetic resonance diagnosis of acute hepatic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun-Jun; Dong, Liang; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Le-Cheng; An, Duo; Gao, Huai-Ling; Yang, Dong-Mei; Hu, Wen; Sui, Cong; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic non-metallic biomaterials, including the silicon frustule of a unicellular diatom, the carbonate shell of a mollusk and the calcium skeleton of the vertebrate, which are the main constituent part of an organism, serve as the supportive and protective components of soft tissue. Among them, hydroxyapatite, which primarily makes up the enamel and bone, is widely used in tissue engineering. Recently, the inorganic nonmetallic biomaterials, especially the applications of hydroxyapatites have attracted great attention. Herein, we report a novel synthesis method of magnetic functionalized hydroxyapatite nanocomposites. By simply tuning the ratios of reactants, a series of hydroxyapatite-Fe3O4 worm-shaped nanocomposites (HAP-ION nanoworms) are obtained. In addition, layer-by-layer surface modifications with chitosan (CH) and sodium alginate (SA) were employed to improve the solubility and biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity and no hemolysis were observed. With the increase of iron oxide nanocrystals, the magnetic properties of the magnetic assembled nanoworms were enhanced, which resulted in better performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Owing to the intravenous injection of HAP-ION nanoworms, the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of hepatic MR imaging in vivo was enhanced obviously, which should be beneficial for hepatic injury grading and further therapeutic treatment.Inorganic non-metallic biomaterials, including the silicon frustule of a unicellular diatom, the carbonate shell of a mollusk and the calcium skeleton of the vertebrate, which are the main constituent part of an organism, serve as the supportive and protective components of soft tissue. Among them, hydroxyapatite, which primarily makes up the enamel and bone, is widely used in tissue engineering. Recently, the inorganic nonmetallic biomaterials, especially the applications of hydroxyapatites have attracted great attention. Herein, we report a novel synthesis method of magnetic

  11. Causes And Pattern Of Unilateral Hand Injuries | Kaisha | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. Subjects: All ...

  12. Hepatitis E is a cause of unexplained hepatitis in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waar, K; Herremans, MMPT; Vennema, H; Koopmans, MPG; Benne, CA

    Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis in much of the developing world. Evidence provided in recent years shows that HEV is also prevalent in very low numbers in non-endemic countries. Recently, a cluster of three patients with

  13. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  14. Cause and Prevention of Playground Injuries and Litigation; Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.; Sweeney, Theodora B.

    This study examined 187 playground injuries and 13 fatalities that resulted in lawsuits between 1981 and 1995, taken from the files of two expert witnesses on playground safety who testified in the cases. The data are presented by geographic location, nature of injuries, cause of injuries/fatalities, playground equipment implicated, location of…

  15. Carbon Monoxide Protects against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via ROS-Dependent Akt Signaling and Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jeong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury.

  16. Carbon monoxide protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via ROS-dependent Akt signaling and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kong, Jin Sun; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β) in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury.

  17. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  18. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  19. Hepatic arterial embolization in the management of blunt hepatic trauma: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letoublon, Christian; Morra, Irene; Chen, Yao; Monnin, Valerie; Voirin, David; Arvieux, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to clarify the role of hepatic arterial embolization (AE) in the management of blunt hepatic trauma. Retrospective observational study of 183 patients with blunt hepatic trauma admitted to a trauma referral center over a 9-year period. The charts of 29 patients (16%) who underwent hepatic angiography were reviewed for demographics, injury specific data, management strategy, angiographic indication, efficacy and complications of embolization, and outcome. AE was performed in 23 (79%) of the patients requiring angiography. Thirteen patients managed conservatively underwent emergency embolization after preliminary computed tomography scan. Six had postoperative embolization after damage control laparotomy and four had delayed embolization. Arterial bleeding was controlled in all the cases. Sixteen patients (70%) had one or more liver-related complications; temporary biliary leak (n=11), intra-abdominal hypertension (n=14), inflammatory peritonitis (n=3), hepatic necrosis (n=3), gallbladder infarction (n=2), and compressive subcapsular hematoma (n=1). Unrecognized hepatic necrosis could have contributed to the late posttraumatic death of one patient. AE is a key element in modern management of high-grade liver injuries. Two principal indications exist in the acute postinjury phase: primary hemostatic control in hemodynamically stable or stabilized patients with radiologic computed tomography evidence of active arterial bleeding and adjunctive hemostatic control in patients with uncontrolled suspected arterial bleeding despite emergency laparotomy. Successful management of injuries of grade III upward often entails a combined angiographic and surgical approach. Awareness of the ischemic complications due to angioembolization is important.

  20. Sortilin 1 Loss-of-Function Protects Against Cholestatic Liver Injury by Attenuating Hepatic Bile Acid Accumulation in Bile Duct Ligated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibiao; Woolbright, Benjamin L; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Matye, David; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Li, Tiangang

    2018-01-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 knockout (KO) mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after bile duct ligation (BDL), which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger BA pool size than sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic BA accumulation and smaller BA pool size. After 14 days BDL, Sort1 KO mice showed significantly lower hepatic BA concentration and reduced expression of inflammatory and fibrotic marker genes, but similar degree of liver fibrosis compared with WT mice. Unbiased quantitative proteomics revealed that Sort1 KO mice had increased hepatic BA sulfotransferase 2A1, but unaltered phase-I BA metabolizing cytochrome P450s or phase-III BA efflux transporters. Consistently, Sort1 KO mice showed elevated plasma sulfated taurocholate after BDL. Finally, we found that liver Sort1 was repressed after BDL, which may be due to BA activation of farnesoid x receptor. In conclusion, we report a role of Sort1 in the regulation of hepatic BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in mice. The mechanisms underlying increased hepatic BA elimination in Sort1 KO mice after BDL require further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben

    2017-04-19

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  2. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M.; Oliver, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  3. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M; Oliver, Paula

    2017-08-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid-base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in the absence of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Duarte

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is a mediator of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI. While both global COX-2 deletion and pharmacologic COX-2 inhibition ameliorate liver IRI, the clinical use of COX-2 inhibitors has been linked to increased risks of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, a better understanding of the role of COX-2 in different cell types may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for hepatic IRI. Macrophages of myeloid origin are currently considered to be important sources of the COX-2 in damaged livers. Here, we used a Cox-2flox conditional knockout mouse (COX-2-M/-M to examine the function of COX-2 expression in myeloid cells during liver IRI. COX-2-M/-M mice and their WT control littermates were subjected to partial liver ischemia followed by reperfusion. COX-2-M/-M macrophages did not express COX-2 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation and COX-2-M/-M livers showed reduced levels of COX-2 protein post-IRI. Nevertheless, selective deletion of myeloid cell-derived COX-2 failed to ameliorate liver IRI; serum transaminases and histology were comparable in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice. COX-2-M/-M livers, like WT livers, developed extensive necrosis, vascular congestion, leukocyte infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 expression post-reperfusion. In addition, myeloid COX-2 deletion led to a transient increase in IL-6 levels after hepatic reperfusion, when compared to controls. Administration of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, resulted in significantly improved liver function and histology in both COX-2-M/-M and WT mice post-reperfusion, providing evidence that COX-2-mediated liver IRI is caused by COX-2 derived from a source(s other than myeloid cells. In conclusion, these results support the view that myeloid COX-2, including myeloid-macrophage COX-2, is not responsible for the hepatic IRI phenotype.

  5. Research on Protective Effect and Mechanism of Idazoxan on lps Attacked Acute Hepatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyu; Ying, Shangqi; Kang, Wenyuan; Huang, Wenjuan; Liang, Huaping

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To observe the protection effect of Idazoxan (IDA) on LPS induced acute hepatic injury, and to explore its action mechanism. Methods: 60 adult C57BL/6 mice were divided into a control group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of phosphate buffer), a model group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg) and a agmatine group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg and agmatine 200 mg/kg) according to random number table method. Blood and liver tissue were collected for preparation of tissue homogenate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted for detecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL- 1β and IL - 6) contents in the serum and liver tissue at 24h after molding. Automatic biochemical analyzer is used for determining alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level at 24h after molding; The liver tissue pathology changes were observed at 24h after molding. Macrophage RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by 10 μg/mL LPS and with or without IDA (100 μmol/L). 2’, 7’-dichlorofluoresce in diacetate (DCFH-DA) was used as a fluorescent probe for detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level; qRT - PCR method was used for detecting antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression level at 2h, 4h and 8 h. Results: mice in the model group suffered from depression, curling and food water forbidding at 6h after molding. Mice in the Idazoxan group have obviously better spirit and activity than that of model group. The serum ALT, AST and LDH level of LPS attacked acute hepatic injury mice can be effectively alleviated after Idazoxan treatment. The expression of proinflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in the liver can be reduced. The liver showed obvious pathological changes at 24 h after injection, such as liver cell swelling, necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, etc.; The liver cell injury was prominently alleviated in IDA

  6. Hepatic trauma: CT findings and considerations based on our experience in emergency diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Luigia; Giovine, Sabrina; Guidi, Guido; Tortora, Giovanni; Cinque, Teresa; Romano, Stefania

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal blunt trauma represents the main cause of death in people of age less than 40 years; the liver injury occurs frequently, with an incidence varying from 3 to 10%. Isolated hepatic lesions are rare and in 77-90% of cases, lesions of other organs and viscera are involved. Right hepatic lobe is a frequent site of injury, because it is the more voluminous portion of liver parenchyma; posterior superior hepatic segments are proximal to fixed anatomical structures such as ribs and spine that may have an important role in determining of the lesion. The coronal ligaments' insertion in this parenchymal region augments the effect of acceleration-deceleration mechanism. Associated lesions usually are homolateral costal fractures, laceration or contusion of the inferior right pulmonary lobe, haemothorax, pneumothorax, renal and/or adrenal lesions. Traumatic lesions of left hepatic lobe are rare and usually associated with direct impact on the superior abdomen, such as in car-crash when the wheel causes a compressive effect on thorax and abdomen. Associated lesions to left hepatic lobe injuries correlated to this mechanism are: sternal fractures, pancreatic, myocardial, gastrointestinal tract injuries. Lesions of the caudal lobe are extremely rare, usually not isolated and noted with other large parenchymal lesions. The Institution of Specialized Trauma Centers and the technical progress in imaging methodology developed in the last years a great reduction of mortality. New diagnostic methodologies allow a reduction of negatives laparotomies and allow the possibility of conservative treatment of numerous traumatic lesions; however, therapy depends from imaging findings and clinical conditions of the patient. Computed tomography (CT) certainly presents a large impact on diagnosis and management of patients with lesions from blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to establish a prognostic criteria allowing decisions for conservative or surgical treatment; CT findings

  7. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan; Wang, Yi Xiang J.; Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming

    2014-01-01

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  8. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by herbal medicine: CT and MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua; Lou, Hai Yan [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Yi Xiang J. [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao Jun; Zhang, Min Ming [Dept. of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-04-15

    To describe the CT and MRI features of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) caused by herbal medicine Gynura segetum. The CT and MRI features of 16 consecutive Gynura segetum induced HSOS cases (12 men, 4 women) were analyzed. Eight patients had CT; three patients had MRI, and the remaining five patients had both CT and MRI examinations. Based on their clinical presentations and outcomes, the patients were classified into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The severity of the disease was also evaluated radiologically based on the abnormal hepatic patchy enhancement in post-contrast CT or MRI images. Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and main right hepatic vein narrowing or occlusion were present in all 16 cases. Hepatomegaly and gallbladder wall thickening were present in 14 cases (87.5%, 14/16). Periportal high intensity on T2-weighted images was present in 6 cases (75%, 6/8). Normal liver parenchymal enhancement surrounding the main hepatic vein forming a clover-like sign was observed in 4 cases (25%, 4/16). The extent of patchy liver enhancement was statistically associated with clinical severity classification (kappa = 0.565). Ascites, patchy liver enhancement, and the main hepatic veins narrowing were the most frequent signs of herbal medicine induced HSOS. The grade of abnormal patchy liver enhancement was associated with the clinical severity.

  9. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica on Liver Injury Induced By Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan TERZİ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Urtica dioica on liverischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were used in this experimental study. Animals weredivided into three groups as sham operated (group 1, control (group 2, and Urtica dioicatreatment group (group 3. Urtica dioica 2ml/kg were administered intraperitoneally beforeischemia and immediately after the reperfusion. The levels of total antioxidant capacity, totalfree sulfidril group, Total oxidant status, Oxidative stress index, and myeloperoxidase in livertissues were measured. The serum levels of ALT, AST and LDH were also measuredResults: Total antioxidant capacity and total free sulfidril group in liver tissue were significantlyhigher in group 3 than in group 2. Oxidative stress index and myeloperoxidase in liver tissuewere significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. The levels of liver enzymes in treatmentgroup were significantly lower than those in the control group. Histological tissue damage wasmilder in the treatment group than that in the control group.Conclusion: It is concluded that Urtica dioica increase the antioxidant capacity and decreaseoxidative stress and liver enzymes in the hepatic ischemi reperfusion injury of rats.

  10. Flight Bags as a Cause of Back Injuries Among Commercial Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanumuri, Vamsi S R; Zautke, John L; Dorevitch, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Pilots of fixed wing commercial aircraft face numerous occupational hazards. Low back pain is among the most common and costly workplace injury, though relatively little is known about causes of back injuries among pilots. The awkward lifting and twisting maneuvers in the flight deck to position flight bags has not been described as a cause of occupational back injury among pilots. A case series of low back injuries among pilots was identified and described by a retrospective review of charts at an airport-based clinic. Circumstances of occupational back injury, initial direct medical costs, treatment, and work status following evaluation were described. Over a 6-yr period, 37 occupational low back injuries among 35 pilots were evaluated and treated. Of these, 24 (65%) involved flight bags. Only 27% of pilots with flight bag-associated injuries were returned to work after initial evaluation; medications with sedating properties were frequently required for treatment. Injuries due to slips, trips, and falls, typically in jet bridges or associated with hotel shuttles, were common among pilots with back injuries not related to flight bags. The majority of occupational low back injuries seen among pilots in an airport based clinic were attributable to use of flight bags. Substituting electronic flight bags for traditional flight bags could contribute to back injury prevention among pilots.

  11. Bilateral multiligament injury of knee caused by entangled dupatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinand V Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral multiligament knee injury in an 18-year-old female employed in garment industry. Patient was wearing salwar kameez and dupatta while operating an electric laundry machine. In this case we discuss a peculiar mechanism of injury caused due to wearing dupatta near working site and suggest simple preventive measures.

  12. CXC-chemokine regulation and neutrophil trafficking in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in P-selectin/ICAM-1 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crockett Elahé T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil adhesion and migration are critical in hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R. P-selectin and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 can mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions, neutrophil migration, and the interactions of neutrophils with hepatocytes in the liver. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy in reperfusion injury, indicating that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration and liver injury during early and late phases of liver I/R. Methods Adult male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1-deficient (P/I null mice underwent 90 minutes of partial liver ischemia followed by various periods of reperfusion (6, 15 h, and a survival study. Liver injury was assessed by plasma level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and histopathology. The plasma cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2 and KC, were measured by ELISA. Results Reperfusion caused significant hepatocellular injury in both wild-type and P/I null mice as was determined by plasma ALT levels and liver histopathology. The injury was associated with a marked neutrophil infiltration into the ischemic livers of both wild-type and P/I null mice. Although the levels of ALT and neutrophil infiltration were slightly lower in the P/I null mice compared with the wild-type mice the differences were not statistically significant. The plasma cytokine data of TNF-α and IL-6 followed a similar pattern to ALT data, and no significant difference was found between the wild-type and P/I null groups. In contrast, a significant difference in KC and MIP-2 chemokine levels was observed between the wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, the survival study showed a trend towards increased survival in the P/I null group. Conclusion While ICAM-1 and P

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  14. Apigenin inhibits d-galactosamine/LPS-induced liver injury through upregulation of hepatic Nrf-2 and PPARγ expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui-Jun; Ye, Hua; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun-Long; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2017-11-04

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound widely distributed in a variety of vegetables, medicinal plants and health foods. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of apigenin against d-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse liver injury and to investigate the potential biochemical mechanisms. The results showed that after oral administration of apigenin 100-200 mg/kg for 7 days, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were decreased, and the severity of liver injury was alleviated. Importantly, apigenin pretreatment increased the levels of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein expressions as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, decreased the levels of hepatic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein expression and tumor necrosis factor-α. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could prevent the D-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice, and its mechanisms might be associated with the increments of Nrf-2-mediated antioxidative enzymes and modulation of PPARγ/NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mannan-binding lectin MBL2 gene polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C: association with the severity of liver fibrosis and response to interferon therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves Pedroso, ML; Boldt, AB; Pereira-Ferrari, L

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatic disease and of liver transplantation worldwide. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), encoded by the MBL2 gene, can have an important role as an opsonin and complement activating molecule in HCV persistence and liver injury. We assessed the MBL2...

  16. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal bu...

  17. Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates clarithromycin- and methotrexate-induced intestinal and hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Deniz Güney; Kumral, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir; Ercan, Feriha; Deniz, Mustafa; Can, Güray; Cağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2013-08-28

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. We aimed to investigate whether S. boulardii could alter the effects of clarithromycin (CLA) and methotrexate (MTX) on oro-caecal intestinal transit and oxidative damage in rats. Rats were divided into two groups receiving a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) or CLA (20 mg/kg per d) for 1 week. Groups were treated with either saline or S. boulardii (500 mg/kg) twice per d throughout the experiment. The control group was administered only saline. Following decapitation, intestinal transit and inflammation markers of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were measured in intestinal and hepatic tissues. CLA and MTX increased intestinal transit, while S. boulardii treatment slowed down CLA-facilitated transit back to control level. Both MTX and CLA increased lipid peroxidation while depleting the antioxidant GSH content in the hepatic and ileal tissues. Conversely, lipid peroxidation was depressed and GSH levels were increased in the ileal and hepatic tissues of S. boulardii-treated rats. Increased ileal neutrophil infiltration due to MTX and CLA treatments was also reduced by S. boulardii treatment. Histological analysis supported that S. boulardii protected intestinal tissues against the inflammatory effects of both agents. These findings suggest that S. boulardii ameliorates intestinal injury and the accompanying hepatic inflammation by supporting the antioxidant state of the tissues and by inhibiting the recruitment of neutrophils. Moreover, a preventive effect on MTXinduced toxicity is a novel finding of S. boulardii, proposing it as an adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  18. Childhood injuries in Ilesa, South-Western Nigeria: causes, pattern, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, S A; Ademola, A S; Dedeke, I O F; Oyelami, O A

    2010-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, infections and undernutrition are the leading causes of childhood death; however injuries are now contributing significantly to childhood morbidity and mortality. To determine the aetiology, morbidity and mortality associated with injuries in children in South-Western Nigeria. This was an observational cross-sectional study of consecutive childhood injury attendances and admissions into the hospital's Children Emergency Room (CHER) over a one-year period. Socio-demographic data as well as the data on the cause, site, and possible risks of injury; parts of the body affected and eventual outcome of the patients were documented. Injury accounted for 382 (10.6%) of the 3,604 attendances, 142 (11.9%) of 1193 admissions and 11 (20.4%) of 54 deaths in CHER. Their ages ranged from six weeks to 15 years, with a mean (SD) of 6.7 (3.9) years, and a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. Road traffic accidents, 130 (34.0%), were the most common cause, followed by falls 119 (31.2%), cuts 44 (11.5%), bits 26 (6.8%), and burns 24 (6.3%). Injuries occurred mostly at home 154 (40.1%), on the road 142 (37.4%), and at school 59 (15.2%). Lack of supervision and/or poor anticipation of potential dangers were the leading risks associated with childhood injuries. Injuries contribute significantly to childhood deaths in South-Western Nigeria. A well-orchestrated public enlightenment programme to improve home, school, and road supervision of children as well as concerted efforts to make these places safer could help ameliorate the situation.

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  20. Influence of Kupffer cell inactivation on cycloheximide-induced hepatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Kiyosawa, Naoki; Ito, Kazumi; Yamoto, Takashi; Teranishi, Munehiro; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Sunao

    2007-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that cycloheximide (CHX) induces hepatocellular necrosis as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. This article evaluates the role of Kupffer cells on cycloheximide-induced hepatic injury using gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) for the inhibition of Kupffer cells. One group of rats was treated with CHX (CHX group), and another was treated with GdCl 3 before being treated with the same dose of CHX (GdCl 3 /CHX group). The necrotic change in the GdCl 3 /CHX group was exacerbated under the induction of hepatocellular apoptosis by the CHX treatment. A substantial diminution of the number of ED1- or ED2-positive cells was demonstrated in the GdCl 3 /CHX group compared to the CHX group. In addition, the degree of decrease in ED2-positive cells was more apparent than that in ED1-positive cells. Increases in the mRNA levels of IL-10 and Stat3 were observed in the CHX group, but not in the GdCl 3 /CHX group. On the other hand, the hepatic mRNA levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules such as Ccl20, LOX-1, and E-selectin were significantly increased only in the GdCl 3 /CHX group. Thus, Kupffer cell inactivation by the GdCl 3 treatment leads to a loss of the capacity to produce IL-10, supposedly resulting in the enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine activities such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling. These events are suggested to be a factor of the inflammatory exacerbation in the livers of the GdCl 3 /CHX group. In conclusion, Kupffer cells may play a role in protecting hepatic necroinflammatory changes by releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines following the hepatocellular apoptosis resulting from CHX treatment

  1. THE ROLE OF CYTOKINE NETWORK IN HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE CAUSED BY СHRONIC HEPATITIS C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ph. Skljar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver damage in chronic viral hepatitis C is caused by both direct cytopathic viral effects, and indirect immune-mediated mechanisms. The cytokines locally produced in the liver, as well as those circulating in the blood circulation, play an important role in the control of viral replication and sufficiently contribute to hepatocellular damage. The goal of present study was to investigate the contents of some cytokines in blood serum and their local levels, being in interrelation with indices of necrotic inflammatory changes in the liver tissue. Correlations established between systemic and local contents of studied cytokines, and morphological indices indicate that, among immunological tests checked, the contents of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNFα in blood serum and supernatants of liver biopsies were of the greatest significance for determining the stage of fibrosis. Quantitative assays of abovementioned cytokines in blood serum represent, therefore, an alternative approach in order to perform noninvasive screening of liver fibrosis.

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hepatic artery injury: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization through collaterals after coil embolizatoin of gastric arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gab Choul; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Duck Hee; Song, Ho Young; Suh, Dong Jin; Lee, Yung Sang; Chung, Young Hwa; Sung, Gyu Bo; Ko, Ki Young

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) after coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in hepatocellular carcinoma cases with multiple collateral arteries caused by proper hepatic artery injury. Between March 1997 and November 1998, a prospective trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed through collaterals from the gastroduodenal artery of 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extensive proper hepatic artery injury due to repeated TACE. Among this number, 16 (group A) underwent TACE after coil embolization of the right gastric and gastroduodenal artery. The other 15 patients (group B) underwent TACE without coil embolization. The two groups had the same TNM stage and Clild-Pugh status. During the follow-up period, group A underwent additional TACE 3.3 times, and group B 2.8 times. The therapeutic effect of TACE was evaluated with computed tomography and by measuring alpha-fetoprotein levels. Complications were evaluated by means of gastrofibroscopy, laboratory data, and evaluation of the patients' clinical symptoms. The results obtained after six months and one year were compared within and between each group. At six months follow-up, CT findings had improved or were unchanged in 11 patients(69 %) in group A, and four patients(27 %) in group B(p = 0.032). In ten patients in each group, the level of alpha-fetoprotein was above 200 ng/ml. Its level was decreased in five patients(50 %) and three patients(30 %), respectively. The six-month survival rate was 81 % (13/16) in group A and 67% (10/15) in group B (p 0.43), while the one-year survival figures for these two groups were 50 % (8/16) and 20 % (3/15), respectively(p = 0.135). In group A, the CT findings were steady in five out of eight patients(63 %), while in groupB, CT findings showed that tumors with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels had increased in size and/or number. In group A, it was found that in two (33 %) of six

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hepatic artery injury: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization through collaterals after coil embolizatoin of gastric arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gab Choul; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Duck Hee; Song, Ho Young; Suh, Dong Jin; Lee, Yung Sang; Chung, Young Hwa; Sung, Gyu Bo [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki Young [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) after coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in hepatocellular carcinoma cases with multiple collateral arteries caused by proper hepatic artery injury. Between March 1997 and November 1998, a prospective trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed through collaterals from the gastroduodenal artery of 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extensive proper hepatic artery injury due to repeated TACE. Among this number, 16 (group A) underwent TACE after coil embolization of the right gastric and gastroduodenal artery. The other 15 patients (group B) underwent TACE without coil embolization. The two groups had the same TNM stage and Clild-Pugh status. During the follow-up period, group A underwent additional TACE 3.3 times, and group B 2.8 times. The therapeutic effect of TACE was evaluated with computed tomography and by measuring alpha-fetoprotein levels. Complications were evaluated by means of gastrofibroscopy, laboratory data, and evaluation of the patients' clinical symptoms. The results obtained after six months and one year were compared within and between each group. At six months follow-up, CT findings had improved or were unchanged in 11 patients(69 %) in group A, and four patients(27 %) in group B(p = 0.032). In ten patients in each group, the level of alpha-fetoprotein was above 200 ng/ml. Its level was decreased in five patients(50 %) and three patients(30 %), respectively. The six-month survival rate was 81 % (13/16) in group A and 67% (10/15) in group B (p 0.43), while the one-year survival figures for these two groups were 50 % (8/16) and 20 % (3/15), respectively(p = 0.135). In group A, the CT findings were steady in five out of eight patients(63 %), while in groupB, CT findings showed that tumors with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels had increased in size and/or number. In group A, it was found that in two (33 %) of six

  4. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  5. Ebselen pretreatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury and prevents hyperglycemia by improving hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell survival in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Kang, S; Kim, D S; Shin, B K; Moon, N R; Daily, J W

    2014-08-01

    Transient carotid artery occlusion causes ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury resulting in neuron and pancreatic β-cell death with consequential post-stroke hyperglycemia, which can lead to diabetes and may accelerate the development of Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against the I/R injury and destruction of neurons. However, it is unknown whether the protection against I/R injury extends to the pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we investigated whether treatment with ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic, prevents neuronal and β-cell death following I/R in gerbils susceptible to stroke. After 28 days post artery occlusion, there was widespread neuronal cell death in the CA1 of the hippocampus and elevated IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Pretreatment with ebselen prevented the death by 56% and attenuated neurological damage (abnormal eyelid drooping, hair bristling, muscle tone, flexor reflex, posture, and walking patterns). Ischemic gerbils also exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity which induced post-stroke hyperglycemia associated with decreased β-cell mass due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Ebselen prevented the increased β-cell apoptosis, possibly by decreasing IL-1β and TNF-α in islets. Ischemia also attenuated hepatic insulin signaling, and expression of GLUT2 and glucokinase, whereas ebselen prevented the attenuation and suppressed gluconeogenesis by decreasing PEPCK expression. In conclusion, antioxidant protection by ebselen attenuated I/R injury of neurons and pancreatic β-cells and prevented subsequent impairment of glucose regulation that could lead to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  7. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and acute hepatitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2004-12-01

    Dengue fever is the world's most important viral hemorrhagic fever disease, the most geographically wide-spread of the arthropod-born viruses, and it causes a wide clinical spectrum of disease. We report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute hepatitis. The initial picture of classical dengue fever was followed by painful liver enlargement, vomiting, hematemesis, epistaxis and diarrhea. Severe liver injury was detected by laboratory investigation, according to a syndromic surveillance protocol, expressed in a self-limiting pattern and the patient had a complete recovery. The serological tests for hepatitis and yellow fever viruses were negative. MAC-ELISA for dengue was positive.

  8. Ultrasound appearance of radiation-induced hepatic injury. Correlation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garra, B.S.; Shawker, T.H.; Chang, R.; Kaplan, K.; White, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrasound findings in three cases of radiation-induced hepatic injury are described and compared with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Fatty infiltration of the liver was present in two of the cases in which concurrent chemotherapy was being administered. On ultrasound B-scans, the regions of radiation injury were hypoechoic relative to the remainder of the liver. This finding was more obvious in the patients with fatty livers. CT scans on the patients with fatty infiltrated livers showed higher attenuation in the irradiated region than in unexposed liver. In the patient where no fatty infiltration was present, the radiated section of liver had lower attenuation consistent with previous reports. Magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased signal in the exposed areas on T1 weighted images

  9. Computerized tomographic findings of hepatic fascioliasis compared with melioidosis-caused liver abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamadol, Nittaya; Laopaiboon, Vallop; Techasatian, Pennapa; Sukeepaisanjaroen, Wattana; Sripanuskul, Anan

    2010-07-01

    To compare the computerized tomographic (CT) findings of hepatic fascioliasis (HF) vs. melioidosis-caused liver (ML) abscesses. CT images of 15 patients with hepatic fascioliasis (HF) and 16 patients with melioidosis-caused liver (ML) abscesses were retrospectively reviewed. The authors evaluated and compared HF and ML abscesses (by chi2 and Fisher exact tests) vis-a-vis their location of liver involvement, size, shape, number margins, enhancement patterns, subcapsular lesions, internal architecture, dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct and combination with splenic abscesses. Fourteen HF patients had only liver abscesses and 1 had combined liver and splenic abscesses. Four ML patients had liver abscesses alone while 12 had combined liver and splenic abscesses (p = 0.000). Eight of the 15 HF (53.3%) and 2 of the 16 ML (12.5%) patients had subcapsular lesions (p = 0.019). The liver abscesses were round or oval with linear tracts in 8 of the 15 HF (53.3%) and none of the ML patients (p = 0.001). Between the respective HF and ML patients, there was a significant difference in those with round shaped in ML (p = 0.008), multiple and conglomerately distributed in HF (p = 0.050), multiple and discretely distributed in ML (p = 0.001) no (or minimal) peripheral contrast enhancement in HF (p = 0.011) and moderate or mark peripheral enhancement in ML (p = 0.011). The CT findings of liver abscesses that helped to differentiate hepatic fascioliasis from melioidosis liver abscesses were: their number shape, enhancement pattern, presence of subcapsular lesion (s) and co-occurrence with splenic abscesses. The diagnosis of hepatic fascioliasis by CT is suggested when the following characteristics were seen: (1) multiple, small round or oval (with linear tracts) conglomerates presenting as hypodense lesions; (2) no (or minimal) peripheral contrast enhancement; (3) subcapsular lesions; or (4) less frequent co-occurrence with splenic abscesses.

  10. [Prehospital emergency care injuries from external causes in a region of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Rafael; Bastidas, Daniel; Arteaga, Everilda; Bastidas, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 3 500 000 people die every year as a result of injuries from external causes, in Venezuela these arte the third leading cause of overall morbidity. Nevertheless, in the country there are no records of the defining aspects of prehospital emergency care as a tool to address this socio-health problem, the aim of this investigation. A descriptive, transversal, field study based on the information recorded daily for a year paramedics was performed. A total 1493 injured by external causes were reported, with a mean age of 29.5 ± 12 years, 84.5% male. Injuries mostly less-moderate (69.4%) were due to severe land transport accidents (70.9%) occurred during the day (75.9%), between monday and friday (72.9%), attended in 20 minutes or less, and transferred in 97.3% of cases. The economically productive young men in areas with higher population density and urbanism are mostly affected by injuries from external causes. In both genres land transport accidents are the most common causes of injury with lower-moderate severity. The care that paramedics provide can be considered adequate.

  11. Incisional hernia as an unusual cause of hepatic encephalopathy in a 62-year-old man with cirrhosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustaoglu Muge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hepatic encephalopathy may be initiated by many factors such as gastrointestinal bleeding, infections, fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Hypokalemia is one of the most commonly encountered electrolyte abnormalities causing hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Case presentation We present the case of a 62-year-old Caucasian man with decompensated liver cirrhosis having multiple episodes of hepatic encephalopathy precipitated by vomiting. He had an incisional hernia at the right lumbar region. A barium contrast study of the small intestine and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the hernial sac included gastric antrum and bowel. We observed that hepatic encephalopathy coincided with hypokalemia as a result of a large volume of vomiting triggered by the collapsed hernial sac. Hepatic encephalopathy was resolved by administration of intravenous potassium. Conclusion This case illustrates that a hernia causing a large volume of vomiting may be a precipitant factor in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.

  12. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  13. Accelerated hyperfractionated hepatic irradiation in the management of patients with liver metastases: Results of the RTOG dose escalating protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.H.; Clyde, C.; Wasserman, T.H.; Turner, S.S.; Rotman, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was prepared to address two objectives: (a) to determine whether progressively higher total doses of hepatic irradiation can prolong survival in a selected population of patients with liver metastases and (b) to refine existing concepts of liver tolerance for fractionated external radiation. One hundred seventy-three analyzable patients with computed tomography measurable liver metastases from primary cancers of the gastrointestinal tract were entered on a dose escalating protocol of twice daily hepatic irradiation employing fractions of 1.5 Gy separated by 4 hr or longer. Sequential groups of patients received 27 Gy, 30 Gy, and 33 Gy to the entire liver and were monitored for acute and late toxicities, survival, and cause of death. Dose escalation was implemented following survival of 10 patients at each dose level for a period of 6 months or longer without clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation hepatitis. The use of progressively larger total doses of radiation did not prolong median survival or decrease the frequency with which liver metastases were the cause of death. None of 122 patients entered at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of radiation induced liver injury. Five of 51 patients entered at the 33 Gy level revealed clinical or biochemical evidence of late liver injury with an actuarial risk of severe (Grade 3) radiation hepatitis of 10.0% at 6 months, resulting in closure of the study to patient entry. The study design could not credibly establish a safe dose for hepatic irradiation, however, it did succeed in determining that 33 Gy in fractions of 1.5 Gy is unsafe, carrying a substantial risk of delayed radiation injury. The absence of apparent late liver injury at the 27 Gy and 30 Gy dose levels suggests that a prior clinical trial of adjuvant hepatic irradiation in patients with resected colon cancer may have employed an insufficient radiation dose (21 Gy) to fully test the question

  14. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  15. [Vasovagal syncope as a cause of serious body injury - two case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is a reflex reaction, leading to marked hypotension and/or bradycardia with transient loss of consciousness and the postural muscle tone. The recovery is spontaneous and usually rapid. Serious body injuries caused by fainting are rare. We present two patients with vasovagal syncope which caused serious injury. Different therapeutic options, including pacemaker implantation, are discussed.

  16. Leading causes of injury hospitalisation in children aged 0-4 years in New South Wales by injury submechanism: a brief profile by age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah

    2012-11-01

    To identify the leading causes of injury in children aged 0-4 years by single year of age using injury submechanisms and present a brief epidemiologic profile of each cause. Hospitalisation data for New South Wales from 1999 to 2009 were used to identify the leading causes of injury for children aged 0-4 years by single year of age. For each leading cause, rates over time and by sex were calculated by single year of age. Associated age and sex risk ratios were estimated. The leading causes of injury for children aged leading injury cause exhibited an age pattern that remained stable over time and by sex. Age predicted falls while being carried and both age and sex predicted the remaining leading injury causes, with age and sex interacting to predict burns by hot non-aqueous substances. Epidemiologic analysis using single-year age intervals and injury submechanisms results in a clearer picture of injury risk for young children. The findings of this study provide detailed information regarding the leading causes of hospitalised injury in young children by age and sex. Child health-care providers can use this information to focus discussions of child development and injury risk with families of young children and suggest appropriate prevention measures in terms of a child's age and sex. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Protective effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on the injury associated with hepatic ischaemia reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gregorio Martínez; Rodríguez H, María A; Giuliani, Attilia; Núñez Sellés, Alberto J; Rodríguez, Niurka Pons; León Fernández, Olga Sonia; Re, L

    2003-03-01

    The effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on treatment of injury associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion was tested. Vimang protects from the oxidative damage induced by oxygen-based free radicals as shown in several in vitro test systems conducted. The ability of Vimang to reduce liver damage was investigated in rats undergoing right-lobe blood fl ow occlusion for 45 min followed by 45 min of reperfusion. The ischaemia/reperfusion model leads to an increase of transaminase (ALT and AST), membrane lipid peroxidation, tissue neutrophil in filtration, DNA fragmentation, loss of protein -SH groups, cytosolic Ca2+ overload and a decrease of catalase activity. Oral administration of Vimang (50, 110 and 250 mg/kg, b.w.) 7 days before reperfusion, reduced transaminase levels and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner (p Vimang also restored the cytosolic Ca2+ levels and inhibited polymorphonuclear migration at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w., improved the oxidation of total and non protein sulfhydryl groups and prevented modification in catalase activity, uric acid and lipid peroxidation markers (p Vimang could be a useful new natural drug for preventing oxidative damage during hepatic injury associated with free radical generation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  19. Causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury-a 70-year British study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, G; DeVivo, M J; Frankel, H L; Jamous, M A; Soni, B M; Charlifue, S

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective and prospective observational. Analyse causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) in persons surviving the first year post injury, and establish any trend over time. Two spinal centres in Great Britain. The sample consisted of 5483 patients with tSCI admitted to Stoke Mandeville and Southport spinal centres who were injured between 1943 and 2010, survived first year post injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents. Mortality information, including causes of death, was collected up to 31 December 2014. Age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for selected causes of death, and included trends over time and comparison with the general population. In total, 2322 persons (42.3% of the sample) died, with 2170 (93.5%) having a reliable cause of death established. The most frequent causes of death were respiratory (29.3% of all certified causes), circulatory, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (26.7%), neoplasms (13.9%), urogenital (11.5%), digestive (5.3%) and external causes, including suicides (4.5%). Compared to the general population, age-standardised cause-specific mortality rates were higher for all causes, especially skin, urogenital and respiratory; rates showed improvement over time for suicides, circulatory and urogenital causes, no significant change for neoplasms, and increase for skin and respiratory causes. Leading causes of death after tSCI in persons surviving the first year post injury were respiratory, circulatory, neoplasms and urogenital. Cause-specific mortality rates showed improvement over time for most causes, but were still higher than the general population rates, especially for skin, urinary and respiratory causes.

  20. Severe Hand Injuries Caused by a Mole Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Düzgün

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Injuries by mole guns differ from other firearm injuries primarily because they are close-range, low-energy injuries that are highly contaminated owing to contact with contaminated surfaces and the presence of numerous residual foreign bodies within the wound. The aim of this article is to share our surgical experience regarding the repair of severe hand injuries caused by mole guns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 11 patients with hand injuries. Data obtained about the patients, including age, gender, dominant or non-dominant hand, injuries to all vital structures, and reconstructive procedures were assessed, categorized, and recorded. Results: Ten patients had defects in one or several common digital branches of the median nerve in areas ranging from the distal part of the carpal tunnel to the distal palmar crease. All patients had flexor and extensor tendon injuries in all fingers except for the first finger. Reconstruction of soft tissue and skin defects was carried out with an interpolation flap planned from a random-based subpectoral- paraumbilical region in five patients, a SCIA-based groin flap in four patients, a reverse-radial forearm flap in one patient, and an adipofascial flap planned from the forearm in one patient. Conclusion: Mole gun injuries typically include all structures of the hand, and repair procedures involve every anatomic structure of the hand. An early and effective surgical operation followed by prolonged and effective physical therapy protocols is vital for regaining the full spectrum of hand functions.

  1. Mortality from suicide and other external cause injuries in China: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Xiufang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature death from suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the pattern and risk factors for suicide and other external cause injuries are not well understood. This study investigates mortality from suicide and other injuries and associated risk factors in China. Methods A prospective cohort study of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older was conducted. Mortality due to suicide or other external cause injuries was recorded. Results Mortality from all external causes was 58.7/100,000 (72.3 in men and 44.4 in women: 14.1/100,000 (14.2 in men and 14.2 in women for suicide and 44.6/100,000 (58.1 in men and 30.2 in women for other external cause injuries. Transport accidents (17.2/100,000 overall, 23.4 in men and 10.8 in women, accidental poisoning (7.5/100,000 overall, 10.2 in men and 4.8 in women, and accidental falls (5.7/100,000 overall, 6.5 in men and 5.0 in women were the three leading causes of death from other external cause injuries in China. In the multivariable analysis, male sex (relative risk [RR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.38, age 70 years and older (2.27, 1.29-3.98, living in north China (1.68, 1.20-2.36 and rural residence (2.82, 1.76-4.51 were associated with increased mortality from suicide. Male sex (RR 2.50, 95% CI 1.95-3.20, age 60-69 years (1.93, 1.45-2.58 and 70 years and older (3.58, 2.58-4.97, rural residence (2.29, 1.77-2.96, and having no education (1.56, 1.00-2.43 were associated with increased mortality from other external cause injuries, while overweight (0.60, 0.43-0.83 was associated with decreased risk of mortality from other external cause injuries. Conclusions External cause mortality has become a major public health problem in China. Developing an integrated national program for the prevention of mortality due to external cause injuries in China is warranted.

  2. Evaluation of hepatic blood flow using 99mTc-GSA in rats with hepatic blood flow manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraguchi, Etsuo

    1995-01-01

    Blood clearance and hepatic uptake parameters of 99m Tc-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) were evaluated in two groups of rats, normal liver group and CCl 4 induced chronic liver injury group. In each group, four subgroups were classified as follows: simple laparotomy (LAP), hepatic artery ligation (HAL), portal vein ligation (PVL) and both hepatic artery and portal vein ligation (HAL+PVL). 99m Tc-GSA was intravenously injected (50 μg/100 g B.W.) to rats. Heart and liver were targetted as region of interest and time activity curves (TACs) were obtained. The blood clearance parameters (HH4 and Kd) and the hepatic uptake parameters (LHL4 and Ku) were calculated from these TACs. In normal liver group, the mean HH4 of LAP was significantly different from those of PVL and HAL+PVL. Similarly, the other three parameters (LHL4, Kd and Ku) of LAP were significantly different from those of PVL and HAL+PVL. CCl 4 induced chronic liver injury group showed significant difference on all four parameters in four subgroups. Hepatic tissue blood flow rates (HTBFR) calculated by Laser Doppler flowmeter correlated well with 99m Tc-GSA parameters in both groups. These results suggest that 99m Tc-GSA is useful to estimate hepatic blood flow not only in rats with normal liver, but also in rats with CCl 4 induced chronic liver injury. (author)

  3. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  4. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  5. Hepatic trauma: CT findings and considerations based on our experience in emergency diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luigia; Giovine, Sabrina; Guidi, Guido; Tortora, Giovanni; Cinque, Teresa; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it

    2004-04-01

    Abdominal blunt trauma represents the main cause of death in people of age less than 40 years; the liver injury occurs frequently, with an incidence varying from 3 to 10%. Isolated hepatic lesions are rare and in 77-90% of cases, lesions of other organs and viscera are involved. Right hepatic lobe is a frequent site of injury, because it is the more voluminous portion of liver parenchyma; posterior superior hepatic segments are proximal to fixed anatomical structures such as ribs and spine that may have an important role in determining of the lesion. The coronal ligaments' insertion in this parenchymal region augments the effect of acceleration-deceleration mechanism. Associated lesions usually are homolateral costal fractures, laceration or contusion of the inferior right pulmonary lobe, haemothorax, pneumothorax, renal and/or adrenal lesions. Traumatic lesions of left hepatic lobe are rare and usually associated with direct impact on the superior abdomen, such as in car-crash when the wheel causes a compressive effect on thorax and abdomen. Associated lesions to left hepatic lobe injuries correlated to this mechanism are: sternal fractures, pancreatic, myocardial, gastrointestinal tract injuries. Lesions of the caudal lobe are extremely rare, usually not isolated and noted with other large parenchymal lesions. The Institution of Specialized Trauma Centers and the technical progress in imaging methodology developed in the last years a great reduction of mortality. New diagnostic methodologies allow a reduction of negatives laparotomies and allow the possibility of conservative treatment of numerous traumatic lesions; however, therapy depends from imaging findings and clinical conditions of the patient. Computed tomography (CT) certainly presents a large impact on diagnosis and management of patients with lesions from blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to establish a prognostic criteria allowing decisions for conservative or surgical treatment; CT

  6. A rare cause of drug-induced hepatitis in an immunocompromised patient and the role of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadhi, Viplove; Arora, Deepika; Arora, Manish; Marsh, Franklin

    2012-08-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a warning on numerous herbal drugs, including many popular products at General Nutrition Centers (GNC), regarding unstudied hepatotoxicity. There have been recent reports of GNC products such as hydroxycut and herbalife, causing drug-induced hepatitis. Herbal medications are over-the-counter products and are not investigated thoroughly by the FDA. Given that the most common outpatient laboratory abnormality is elevated liver transaminases, a sign of hepatocellular toxicity; it is not surprising that some of these products end up causing hepatic dysfunction, especially when taken in large volume. There are numerous herbal supplements that are hepatotoxic, however, these medications have a much more significant effect in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients, which is secondary to depleted glutathione. We present a rare case of drug induced hepatitis secondary to herbal medications used to treat HIV and elucidate the role of glutathione depletion in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  8. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  10. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  11. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  12. The role of the hemostatic system in murine liver injury induced by coexposure to lipopolysaccharide and trovafloxacin, a drug with idiosyncratic liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Patrick J.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Scott, Michael A.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was severely restricted in 1999 due to its association with idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Previously, we reported that a nontoxic dose of TVX interacts with a nontoxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to cause robust hepatocellular injury in mice. This interaction with LPS was not seen in mice treated with levofloxacin (LVX), a fluoroquinolone not associated with hepatotoxicity in people. TVX/LPS-coexposure caused an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity as early as 4.5 h after LPS administration which progressed through 15 h. We examined the role of the hemostatic system in TVX/LPS-induced liver injury. At the onset of liver injury, coexposure to TVX/LPS, but not exposure to TVX, LVX, LPS or LVX/LPS, caused increased plasma concentration of thrombin-antithrombin dimers and decreased plasma circulating fibrinogen. LPS treatment induced a small increase in plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration, and TVX pretreatment enhanced this effect. TVX/LPS coexposure also resulted in hepatic fibrin deposition. Anticoagulant heparin administration reduced TVX/LPS-induced hepatic fibrin deposition and liver injury. PAI-1 -/- mice treated with TVX/LPS exhibited similar fibrin deposition to wild-type mice but had significantly reduced hepatocellular injury. PAI-1 -/- mice, but not heparin-treated mice, had reduced plasma concentrations of several cytokines compared to TVX/LPS-treated controls. In summary, TVX/LPS-coexposure caused an imbalance in the hemostatic system, resulting in thrombin activation increased, plasma concentration of PAI-1 and hepatic fibrin deposition. Both thrombin activation and PAI-1 play critical roles in the progression of TVX/LPS-induced liver injury, but through different modes of action.

  13. Politrauma as a cause of raquimedular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, Erick; Pinos, Angel; Mayorga Patricio; Torres, Neira

    2005-01-01

    The raquimedular injury constitutes an important chapter inside the Neurotraumatology, due to its frequent association in the politrauma it forms part of and to the serious consequences that it causes. The collection of data for this is taken from the patient's medical histories: age, causes, associated wounds, the surgical procedure carried out, and the results obtained are taken into consideration. The backbone is divided in various segments with the purpose of classifying the wound as well as to appreciate the treatment performed in each case. The Frankel scale that's reports the neurological commitment in this type of wound is utilized in the initial appraisal and in the monitoring of the patient. Of the total of cases (n=55), the most frequent age of presentation was in the rank from 30 to 60 years old, with 35 cases (63%) free falls and traffic accidents are registered as the most frequent causes with 36 cases (65%), and 11 cases (20%) respectively, the raquideo level most affected is found in the lower cervical column with 20 cases (36.3%) and the hinge toracolumbar with 22 cases (40%). We found 17 cases (30.9) in the degree A of the Frankel scale, and of these, 12 cases (21%) corresponds to cervical injury. Imaging studies, computer tomography CT and magnetic nuclear resonance MRI were used. (The author)

  14. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: causes, clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Luck, N.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes, characteristics and predictors of mortality in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Hepatogastroenterology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from July 2014 to June 2016. Methodology:All patients with acute-on-chronic liver disease (ACLD) with ages > 12 were included. Patients with ACLF, as defined by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of Liver (APASL, 2014) were identified. Predictors of mortality were identified using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Results: Included in the study were 72 patients with mean age of 36.71 years, 46 (63.9%) being males. Among them, 61 developed ACLF. Commonest causes of chronic liver disease (CLD) were chronic viral hepatitis (37, 51.4%) and autoimmune hepatitis (14, 19.4%). Commonest causes of acute liver injury (ALI) were acute viral hepatitis (24, 33.3%) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) (17, 23.6%). Among those with ACLF, 24 (39.3%) patients died with median survival of 17.1 +-13.5 days. Mortality was significantly associated with Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) score =>13 (p=0.010), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score =>30 (p=0.001), age >40 years (p=0.036), organ failures (OF) =>3 (p 3, CTP =>13, MELD =>30, age >40 years, PSE, renal failure and urosepsis. (author)

  15. The utility of CT for predicting bile leaks in hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Mercier, Gustavo; Kussman, Steven; Coleman, Stephanie L; Golden, Louis; Penn, David R; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Soto, Jorge A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of CT to predict the development of bile leaks in hepatic trauma. This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was IRB approved and consent was waived. All patients who sustained hepatic trauma between January 1, 2006, and January 31, 2012, and who underwent CT and hepatobiliary scans during the same hospital admission were included. One hundred and thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Comparison between the presence of biliary injury relative to American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) hepatic injury grade and mean distance of the hepatic laceration to the inferior vena cava (IVC) was made. The ability of free fluid to predict bile injury was analyzed. Forty-one (31 %) of the 132 patients had positive hepatobiliary scans. Of these 41 patients, seven (17 %) sustained low-grade and 34 (83 %) sustained high-grade hepatic injury compared with the 37 (41 %) low-grade and 54 (59 %) high-grade hepatic injuries in the negative hepatobiliary scan group. The mean distance to the IVC was 2.4 cm (SD 2.9 cm) and 3.6 cm (SD 3.3 cm) in patients with and without bile leaks, respectively. A statistically significant difference in the proportion of high-grade injuries and the mean distance from the IVC between the two groups was identified. The presence of free fluid on CT is sensitive, but not specific, for detecting a bile leak. CT findings, including AAST liver injury grade and location of the liver laceration, are able to predict which patients are at risk for developing bile leaks as seen on hepatobiliary scintigraphy, whereas the presence of free fluid is not.

  16. [Medical care of injuries caused intentionally by domestic violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar-Medina, Martha; Flores-Regata, Lilí; Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Blanco, Julia

    2003-01-01

    To describe and analyze the causes of emergency care services for intentional injuries, especially those caused by domestic violence, at four public hospitals in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 1998, which included variables related with the victim, the aggressor, and the medical care provided to the victim. A questionnaire was applied to individuals who had been injured intentionally. Statistical analysis of data consisted of simple frequencies, the chi 2 test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A logistic regression model was also used to adjust for variables associated with the injury requiring emergency medical care. A total of 598 cases of intentional injuries were analyzed, 16% of which were due to domestic violence. Females were the most frequent victims (76%), followed by young people between 15 and 29 years old (46%). Variables associated with medical care due to injuries by domestic violence were: age 30 or older (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.13-4.90), female gender (OR 8.60 95% CI 4.25-17.40), history of injuries (OR 4.93 95% CI 2.03-11.95), home as place of occurrence (OR 36.25 95% CI 16.59-79.18), and low education level (OR 2.33 95% CI 1.03-5.26). Study findings are consistent with those from other studies and call for enforcement of the Mexican Official Norm for Medical Care of Domestic Violence (Norma Oficial Mexicana para la Atención Médica de la Violencia Familiar) established in March 2000.

  17. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (paccidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (paccidents (9.3%,paccidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was characteristic of bicycle accidents, and significantly more common in car and motorcycle accidents. The results also indicate that it is important to consider the

  18. Orlistat-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, D; Wang, J; Rashkin, M; Welch, M; Droege, C; Schauer, D

    2014-12-01

    Orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and has been shown to be superior to placebo in achieving weight loss. It is generally well tolerated. However, severe liver injury has been reported. We present a case of hepatic failure in a patient taking orlistat. A 54-year-old African-American woman with hypertension presented with hepatic failure. She had noticed increasing fatigue, jaundice and confusion. She used alcohol sparingly and denied tobacco or illicit drug use, but had been taking over-the-counter orlistat for the past two months. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus, jaundice, asterixis and slow speech. Laboratory testing showed markedly abnormal liver function tests with coagulopathy. Acute viral and autoimmune serologies were negative, as was toxicology screen. Liver biopsy showed necrotic hepatic parenchyma likely secondary to drug toxicity. Based upon her clinical presentation and time course, the pattern of liver injury seen on liver biopsy and lack of an alternative plausible explanation, her liver failure was most likely associated with orlistat use. She continued to deteriorate and ultimately underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Fourteen cases of severe liver injury associated with orlistat use have been reported, four of which are detailed in the literature. This is the second published case of liver failure associated with over-the-counter orlistat usage. Clinicians should be aware of the growing number of cases associating liver injury and orlistat use and carefully monitor their patients on this medication for signs of hepatic dysfunction. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  19. Localized fluid collection of hepatic bare area in children with blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Gi; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ok Hwa [School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and significance of localized fluid collection in the hepatic bare area resulting from blunt abdominal trauma in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans and medical records of eighty children with blunt abdominal trauma and evaluated the incidence of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. The findings were correlated with the presence of injury to adjacent organs. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area was noted in 23 of 80 patients (28.7%). Associated organ injuries included liver laceration (17/23), contusion of the right hemidiaphragm (7/23), right adrenal injury (5/23), and right renal injury (5/23). In one patient, organic injury was not detected in spite of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. Eight of 23 patients (34.8%) showed fluid collection in this area, but not intraperitoneally. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area after blunt abdominal trauma was noted in about 30% of patients and was frequently accompanied by injury to adjacent organs. Since right hemidiaphragmatic contusion associated with fluid collection in the bare area was not a uncommon CT finding, close observation of the condition is warranted. (author)

  20. Localized fluid collection of hepatic bare area in children with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Gi; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ok Hwa

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and significance of localized fluid collection in the hepatic bare area resulting from blunt abdominal trauma in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans and medical records of eighty children with blunt abdominal trauma and evaluated the incidence of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. The findings were correlated with the presence of injury to adjacent organs. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area was noted in 23 of 80 patients (28.7%). Associated organ injuries included liver laceration (17/23), contusion of the right hemidiaphragm (7/23), right adrenal injury (5/23), and right renal injury (5/23). In one patient, organic injury was not detected in spite of fluid collection in the hepatic bare area. Eight of 23 patients (34.8%) showed fluid collection in this area, but not intraperitoneally. Fluid collection in the hepatic bare area after blunt abdominal trauma was noted in about 30% of patients and was frequently accompanied by injury to adjacent organs. Since right hemidiaphragmatic contusion associated with fluid collection in the bare area was not a uncommon CT finding, close observation of the condition is warranted. (author)

  1. A Rare Cause of Acute Kidney Injury in a Female Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting as Renal Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Jurubita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis, but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient’s complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases.

  2. Two Rare Causes of Hepatitis: Fascioliasis and Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur ÖNAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis and fascioliasis are zoonoses which induce different type of cell-mediated immune responses and rarely cause hepatitis with together. Brucellosis induces T helper type 1 (Th1 immune response whereas Fasciola hepatica induces T helper type 2 (Th2 immune. It may be speculated that chronic fascioliasis can predispose to brucellosis by suppression of Th1 response against brucellosis. In this paper, we present a patient who was diagnosed with brucellosis as well as chronic fasciolasis on the basis of parasite that was seen incidentally during the abdomen ultrasonography. To our knowledge, this case is one of the few cases in the literature that showing the co-infection of the liver by both fascioliasis and brucellosis.

  3. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  4. Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4: A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffar, Samir; Shalimar; Kaur, Ravinder J; Wang, Zhen; Prokop, Larry J; Murad, Mohammad H; Bazerbachi, Fateh

    2018-04-19

    Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4 has been rarely described. Because of the presence of a short golden therapeutic window in patients with viral acute liver failure from other causes, it is possible that early recognition and treatment might reduce the morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review and pooled analysis of acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4. Two reviewers appraised studies after searching multiple databases on June 12th, 2017. Appropriate tests were used to compare hepatitis E virus genotype 3 vs 4, suspected vs confirmed genotypes, hepatitis E virus-RNA positive vs negative, and to discern important mortality risk factors. We identified 65 patients, with median age 58 years (range: 3-79), and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The median bilirubin, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase (expressed by multiplication of the upper limit of normal) levels were 14.8, 45.3, 34.8 and 1.63 respectively. Antihepatitis E virus IgG, antihepatitis E virus IgM and hepatitis E virus-RNA were positive in 84%, 91% and 86% of patients respectively. The median interval from symptoms onset to acute liver failure was 23 days, and 16 patients underwent liver transplantation. Final outcome was reported in 58 patients and mortality was 46%. Age was a predictor of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. No important differences were found between patients infected with genotype 3 vs 4, patients with confirmed vs suspected genotypes, or patients with positive vs negative RNA. Acute liver failure caused by hepatitis E virus genotype 3 and 4 is rare, similar between genotypes, occurs commonly in middle-aged/elderly patients and has a very high mortality. Age is predictive of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Computed tomographic diagnosis of the blunt hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Funaki, Hiromi; Kanno, Seiichi; Ushitani, Kenji; Tabuchi, Makoto.

    1982-01-01

    In this report, the CT appearances of three cases of the blunt hepatic trauma are presented. The hepatic hematomas are displayed as the poorly demarcated, uneven low density area on plain CT. Post-contrast study makes their margin more clearly. The intrapertioneal hemorrhage is shown as a fluid collection around the liver and/or spleen. As CT is non-invasively and quickly performed, it is useful for the evaluation of the hepatic injury in emergency. The concomitant other organ injuries may be accurately detected by CT. The follow-up study is useful for estimating the therapeutic effect and considering the treatment plan. (author)

  6. CAUSES OF INJURIES AT THREE LEVELS IN COMPETITIVE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinku Kumar Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with comparison of causes of injuries among three groups of competitive footballers. Accordingly three groups of footballers were targeted. International, National and State groups footballers aged between 14 to 30 years. The data was collected with the help of questionnaires prepared by Cromwell, F.J. Walsh Gromley for Elite Gaelic footballers (2000 and it was modified by the investigator and utilized. In this study total 300 hundred players were targeted ; of which 100 footballers of each group. Total 318 injuries out of 300 hundred footballers were found out over the one year period; 125 injuries out of 84 footballers were found in international group footballers. 108 injuries out of 82 footballers were found in national group and 85 injuries out of 78 footballers were found in State group. The mean (SDs age of International group to State group footballers were 21.25 (7.08, 23.33 (7.78 and 19.91 (6.29 in years respectively. Their weight were 58.35 (18.45, 58.23 (19.01, and 53.99 (17.33 kg. respectively, their height were 167.33 (55.33, 166.09 (55.10 and 164.87 (54.66 cm. respectively, their training were 4.61 (1.47, 4.31 (1.43, and 4.10 (1.33 days in a week respectively, their training durations were 2.74 (.58, 2.34 (.78, and 1.99 (.66 hours respectively, their warm-up were 28.53 (9.33, 36.05 (11.05 and 22.8 (7.8 minutes respectively, and competition was 8.67 (2.81, 8.68 (2.78, and 6.58 (2.11 in one year respectively. The results revealed that only significant difference of occurrence of injuries was found (F=3.65, P <.05 in foul play. International group footballers were found to have got more occurrences of injuries as compared to the state group footballers. The study suggest that their was no fair play at high level competition. However, no significant difference of occurrence of injuries were observed among three groups of competitive footballers with respect to causes like collision, running, contact with ball

  7. Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) presenting as subfulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Z; Broida, E; Monselise, Y; Kazatsker, A; Baruch, J; Pappo, O; Skappa, E; Tur-Kaspa, R

    2000-03-01

    Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in adults is a rare event. The diagnosis of GCH is based on findings of syncytial giant hepatocytes. It is commonly associated with either viral infection or autoimmune hepatitis type I. A patient with GCH due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) is described, a combination that has not been previously reported. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in decreasing serum liver enzymes; however, the patient deteriorated rapidly and developed subfulminant hepatic failure. Although an emergency orthotopic liver transplantation was performed, the patient died because of reperfusion injury. Interestingly, only a few giant hepatocytes were noted in the explanted liver. This case stresses the association of GCH with autoimmune disorders, the possible immune mechanism involved in the formation of giant cell hepatocytes, and illustrates the rapidly progressive course and unfavorable prognosis that these patients can develop.

  8. Guillain-Barre syndrome caused by hepatitis E infection: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoqin; Yu, Liang; Xu, Qiaomai; Gu, Silan; Tang, Lingling

    2018-01-23

    Hepatitis E infection is a global disorder that causes substantial morbidity. Numerous neurologic illnesses, including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), have occurred in patients with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We report a 58 year-old non-immunocompromised man who presented with progressive muscle weakness in all extremities during an episode of acute HEV infection, which was confirmed by measuring the anti-HEV IgM antibodies in the serum. Both cerebrospinal fluid examination and electrophysiological study were in agreement with the diagnosis of HEV-associated GBS. Following the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's neurological condition improved rapidly. HEV infection should be strongly considered in patients with neurological symptoms, especially those with elevated levels of liver enzymes.

  9. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Da-Gang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing; Chen, Xi; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl 4 (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl 4 + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl 4 . As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl 4 -induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl 4 -induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl 4 -induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl 4 -induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.

  10. Obeticholic acid protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da-Gang [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Zhang, Cheng [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Wang, Jun-Xian [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Wang, Bi-Wei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Chen, Yuan-Hua [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Lu, Yan; Tao, Li; Wang, Jian-Qing [Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Xi [First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022 (China); Xu, De-Xiang, E-mail: xudex@126.com [Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China)

    2017-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in regulating bile acid homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced acute liver injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl{sub 4} (0.15 ml/kg). In CCl{sub 4} + OCA group, mice were orally with OCA (5 mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1 h before CCl{sub 4}. As expected, hepatic FXR was activated by OCA. Interestingly, OCA pretreatment alleviated CCl{sub 4}-induced elevation of serum ALT and hepatic necrosis. Moreover, OCA pretreatment inhibited CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Additional experiment showed that OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic chemokine gene Mcp-1, Mip-2 and Kc. Moreover, OCA inhibits CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory gene Tnf-α and Il-1β. By contrast, OCA pretreatment elevated hepatic anti-inflammatory gene Il-4. Further analysis showed that OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic IκB phosphorylation and blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits during CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. In addition, OCA pretreatment inhibited hepatic Akt, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. These results suggest that OCA protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury and inflammation. Synthetic FXR agonists may be effective antidotes for hepatic inflammation during acute liver injury. - Highlights: • OCA pretreatment activates hepatic FXR. • FXR activation protects against CCl{sub 4}-induced acute liver injury. • FXR activation inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis during CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury. • FXR activation differentially regulates hepatic inflammatory genes. • Synthetic FXR agonists are effective antidotes for acute liver injury.

  11. Breath pentane as a potential biomarker for survival in hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury--a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exhaled pentane, which is produced as a consequence of reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation, is a marker of oxidative stress. Propofol is widely used as a hypnotic agent in intensive care units and the operating room. Moreover, this agent has been reported to inhibit lipid peroxidation by directly scavenging reactive oxygen species. In this study, using a porcine liver ischemia-reperfusion injury model, we have evaluated the hypothesis that high concentrations of breath pentane are related to adverse outcome and that propofol could reduce breath pentane and improve liver injury and outcome in swine in this situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty male swine were assigned to two groups: propofol (n = 10 and chloral hydrate groups (n = 10. Hepatic ischemia was induced by occluding the portal inflow vessels. Ischemia lasted for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 360 min. Exhaled and blood pentane concentrations in the chloral hydrate group markedly increased 1 min after reperfusion and then decreased to baseline. Breath and blood pentane concentrations in the propofol group increased 1 min after reperfusion but were significantly lower than in the chloral hydrate group. A negative correlation was found between breath pentane levels and survival in the chloral hydrate group. The median overall survival was 251 min after reperfusion (range 150-360 min in the chloral hydrate group. All of the swine were alive in the propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of exhaled pentane may be useful for evaluating the severity of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and aid in predicting the outcome; propofol may improve the outcome in this situation.

  12. The protective role of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthases in whole-body hyperthermia-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Fuh; Wang, David; Leu, Fur-Jiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the role of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS)-derived NO and heat-shock protein (Hsp70) in a rat model of whole-body hyperthermia (WBH)-induced liver injury. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to observe the mRNA and protein expression of eNOS, iNOS and Hsp70. Rats were exposed to hyperthermia by immersion for 60 min at a conscious state in a water bath maintained at 41°C. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were used to assess liver injury 15 h after the hyperthermia challenge. Nitrosative and oxidative mediators, particularly NO and hydroxyl radical were measured. Plasma AST, ALT, hydroxyl radical, and NO were significantly increased after WBH. There were 4.14 ± 0.42, 2.82 ± 0.34 and 2.91 ± 0.16-fold increases in the mRNA expression of eNOS, iNOS and Hsp70. Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed up-regulation of eNOS, iNOS and Hsp70 protein. An eNOS inhibitor (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)), or an iNOS inhibitor (aminoguanidine (AG)), significantly aggravated the liver injury. On the contrary, administration of NO precursor, L-arginine (L-ARG), attenuated the liver injury. Hsp70 inhibitor quercetin reduced Hsp70, while aggravating the WBH-induced hepatic changes. WBH induces increases in eNOS, iNOS and Hsp70 expression with increase in NO release. The deleterious effects of L-NAME and AG and the protective effects of L-ARG and Hsp70 inhibitor on the liver function and pathology suggest that NO and heat shock protein play a beneficial role in the WBH-induced hepatic injury.

  13. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  14. [Causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Carolina; Paravic, Tatiana; Valenzuela, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Objective To describe the causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events as identified in the international literature and by key informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Methods The study uses a qualitative descriptive approach. This includes a systematized literature review that follows the SALSA method (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) and is in line with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). In addition, interviews were conducted with informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Results The leading causes of underreporting of occupational injuries as described in the literature and by key informants were economic factors and ignorance. With regard to adverse events, the principal causes indicated were fear of sanctions, limited support provided by the authorities, lack of knowledge, and excessive workload. Conclusions It is important to continue working to strengthen the reporting of occupational injuries and adverse events and to implement measures aimed at minimizing factors that appear to be the leading causes of underreporting. In the case of occupational injuries, this means making sure that economic factors are not an impediment but rather an incentive to reporting. With respect to adverse events, steps should be taken to eliminate the fear of sanctions and to develop recommendations, focusing more on systemic improvements than on individuals, to promote joint learning. In both cases it will be necessary to combat ignorance through continuous, systematic training and support.

  15. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  16. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  17. A Challenge for Diagnosing Acute Liver Injury with Concomitant/Sequential Exposure to Multiple Drugs: Can Causality Assessment Scales Be Utilized to Identify the Offending Drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hepatotoxicity most commonly manifests as an acute hepatitis syndrome and remains the leading cause of drug-induced death/mortality and the primary reason for withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. We report a case of acute liver injury in a 12-year-old Hispanic boy, who received a series of five antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and clindamycin for cervical lymphadenitis/retropharyngeal cellulitis. Histopathology of the liver biopsy specimen revealed acute cholestatic hepatitis. All known causes of acute liver injury were appropriately excluded and (only drug-induced liver injury was left as a cause of his cholestasis. Liver-specific causality assessment scales such as Council for the International Organization of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scoring system (CIOMS/RUCAM, Maria and Victorino scale, and Digestive Disease Week-Japan were applied to seek the most likely offending drug. Although clindamycin is the most likely cause by clinical diagnosis, none of causality assessment scales aid in the diagnosis.

  18. Interleukin-1 inhibition facilitates recovery from liver injury and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Petrasek, Jan; Gyogyosi, Benedek; Bala, Shashi; Csak, Timea; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration contribute to liver failure in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key inflammatory cytokine in the pathobiology of AH. The role of IL-1 in liver regeneration in the recovery phase of alcohol-induced liver injury is unknown. In this study, we tested IL-1 receptor antagonist to block IL-1 signalling in a mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury on liver inflammation and hepatocyte regeneration in AH. We observed that inhibition of IL-1 signalling decreased liver inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and resulted in enhanced regeneration of hepatocytes and increased rate of recovery from liver injury in AH. Our novel findings suggest that IL-1 drives sustained liver inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration even after cessation of ethanol exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Brief Introduction to Hepatitis B for Parents of Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief Introduction to Hepatitis B for Parents of Adopted Children by Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, MD What is hepatitis B? ... injury will also need careful medical management. In short, prospective par- ents of children with hepatitis B ...

  20. Fascioliasis-a rare cause of hepatic nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temido, Helena; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Parente, Francisco; Santos, Lèlita

    2017-05-31

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease that can sometimes affect humans. It presents with non-specific signs and symptoms which makes it difficult to establish an early definitive diagnosis. This can be particularly true in non-endemic countries where a high degree of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. Another confounding factor is that many of the initial complains and findings are very similar to those of malignancy. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 47 year-old male presenting with abdominal pain, night-time sweating, anorexia, weight loss and loose stools that had several hepatic nodules visible in the abdominal CT scan. Although the initial hypothesis was hepatic malignancy or liver metastasis of unknown primary neoplasm, the workup performed led us to the correct diagnosis. He was treated successfully for hepatic fascioliasis, with a full recovery. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Hepatic changes caused by exposure to telecobalt rays as detected by scintigraphy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, I.

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic scintiscans obtained in a cohort of 111 patients subjected to partial irradiation of the liver using telecobalt showed low density spots for 53 of those individuals. Comparative assessments in a control group proved the liver's accumulation behaviour to be totally unrelated to factors like age, sex and dose administered. The liver is only to a very limited extent capable of recovering from radiation damage that is severe enough to be detected by scintigraphy or computed tomography. In the group examined here, spontaneous recovery was seen in no more than 7.5% of cases. Long-term plotting of the hepatic radioactivity levels seen in scintigrammes showed these to be reduced for periods of up to nine years. Such pathological changes were already observed at radiation levels as low as 12 Gy, even though a definite dose-dependency of defective accumulation, as shown by scintigraphy or computed tomography, could not be established. Particular mention should here be made of the fact that the losses of activity seen in hepatic scintiscans were not necessarily confirmed by pathological findings revealed at the same time on the basis of computed tomography. Liver function tests in the serum permitted no links to be established between the occurrence of low density spots in the scintiscans or tomograms and typical enzyme patterns that may be interpreted as being suggestive of radiation injury. (orig.) [de

  2. A case of perforating injury of eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perforating globe injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness and vision loss. A 58-year-old male was injured by acupuncture needle during acupuncture treatment for his cerebral infarction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of perforating injury of the eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture. The patient was hospitalized due to diagnosis of perforating ocular injury, traumatic cataract, and corneal and iris perforating injury. Moreover, he had to accept treatments of phacoemulsification, anterior vitrectomy along with intraocular lens implantation in the sulcus to improve his visual acuity. As acupuncture therapy has been widely performed for various diseases and achieved highly approval, the aim of this report is to remind acupuncturists operating accurately to avoid unnecessary injury during the treatment process, or the cure can also become the weapon.

  3. A case of perforating injury of eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Han; Yichun, Kong

    2016-04-01

    Perforating globe injury is the leading cause of monocular blindness and vision loss. A 58-year-old male was injured by acupuncture needle during acupuncture treatment for his cerebral infarction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of perforating injury of the eyeball and traumatic cataract caused by acupuncture. The patient was hospitalized due to diagnosis of perforating ocular injury, traumatic cataract, and corneal and iris perforating injury. Moreover, he had to accept treatments of phacoemulsification, anterior vitrectomy along with intraocular lens implantation in the sulcus to improve his visual acuity. As acupuncture therapy has been widely performed for various diseases and achieved highly approval, the aim of this report is to remind acupuncturists operating accurately to avoid unnecessary injury during the treatment process, or the cure can also become the weapon.

  4. Motorcycle accident is the main cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hasnah; Iqbal, Syed

    2011-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are among the commonest forms of body injuries. There are three divisions, namely, facial bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, and dentoalveolar injuries. Etiologies include motor vehicle accidents, assaults, falls, and sporting injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the profiles including the causes of maxillofacial injuries seen in an urban government hospital in the mainland of Penang State, Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study that recruited cases reported within a period of 1 year. The source population was maxillofacial injury patients presenting to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of an urban hospital in the Penang Mainland, North Malaysia between May 2007 and May 2008. Cases of patients involved in accidents that occurred outside the reference vicinity were excluded. A case report form was developed and completed by the attending clinicians. Data were analyzed using spss version 12.0. A total of 194 cases were studied, with the mean patient age being 27.8 (SD 15.20) years. The majority of patients were Malay men between 20 and 29 years of age. The main cause of injury was motorcycle accident (53.6%). The commonest injury (in isolation/combination with other injuries) involved the soft tissues (87.2%), dentoalveolar region (33.4%), and facial bones (23.9%). Laceration was the commonest soft tissue injury, and crown fracture was the most frequent dentoalveolar injury. The facial bone that was most highly involved in the injury was the zygoma. Subjects involved in motorcycle accidents had a significantly higher incidence of sustaining facial bone fractures. Motorcycle accidents were the commonest cause of maxillofacial injuries in the Penang Mainland, Malaysia. Most patients were young men. Hence, it is prudent to reinforce appropriate road safety and awareness interventions particularly focusing young male motorcyclists so as to reduce the risk of accidents. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  6. [Historical consideration of the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus in Japan and use of a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Haruko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    About 75% of Japanese liver cancer is caused by hepatitis C. Widespread infection of the virus resulted from inadequate medical knowledge, as well as the political, economic and administrative conditions of the time. We investigated the association between the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and the historical events. We used a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause of widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and considered the issue from a historical standpoint. We found causes including treatment (medical care), transfusion (medicine), economy (expense) and people (infection route). These causes are explained in further detail below. 1) Treatment (medical care). The initial large-scale infection occurred following attempts to eradicate Schistosoma japonicum involving mass vaccination in schools and public health centers. 2) Transfusion (medicine). The use of non-heated fibrinogen for massive postpartum hemorrhage spread the virus further. In 1987, it resulted in a mass outbreak of hepatitis in Aomori Prefecture. 3) Economy (expense). Recognition of the benefit of disposable syringes was delayed. As a result, disposable syringes were too expensive to be widely available, and did not become low-priced. 4) People (infection route). The second wave of dissemination of the hepatitis C virus was stimulant abuse after World War II. Prior to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus, transmission resulted from repeated use of contaminated syringes. Although we initially thought that these four causes occurred independently on a historical chronology, associations between the causes were found when we investigated the problem with a fishbone diagram.

  7. Massive hemobilia due to hepatic arteriobiliary fistula during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancretography: An extremely rare guidewir-related complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jeong Gu; Seo, Young Woo; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Weon, Young Cheol; Kang, Byeong Seong; Bang, Sung Jo; Bang, Min Seo [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an effective modality for diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases, the risk for procedure-related complications is high. Hemorrhage is one of major complications of ERCP. Most ERCP-associated bleeding is primarily a complication related to sphincterotomy rather than diagnostic ERCP. We are reporting a case of massive hemobilia due to hepatic arteriobiliary fistula caused by guidewire-associated injury during ERCP, which was successfully treated with transarterial embolization of the hepatic artery.

  8. Hepatic enzyme decline after pediatric blunt trauma: a tool for timing child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L; Lindberg, Daniel M; Burke, Bonnie L; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F

    2008-09-01

    Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern could indicate a developing complication. Retrospective review of pediatric patients with injuries including blunt liver trauma admitted to one of four urban level 1 trauma centers from 1990 to 2000. Cases were excluded for shock, death within 48 h, complications, or inability to determine injury time. Transaminase concentration decline was modeled by individual patients, by injury grade, and as a ratio with regard to injury time. One hundred and seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) clearance changed significantly over time. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell more slowly. Of the 118 patients who had multiple measurements of AST, for 112 (95%) the first concentration obtained was the highest. When ALT was greater than AST, the injury was older than 12h (97% specificity (95% CI, 95-99%), sensitivity 42% (95% CI, 33-50%)). Patients with enzymes that rose after 14 h post-injury were more likely to develop complications (RR=24, 95% CI 10-58). Hepatic transaminases rise rapidly after uncomplicated blunt liver injury, then fall predictably. Persistently stable or increasing concentrations may indicate complications. ALT>AST indicates subacute injury.

  9. Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, K.E.; Sivit, C.J.; Sachs, P.B.; Stallion, A.

    1999-01-01

    We report a child who developed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt hepatic injury. This is a rare complication of hepatic trauma in children. The imaging evaluation and clinical management of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are presented. (orig.)

  10. Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin; Clapperton, Angela; Macpherson, Alison; Sleet, David; Newton, Donovan; Murdoch, James; Mackay, J Morag; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Wilkins, Natalie; Marr, Angela; Ballesteros, Michael; McClure, Roderick

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States. Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution. US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000-2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014. Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.

  11. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  12. Hyperbilirubinemia and rapid fatal hepatic failure in severe combined immunodeficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, J S; Schwarz, K; Münch, A; Schmugge, M; Pekrun, A; Meisel, C; Wahn, V; Ebell, W; von Bernuth, H

    2011-03-01

    Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  14. Road safety in Poland: magnitude, causes and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Witold; Fiedor, Piotr; Lasota, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are a serious problem of the modern world. They are one of the main causes of injuries and are the third most frequent cause of death. Every year, about one million people, adults and children, die on the roads and several millions get injured. Mortality rate due to injuries from road accidents amounts to 2.2% of all deaths in the world. The research presents epidemiology of road accidents in the period 2004-2015 with particular emphasis on the key issues of road safety in Poland, related to the dangerous behaviour of road users (disregard toward traffic rules). Between years 2004 and 2015 on Polish roads took place more than 508000 accidents with 53155 fatalities and more then 572000 casualties. Despite the various measures which are taken to improve safety on Polish roads, the number of dead and wounded in the vehicle mishap is still large, and losses borne by society are high. To improve safety on Polish roads, it is necessary to continue multi- action plan to systematically progress in the level of road safety.

  15. Clinical Features and Transmission Pattern of Hepatitis A: An Experience from a Hepatitis A Outbreak Caused by Two Cocirculating Genotypes in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, Niroshana J.; Kiyohara, Tomoko; Agampodi, Suneth B.; Samaraweera, Pradeep K.; Kulasooriya, Gayani K.; Ranasinghe, Jagath C.; Semage, Saveen N.; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is one of the intermediate-endemic areas for hepatitis A virus (HAV), and concerns exist about the increasing HAV-susceptible population. In fact, Sri Lanka recorded a large hepatitis outbreak, possibly hepatitis A, around the end of the Sri Lankan war. It included more than 14,000 patients consisting of local residents, internally displaced personnel, and military personnel in the main combat zone. The outbreak had slowed down by October 2009; however, acute viral hepatitis continued to occur sequentially among military personnel. We obtained clinical information and serum samples from 222 patients with acute hepatitis who visited the Military Hospital Anuradhapura between January and September 2010. Samples were subjected to laboratory testing including HAV-immunoglobulin M and genotyping. Most patients (98.2%) were confirmed as having hepatitis A belonging to two subgenotypes: IA and IIIA. We did not observe any differences in clinical or biochemical features among patients with subgenotypes IA and IIIA except for pale stools and upper abdominal discomfort. During the investigation period, we observed a serial outbreak caused by identical HAV strains with an interval in line with that of typical HAV incubation periods. Most patients in the first outbreak were found in the training center, and patients in the second outbreak were found in multiple places where soldiers were assigned after the training center. These findings indicate that a strain of HAV diffused from one place to another along with movement of infected persons among the HAV-susceptible population. HAV vaccination for high-risk groups, such as young soldiers, is necessary. PMID:27382079

  16. Extrahepatic duct injury in blunt trauma: two case reports and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Thiago Messias; Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Hirano, Elcio Shiyoiti; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic injuries of the extrahepatic biliary tract are rare. Associated injuries are usually responsible for immediate indication for surgical treatment, the time when an injury to the extrahepatic biliary ducts may be diagnosed. However, missed injuries are often common. The primary aim of this paper is to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of two patients with left hepatic duct injury after blunt abdominal trauma. As a secondary objective, a literature review is presented. The two cases presented in this study are as follows: (1) A young male, involved in a motor vehicle crash, was admitted with blunt hepatic trauma in a general hospital. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was conducted 3 weeks later and revealed a large leakage at the left hepatic duct. Exploratory laparotomy was performed 26 days after the initial traumatic event and identified a complete section of the left hepatic duct, treated with anastomosis. (2) A male fell from a height. On exploratory laparotomy, a 30 % partial injury of the left hepatic duct was found in addition to hemoperitoneum, liver injury, gallbladder detachment together with cystic duct rupture, retroperitoneal hematoma to the right, and cecum hematoma. A high level of suspicion is necessary to identify injuries to the hepatic ducts. Early diagnosis that occurs during laparotomy due to associated injuries is important to reduce complications.

  17. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  18. Melatonin Protective Effects against Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Khonakdar-Tarsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a common phenomenon during liver surgery, transplantation, infection and trauma which results in damage and necrosis of the hepatic tissue through different pathways. Mechanisms involved in I/R damage are very intricate and cover several aspects. Several factors are involved in I/R-induced damages; briefly, decrease in sinusoidal perfusion and ATP generation because of low or no O2 supply, increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory factors and destruction of parenchymal cells resulted by these molecules are of the main causes of liver tissue injury during reperfusion. Melatonin’s antioxidant effect, and regulatory roles in the expression of different genes in the I/R insulted liver have been investigated by several studies. Melatonin and its metabolites are of the powerful direct scavengers of free radicals and ROS, so it can directly protect liver cell impairment from oxidative stress following I/R. In addition, this bioactive molecule up-regulates anti-oxidant enzyme genes like superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT. Tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α and interleukin-1 (IL-1, as potent pro-inflammatory factors, are generated in huge amounts during reperfusion. Melatonin is able to alleviate TNF-α generation and has hepatoprotective effect during I/R. It reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via reducing the binding of NF-κB to DNA. Imbalance between vasodilators (nitric oxide, NO and vasoconstrictors (endothelin, ET during I/R was shown to be the primary cause of liver microcirculation disturbance. Melatonin helps maintaining the stability of liver circulation and reduces hepatic injury during I/R through preventing alteration of the normal balance between ET and NO. The aim of this review was to explore the mechanisms of liver I/R injuries and the protective effects of melatonin against them.

  19. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  20. Clinical analysis of cause, treatment and prognosis in acute kidney injury patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is characterized by an abrupt decline in renal function, resulting in an inability to secrete waste products and maintain electrolyte and water balance, and is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed clinical data, treatment, and prognosis of 271 hospitalized patients (172 males and 99 females diagnosed with AKI from December, 2008 to December, 2011. In addition, this study explored the association between the cause of AKI and prognosis, severity and treatment of AKI. The severity of AKI was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN criteria. Renal recovery was defined as a decrease in a serum creatinine level to the normal value. Prerenal, renal, and postrenal causes accounted for 36.5% (99 patients, 46.5% (126 patients and 17.0% (46 patients, respectively, of the incidence of AKI. Conservative, surgical, and renal replacement treatments were given to 180 (66.4%, 30 (11.1% and 61 patients (22.5%, respectively. The overall recovery rate was 21.0%, and the mortality rate was 19.6%. Levels of Cl(-, Na(+ and carbon dioxide combining power decreased with increasing severity of AKI. Cause and treatment were significantly associated with AKI prognosis. Likewise, the severity of AKI was significantly associated with cause, treatment and prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that respiratory injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS were associated with AKI patient death. Cause, treatment and AKIN stage are associated with the prognosis of AKI. Respiratory injury and MODS are prognostic factors for death of AKI patients.

  1. Penetrating injury caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of a penetrating injury to the left lower extremity caused by the gear pedal of a motor-cycle that pierced through the foot of one of the 3 passengers on a motor-cycle involved in a road traffic accident. He had no neurovascular injury but was found radiologically to have an ipsilateral tibia fracture. The object was ...

  2. Carboxylesterase 1 Is Regulated by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α and Protects Against Alcohol- and MCD diet-induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiesi; Xu, Yang; Li, Yuanyuan; Jadhav, Kavita; You, Min; Yin, Liya; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2016-04-14

    The liver is a major organ that controls hepatic and systemic homeostasis. Dysregulation of liver metabolism may cause liver injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) regulates hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protects against liver steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether CES1 played a role in the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury. Both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and CES1 were markedly reduced in patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol repressed both HNF4α and CES1 expression in primary hepatocytes. HNF4α regulated CES1 expression by directly binding to the proximal promoter of CES1. Global inactivation of CES1 aggravated alcohol- or MCD diet-induced liver inflammation and liver injury, likely as a result of increased production of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Knockdown of hepatic CES1 exacerbated ethanol-induced steatohepatitis. These data indicate that CES1 plays a crucial role in protection against alcohol- or MCD diet-induced liver injury.

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  4. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  5. ECONOMIC LOSSES CAUSED BY TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Valiulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, analyzing the economic losses caused by health problems in population is of particular importance since it stipulates calculations of the volumes invested in healthcare systems in order to improve population’s health. Objective: The aim of our study was to find out economic losses caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI in children. Methods: The given work has utilized governmental statistical reports for Russia, for federal regions as well as for individual subjects. Direct medical expenses (medical services and indirect expenses (losses due to a temporary disability of parents having a sick child were calculated both in general and per patient. Results: Among all the direct medical costs of treatment of children with TBI inpatient care costs account for 85%. In the Central and Volga Federal District accounted for half of nationwide spending in general, brain injury and to provide certain kinds of healthcare. The structure of Russian costs as a result of the incidence of TBI children Moscow accounts for 20%. In Moscow, the cost of treating cases of traumatic brain injury in children is 3.2 times higher than the average for Russia. The resulting calculations of the value of health care costs attributable to a case of child head injury, behind the cost of treatment of the case of a child with head trauma, calculated according to the standards of Russia and the territories. This difference in the whole RF is 23%. Conclusion: The obtained findings have shown that in 2010 in Russia the magnitude of losses caused by TBI incidence in children amounted to 3 billion roubles or 0.008% of the gross product 1.2 billion roubles of which were direct expenses. However, this figure is considerably lower of the real amount; it becomes evident after the analysis of direct medical expenses per one case of pediatric TBI. Our calculations have shown that in Russia and in its regions the amount of expenses per one TBI patient is a quarter less

  6. Hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysm: a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, K.E.; Sivit, C.J.; Sachs, P.B. [Department of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children`s Hospital of the University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States); Stallion, A. [Department of Surgery, Rainbow Babies` and Children`s Hospital of the University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We report a child who developed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt hepatic injury. This is a rare complication of hepatic trauma in children. The imaging evaluation and clinical management of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are presented. (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  7. [Facial nerve injuries cause changes in central nervous system microglial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jeimmy; Troncoso, Julieta

    2016-12-01

    Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

  8. Radiation-induced liver injury showing low intensity on T2-weighted images noted in Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Harushi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Mori, Kensaku [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Hospital; Ahmadi, T. [Shahid Beheshti Univ. of Medical Sciences, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Okumura, Toshiyuki [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Although it is documented that radiation can cause density or intensity changes on computed tomography or MR imaging in the irradiated hepatic parenchyma, few researchers have reported or understood the MR presentation of changes in hepatic parenchyma following radiotherapy in the patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MR appearance of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome and to consider the underlying pathophysiology. The MR examinations of two patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome was compared with those of 11 patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. The two groups, both of which suffered from hepatocellular carcinoma, underwent 50-72 Gy of proton-beam irradiation during a period of 14-43 days. Examinations including T1- and T2-weighted imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced imaging, and dynamic study were performed 3-10 weeks after the end of irradiation. Radiation-induced hepatic injury was observed as a low-intensity area on T2-weighted images and on delayed phase images of dynamic study in the Budd-Chiari patients, and as iso- or high-intensity areas on both images in the patients without Budd-Chiari syndrome. US-guided needle biopsy from the irradiated area in one patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome revealed mostly necrotic tissue and fibrous tissue. These MR features of hepatic radiation injury in Budd-Chiari syndrome were considered to be due to severe hepatic fibrosis. (author)

  9. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Lai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology, neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory.

  10. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Minimal vascular flows cause strong heat sink effects in hepatic radiofrequency ablation ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Kai S; Poch, Franz G M; Rieder, Christian; Schenk, Andrea; Stroux, Andrea; Frericks, Bernd B; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Holmer, Christoph; Kreis, Martin E; Ritz, Jörg P; Zurbuchen, Urte

    2016-08-01

    The present paper aims to assess the lower threshold of vascular flow rate on the heat sink effect in bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) ex vivo. Glass tubes (vessels) of 3.4 mm inner diameter were introduced in parallel to bipolar RFA applicators into porcine liver ex vivo. Vessels were perfused with flow rates of 0 to 1,500 ml/min. RFA (30 W power, 15 kJ energy input) was carried out at room temperature and 37°C. Heat sink effects were assessed in RFA cross sections by the decrease in ablation radius, area and by a high-resolution sector planimetry. Flow rates of 1 ml/min already caused a significant cooling effect (P ≤ 0.001). The heat sink effect reached a maximum at 10 ml/min (18.4 mm/s) and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Minimal vascular flows of ≥1 ml/min cause a significant heat sink effect in hepatic RFA ex vivo. A lower limit for volumetric flow rate was not found. The maximum of the heat sink effect was reached at a flow rate of 10 ml/min and remained stable for flow rates up to 1,500 ml/min. Hepatic inflow occlusion should be considered in RFA close to hepatic vessels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2, and Myocardial Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Sascha; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Gerke, Oke; Hosbond, Susanne; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Data outlining the mortality and the causes of death in patients with type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, and those with myocardial injury are limited. During a 1-year period from January 2010 to January 2011, all hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were prospectively studied. Patients with at least one cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31, 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (interquartile range 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly among categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 31.7%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62.2%, myocardial injury 58.7%, and 22.2% in patients with nonelevated troponin values (log-rank test; P causes, vs 42.6% in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (P = .015) and 41.2% in those with myocardial injury (P causes of death did not differ substantially between patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and those with myocardial injury. Patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury exhibit a significantly higher long-term mortality compared with patients with type 1 myocardial infarction . However, most patients with type 1 myocardial infarction die from cardiovascular causes in contrast to patients with type 2 myocardial infarction and myocardial injury, in whom noncardiovascular causes of death predominate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower extremity ulceration caused by medical scooter injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparone, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The motorized mobility scooter (MMS) provides considerable benefits to patients with mobility limitations. Nevertheless, safety concerns related to MMS use are an issue. With increased use because of increased life expectancy and chronic illness, there are a growing number of reports of MMS-related injuries, ranging from lacerations and contusions to fatalities. Comorbidities may also exacerbate wound care. Prevention of these injuries is greatly needed. The author presents 5 patients with lower-extremity ulceration caused by MMS injuries. To prevent these injuries, health care providers must carefully evaluate and monitor patients. Clinicians and MMS manufacturers also need to educate and train patients on the safe use of MMS devices, including the regular use of footwear. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rat Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Alcohol-Induced Chronic Liver Injury and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. DeNucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The finding of more severe steatohepatitis in alcohol fed Long Evans (LE compared with Sprague Dawley (SD and Fisher 344 (FS rats prompted us to determine whether host factors related to alcohol metabolism, inflammation, and insulin/IGF signaling predict proneness to alcohol-mediated liver injury. Adult FS, SD, and LE rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 37% (calories ethanol for 8 weeks. Among controls, LE rats had significantly higher ALT and reduced GAPDH relative to SD and FS rats. Among ethanol-fed rats, despite similar blood alcohol levels, LE rats had more pronounced steatohepatitis and fibrosis, higher levels of ALT, DNA damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ADH, ALDH, catalase, GFAP, desmin, and collagen expression, and reduced insulin receptor binding relative to FS rats. Ethanol-exposed SD rats had intermediate degrees of steatohepatitis, increased ALT, ADH and profibrogenesis gene expression, and suppressed insulin receptor binding and GAPDH expression, while pro-inflammatory cytokines were similarly increased as in LE rats. Ethanol feeding in FS rats only reduced IL-6, ALDH1–3, CYP2E1, and GAPDH expression in liver. In conclusion, susceptibility to chronic steatohepatitis may be driven by factors related to efficiency of ethanol metabolism and degree to which ethanol exposure causes hepatic insulin resistance and cytokine activation.

  15. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Hepatic Stellate Cell-Derived Microvesicles Prevent Hepatocytes from Injury Induced by APAP/H2O2

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    Renwei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, previously described for liver-specific mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, appear to contribute to liver regeneration. Microvesicles (MVs are nanoscale membrane fragments, which can regulate target cell function by transferring contents from their parent cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HSC-derived MVs on xenobiotic-induced liver injury. Rat and human hepatocytes, BRL-3A and HL-7702, were used to build hepatocytes injury models by n-acetyl-p-aminophenol n-(APAP or H2O2 treatment. MVs were prepared from human and rat HSCs, LX-2, and HST-T6 and, respectively, added to injured BRL-3A and HL-7702 hepatocytes. MTT assay was utilized to determine cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and hoechst33258 staining. Western blot was used for analyzing the expression of activated caspase-3. Liver injury indicators, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in culture medium were also assessed. Results showed that (1 HSC-MVs derived from LX-2 and HST-T6 were positive to CD90 and annexin V surface markers; (2 HSC-MVs dose-dependently improved the viability of hepatocytes in both injury models; (3 HSC-MVs dose-dependently inhibited the APAP/H2O2 induced hepatocytes apoptosis and activated caspase-3 expression and leakage of LDH, ALT, and AST. Our results demonstrate that HSC-derived MVs protect hepatocytes from toxicant-induced injury.

  17. Ozagrel hydrochloride, a selective thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, alleviates liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomishima Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overdosed acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP causes severe liver injury. We examined the effects of ozagrel, a selective thromboxane A2 (TXA2 synthase inhibitor, on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced to ICR male mice by an intraperitoneal injection with APAP (330 mg/kg. The effects of ozagrel (200 mg/kg treatment 30 min after the APAP injection were evaluated with mortality, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and hepatic changes, including histopathology, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression and total glutathione contents. The impact of ozagrel (0.001-1 mg/mL on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 activity in mouse hepatic microsome was examined. RLC-16 cells, a rat hepatocytes cell line, were exposed to 0.25 mM N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI, a hepatotoxic metabolite of APAP. In this model, the cytoprotective effects of ozagrel (1–100 muM were evaluated by the WST-1 cell viability assay. Results Ozagel treatment significantly attenuated higher mortality, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, excessive hepatic centrilobular necrosis, hemorrhaging and DNA fragmentation, as well as increase in plasma 2,3-dinor thromboxane B2 levels induced by APAP injection. Ozagrel also inhibited the hepatic expression of cell death-related mRNAs induced by APAP, such as jun oncogene, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (fos and C/EBP homologous protein (chop, but did not suppress B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein11 (bim expression and hepatic total glutathione depletion. These results show ozagrel can inhibit not all hepatic changes but can reduce the hepatic necrosis. Ozagrel had little impact on CYP2E1 activity involving the NAPQI production. In addition, ozagrel significantly attenuated cell injury induced by NAPQI in RLC-16. Conclusions We demonstrate that the TXA2 synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, dramatically alleviates liver injury induced by APAP in mice, and suggest

  18. Trauma surgeons practice what they preach: The NTDB story on solid organ injury management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtuk, Michael; Reed, R Lawrence; Esposito, Thomas J; Davis, Kimberly A; Luchette, Fred A

    2006-08-01

    Recent studies advocate a nonoperative approach for hepatic and splenic trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the literature has impacted surgical practice and, if so, whether or not the overall mortality of these injuries had changed. The American College of Surgeons' National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB 4.0) was analyzed using trauma admission dates ranging from 1994 to 2003. All hepatic and splenic injuries were identified by ICD-9 codes. As renal trauma management has not changed during the study period, renal injuries were included as a control. Nonoperative management (NOM) rates and overall mortality were determined for each organ. Proportions were compared using chi analysis with significance set at p hepatic, 15,960 renal injuries. There was a significant (p hepatic and splenic trauma whereas renal NOM remained stable for the study period. Despite an increase in NOM for splenic and hepatic injuries, mortality has remained unchanged. This study demonstrates that the management of hepatic and splenic injuries has significantly changed in the past 10 years with no appreciable effect on mortality. NOM has become the standard of care for the management of hepatic and splenic trauma. The NTDB can be used to monitor changes in trauma care in response to new knowledge regarding improved outcomes.

  19. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  20. An Epidemiological Perspective on the Cause of Running Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kenneth E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Case reports do not consider the population which is injured and therefore are inappropriate for finding causal relationships. A review of three epidemiological studies, which take the population into account, showed that the only reasonably well-established cause of running injuries is the number of miles run per week. (Author/MT)

  1. Molecular basis of hepatic fibrosis and current status of its diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of acute or chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells interact with various types of cells such as hepatic parenchymal cells, Kupffer cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells to mediate extracellular matrix deposition and sinusoid capillarization and thus initiate the process of hepatic fibrosis. The nature of hepatic fibrosis is repair response after liver injury. Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis; however, it is generally associated with the risk of bleeding and even death. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for liver fibrosis mainly include serum biomarkers, imaging techniques, and predictive statistical model, but such methods cannot completely replace liver biopsy. At present, the treatment of hepatic fibrosis focuses on the research and development of new drugs targeting primary disease, hepatic stellate cells, or balance of extracellular matrix synthesis/degradation. The research on the molecular mechanism of hepatic fibrosis provides a solid theoretical basis for exploring the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  3. Related issues in repair of bile duct injury and traumatic biliary stricture

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    WANG Shuguang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate treatment of bile duct injury and traumatic biliary stricture may cause serious consequences such as recurrent cholangitis, formation of hepatolithiasis, and biliary cirrhosis. This article elaborates on the influencing factors for the effect of the repair of bile duct injury and traumatic biliary stricture, repair principles, timing of repair or reconstruction, and related methods and techniques. It is pointed out that if there is no significant local infection and the bile duct wall defect is <2 cm, end-to-end anastomosis should be used for repair; if the bile duct wall defect is >2 cm, Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy should be used for reconstruction. If the upper wall of the bile duct had a large defect and the lower wall has an integral structure, pedicled umbilical vein graft, pedicled jejunal wall seromuscular flap, or gastric wall seromuscular flap should be used for repair. The patients with severe congestion and edema at the site of injury should be treated with sufficient external drainage of the injured bile duct and then selective repair or reconstruction. Patients with hepatic duct stenosis in the liver lobe or hepatic segments and liver tissue atrophy can be treated with hepalobectomy or segmental hepatectomy. The key to successful repair is exposure and removal of high hilar bile duct stricture, while segmental hepatectomy of the Ⅳb segment can fully expose the left and right hepatic pedicles and help with the incision of the left and right hepatic ducts and secondary hepatic ducts, and therefore, it is a good method for exposing high bile duct stricture.

  4. An Overview on the Proposed Mechanisms of Antithyroid Drugs-Induced Liver Injury

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    Reza Heidari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major problem for pharmaceutical industry and drug development. Mechanisms of DILI are many and varied. Elucidating the mechanisms of DILI will allow clinicians to prevent liver failure, need for liver transplantation, and death induced by drugs. Methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU are two convenient antithyroid agents which their administration is accompanied by hepatotoxicity as a deleterious side effect. Although several cases of antithyroid drugs-induced liver injury are reported, there is no clear idea about the mechanism(s of hepatotoxicity induced by these medications. Different mechanisms such as reactive metabolites formation, oxidative stress induction, intracellular targets dysfunction, and immune-mediated toxicity are postulated to be involved in antithyroid agents-induced hepatic damage. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of antithyroid drugs-induced hepatotoxicity, it is impossible to draw a specific conclusion about the mechanisms of liver injury. However, it seems that reactive metabolite formation and immune-mediated toxicity have a great role in antithyroids liver toxicity, especially those caused by methimazole. This review attempted to discuss different mechanisms proposed to be involved in the hepatic injury induced by antithyroid drugs.

  5. Hepatic Sinusoidal-obstruction Syndrome and Busulfan-induced Lung Injury in a Post-autologous Stem Cell Transplant Recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Richa; Gupta, Kirti; Bhatia, Anmol; Bansal, Arun; Bansal, Deepak

    2017-09-15

    Veno-occlusive disease of the liver is mostly encountered as a complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with myeloablative regimens with an incidence estimated to be 13.7%. It is clinically characterized by tender hepatomegaly, jaundice, weight gain and ascites. Strong clinical suspicion and an early recognition of clinical signs are essential to establish the diagnosis and institute effective regimen. Another complication of cytotoxic drugs given for cancers, is development of busulfan-induced lung injury. A strong index of suspicion is needed for its diagnosis, especially in setting where opportunistic fungal and viral infections manifest similarly. We illustrate the clinical and autopsy finings in a 2½-year-old boy who received autologous stem-cell transplantation following resection of stage IV neuroblastoma. He subsequently developed both hepatic veno-occlusive disease and busulfan-induced lung injury. The autopsy findings are remarkable for their rarity.

  6. Surgical correction of severe enophthalmos caused by bullet injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic injuries of oral and maxillofacial region are usually fatal due to close propinquity with the vital structures. The severity of injury depends on the caliber of the weapon used and distance from which the patient is shot. The preliminary care of facial ballistic wounds strictly adheres to the basics of trauma resuscitation. Early and appropriate surgical management has proved to be influential on the final outcome and esthetic result. Treatment of facial gunshot wounds should be planned and carried out carefully to avoid esthetic complications. It takes even multiple-staged corrections to achieve the targeted functional and esthetic treatment plan. Prevention and control of infection is one of the most important goals to achieve the success of the treatment. Herewith, we present a case of facial gunshot injury with fractures in the orbital floor, medial wall maxillary sinus, and buttress of the zygomatic bone causing deficit, which was successfully managed by surgical reconstruction.

  7. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAteer Eamon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  9. Balanced management of hepatic trauma is associated with low liver-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckert, Christoph; Thelen, Armin; Gaebelein, Gereon; Hepp, Pierre; Josten, Christoph; Bartels, Michael; Jonas, Sven

    2010-04-01

    Hepatic trauma is a rare surgical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic strategies have been controversially discussed during the last decades. The medical records of 47 consecutive patients with hepatic trauma treated at the University Hospital of Leipzig between 2004 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for the severity of liver injury, management, morbidity, and mortality and compared to a preceding cohort. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors influencing mortality. Compared to 63 patients treated between 1993 and 2003, moderate liver injuries (grades I-III) occurred more frequently (p = 0.0006), and the proportion of patients that were managed operatively decreased from 68.9% to 37.5%. Twenty patients (42.6%) were treated conservatively (all grades I to III) and 27 surgically (47.4%). In detail, five patients were treated by hepatic packing alone, 13 by suture or coagulation, five by atypical resection, and four by hemihepatectomy. The overall mortality was 8.5% with a liver-related mortality rate of 2.1%. According to severity grades I-III, IV, and V, mortality rates were 0%, 18.2%, and 50.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified Injury Severity Score (ISS) >30, Moore grades IV and V, hemoglobin at admission 12 erythrocyte concentrates to be significant risk factors for early posttraumatic death, while multivariate analysis only ISS >30 revealed to be of prognostic significance for early postoperative survival. Compared to a previous cohort in the same hospital, more patients were treated conservatively. Management of liver injuries presented with a low liver-related mortality rate. Grades I-III injuries can safely be treated by conservative means with excellent results. However, complex hepatic injuries may often require surgical treatment ranging from packing to complex hemihepatectomy. Hence, for selection of appropriate therapeutic options, patients with hepatic injuries should be treated

  10. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  12. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic trauma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Hackl, Michael; Müller, Lars Peter; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael; Lechler, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) has become the standard treatment in hemodynamically stable patients with blunt hepatic injuries. While the reported overall success rates of NOM are excellent, there is a lack of consensus regarding the risk factors predicting the failure of NOM. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the incidence and prognostic factors for failure of NOM in adult patients with blunt hepatic trauma. Prospective studies reporting prognostic factors for the failure of nonoperative treatment of blunt liver injuries were identified by searching MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We screened 798 titles and abstracts, of which 8 single-center prospective observational studies, reporting 410 patients, were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. No randomized controlled trials were found. The pooled failure rate of NOM was 9.5% (0-24%). Twenty-six prognostic factors predicting the failure of NOM were reported, of which six reached statistical significance in one or more studies: blood pressure (p hepatic injuries. Systematic review, level III.

  13. The academic challenge of teaching psychomotor skills for hemostasis of solid organ injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Charles E; Ledgerwood, Anna M

    2009-03-01

    This study highlights the inherent challenges of achieving psychomotor skills in an era of nonoperative therapy for solid organ injuries. Technical procedures on the liver, the most frequent intra-abdominal solid organ injured, were assessed in five decades. Guided by prospective assessment and registry data, all patients with liver injury seen during 24 months in five consecutive decades were reviewed. Initially (1960s), all injuries were explored; currently (2000s), most injuries are observed. The number of patients was 235 (1960s), 228 (1970s), 79 (1980s), 116 (1990s), and 64 (2000s). The greater number in the 1990s reflects the diagnosis of minor, clinically insignificant, blunt injuries after abdominal CAT scan became available. Each injury was categorized by cause, severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale), associated shock, and primary therapy (observe [OBS], operation alone [OR], hepatorrhaphy [SUT], tractotomy [TRACT] with intraparenchymal hemostasis, hepatic dearterialization [HAL], and resection [RESECT]). Packing, used in each decade, was placed in one of the above primary treatment groups. The primary techniques for hemostasis are shown in the text table.Shock and Abbreviated Injury Scale correlated with mortality averaged 16%; 40 of 116 deaths (34%) exsanguinated from hepatic injury. During training, a resident performed an average of 12.0, 12.0, 2.4, 4.0, and 1.3 procedures for hemostasis. Reduced incidence and decreased therapeutic laparotomies for liver injury have created a training vacuum for future trauma surgeons. Surgical residents will need to supplement their clinical experience with solid organ hemostasis by practice on appropriate animal models of injury and cadaver dissections.

  14. Hepatic Rupture Caused by Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzyme, and Low Platelet Count Syndrome: A Case Report with Computed Tomographic and Conventional Angiographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheong Bok; Ahn, Jae Hong; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Jong Hyeog; Park, Man Soo; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Foundation, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The authors recently obtained successful clinical outcome after embolization of the hepatic artery and right inferior phrenic artery in a pregnant patient with hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome causing hepatic rupture. We report the computed tomographic and conventional angiographic findings in a case of HELLP syndrome, resulting in hepatic infarction and rupture with active bleeding.

  15. Overview of causes and costs of injuries in Massachusetts: a methodology for analysis of state data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Cohen, B B; Rodgers, C G; Walker, D K; Friedman, D J; Ozonoff, V V

    1995-01-01

    Massachusetts has developed the first State profile of the causes and costs of injury based on the national study, "Cost of Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress." Incidence of fatal injuries is based on Massachusetts data; nonfatal hospitalized injuries, on Massachusetts age and sex rates and U.S. cause data; and nonhospitalized injuries, on U.S. rates applied to Massachusetts census data. Lifetime costs per injured person are based on national data adjusted for higher personal health care expenditures and for higher mean annual earnings in Massachusetts. The estimated total lifetime cost for the 1.4 million injuries that occurred in 1989 is $4.4 billion--$1.7 billion for health care and $2.7 billion for lost earnings. Injuries attributed to motor vehicles and falls account for more than half of the total cost. The other cause categories are poisonings, fire-burns, firearms, drowings-near drownings, and other. For every person who dies from an injury, 17 people are hospitalized, and an estimated 535 people require outpatient treatment, consultation, or restricted activity. Development of a State-based cost report can be useful in monitoring the contribution of injuries to health status and in planning effective injury prevention strategies in a community-based health care system. The methodology described in this paper can be replicated by other States through accessing their State-specific mortality and hospital discharge data bases. PMID:7610211

  16. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  17. Acute cholestatic liver injury caused by polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride admixed to ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Y N; Brusin, K M; Zobnin, Y V; Shchupak, A Y; Vishnevetskiy, M K; Sentsov, V G; Novikova, O V; Alekseenko, S A; Lebed'ko, O A; Puchkov, Y B

    2011-07-01

    Polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) is an antimicrobial biocide of the guanidine family. In the period from August 2006 to May 2007, more than 12500 patients were admitted to hospital with a history of drinking illegal cheap "vodka" in 44 different regions in Russia, of whom 9.4% died. In reality, the "vodka" was an antiseptic liquid composed of ethanol (≈93%), diethyl phthalate, and 0.1-0.14% PHMG (brand name "Extrasept-1"). We performed an analysis of the clinical features and outcome in four poisoning treatment centers in the cities of Perm, Ekaterinburg, Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk. A total of 579 patients (215 females and 364 males) with similar symptoms were included. The main symptoms on admission included jaundice (99.7%), skin itch (78.4%), weakness (96%), anorexia (65.8%), dizziness (65.3%), nausea (54.8%), vomiting (22.6%), stomach ache (52.7%), diarrhea (32%), and fever (50%). Mild symptoms were found in 2.5% of cases, moderate in 63%, and severe in 34.5%. Laboratory results were (mean ± SD): total bilirubin 249 ± 158 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 166 ± 97 μmol/L, cholesterol 14 ± 8 mmol/L, alanine aminotransferase 207 ± 174 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 174 ± 230 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 742 ± 751 IU/L, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1199 ± 1095 IU/L. Patients generally recovered over a period of 1-5 months, although high levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were still found in all patients examined after 6 months. Sixty-one patients (10.5%) died between 23 and 150 days after poisoning. Local cholestasis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis developing into cirrhosis were found by liver biopsy. Acute liver injury caused by PHMG-hydrochloride or PHMG in combination with either ethanol or diethyl phthalate can be characterized as cholestatic hepatitis with a severe inflammatory component causing high mortality.

  18. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  19. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  20. Urological injuries following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  1. Downstream Hepatic Arterial Blood Pressure Changes Caused by Deployment of the Surefire AntiReflux Expandable Tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Steven C.; Kikolski, Steven G.; Chomas, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate blood pressure changes caused by deployment of the Surefire antireflux expandable tip. The pressure measurements are relevant because they imply changes in hepatoenteric arterial blood flow within this liver compartment during hepatic artery delivery of cytotoxic agents. Methods: After positioning the Surefire antireflux system in the targeted hepatic artery, blood pressure was obtained initially with the tip collapsed (or through a femoral artery sheath), then again after the tip was expanded before chemoembolization or yttrium 90 ( 90 Y) radioembolization. Results: Eighteen patients with liver malignancy underwent 29 procedures in 29 hepatic arteries (3 common hepatic, 22 lobar, 4 segmental). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure were all decreased by a mean of 29 mm Hg (p = 0.000004), 14 mm Hg (p = 0.0000004), and 22 mm Hg (p = 0.00000001), respectively. Conclusion: When the Surefire expandable tip is deployed to prevent retrograde reflux of agents, it also results in a significant decrease in blood pressure in the antegrade distribution, potentially resulting in hepatopedal blood flow in vessels that are difficult to embolize, such as the supraduodenal arteries

  2. Tuberculosis and hepatic steatosis are prevalent liver pathology findings among HIV-infected patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Liver disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa has shifted as a result of HIV and the increased use of antiretroviral therapy leading to a need for updated data on common causes of liver disease. We retrospectively reviewed records from all hospitalized patients who had liver biopsy at a single hospital in South Africa from 2001 to 2009 and compared diagnosis by HIV status. During the period of study 262 patients had liver biopsy, 108 (41% were HIV-infected, 25 (10% were HIV-sero-negative, and 129 (49% had unknown or unrecorded HIV status. Overall 81% of biopsies provided additional diagnostic data. Malignancy was the most common finding reported on 56 (21% biopsies followed by granuloma or TB, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have granulomas and steatosis. Half of patients with granulomas were already on TB treatment, suggesting paradoxical reactions or drug induced liver injury may have been important causes of liver inflammation among these patients. We note that TB, paradoxical reactions during TB treatment, possible drug induced liver injury, and hepatic steatosis are important causes of liver pathology among HIV-infected hospitalized patients with unclear etiology of liver disease after initial assessment. Among HIV sero-negative patients, malignancy was the major cause of liver disease. Our findings re-enforce the importance of TB as a diagnosis among HIV-infected individuals.

  3. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  4. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Min Hsieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133 of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005 and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033, as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038 than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a

  5. [Surgical treatment of intraoperative injuries and cicatricial strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tret'iakov, A A; Slepykh, N I; Kornilov, A K; Karimov, Z Kh

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of 70 cases of surgical treatment for intraoperative injuries and cicatricial strictures of extrahepatic bile ducts was carried out. In 25 patients surgical procedure was restorative and in 45--reconstructiver. Most common causes of corrective operations were: iatrogenic injuries of extrahepatic bile ducts (14) and cicatricial strictures of hepaticocholedochal duct due to intraoperative trauma (31). The problems of operative technique in performing biliobilio-, hepato-hepatico and hepatico-jejuno-anastomoses are considered. There were three deaths in the early postoperative period: 2 patients died of hepatic failure, pyogenic cholangiogenic intoxication caused by cholangioectasies and intrahepatic abscesses, and 1-due to generalyzed peritonitis caused by acute gastric ulcer perforation. Special attention is paid to the choice of the method of prolonged drainage used in reconstructive as well as in restorative operations.

  6. Scanning in the diagnosis of hepatic and splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzer, P.M.

    1976-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic and splenic injuries in the trauma patient with classic physical and plain film findings usually presents little problem. If bleeding is severe there is no time for extensive roentgenographic or laboratory studies. Often, however, the trauma is mild, and the physical findings quite minimal at best. Other injuries may divert attention. The patient may be unconscious. In such circumstances, clinical evaluation of possible hepatic or splenic injuries is difficult. Scanning of the liver and spleen is a safe, accurate, noninvasive, readily available technique for the detection of traumatic rupture, laceration, or hematoma. This report describes two cases in which scanning proved helpful in the management of blunt abdominal trauma

  7. [Injuries caused by acids and bases - emergency treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Kaiser, Guido; Freudenberg, Matthias; Kerner, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Emergency medical care for injuries caused by acids and bases is challenging for rescue services. They have to deal with operational safety, detection of the toxic agent, emergency medical care of the patient and handling of the rescue mission. Because of the rareness of such situations experience and routine are largely missing. This article highlights some basic points for the therapy and provides support for such rescue missions. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Analysis and protective measures of sharp instrument injury causes of sterilization and supply center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua YANG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the causes of sharp injury in the sterilization and supply center, take protective measures, effectively avoid sharp instrument injury, and guarantee staff safety. Methods: Adopt a retrospective survey method, summarize sharp instrument injury data of sterilization and supply center in 2013, analyze the reasons of the occurrence of sharp instrument injury, and make protective countermeasures. Results: Sharp instrument injuries occurred mainly in the device classification, manual cleaning and device packaging process. Conclusion: Poor consciousness of occupational protection of the staff in the sterilization and supply center, nonstandard operation, and lack of training and supervision in place are the main reasons of occurrence of sharp instrument injury.

  9. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  10. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis: Comparison with viral hepatitis-associated steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-12-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is globally increasing and has become a world-wide health problem. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with hepatic steatosis. Viral hepatitis-associated hepatic steatosis is often caused by metabolic syndrome including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia. It has been reported that HCV genotype 3 exerts direct metabolic effects that lead to hepatic steatosis. In this review, the differences between NAFLD/NASH and viral hepatitis-associated steatosis are discussed.

  11. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  12. Importance of external cause coding for injury surveillance: lessons from assessment of overexertion injuries among U.S. Army soldiers in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Steelman, Ryan A; Schuh, Anna; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-11-01

    Injuries are a barrier to military medical readiness, and overexertion has historically been a leading mechanism of injury among active duty U.S. Army soldiers. Details are needed to inform prevention planning. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was queried for unique medical encounters among active duty Army soldiers consistent with the military injury definition and assigned an overexertion external cause code (ICD-9: E927.0-E927.9) in 2014 (n=21,891). Most (99.7%) were outpatient visits and 60% were attributed specifically to sudden strenuous movement. Among the 41% (n=9,061) of visits with an activity code (ICD-9: E001-E030), running was the most common activity (n=2,891, 32%); among the 19% (n=4,190) with a place of occurrence code (ICD-9: E849.0-E849.9), the leading location was recreation/sports facilities (n=1,332, 32%). External cause codes provide essential details, but the data represented less than 4% of all injury-related medical encounters among U.S. Army soldiers in 2014. Efforts to improve external cause coding are needed, and could be aligned with training on and enforcement of ICD-10 coding guidelines throughout the Military Health System.

  13. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on causation with more predictors is needed.

  14. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAndie, K; Kyle, P

    1998-07-01

    The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device. A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly. The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1. Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

  15. Fatal occupational injuries in the Malaysian construction sector–causes and accidental agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A.; Shaari, A. A.; Zaki, M. F. M.; Munaaim, M. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    The construction sector is associated with various accidents and fatal injuries. These occupational accidents are caused by numerous factors, such as lack of supervision; lack of adherence to safe work technique; failure to wear personal protective equipment; and failure to comply with the safe use of tools, vehicles, and machines. Using 2013–2016 secondary data from the Department of Occupational Safety and Health and Social Security Organization, this study conducted a descriptive exploration survey to identify common fatal occupational injuries associated with the Malaysian construction sector, as well as their causes and accidental agents. Results indicated that construction, followed by manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, logging, and fishery, are the riskiest job sectors in Malaysia. The highest incidences of occupational casualties were reported in Sarawak, Johor, and Selangor. These states accounted for approximately 13.33% to 18.18% of all cases of fatal occupational accidents. In these states, the lack of safety and health regulations and poor execution of risk management increased the risk of occupational accidents. Falls from heights accounted for 46.28% of fatal occupational injuries. Furthermore, being crushed by objects, materials, or vehicles accounted for 9.09% to 17.36% of fatal occupational injuries. Substandard work environment and transportation and lifting equipment, such as scaffolds, are primary accidental agents. Results of this study could enhance the knowledge and awareness of construction workers and management of job-related injuries to decrease the incidence of fatal occupational accidents.

  16. [Forensic medical characteristic of the thermal injury caused by inflammation of combustible fluids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushkadamov, Z K; Iskhizova, L N; Gornostaev, D V

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostics of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids should be based on the comprehensive assessment of the results of examination of the scene of the accident, autopsy studies, forensic chemical expertise, and analysis of the circumstances of the case and/or medical documentation. Special attention should be given to the choice of adequate methods for taking samples to be used in forensic chemical studies. The assessment of thermal injuries caused by inflammation of combustible fluids must take into consideration the time and conditions under which they were inflicted (e.g. closed or open space, vertical or horizontal position, etc.).

  17. Qualifying information on deaths and serious injuries caused by road traffic in five Brazilian capitals using record linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandacaru, Polyana Maria Pimenta; Andrade, Ana Lucia; Rocha, Marli Souza; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Nogueira, Maria Sueli M; Girodo, Anne Marielle; Pedrosa, Ana Amélia Galas; Oliveira, Vera Lídia Alves de; Alves, Marta Maria Malheiros; Paixão, Lúcia Maria Miana M; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de

    2017-09-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTC) are an important public health problem, accounting for 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 40,000 deaths caused by RTC occur every year, with different trends in the Federal Units. However, these figures may be even greater if health databases are linked to police records. In addition, the linkage procedure would make it possible to qualify information from the health and police databases, improving the quality of the data regarding underlying cause of death, cause of injury in hospital records, and injury severity. This study linked different data sources to measure the numbers of deaths and serious injuries and to estimate the percentage of corrections regarding the underlying cause of death, cause of injury, and the severity injury in victims in matched pairs from record linkage in five representative state capitals of the five macro-regions of Brazil. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Hospital Information System (HIS), Mortality Information System (MIS), and Police Road Traffic database of Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, Palmas, and Teresina, for the year 2013 for Teresina, and 2012 for the other capitals. RecLink III was used to perform probabilistic record linkage by identifying matched pairs to calculate the global correction percentage of the underlying cause of death, the circumstance that caused the road traffic injury, and the injury severity of the victims in the police database. There was a change in the cause of injury in the HIS, with an overall percentage of correction estimated at 24.4% for Belo Horizonte, 96.9% for Campo Grande, 100.0% for Palmas, and 33.2% for Teresina. The overall percentages of correction of the underlying cause of death in the MIS were 29.9%, 11.9%, 4.2%, and 33.5% for Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Curitiba, and Teresina, respectively. The correction of the classification of injury severity in police database were 100.0% for Belo

  18. Development of a murine model of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A; Hwang, Haejin; Hampel, Joseph A; Yu, Bi; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2013-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of blunt hepatic trauma in humans, there are few rodent models of blunt trauma that can be used to study the associated inflammatory responses. We present a mouse model of blunt hepatic trauma that was created by using a cortical contusion device. Male mice were anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine and placed in left lateral recumbency. A position of 2 mm ventral to the posterior axillary line and 5 mm caudal to the costal margin on the right side was targeted for impact. An impact velocity of 6 m/s and a piston depth of 12 mm produced a consistent pattern of hepatic injury with low mortality. All mice that recovered from anesthesia survived without complication for the length of the study. Mice were euthanized at various time points (n = 5 per group) until 7 d after injury for gross examination and collection of blood and peritoneal lavage fluids. Some mice were reanesthetized for serial monitoring of hepatic lesions via MRI. At 2 h after trauma, mice consistently displayed laceration, hematoma, and discoloration of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, with intraabdominal hemorrhage but no other gross injuries. Blood and peritoneal lavage fluid were collected from all mice for cytokine analysis. At 2 h after trauma, there were significant increases in plasma IL10 as well as peritoneal lavage fluid IL6 and CXCL1/KC; however, these levels decreased within 24 h. At 7 d after trauma, the mice had regained body weight, and the hepatic lesions, which initially had increased in size during the first 48 h, had returned to their original size. In summary, this technique produced a reliable, low mortality, murine model that recreates features of blunt abdominal liver injury in human subjects with similar acute inflammatory response.

  19. Risk assessment of silica nanoparticles on liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice induced by fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmei; He, Xiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Mei; Xu, Chenke; Yu, Rong

    2018-07-01

    This study aims to assess the effects and the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on hepatotoxicity in both normal and metabolic syndrome mouse models induced by fructose. Here, we found that SiNPs exposure lead to improved insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome mice, but markedly worsened hepatic ballooning, inflammation infiltration, and fibrosis. Moreover, SiNPs exposure aggravated liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice by causing serious DNA damage. Following SiNPs exposure, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in metabolic syndrome mice were stimulated, which is accompanied by significantly increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as compared to normal mice. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that SiNPs were more readily deposited in the liver mitochondria of metabolic syndrome mice, resulting in more severe mitochondrial injury as compared to normal mice. We speculated that SiNPs-induced mitochondrial injury might be the cause of hepatic oxidative stress, which further lead to a series of liver lesions as observed in mice following SiNPs exposure. Based on these results, it is likely that SiNPs will increase the risk and severity of liver disease in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, SiNPs should be used cautiously in food additives and clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  1. Herbal hepatotoxicity: suspected cases assessed for alternative causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel; Frenzel, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Alternative explanations are common in suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and account for up to 47.1% of analyzed cases. This raised the question of whether a similar frequency may prevail in cases of assumed herb-induced liver injury (HILI). We searched the Medline database for the following terms: herbs, herbal drugs, herbal dietary supplements, hepatotoxic herbs, herbal hepatotoxicity, and herb-induced liver injury. Additional terms specifically addressed single herbs and herbal products: black cohosh, Greater Celandine, green tea, Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, kava, and Pelargonium sidoides. We retrieved 23 published case series and regulatory assessments related to hepatotoxicity by herbs and herbal dietary supplements with alternative causes. The 23 publications comprised 573 cases of initially suspected HILI; alternative causes were evident in 278/573 cases (48.5%). Among them were hepatitis by various viruses (9.7%), autoimmune diseases (10.4%), nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver diseases (5.4%), liver injury by comedication (DILI and other HILI) (43.9%), and liver involvement in infectious diseases (4.7%). Biliary and pancreatic diseases were frequent alternative diagnoses (11.5%), raising therapeutic problems if specific treatment is withheld; pre-existing liver diseases including cirrhosis (9.7%) were additional confounding variables. Other diagnoses were rare, but possibly relevant for the individual patient. In 573 cases of initially assumed HILI, 48.5% showed alternative causes unrelated to the initially incriminated herb, herbal drug, or herbal dietary supplement, calling for thorough clinical evaluations and appropriate causality assessments in future cases of suspected HILI.

  2. Fermented Citrus Lemon Reduces Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jinn Lillian Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented lemon juice displays a variety of important biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capabilities. The aim of the present study is to investigate hepatic-protective effects of no-sugar-added fermented lemon juice (FLJ for liver inflammation caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rats. Rats are divided into six groups: H2O, CCl4 + H2O, CCl4 + silymarin, and CCl4 plus three different FLJ doses by oral administration, respectively. The results show that the contents of plasma ALT and AST, hepatic lipid peroxidation, splenomegaly, and liver water are reduced significantly in rats under FLJ treatment, and pathological examination of liver fibrosis is improved. The reduced hepatic injury by increasing liver soluble protein and glutathione and albumin is observed in FLJ treated groups, and FLJ has comparable efficacies to medicine silymarin in liver therapies. The no-sugar-added FLJ differs from traditional fermentation by adding lots of sugar and prevents any hidden sugar intake while taking it as a complimentary treatment for liver inflammation. The green color and the taste of sourness are both associated with treating and healing the liver based on the five-element theory in traditional Chinese medicine, and the green and sour FLJ may be applied to the ancient theory in preventing hepatic injury accordingly.

  3. Intestinal endotoxins as co-factors of liver injury in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, B B; Tatlicioglu, E; Akyol, G; Uluoglu, O; Sultan, N; Yilmaz, E; Celebi, M; Taneri, F; Ferahkose, Z

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obstruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgically created jejunal self-filling blind loops, which resulted in SBBO. Plasma LPS level increased significantly, and once again a more severe liver injury, determined by liver histology and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, was observed compared with the control group of rats with BDL+self-emptying blind loops. The data presented suggest that small amounts of exogenous LPS and/or the ordinarily innocous amounts of LPS constantly absorbed from the intestinal tract may be critical in the hepatic damage caused by obstruction of the biliary tract.

  4. A six year prospective study of the incidence and causes of head and neck injuries in international football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C W; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2005-08-01

    To identify those risk factors that have the greatest impact on the incidence of head and neck injuries in international football. A case-control study of players sustaining head and neck injuries during 20 FIFA tournaments (men and women) from 1998 to 2004. Video recordings of incidents were used to identify a range of parameters associated with the incidents. Team physicians provided medical reports describing the nature of each injury. chi2 tests (pvideo sequences. The commonest injuries were contusions (53%), lacerations (20%), and concussions (11%). The incidence of all head and neck injuries was 12.5/1000 player hours (men 12.8, women 11.5) and 3.7 for lost-time injuries (men 3.5, women 4.1). The commonest causes of injury involved aerial challenges (55%) and the use of the upper extremity (33%) or head (30%). The unfair use of the upper extremity was significantly more likely to cause an injury than any other player action. Only one injury (a neck muscle strain) occurred as a result of heading the ball throughout the 20 tournaments equivalent to 0.05 injuries/1000 player hours. Players' actions most likely to cause a head or neck injury were the use of the upper extremity or the head but in the majority of cases these challenges were deemed to be fair and within the laws of the game.

  5. Vehicle-related injuries in and around a medium sized Swedish City - bicyclist injuries caused the heaviest burden on the medical sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnstig, Johanna; Bylund, Per-Olof; Björnstig, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    A data acquisition from the medical sector may give one important view of the burden on the society caused by vehicle related injuries. The official police-reported statistics may only reflect a part of all vehicle-related injured seeking medical attention. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of the burden of vehicle related injuries on the medical sector (2013), and to compare with official police-reported statistics and the development year 2000-2013. The data set includes 1085 injured from the Injury Data Base at Umeå University Hospital's catchment area with 148,500 inhabitants in 2013. Bicyclists were the most frequently injured (54%). One-third had non-minor (MAIS2+) injuries, and bicyclists accounted for 58% of the 1071 hospital bed days for all vehicle-related injuries. Car occupants represented 23% of all injured, and only 9% had MAIS2+ injuries. They accounted for 17% of the hospital bed days. Motorized two wheel vehicle riders represented 11% of the injured and 39% had MAIS2+ injuries and they occupied 11% of the hospital bed days. Of the 1085 medically treated persons, 767 were injured in public traffic areas, and, therefore, should be included in the official police statistics; however, only a third (232) of them were reported by the police. The annual injury rate had not changed during 2000-2013 for bicyclists, motor-cycle riders, pedestrians or snowmobile riders. However, for passenger car occupants a decrease was observed after 2008, and for mopedists the injury rate was halved after 2009 when a licensing regulation was introduced. The Swedish traffic injury reducing strategy Vision Zero, may have contributed to the reduction of injured car occupants and moped riders. The official police-reported statistics was a biased data source for vehicle related injuries and the total number medically treated was in total five times higher. Bicyclists caused the heaviest burden on the medical sector; consequently, they need to be prioritized in

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  8. Regulator of G-protein signaling-5 is a marker of hepatic stellate cells and expression mediates response to liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya J Bahrami

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is mediated by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, which respond to a variety of cytokine and growth factors to moderate the response to injury and create extracellular matrix at the site of injury. G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR-mediated signaling, via endothelin-1 (ET-1 and angiotensin II (AngII, increases HSC contraction, migration and fibrogenesis. Regulator of G-protein signaling-5 (RGS5, an inhibitor of vasoactive GPCR agonists, functions to control GPCR-mediated contraction and hypertrophy in pericytes and smooth muscle cells (SMCs. Therefore we hypothesized that RGS5 controls GPCR signaling in activated HSCs in the context of liver injury. In this study, we localize RGS5 to the HSCs and demonstrate that Rgs5 expression is regulated during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute and chronic liver injury in Rgs5LacZ/LacZ reporter mice. Furthermore, CCl4 treated RGS5-null mice develop increased hepatocyte damage and fibrosis in response to CCl4 and have increased expression of markers of HSC activation. Knockdown of Rgs5 enhances ET-1-mediated signaling in HSCs in vitro. Taken together, we demonstrate that RGS5 is a critical regulator of GPCR signaling in HSCs and regulates HSC activation and fibrogenesis in liver injury.

  9. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  10. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Leonardo BO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  11. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions.

  12. A methodological approach for the biomechanical cause analysis of golf-related lumbar spine injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Jang, Dong-Jin; Oh, Euichaul

    2014-01-01

    A new methodological approach employing mechanical work (MW) determination and relative portion of its elemental analysis was applied to investigate the biomechanical causes of golf-related lumbar spine injuries. Kinematic and kinetic parameters at the lumbar and lower limb joints were measured during downswing in 18 golfers. The MW at the lumbar joint (LJ) was smaller than at the right hip but larger than the MWs at other joints. The contribution of joint angular velocity (JAV) to MW was much greater than that of net muscle moment (NMM) at the LJ, whereas the contribution of NMM to MW was greater rather than or similar to that of JAV at other joints. Thus, the contribution of JAV to MW is likely more critical in terms of the probability of golf-related injury than that of NMM. The MW-based golf-related injury index (MWGII), proposed as the ratio of the contribution of JAV to MW to that of NMM, at the LJ (1.55) was significantly greater than those at other joints ( golf-related injuries around the lumbar spine. Therefore, both MW and MWGII should be considered when investigating the biomechanical causes of lumbar spine injuries.

  13. Single-dose-dexketoprofen-induced acute kidney injury due to massive rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Tansu; Unal, Aydin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Gunal, Ali Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    A 70-year-old male patient was admitted complaining of weakness and pain in his arms and lower limbs. His serum creatine kinase and serum creatinine were markedly elevated (36,248 IU/L and 2.8 mg/dL, respectively). He had taken dexketoprofen trometamol because of a common cold, which had developed the previous night. Acute kidney injury caused by dexketoprofen-induced rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed by ruling out other possible causes, such as dermato/polymyositis, myxedema, brucellosis, and hepatitis. Dexketoprofen administration was stopped. As diuresis did not restore spontaneously, the patient was treated with I.V. alkaline solutions and mannitol. Hemodialysis was performed because of anuria and severe metabolic acidosis. The patient's renal function later recovered. In conclusion, dexketoprofen may be a potential risk factor for acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis.

  14. Comparison of gray-scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography in different grading of blunt hepatic and splenic trauma: an animal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Li, Wenxiu; Lv, Faqin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Yuexiang; Li, Junlai; Yang, Li

    2009-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for the detection of different grading of solid organ injuries in blunt abdominal trauma in animals. A self-made miniature tools were used as models to simulate a blunt hepatic or splenic trauma in 16 and 14 anesthetized dogs, respectively. Baseline ultrasound, CEUS and CECT were used to detect traumatic injuries of livers and spleens. The degree of injuries was determined by CEUS according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) scale and the results compared with injury scale based on CECT evaluation. CEUS showed 22 hepatic injury sites in 16 animals and 17 splenic injury sites in other 14 animals. According to AAST scale, 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 3 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic lesions were present in 16 animals; 2 grade I, 4 grade II, 6 grade III and 2 grade IV splenic lesions in 14 animals. On CECT scan, 21 hepatic and 17 splenic injuries were demonstrated. According to Becker CT scaling for hepatic injury, 1 grade I, 2 grade II, 4 grade III, 5 grade IV and 2 grade V hepatic injuries were present. On the basis of Buntain spleen scaling, 2 grade I, 5 grade II, 5 grade III, 2 grade IV splenic injuries were showed. After Spearman rank correlation analysis, the agreement of CEUS with CECT on the degree of hepatic and splenic injury is 93.3% and 92.9%, respectively. CT is currently considered as the reference method for grading blunt abdominal trauma, according to experiment results, CEUS grading showed high levels of concordance with CECT. CEUS can accurately determine the degree of injury and will play an important role in clinical application.

  15. CT of blunt hepatic trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Omura, Makoto; Nishio, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Shinsuke.

    1991-01-01

    CT findings of blunt hepatic trauma were studied in 27 children. Liver injury was classified into 3 types from mild to severe. Liver contusion was observed in 1, liver laceration in 21, and liver rupture in 5. Only 2 patients (7.4%) required surgery, and the others could be managed by conservative therapy. CT, which accurately reveals not only the severity of liver injury but also injuries of other abdominal organs and intraperitoneal bleeding, is important for the diagnosis of liver injury and determination of its treatment. (author)

  16. CD18 deficiency improves liver injury in the MCD model of steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Andrew A; Duwaerts, Caroline C; Siao, Kevin; Mattis, Aras N; Goodsell, Amanda; Baron, Jody L; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and macrophages are important constituents of the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These innate immune cells express CD18, an adhesion molecule that facilitates leukocyte activation. In the context of fatty liver, activation of infiltrated leukocytes is believed to enhance hepatocellular injury. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which activated innate immune cells promote steatohepatitis by comparing hepatic outcomes in wild-type and CD18-mutant mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. After 3 weeks of MCD feeding, hepatocyte injury, based on serum ALT elevation, was 40% lower in CD18-mutant than wild-type mice. Leukocyte infiltration into the liver was not impaired in CD18-mutant mice, but leukocyte activation was markedly reduced, as shown by the lack of evidence of oxidant production. Despite having reduced hepatocellular injury, CD18-mutant mice developed significantly more hepatic steatosis than wild-type mice after MCD feeding. This coincided with greater hepatic induction of pro-inflammatory and lipogenic genes as well as a modest reduction in hepatic expression of adipose triglyceride lipase. Overall, the data indicate that CD18 deficiency curbs MCD-mediated liver injury by limiting the activation of innate immune cells in the liver without compromising intrahepatic cytokine activation. Reduced liver injury occurs at the expense of increased hepatic steatosis, which suggests that in addition to damaging hepatocytes, infiltrating leukocytes may influence lipid homeostasis in the liver.

  17. Lawn mower injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment - Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasielska, Monika; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Bieliński, Paweł; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2017-05-11

    [b]Abstract Objective.[/b] The aim of the study is to present four cases of lawn mowers injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment. [b]Materials and Method[/b]. A retrospective study of four patients admitted in 2013-2015 to the Department of Vitreoretinal Surgery in Lublin with severe open or closed globe injury, one with an intraocular foreign body (IOFB). The presence of eye protective equipment was assessed, as well as visual acuity, eye tissue condition before and after treatment, and applied therapy. In all cases an improvement was achieved in local conditions. The intraocular foreign body was removed, wounds sutured and damaged tissues placed in position. All eyeballs were saved. In three cases, visual acuity was improved to a usable level. Three patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy, one with IOFB removal from the vitreous cavity. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Lawn mower induced eye injuries are a significant cause of serious visual acuity impairment or blindness. The presented study shows that lawn mower eye injuries are still a therapeutic, social and economic problem, yet are very preventable with proper eye protection and patients' education. Current prevention strategies are inadequate, and therefore should be updated.

  18. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Liu, J.C.; Yang, L.N.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-04-15

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  19. Successful treatment of an iatrogenic hepatic arteriobiliary fistula with an endobiliary covered stent graft: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun; Lee, Su Lim; Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Chang Woo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Hepatic arteriobiliary fistula is a rare cause of hemobilia following percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Hemobilia related to arterial injury is resistant to conservative treatment. Therefore, transarterial embolization after confirmation of bleeding vessels on an angiogram is generally considered as the first line of treatment to stop arterial bleeding. However, in high risk situations such as a hepatic infarction by arterial embolization, the endobiliary approach with a covered stent can be considered as an alternative treatment method. The authors report a case of iatrogenic arteriobiliary fistula in a patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma which was successfully controlled by an endobiliary covered stent graft.

  20. Vaccines for preventing hepatitis B in health-care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers.......Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for health-care workers....

  1. Quill injury - cause od death of captive indian crested porcupine(Hystrix indica, Kerr, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Švara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed

  2. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  4. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  5. Acute loss of the hepatic endo-lysosomal system in vivo causes compensatory changes in iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzendorf, Christoph; Zeigerer, Anja; Seifert, Sarah; Sparla, Richard; Najafi, Bahar; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Zerial, Marino; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2017-06-22

    Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin. Compensatory changes in livers of Rab5-depleted mice include increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 as well as reduced expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Serum iron indices (serum iron, free iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity) in Rab5-KD mice were increased, consistent with an elevated splenic and hepatic iron export. Our data emphasize the critical importance of the endosomal compartments in hepatocytes to maintain hepatic and systemic iron homeostasis in vivo. The short time period (between day four and five) upon which these changes occur underscore the fast dynamics of the liver iron pool.

  6. Effects of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury on the P-glycoprotein activity at the liver canalicular membrane and blood-brain barrier determined by in vivo administration of rhodamine 123 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Shaik, Imam H; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of normothermic hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury on the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the liver and at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of rats using rhodamine 123 (RH-123) as an in vivo marker. Rats were subjected to 90 min of partial ischemia or sham surgery, followed by 12 or 24 h of reperfusion. Following intravenous injection, the concentrations of RH-123 in blood, bile, brain, and liver were used for pharmacokinetic calculations. The protein levels of P-gp and some other transporters in the liver and brain were also determined by Western blot analysis. P-gp protein levels at the liver canalicular membrane were increased by twofold after 24 h of reperfusion. However, the biliary excretion of RH-123 was reduced in these rats by 26%, presumably due to IR-induced reductions in the liver uptake of the marker and hepatic ATP concentrations. At the BBB, a 24% overexpression of P-gp in the 24-h IR animals was associated with a 30% decrease in the apparent brain uptake clearance of RH-123. The pharmacokinetics or brain distribution of RH-123 was not affected by the 12-h IR injury. Hepatic IR injury may alter the peripheral pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of drugs that are transported by P-gp and possibly other transporters.

  7. Radiological findings and interventions for iatrogenic vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Sang Wook; Lee, Jong Seog; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological findings and effectiveness of radiological interventions in patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries. We analyzed 50 patients with iatrogenic vascular injuries treated with radiological intervention. The causes of injuries were surgery (n=20), cardiovascular intervention (n=15), non-cardiovascular radiological intervention (n=14), and endoscopic intervention (n=1). The injury had resulted in hemorrhage in 35 cases. The iliac and/or femoral, hepatic, and renal vessels were commonly injured. Angiography, ultrasonography with Doppler examination, CT, and CT angiography were performed to diagnose vascular injuries and guide the radiological intervention. The mean follow-up period was 23 months and in 16 cases was more than one year. the major radiological findings were extravasation, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous shunt, or vascular obstruction. To control these lesions, radiological interventions such as embolization (n=36), local urokinase administration, stent insertion, foreign body removal, ultrasonography-guided compression, or stent-graft insertion were performed. The clinical problems were immediately controlled by the single trials of radiological interventions and did not recur in 40 cases (80%). Radiological examinations and interventions are useful in cases with iatrogenic vascular injuries. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  8. Domestic violence as an unfortunate cause of splenic injury, fetal demise, and maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi M Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of pregnant women is a serious health problem with the potential to cause life-threatening injuries to the mother and her baby. This is a case of domestic violence leading to splenic injury and massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage leading to fetal demise. Fortunately, timely interventions saved the mother′s life.

  9. [Imaging manifestations and pathologic basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Youkuan; Xiao, Enhua; Shang, Quanliang; Chen, Juan

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the imaging manifestations of CT, MRI and pathological basis for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome caused by benign and malignant liver tumors.
 CT or MRI images and pathological features for hepatic capsular retraction syndrome were retrospectively analyzed in 50 patients with benign and malignant liver tumors. Picture archive and communication system (PACS) was used to observe and compare the morphology, size, width, depth, edge of the capsular retraction and the status of liquid under the liver capsule. The structure, differentiation and proliferation of the tumor were analyzed under the microscope.
 There were malignant liver tumors in 44 patients and benign tumor in 6 patients. The smooth or rough for the edge of capsular retraction was significant difference between the benign tumors and the malignant tumors with three differentiated grades (all PBenign and malignant hepatic tumors may appear capsule retraction syndrome, but there are morphological differences between them. The differences are closely related with the lesion size, differentiated degree of tumor and fibrous tissue proliferation.

  10. Acute Hepatitis and Pancytopenia in Healthy Infant with Adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Matoq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory infection, pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis in infants and young children. They are known to cause hepatitis and liver failure in immunocompromised patients; they are a rare cause of hepatitis in immunocompetent patients and have been known to cause fulminant hepatic failure. We present a 23-month-old immunocompetent infant who presented with acute noncholestatic hepatitis, hypoalbuminemia, generalized anasarca, and pancytopenia secondary to adenovirus infection.

  11. Trends in reporting injury as a cause of death among people with epilepsy in the U.S., 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Tain-Junn

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends in reporting injury as a cause of death among people with epilepsy in the U.S. during the past three decades. We analyzed the U.S. multiple causes of death data from death certificates in 1981-2010 to compare rate and odds ratios (OR) of reporting injury as cause of death among cases with vs. without mention of epilepsy across years. The trends in reporting epilepsy with and without injury were similar in most age groups but were inconsistent in most external causes of injury. The OR of reporting injury was 1.02 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.97-1.07) in 1981-1985 and decreased to 0.52 (95% CI 0.48-0.55) in 2006-2010. The decline in OR was prominent among people aged 15-24 followed by people aged 25-44. For the five external causes of injury, the OR of suffocation and drowning were 6.32 (95% CI 5.91-6.75) and 5.64 (95% CI 5.16-6.16) in 1981-1985 and decreased to 3.03 (95% CI 2.74-3.35) and 2.56 (95% CI 2.18-3.00) in 2006-2010. The OR for poisoning and traffic crashes were 0.70 (95% CI 0.57-0.85) and 0.08 (95% CI 0.07-0.09) in 1981-1985 and 0.21 (95% CI 0.18-0.25) and 0.06 (95% CI 0.05-0.08) in 2006-2010. The risk of fatal injury among people with epilepsy decreased drastically during the past three decades in most age groups and for most external causes of injury except falls. People with epilepsy had lower risks of dying from injury due to poisoning or traffic crashes, had higher risks of dying from suffocation and drowning. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of adults with acute viral hepatitis a and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, R; Yolbas, I; Dal, T; Demirpençe, Ö; Kaya, S; Bozkurt, F; Deveci, Ö; Çelen, M K; Tekin, A

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries HAV infection is very common in the first years of life and it is often asymptomatic. However especially in regions of intermediate endemicity, exposure to the virus may delay and outbreaks of hepatitis A may be encountered in adults. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors of adults with acute viral hepatitis A. In present study we evaluated 203 patient with acute viral hepatitis A, who were admitted to four different hospitals of three cities of Turkey between January 2000-December 2011, retrospectively. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A was performed by laboratory findings and clinically. In a total of 203 patients, 120 (59.1%) patients were male and 83 (40.9%) were female. Mean age of cases with acute viral hepatitis A was 24.7 +11.8 years (ranged 15 to 82 years old). Acute viral hepatitis A were seen in patient who were 15-20 years and 21-30 years old, commonly. Jaundice (74%), fatigue (68%), nausea- vomiting (56%) and dark urine (48%) were the most common symptoms in cases. Prolonged cholestasis (6.8%) was the most common atypical manifestation. Prolonged jaundice was more frequent in the cases with positive HBsAg (P viral hepatitis A can cause atypical presentations such as prolonged cholestasis, acute kidney injury and fulminant hepatitis. Some precautions such as routine vaccination program, improvement of hygiene conditions and informing people about it, should be taken for reducing of acute viral hepatitis A infection incidence.

  13. Acceleration-caused injury of the cervical spine. Whiplash injury; Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule. HWS-Schleudertrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedig, Hans-Dieter (eds.) [Kanzlei Dr. W.G. Schmidt, Sonthofen (Germany); Graf, Michael; Grill, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Acceleration injuries of the cervical spine are mostly caused by car accidents. Due to the high traffic density and the increasing number of car accidents with personal injuries the number of concerned persons is also increasing. A large percentage of injured persons suffer ongoing troubles following ineffective therapy trials up to occupational disability. Therefore the whiplash injury is a significant medical and legal problem. The book includes contributions of international experts on the latest state of research and the actual knowledge on the controversial discussed field. An interdisciplinary forum discusses medical, injury-mechanical, consultant-related and legal questions and therapeutic approaches that might be successful. [German] Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule treten ueberwiegend nach Autounfaellen auf. Aufgrund der hohen Verkehrsdichte und der steigenden Anzahl an Verkehrsunfaellen mit Personenschaeden steigt auch die Zahl der Betroffenen stetig an. Einer grossen Zahl von Unfallgeschaedigten, die nach kurzer Zeit beschwerdefrei leben koennen, steht leider eine wachsende Zahl von Betroffenen mit anhaltenden Beschwerden, erfolglosen Therapieversuchen bis hin zur Berufsunfaehigkeit gegenueber. Das 'HWS-Schleudertrauma' stellt nach wie vor ein erhebliches medizinisches und rechtliches Problem dar. In diesem Buch beschreiben international ausgewiesene Experten den neuesten Forschungsstand, das aktuelle Wissen und die Lehrmeinungen auf diesem kontrovers diskutierten und komplexen Gebiet. In einem interdisziplinaeren Ansatz werden medizinische, verletzungsmechanische, gutachterliche und gerichtliche Fragestellungen diskutiert und Erfolg versprechende Therapieansaetze eroertert. Aerzte, Juristen, Versicherungen und Betroffene werden in einen gemeinsamen Dialog gebracht, mit dem Ziel, konstruktive Loesungen zu erarbeiten. Eine praktische Arbeitshilfe - das Buch fuer alle, die mit dieser Problematik befasst sind. (orig.)

  14. epidemiology of hepatitis b and hepatitis c virus infections among hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection are common in Nigeria; where they are a major cause of both acute and chronic .... for HIV counseling and testing on a daily basis. .... The Genetic and Molecular ... Among Patients with Hemophilia in.

  15. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  16. Rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding owing to hepatic cancer invasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Ding; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hong-Guo; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Zhao, Da-Jian; Hu, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-21

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to bleeding that arises from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The primary reason for gastrointestinal bleeding associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is rupture of a varicose vein owing to pericardial hypotension. We report a rare case of gastrointestinal bleeding with hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient who presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. The initial diagnosis was gastric cancer with metastasis to the multiple lymph nodes of the lesser curvature. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, which identified two lesions in the gastric wall. Total gastrectomy and hepatic local excision was then performed. Pathological results indicated that the hepatocellular carcinoma had invaded the stomach directly, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. The patient is alive with a disease-free survival of 1 year since the surgery. Hepatocellular carcinoma with gastric invasion should be considered as a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, especially with lesions located in the left lateral hepatic lobe. Surgery is the best solution.

  17. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  18. Does the cause of the mild traumatic brain injury affect the expectation of persistent postconcussion symptoms and psychological trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Wade, Christina

    2017-05-01

    A controlled experiment of the effect of injury cause on expectations of outcome from mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) was conducted. Ninety-three participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. The participants read a vignette that described a mild TBI (with fixed injury parameters) from a different cause (sport, domestic assault, fall, or motor vehicle accident). The effect of the manipulation on expectations of persistent postconcussion symptoms and psychological trauma was assessed with standard measures and a novel "threat-to-life" measure. The Kruskal-Wallis H test for group differences revealed a significant but selective effect of group on symptom and trauma outcomes (ŋ 2 s ≥ .10; large effects). Post hoc pairwise tests showed that, in most cases, there was an expectation of a worse outcome following mild TBI from a domestic assault than from the other causes (small-to-medium effects). Expectations were selectively altered by an experimental manipulation of injury cause. Given that expectations of outcome are known to affect mild TBI prognosis, the findings suggest the need for greater attention to injury cause.

  19. Lawn mower injuries as a cause of serious visual acuity impairment – Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jasielska

    2017-05-01

    Lawn mower induced eye injuries are a significant cause of serious visual acuity impairment or blindness. The presented study shows that lawn mower eye injuries are still a therapeutic, social and economic problem, yet are very preventable with proper eye protection and patients’ education. Current prevention strategies are inadequate, and therefore should be updated.

  20. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koji; Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Kumagai, Junichiro; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Nakamura, Masato; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old man was admitted due to acute hepatitis with unknown etiology. After his condition and laboratory data gradually improved with conservative therapy, he was discharged 1 month later. Two months after his discharge, however, liver dysfunction reappeared. After his mother accidentally revealed that he took complementary and alternative medicine, discontinuation of the therapy caused his condition to improve. Finally, he was diagnosed with a recurrent drug-induced liver injury associated with Japanese complementary and alternative medicine. It is important to take the medical history in detail and consider complementary and alternative medicine as a cause of liver disease. PMID:28100990

  1. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  2. Flurbiprofen, a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Protects Mice from Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hailong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Chengcai; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Shi, Xueyin

    2012-01-01

    Flurbiprofen acts as a nonselective inhibitor for cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Mice were randomized into sham, I/R and flurbiprofen (Flurb) groups. The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and median liver lobes were occluded for 90 min and unclamped for reperfusion to establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Pretreatment of animals with flurbiprofen prior to I/R insult significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prevented hepatocytes from I/R-induced apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, flurbiprofen dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that flurbiprofen markedly inhibited glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, which, consequently, could modulate the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)–cyclophilin D (CyP-D) complex and the susceptibility to MPT induction. Therefore, administration of flurbiprofen prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through inhibition of MPT and inactivation of GSK-3β, and provides experimental evidence for clinical use of flurbiprofen to protect liver function in surgical settings in addition to its conventional use for pain relief. PMID:22714712

  3. [Therapy of head injuries caused by animal slaughter guns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Richard; Klintschar, Michael; Weger, Martin; Weger, Wolfgang; Quittan, Michael; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Homann, Carl N

    2003-01-01

    Slaughterer's guns ("humane killers") are powder-activated cattle skull impacting tools. Today mechanical stunning is typical for country like regions, because in the municipal slaughter-houses electrical stunning of pigs and ruminants is preferred. In rare cases these weapons are used for suicide. They then cause penetrating brain lesions and if the victim survives the brain-damage, an encephalitis caused by the impacted material results. The neurosurgical treatment is to revise the gunshot canal and to remove impacted fragments of bone and contaminated skin (imprimat) under antibiotic cover. A psychiatric treatment of the mostly underlying depression and a rehabilitative treatment should complete therapy. So treatment of slaughterer's gun injury should have a multidisciplinary approach.

  4. Fine-needle aspirate cytology suggesting hepatic lipidosis in four cats with infiltrative hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, M D; Weeks, B R; Johnson, M

    1999-12-01

    Four cats are reported in which cytology smears obtained by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the liver were interpreted as indicative of hepatic lipidosis. However, histopathology of hepatic tissue samples obtained with Tru-Cut-like needles or wedge biopsy revealed that the cats had inflammatory or neoplastic hepatic disease causing their clinical signs. Fine needle aspiration and cytology may not detect infiltrative lesions, particularly those that are nodular, multifocal, or localised around the portal regions. Fine needle aspirate cytology is a useful diagnostic procedure with many advantages, but care must be taken to avoid diagnosing hepatic lipidosis as the cause of illness when an infiltrative lesion is responsible. Copyright 1999 European Society of Feline Medicine.

  5. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling facilitates liver repair from acute ethanol-induced injury in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 h induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. Although inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic angiogenesis that accelerated after the ethanol treatment. qPCR showed that hepatic stellate cells are the first liver cell type to increase the expression of VEGF ligand and receptor genes in response to ethanol exposure. Both hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells, but not hepatic parenchymal cells, expressed kdrl upon ethanol exposure and were likely the direct targets of Kdrl inhibition. Ethanol-induced steatosis and fibrogenesis still occurred in cloche mutants that have hepatic stellate cells but lack hepatic endothelial cells, and Kdrl inhibition suppressed both phenotypes in the mutants. These results suggest that VEGF signaling mediates interactions between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes that lead to steatosis. Our study demonstrates the involvement of VEGF signaling in regulating sustained liver injuries after acute alcohol exposure. It also provides a proof of principle of using the

  6. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  7. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  8. Inhibition of mTOR improves the impairment of acidification in autophagic vesicles caused by hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadera, Eisuke; Yamashina, Shunhei; Izumi, Kousuke; Inami, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshifumi; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi; Ueno, Takashi; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations revealed that dysfunction of autophagy involved in the progression of chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular neoplasia. Previously, it was reported that hepatic steatosis disturbs autophagic proteolysis via suppression of both autophagic induction and lysosomal function. Here, we demonstrate that autophagic acidification was altered by a decrease in lysosomal proton pump vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) in steatohepatitis. The number of autophagic vesicles was increased in hepatocytes from obese KKAy mice as compared to control. Similarly, autophagic membrane protein LC3-II and lysosomal protein LAMP-2 expression were enhanced in KKAy mice liver. Nevertheless, both phospho-mTOR and p62 expression were augmented in KKAy mice liver. More than 70% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, the percentage of acidic autolysosomes was decreased in hepatocytes from KKAy mice significantly (40.1 ± 3.48%). Both protein and RNA level of V-ATPase subunits ATP6v1a, ATP6v1b, ATP6v1d in isolated lysosomes were suppressed in KKAy mice as compared to control. Interestingly, incubation with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased in the rate of LTR-positive autolysosomes in hepatocytes from KKAy mice and suppressed p62 accumulation in the liver from KKAy mice which correlated to an increase in the V-ATPase subunits expression. These results indicate that down-regulation of V-ATPase due to hepatic steatosis causes autophagic dysfunction via disruption of lysosomal and autophagic acidification. Moreover, activation of mTOR plays a pivotal role on dysregulation of lysosomal and autophagic acidification by modulation of V-ATPase expression and could therefore be a useful therapeutic target to ameliorate dysfunction of autophagy in NAFLD. - Highlights: • Hepatic steatosis causes accumulation of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes. • Hepatic steatosis disturbs

  9. Inhibition of mTOR improves the impairment of acidification in autophagic vesicles caused by hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadera, Eisuke [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yamashina, Shunhei, E-mail: syamashi@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Izumi, Kousuke; Inami, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshifumi; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Ikejima, Kenichi [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Ueno, Takashi [Division of Proteomics and Biomolecular Science, Juntendo University, School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watanabe, Sumio [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    Recent investigations revealed that dysfunction of autophagy involved in the progression of chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular neoplasia. Previously, it was reported that hepatic steatosis disturbs autophagic proteolysis via suppression of both autophagic induction and lysosomal function. Here, we demonstrate that autophagic acidification was altered by a decrease in lysosomal proton pump vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) in steatohepatitis. The number of autophagic vesicles was increased in hepatocytes from obese KKAy mice as compared to control. Similarly, autophagic membrane protein LC3-II and lysosomal protein LAMP-2 expression were enhanced in KKAy mice liver. Nevertheless, both phospho-mTOR and p62 expression were augmented in KKAy mice liver. More than 70% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, the percentage of acidic autolysosomes was decreased in hepatocytes from KKAy mice significantly (40.1 ± 3.48%). Both protein and RNA level of V-ATPase subunits ATP6v1a, ATP6v1b, ATP6v1d in isolated lysosomes were suppressed in KKAy mice as compared to control. Interestingly, incubation with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased in the rate of LTR-positive autolysosomes in hepatocytes from KKAy mice and suppressed p62 accumulation in the liver from KKAy mice which correlated to an increase in the V-ATPase subunits expression. These results indicate that down-regulation of V-ATPase due to hepatic steatosis causes autophagic dysfunction via disruption of lysosomal and autophagic acidification. Moreover, activation of mTOR plays a pivotal role on dysregulation of lysosomal and autophagic acidification by modulation of V-ATPase expression and could therefore be a useful therapeutic target to ameliorate dysfunction of autophagy in NAFLD. - Highlights: • Hepatic steatosis causes accumulation of autophagic vesicles in hepatocytes. • Hepatic steatosis disturbs

  10. The diagnosis and therapy of intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by hepatic arterioportal vein fistulas in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Pengfei; Chen Xiaoming; Lu Ligong; Hu Baoshan; Li Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hemodynamics of increasing portal venous pressure(PVP) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients complicated with hepatic arterioportal vein fistulas (HAPVF) and the diagnosis and therapy of intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by HAPVF. Methods: One hundred and fifteen cases of hepatocellular carcinoma with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage were checked by hepatic arteriography and were treated through orifices embolization in cases with severe HAPCF by coils and/or ethanol. Results: Twenty-six out of 31 patients suffering intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage have severe HAPVF (the main stem of portal veins are visible). However, there are only 15 patients with light HAPVF among the 84 patients who have mild upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (the main stem of portal veins are invisible). After the embolization, all of the 26 patients who have severe HAPVF stopped bleeding. Among them, the main stem of hepatic arteries are occluded in 2 patients. Conclusion: The existence of severe HAPVF should be taken into consideration when intractable upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, and it can be diagnosed through hepatic artery DSA. Orifice embolization is the most effective method for such kind of hemorrhage. (authors)

  11. Needle stick injury in a radiology department: a decade analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayani, R.; Rajani, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of needle stick injury in health care workers of radiology department. Study type, settings and duration: Cross sectional, observational study conducted at the Radiology department of Aga Khan University hospital from January 2000 to May 2010. Subject and Methods: All self-reported needle stick injuries data of Health care workers of radiology department was recorded. The personnel involved (Radiologist, resident, radiographer, nurses etc), area of working and the causes of injury were identified including the procedural or post procedural details. Patient's status of hepatitis or blood borne infection was also noted. Data was recorded and analyzed in Excel worksheet. Results: A total of 55 health workers reported needle stick injuries at all sections of radiology departments with maximum number needle stick injuries at general radiography, fluoroscopy and IVP section. Radiographers and radiology residents received the maximum number of injuries. Major cause of injury was cannulation however, many injuries occurred during disposing or handling of bin. In majority of cases the patients were not infected with any known blood borne infections. Conclusions: Doctors and nurses get needle-stick injuries while carrying out clinical procedures, while, ancillary staff get infected post procedure during disposal of garbage. Policy message: Good occupational health and safety practices must be promoted to all staff. Safer disposal of needles is an important area where practice and procedure needs to be carefully reviewed. It is necessary to undertake a risk assessment, to offer counseling and Post Exposure Prophylaxis and treatment where necessary. (author)

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    OpenAIRE

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  13. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  14. Hepatic folate metabolism in the chronic alcoholic monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Romero, J.J.; Watson, J.E.; Gong, E.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of altered hepatic folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the folate deficiency of chronic alcoholism, the hepatic metabolism of a tracer dose of 3 H-PteGlu was compared in monkeys given 50% of energy as ethanol for 2 years and in control monkeys. Long-term ethanol feeding resulted in mild hepatic injury, with a significant decrease in hepatic folate levels. Chromatographic studies of liver biopsies obtained after the tracer dose indicated that the processes of reduction, methylation, and formylation of reduced folate and the synthesis of polyglutamyl folates were not affected by long-term ethanol feeding. Hepatic tritium levels were significantly decreased in the ethanol-fed group. These studies suggest that the decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decreased ability to retain folates in the liver, whereas reduction and further metabolism of folates is not affected

  15. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  17. Restorative Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Radiation-Induced Oxidative Hepatic Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fatih, N.M.; EI-Tawil, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The potential role of antioxidant natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of oxidative tissue-damage associated with ionizing-radiation has accumulated over the past decades. The possible restorative effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimizing radiation-induced hepatic injury in male albino rats was investigated. CAPE was given to rats via intraperitoneal (ip.) injection at a dose of (10μmol/ kg b.wt.) for 21 successive days throughout exposure to gamma radiation and continued for 15 successive days post gamma-radiation exposure. Whole body gamma-irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses (3 weeks) 2 Gy increment every week up to total cumulative dose of G Gy. Rats were sacrificed at either I, or 15 days after last dose of radiation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was determined in plasma and hepatic tissues. In addition, the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined to evaluate the changes of antioxidant-status in blood systems and hepatic tissues. Meantime, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were estimated in rat serum. Results showed that exposure to gamma-radiation significantly increased the MDA levels and the activities of XO, ALT, AST and ALP. Moreover, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities as well GSH contents showed significant consumption in irradiated rats. Treatment with CAPE showed a significant decrease in MDA level and caused significant increases in all enzymes measured in hepatic tissues and blood systems when compared with irradiated group. Conclusion: radiation-exposure leads to a reduction in antioxidant enzymatic activities and causes lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissues and blood. Under experimental condition, CAPE exhibits restorative effects on gamma-rays-induced hepatic-oxidative impairment in rats

  18. Restorative Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in Radiation-Induced Oxidative Hepatic Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fatih, N.M.; EI-Tawil, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential role of antioxidant natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of oxidative tissue-damage associated with ionizing-radiation has accumulated over the past decades. The possible restorative effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimizing radiation-induced hepatic injury in male albino rats was investigated. CAPE was given to rats via intraperitoneal (ip.) injection at a dose of (10μmol/ kg b.wt.) for 21 successive days throughout exposure to gamma radiation and continued for 15 successive days post gamma-radiation exposure. Whole body gamma-irradiation was delivered as fractionated doses (3 weeks) 2 Gy increment every week up to total cumulative dose of G Gy. Rats were sacrificed at either I, or 15 days after last dose of radiation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was determined in plasma and hepatic tissues. In addition, the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined to evaluate the changes of antioxidant-status in blood systems and hepatic tissues. Meantime, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were estimated in rat serum. Results showed that exposure to gamma-radiation significantly increased the MDA levels and the activities of XO, ALT, AST and ALP. Moreover, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities as well GSH contents showed significant consumption in irradiated rats. Treatment with CAPE showed a significant decrease in MDA level and caused significant increases in all enzymes measured in hepatic tissues and blood systems when compared with irradiated group. Conclusion: radiation-exposure leads to a reduction in antioxidant enzymatic activities and causes lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissues and blood. Under experimental condition, CAPE exhibits restorative effects on gamma-rays-induced hepatic-oxidative impairment in rats

  19. Nebivolol and chrysin protect the liver against ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Mizar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced injury, one of the leading causes of liver damage post-surgical intervention, trauma and transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of nebivolol and chrysin against I/R-induced liver injury via their vasodilator and antioxidant effects, respectively. Adult male Wister rats received nebivolol (5 mg/kg and/or chrysin (25 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for one week then subjected to ischemia via clamping the portal triad for 30 min then reperfusion for 30 min. Liver function enzymes, alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST, as well as hepatic Myeloperoxidase (MPO, total nitrate (NOx, glutathione (GSH and liver malondialdehyde (MDA were measured at the end of the experiment. Liver tissue damage was examined by histopathology. In addition, the expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS subtypes, endothelial (eNOS and inducible (iNOS in liver samples were assessed by Western blotting and confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Both chrysin and nebivolol significantly counteracted I/R-induced oxidative stress and tissue damage biomarkers. The combination of these agents caused additive liver protective effect against I/R-induced damage via the up regulation of nitric oxide expression and the suppression of oxidative stress. Chrysin and nebivolol combination showed a promising protective effect against I/R-induced liver injury, at least in part, via decreasing oxidative stress and increasing nitric oxide levels.

  20. Pancreas preserving total duodenectomy for complex duodenal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Jai Dev; Kudari, Ashwinikumar; Yadav, Thakur Deen; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Kalra, Naveen

    2009-07-06

    To assess the feasibility and safety of a pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy in the management of severe duodenal injury caused by abdominal trauma. Two patients with both extensive injury of the duodenum and diffuse peritonitis underwent pancreas preserving total duodenectomy at our tertiary care centre. These two young male patients (age 20 and 22 years) presented 2 days and 6 hours respectively following blunt abdominal trauma. The duodenum was almost completely separated from the pancreas. Ampulla was seen as a button on the pancreas. Following total duodenectomy, reconstruction was performed by suturing the jejunum to the head of the pancreas anteriorly and posteriorly away from the ampulla (invagination of the pancreas into the jejunum). There were no complications attributable to the procedure. Both patients are well on follow up. A Pancreas-preserving total duodenectomy offers a safe alternative to the Whipple procedure in managing complex duodenal injury. This procedure avoids unnecessary resection of the adjacent pancreas and anastomosis to undilated hepatic and pancreatic ducts.

  1. Road collisions as a cause of traumatic spinal cord injury in ireland, 2001-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Eimear

    2014-01-01

    Road collisions remain the leading cause of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in the world. Half of all TSCIs in Ireland in 2000 were caused by road collisions. Since then, there has been a downward trend in road fatalities coincident with implemented road safety strategies.

  2. Hydatid cyst of the liver which demaged the confluence of the hepatic ducts causing deep obstructive jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications of the hydatid cyst of the liver on bile ducts appear in 5-25% representing almost two third of all complications of the hydatid liver cysts. Fortunately a damage to the bile ducts causes only an infection of the cyst usually without major consequences. More serious complications such as cholangitis and deep obstructive jaundice are much rarer. The defect of the bile duct usually is a periferal one. Damage to the major ducts are rarer and those on the confluence of hepatic ducts itself are the rarity. In that case biliary reconstruction may be a serious chalenge. The authors present a 23 year-old man in whom a centrally localised hydatid cyst made a major damage of the confluence of all three hepatic ducts causing deep obstructive jaundice. After standard procedure for hydatid cyst an intracavital mucosa to mucosa hepaticoje-junostomy was carried out with excellent success. More then six years after surgery the patient stayed symptom-free with bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase within normal limits.

  3. Interventions to reduce needle stick injuries at a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to blood/body fluids is associated with risk of infection with blood borne pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Materials and Methods: We carefully document needle stick injuries (NSI and implement post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. We report a four-year continuing surveillance study where 342 healthcare workers (HCWs sustained NSI. PEP was given to HCWs injured from seropositive sources. If the source was HbsAg positive, HCWs were given a hepatitis B immunization booster. If the HCW was antiHBs negative, both hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and hepatitis B vaccine were administered. For HCWs who sustained injuries from HIV positive sources, antiretroviral therapy was started. Follow-up was done after three and six months of exposure. Recent interventions by the infection control committee at our hospital reduced NSI considerably during intravenous line administration and glucose monitoring. Results and Discussion: Of 342 injuries, 254 were from known sources and 88 from unknown sources. From known sources, 37 were seropositive; 13 for HIV, 15 for HCV, nine for HBV. Sixty six sharp injuries were sustained through garbage bags, 43 during IV line administration, 41 during injection administration, 35 during needle recapping, 32 during blood collection, 27 during blood glucose monitoring, 24 from OT instruments, 17 during needle disposal, 16 while using surgical blade, 7 during suturing and 34 from miscellaneous sources. Conclusion: No case of seroconversion has taken place, so far, as a result of needle stick injuries at our centre.

  4. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  5. Statin-induced liver injury in an area endemic for hepatitis B virus infection: risk factors and outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yueh; Huang, Yi-Shin; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Bryan; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced liver injury (SILI) is quite rare, but may be severe. Little is known about the impact of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHBI) on SILI. We aimed to investigate the risk factors and outcome of SILI, with special reference to its interaction with CHBI. Patients with SILI were recruited from our hospital, and three-to-one drug-matched controls were randomly selected. The clinical data of the patients were then compared. A total of 108 patients with SILI and 324 controls were enrolled. The patients with SILI were both older and had a higher statin dose than the controls. There was no predilection of liver injury associated with the seven available statins. Among the SILI patients, there was no statistical difference between the baseline and peak liver enzyme tests, and latency and severity between hepatitis B carriers (n = 16) and non-carriers (n = 92). High dose of statin and age were the two independent risk factors of SILI (OR and 95% CI: 1.93, 1.08-3.35, P = 0.025, and 1.73, 1.07-2.80, P = 0.027, respectively). Permanent discontinuation of statin was noted in 50 (46.3%) patients with SILI due to severe SILI or recurrent hepatotoxicity after rechallenge of other statins. High dose of statin and old age may increase patient susceptibility to SILI; however, CHBI and abnormal baseline liver tests are not risk factors of SILI. Nonetheless, SILI is still worthy of notice, because nearly half of the overt cases discontinued statin treatment due to severe hepatotoxicity in this study. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Coil Embolization of an Arteriobiliary Fistula Caused by Hepatic Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Doi, Ippei; Makita, Kohzoh; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Arteriobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy. We report successful coil embolization of an arteriobiliary fistula. An 80-year-old woman underwent percutaneous placement of an indwelling catheter into the replaced right hepatic artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of liver metastases. Coil embolization of the left hepatic artery was not performed. The patient complained of abdominal pain during intra-arterial chemotherapy. Angiography revealed a fistula between the replaced right hepatic artery and the common bile duct. The fistula was successfully treated by coil embolization via the indwelling catheter, and the indwelling catheter was removed. Although such complications usually herald the termination of intra-arterial chemotherapy, the patient underwent percutaneous implantation of a new catheter-port system, and intra-arterial chemotherapy was restarted

  7. TRIF Differentially Regulates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation/Fibrosis in MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling is activated through 2 adaptor proteins: MyD88 and TIR-domain containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF. TLR4 and MyD88 are crucial in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and fibrosis. However, the role of TRIF in TLR4-mediated NASH and fibrosis has been elusive. This study investigated the differential roles of TRIF in hepatic steatosis and inflammation/fibrosis. Methods: A choline-deficient amino acid defined (CDAA diet was used for the mouse NASH model. On this diet, the mice develop hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. TLR4 wild-type and TLR4-/- bone marrow chimeric mice and TRIF-/- mice were fed CDAA or a control diet for 22 weeks. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were examined. Results: In the CDAA diet–induced NASH, the mice with wild-type bone marrow had higher alanine aminotransferase and hepatic tumor necrosis factor levels than the mice with TLR4-/- bone marrow. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score showed that both wild-type and TLR4-/- bone marrow chimeras had reduced hepatic steatosis, and that both types of chimeras had similar levels of inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning to whole-body wild-type mice. Notably, wild-type recipients showed more liver fibrosis than TLR4-/- recipients. Although TRIF-/- mice showed reduced hepatic steatosis, these mice showed more liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis than wild-type mice. TRIF-/- stellate cells and hepatocytes produced more C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1 and C-C motif chemokine ligand than wild-type cells in response to lipopolysaccharide. Consistently, TRIF-/- mice showed increased CXCL1 and CCL3 expression along with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, which promotes liver inflammation and injury. Conclusions: In TLR4-mediated NASH, different liver cells have distinct roles in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. TRIF promotes hepatic

  8. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  9. Leading causes of death from injury and poisoning by age, sex and urban/rural areas in Tianjin, China 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Choi, Bernard C K; Wang, Dezheng; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Wenlong; Wu, Tongyu; Chang, Gai

    2011-05-01

    Injury and poisoning are a growing public health concern in China due to rapid economic growth, which has resulted in many cases with an injury-prone environment, such as overcrowded traffic, booming construction, and work-related stress. This study investigates the distribution and trends of deaths from injury and poisoning in Tianjin, China, by age, sex and urban/rural status, from 1999 to 2006. The study used data from the all-cause mortality surveillance system maintained by the Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each death certificate recorded 53 variables. Cause of death was coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Standardized mortality rates and proportions of deaths were analyzed. Traffic accidents, suicide, poisoning, drowning and fall were the leading causes of fatal injuries in Tianjin from 1999 to 2006. Injury mortality rates were high in males, in rural areas, and in the older age groups. Despite low injury mortality rates, injury accounted for close to 50% of all deaths amongst the 5-29 year age group. Traffic accident mortality rates increased, although not significantly so, during the period from 1999 to 2006. Injury prevention and control is a high public health priority in Tianjin. Our detailed table on the number of deaths by causes of fatal injuries and by age group provides important information to set prevention strategies in the nurseries, schools, workplace and seniors homes. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of a massive transfusion protocol (1:1:1) on major hepatic injuries: does it increase abdominal wall closure rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Chad G; Dente, Christopher J; Shaz, Beth; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Feliciano, David V

    2013-10-01

    Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) using high plasma and platelet ratios for exsanguinating trauma patients are increasingly popular. Major liver injuries often require massive resuscitations and immediate hemorrhage control. Current published literature describes outcomes among patients with mixed patterns of injury. We sought to identify the effects of an MTP on patients with major liver trauma. Patients with grade 3, 4 or 5 liver injuries who required a massive blood component transfusion were analyzed. We compared patients with high plasma:red blood cell:platelet ratio (1:1:1) transfusions (2007-2009) with patients injured before the creation of an institutional MTP (2005-2007). Among 60 patients with major hepatic injuries, 35 (58%) underwent resuscitation after the implementation of an MTP. Patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Implementation of the MTP significantly improved plasma: red blood cell:platelet ratios and decreased crystalloid fluid resuscitation (p = 0.026). Rapid improvement in early acidosis and coagulopathy was superior with an MTP (p = 0.009). More patients in the MTP group also underwent primary abdominal fascial closure during their hospital stay (p = 0.021). This was most evident with grade 4 injuries (89% vs. 14%). The mean time to fascial closure was 4.2 days. The overall survival rate for all major liver injuries was not affected by an MTP (p = 0.61). The implementation of a formal MTP using high plasma and platelet ratios resulted in a substantial increase in abdominal wall approximation. This occurred concurrently to a decrease in the delivered volume of crystalloid fluid.

  11. Hepatitis C, innate immunity and alcohol: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osna, Natalia A; Ganesan, Murali; Kharbanda, Kusum K

    2015-02-05

    Hepatitis C and alcohol are the most widespread causes of liver disease worldwide. Approximately 80% of patients with a history of hepatitis C and alcohol abuse develop chronic liver injury. Alcohol consumption in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients exacerbates liver disease leading to rapid progression of fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocytes are the main sites of HCV-infection and ethanol metabolism, both of which generate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress levels affect HCV replication and innate immunity, resulting in a greater susceptibility for HCV-infection and virus spread in the alcoholic patients. In this review paper, we analyze the effects of ethanol metabolism and other factors on HCV replication. In addition, we illustrate the mechanisms of how HCV hijacks innate immunity and how ethanol exposure regulates this process. We also clarify the effects of HCV and ethanol metabolism on interferon signaling-a crucial point for activation of anti-viral genes to protect cells from virus-and the role that HCV- and ethanol-induced impairments play in adaptive immunity which is necessary for recognition of virally-infected hepatocytes. In conclusion, ethanol exposure potentiates the suppressive effects of HCV on innate immunity, which activates viral spread in the liver and finally, leads to impairments in adaptive immunity. The dysregulation of immune response results in impaired elimination of HCV-infected cells, viral persistence, progressive liver damage and establishment of chronic infection that worsens the outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in alcoholic patients.

  12. Hepatitis C, Innate Immunity and Alcohol: Friends or Foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Osna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C and alcohol are the most widespread causes of liver disease worldwide. Approximately 80% of patients with a history of hepatitis C and alcohol abuse develop chronic liver injury. Alcohol consumption in hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients exacerbates liver disease leading to rapid progression of fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocytes are the main sites of HCV-infection and ethanol metabolism, both of which generate oxidative stress. Oxidative stress levels affect HCV replication and innate immunity, resulting in a greater susceptibility for HCV-infection and virus spread in the alcoholic patients. In this review paper, we analyze the effects of ethanol metabolism and other factors on HCV replication. In addition, we illustrate the mechanisms of how HCV hijacks innate immunity and how ethanol exposure regulates this process. We also clarify the effects of HCV and ethanol metabolism on interferon signaling—a crucial point for activation of anti-viral genes to protect cells from virus—and the role that HCV- and ethanol-induced impairments play in adaptive immunity which is necessary for recognition of virally-infected hepatocytes. In conclusion, ethanol exposure potentiates the suppressive effects of HCV on innate immunity, which activates viral spread in the liver and finally, leads to impairments in adaptive immunity. The dysregulation of immune response results in impaired elimination of HCV-infected cells, viral persistence, progressive liver damage and establishment of chronic infection that worsens the outcomes of chronic hepatitis C in alcoholic patients.

  13. Athlete’s Hepatitis in a Young Healthy Marathon Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Athlete’s hepatitis is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a significant ischemic insult to the liver. The most likely pathogenesis is decreased blood supply to the liver resulting in significant hypoxic hepatocyte injury. We report a case of a 48-year-old healthy young male who presented with athlete’s hepatitis confirmed by liver biopsy after a 14-mile marathon run. To our knowledge, this is the second case of athlete’s ischemic hepatitis reported in the literature. It is a diagnosis worth considering in patients involved in extreme exercise programs.

  14. 20 Years of Research on Socioeconomic Inequality and Children's—Unintentional Injuries Understanding the Cause-Specific Evidence at Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Laflamme

    2010-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at both area and individual levels, the bulk of which deal with road traffic, burn, and fall injuries. As a whole and for each injury cause separately, their results support the notion that low socioeconomic status is greatly detrimental to child safety but not in all instances and settings. In light of variations between causes and, within causes, between settings and countries, it is emphasized that the prevention of inequities in child safety requires not only that proximal risk factors of injuries be tackled but also remote and fundamental ones inherent to poverty.

  15. Neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury is a cause of infantile spasms

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, GUANG; ZOU, LI-PING; WANG, JING; SHI, XIUYU; TIAN, SHUPING; YANG, XIAOFAN; JU, JUN; YAO, HONGXIANG; LIU, YUJIE

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemic brain injury is one of the causes of infantile spasms. In the present study, the clinical history and auxiliary examination results of 18 patients who developed infantile spasms several months after neonatal hypoglycemia were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 666 patients with infantile spasms admitted to two pediatric centers between January 2008 and October 2012, 18 patients developed infantile spasms after being diagnosed with neonatal hypoglycemia, defined as a who...

  16. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  17. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment; Ruptura hepatica espontanea e traumatica: aspectos tomograficos e do tratamento minimamente invasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Disgnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: gl.palacio@bol.com.br; Farias, Andre P. [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada e Ressonancia Magnetica; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Radiologia Intervencionista; Salem, Marcelo Zindel [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Gastroenterologia Cirurgica; Ricca, Artur Berti [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  18. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weibin; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients

  19. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weibin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhou, Meiling, E-mail: meilingzhou2012@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jia, Dongwei, E-mail: jiadongwei@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  20. Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, D P

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. While delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unique to marijuana and nicotine to tobacco, the smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gases and particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lung. Although far fewer marijuana than tobacco cigarettes are generally smoked on a daily basis, the pulmonary consequences of marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater deposition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular marijuana smoking produces a number of long-term pulmonary consequences, including chronic cough and sputum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway inflammation and injury and immunohistochemical evidence of dysregulated growth of respiratory epithelial cells, that may be precursors to lung cancer. The THC in marijuana could contribute to some of these injurious changes through its ability to augment oxidative stress, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibit apoptosis. On the other hand, physiologic, clinical or epidemiologic evidence that marijuana smoking may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory cancer is limited and inconsistent. Habitual use of marijuana is also associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, including impairment in microbial phagocytosis and killing that is associated with defective production of immunostimulatory cytokines and nitric oxide, thereby potentially predisposing to pulmonary infection. In view of the growing interest in medicinal marijuana, further epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the true risks of regular marijuana smoking on respiratory health.

  1. miR-217 Regulates Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Inflammation by Disrupting Sirtuin 1–Lipin-1 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Huquan; Liang, Xiaomei; Jogasuria, Alvin; Davidson, Nicholas O.; You, Min

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol-mediated injury, combined with gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), provokes generation of proinflammatory cytokines in Kupffer cells, causing hepatic inflammation. Among the mediators of these effects, miR-217 aggravates ethanol-induced steatosis in hepatocytes. However, the role of miR-217 in ethanol-induced liver inflammation process is unknown. Here, we examined the role of miR-217 in the responses to ethanol, LPS, or a combination of ethanol and LPS in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ...

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients with acute hepatitis and characterization of the detected genotype 4 hepatitis E virus sequences in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Baasanjav, Nachin; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E is considered to be a worldwide public health problem. Although the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies in healthy individuals is noted to be 11%, no patients with acute hepatitis E have previously been identified in Mongolia. Three hundred two consecutive patients (183 males and 119 females; median age of 22.0 [Interquartile range: 18.3-25.0] years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis during 2012-2013 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. By serological and/or molecular approaches, 77 (25.5%), 93 (30.8%), 19 (6.3%), 48 (15.9%), and 12 (4.0%) of the patients were diagnosed with acute hepatitis of types A, B, C, D (superinfection of hepatitis delta virus on a background of chronic hepatitis B virus infection) and E, respectively, while the cause of hepatitis was unknown in the remaining 53 patients (17.5%). The 12 hepatitis E patients had no history of travel abroad in the 3 months before the onset of disease, and lived separately in fixed or movable houses with water supplied via pipe, tank or well, denying transmission from a common water supply. The 12 HEV isolates obtained from the patients showed high nucleotide identities of 99.7-100%, and a representative HEV isolate, MNE13-227, was closest to the Chinese isolates of genotype 4, with the highest identity of 97.3% in the 304-nt ORF2 sequence and 92.1% over the entire genome. The present study revealed the occurrence of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in Mongolia, caused by a monophyletic genotype 4 HEV strain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  4. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  5. Circulating Extracellular Histones Are Clinically Relevant Mediators of Multiple Organ Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Chihiro; Kotani, Hirokazu; Miyao, Masashi; Ishida, Tokiko; Jemail, Leila; Abiru, Hitoshi; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular histones are a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The mechanisms of histone-mediated injury in certain organs have been extensively studied, but an understanding of the pathophysiological role of histone-mediated injury in multiple organ injury remains elusive. To elucidate this role, we systemically subjected C57BL/6 mice to various doses of histones and performed a chronological evaluation of the morphological and functional changes in the lungs, liver, and kidneys. Notably, histone administration ultimately led to death after a dose-dependent aggravation of multiple organ injury. In chronological studies, pulmonary and hepatic injuries occurred within 15 minutes, whereas renal injuries presented at a later phase, suggesting that susceptibility to extracellular histones varies among organs. Histones bound to pulmonary and hepatic endothelial cells immediately after administration, leading to endothelial damage, which could be ameliorated by pretreatment with heparin. Furthermore, release of another DAMP, high-mobility group protein box 1, followed the histone-induced tissue damage, and an antibody against the molecule ameliorated hepatic and renal failure in a late phase. These findings indicate that extracellular histones induce multiple organ injury in two progressive stages-direct injury to endothelial cells and the subsequent release of other DAMPs-and that combination therapies against extracellular histones and high-mobility group protein box 1 may be a promising strategy for treating multiple organ injury. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetomaternal Outcome in Acute Hepatitis E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Humayun, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine fetomaternal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E in terms of pregnancy outcome and perinatal mortality. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: Serum samples of 38 patients who presented with jaundice in pregnancy were collected to detect hepatitis E IgM antibodies. Demographics, pregnancy outcome and perinatal mortality was noted in hepatitis E positive cases with cause of complications. Cases with jaundice due solely to any other cause were excluded. Results: Twenty five patients had acute hepatitis E with coexistent acute hepatitis A in 1(4%) patient. Their mean age was 25 years and mean gravidity was 2. Among them, 10 (40%) patients were primigravida followed by gravida two in 7 (28%) cases. Twenty four (96%) patients presented in third trimester of pregnancy and in 1 (4%) pregnancy ended in second trimester missed miscarriage. The mean gestational age was 32 weeks. Twenty one (84%) babies were born alive, among them 18 (86%) were preterm. Perinatal mortality was 26%; contributed by intrauterine deaths and early neonatal deaths in 3 (14%) cases each. Total maternal deaths were 5 (20%), 4 (80%) in postpartum period and 1 (20%) in antepartum period due to fulminant hepatic failure in all cases. Conclusion: Prematurity in newborns and fulminant hepatic failure in mothers are major cause of poor fetomaternal outcome in acute hepatitis E in pregnancy. (author)

  7. Effects of defibrotide, a novel oligodeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia and reperfusion injury of the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Song, Jin Ho; Oh, Byung Kwon; Choi, Myung Sup; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2002-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide, on ischaemia-reperfusion injury to the liver using a rat model. 2. Ischaemia of the left and median lobes was created by total inflow occlusion for 30 min followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Hepatic injury was assessed by the release of liver enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and lactic dehydrogenase, LDH). Hepatic oxidant stress was measured by superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate formation. Leukocyte-endothelium interaction and Kupffer cell mobilization were quantified by measuring hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO), polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and immunostaining of Kupffer cell. 3. Defibrotide treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of postreperfusion superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, serum ALT activity, serum LDH activity, MPO activity, serum nitrite/nitrate level, leukocyte adherence to SMA, and Kupffer cell mobilization, indicating a significant attenuation of hepatic dysfunction. 4. A significant correlation existed between liver ischaemia/reperfusion and hepatic injury, suggesting that liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury is mediated predominantly by generation of oxygen free radicals and mobilization of Kupffer cells. 5. We conclude that defibrotide significantly protects the liver against liver ischaemia/reperfusion injury by interfering with Kupffer cell mobilization and formation of oxygen free radicals. This study provides strong evidence that defibrotide has important beneficial effects on acute inflammatory tissue injury such as that occurring in the reperfusion of the ischaemic liver.

  8. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na + -K + -ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na + -K + -ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na + -K + -ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis

  9. Left hepatic vein injury during laparoscopic antireflux surgery for large para-oesophageal hiatus hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal Anish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the advent of laparoscopic fundoplication has increased both patient and physician acceptance of antireflux surgery, it has become apparent that the laparoscopic approach is associated with an increased risk of some complications and as well as the occurrence of new complications specific to this approach. One such complication occurred in our patient who had intra-operative left hepatic vein injury during laparoscopic floppy Nissen fundoplication for large para-oesophageal rolling hernia. With timely conversion to open procedure, the bleeding was controlled and the antireflux and the procedure were completed uneventfully. However, this suggests that even with an experience in advanced laparoscopy surgery, complications can occur. Clear understanding of the normal and pathologic anatomy and its variations facilitates laparoscopic surgery and should h