WorldWideScience

Sample records for hepa filters destined

  1. HEPA filter encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Anderson, Dianne D.; Kidd, Scott D.; Bowers, John S.; Attebery, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    A low viscosity resin is delivered into a spent HEPA filter or other waste. The resin is introduced into the filter or other waste using a vacuum to assist in the mass transfer of the resin through the filter media or other waste.

  2. HEPA filter monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.

    1986-07-01

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  3. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, DOP'' as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys' (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington.

  4. Solutions for Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP) tested high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters destined for disposal at Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gablin, K.A.

    1992-11-01

    In January 1992, Argonne National Laboratory East, Environmental and Waste Management Program, learned that a chemical material used for testing of all HEPA filters at the primary source, Flanders Filter, Inc. in Washington, NC, was considered a hazardous chemical by Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations. These regulations are under the jurisdiction of the Washington Administration Code, Chapter 173-303, and therefore directly under impact the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria. Dioctyl Phthalate, ``DOP`` as it is referred to in chemical abbreviation form, is added in small test quantities at the factory, at three Department of Energy (DOE) operated HEPA filter test facilities, and in the installed duct work at various operating laboratories or production facilities. When small amounts of radioactivity are added to the filter media in operation, the result is a mixed waste. This definition would normally only develop in the state of Washington since their acceptance criteria is ten times more stringent then the US Environmental Protection Agencys` (US EPA). Methods of Processing will be discussed, which will include detoxification, physical separation, heat and vacuum separation, and compaction. The economic impact of a mixed waste definition in the State of Washington, and an Low Level Waste (LLW) definition in other locations, may lend this product to be a prime candidate for commercial disposal in the future, or a possible de-listing by the State of Washington.

  5. Ceramic HEPA Filter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M A; Bergman, W; Haslam, J; Brown, E P; Sawyer, S; Beaulieu, R; Althouse, P; Meike, A

    2012-04-30

    Potential benefits of ceramic filters in nuclear facilities: (1) Short term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) CalPoly HTTU provides unique testing capability to answer questions for DOE - High temperature testing of materials, components, filter, (b) Several DNFSB correspondences and presentations by DNFSB members have highlighted the need for HEPA filter R and D - DNFSB Recommendation 2009-2 highlighted a nuclear facility response to an evaluation basis earthquake followed by a fire (aka shake-n-bake) and CalPoly has capability for a shake-n-bake test; (2) Intermediate term benefit for DOE and industry - (a) Filtration for specialty applications, e.g., explosive applications at Nevada, (b) Spin-off technologies applicable to other commercial industries; and (3) Long term benefit for DOE, NRC, and industry - (a) Across industry, strong desire for better performance filter, (b) Engineering solution to safety problem will improve facility safety and decrease dependence on associated support systems, (c) Large potential life-cycle cost savings, and (d) Facilitates development and deployment of LLNL process innovations to allow continuous ventilation system operation during a fire.

  6. Tandem HEPA filter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, B G; Osetek, D J

    1978-02-01

    Current methods for evaluating the performance and reliability of high-efficiency air cleaning systems use forward light-scattering photometers and DOP aerosol. This method is limited to measuring protection factors of 10(4) or 10(5) and has poor sensitivity to particles less than .3 micron. More accurate determination of system performance could be made by measuring two filter stages with a single test. Because of the large protection factors of a two-stage system, it is necessary to use high challenge aerosol concentrations and long downstream sampling times. Concentrations were measured using an intra-cavity laser light-scattering aerosol spectrometer which is capable of detection of single particles ranging in size from 0.07 to 3.00 micron diameter. The results of several tests with challenge aerosols of both NaCl and DOP yielded protection factors ranging from 1.4 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) for two HEPA filters in series.

  7. Water washable stainless steel HEPA filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Terrance D.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter apparatus and system, and method for assaying particulates. The HEPA filter provides for capture of 99.99% or greater of particulates from a gas stream, with collection of particulates on the surface of the filter media. The invention provides a filter system that can be cleaned and regenerated in situ.

  8. Analysis of an MCU HEPA filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    A series of direct analyses on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter material from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) have been performed; this includes x-ray methods such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Contained Scanning Electron Microscopy (CSEM) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), as well as Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, two leaching studies (one with water, one with dichloromethane) have been performed on three portions (inlet, center, and outlet) of the HEPA filter material, with the leachates being analyzed by Inductively-coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES), Semi-Volatile Organic Analysis (SVOA) and gammascan. From the results of the analyses, SRNL feels that cesium-depleted solvent is being introduced into the HEPA filter. The most likely avenue for this is mechanical aerosolization of solvent, where the aerosol is then carried along an airstream into the HEPA filter. Once introduced into the HEPA filter media, the solvent wicks throughout the material, and migrates towards the outlet end. Once on the outlet end, continual drying could cause particulate flakes to exit the filter and travel farther down the airstream path.

  9. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Multi-Canister overpack internal HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The rationale for locating a filter assembly inside each Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rather than include the filter in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process piping system was to eliminate the potential for contamination to the operators, processing equipment, and the MCO. The internal HEPA filters provide essential protection to facility workers from alpha contamination, both external skin contamination and potential internal depositions. Filters installed in the CVD process piping cannot mitigate potential contamination when breaking the process piping connections. Experience with K-Basin material has shown that even an extremely small release can result in personnel contamination and costly schedule disruptions to perform equipment and facility decontamination. Incorporating the filter function internal to the MCO rather than external is consistent with ALARA requirements of 10 CFR 835. Based on the above, the SNF Project position is to retain the internal HEPA filters in the MCO design.

  11. HEPA filter fire (and subsequent unfiltered release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: HEPA Filter Failure - Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  12. HEPA filter fire (and subsequent unfiltered release)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.B.

    1996-09-27

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: HEPA Filter Failure - Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  13. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  14. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions.

  15. Validation of the integrity of a HEPA filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a delayed air sampling method to verify the integrity of an existing HEPA filter system in a ventilated fume hood. (238U,232Th)O2 microspheres were generated to fabricate cement nuclear fuel pellets in a HEPA-filtered hood. To comply with the air effluent concentration limits by NRC, the capture efficiency of the HEPA filter was examined. An in-line isokinetic air sampling system was installed downstream of the HEPA filter. Utilizing a gas flow proportional counter, 212Pb was used as a surrogate to indicate any possible penetration of the (238U,232Th)O2 particles through the HEPA filter. Based on the experimental results, this delayed sampling method proved to be an easy and effective way to validate the integrity of the HEPA filter.

  16. Ceramic High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Final Report CRADA No. TC02160.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    The technical objective of this project was to develop a ceramic HEPA filter technology, by initially producing and testing coupon ceramics, small scale prototypes, and full scale prototype HEPA filters, and to address relevant manufacturing and commercialization technical issues.

  17. Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

  18. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  19. A review of DOE HEPA filter component test activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slawski, J.W.; Bresson, J.F. [Informatics Corp., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scripsick, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    All HEPA filters purchased for installation in DOE nuclear facilities are required to be tested at a Filter Test Facility (FTF) prior to installation. The number of HEPA filters purchased by DOE has been reduced so much that the Hanford FTF was closed. From Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 to 1994, funding was not provided to the FTF Technical Support Group (TSG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As a consequence, Round Robin Tests (RRTs), performed twice each year by the FTFs to assess constituency of test results among the FTFs, were not performed in FY 1992 and FY 1993. The Annual Reports of FTF test activities were not prepared for FY 1992 - 1995. Technical support provided to the FTFs was minimal. There is talk of closing a second FTF, and ongoing discussions as to whether DOE will continue to fund operation of the FTFs. In FY 1994, DOE Defense Programs commenced funding the TSG. RRT data for FY 1994 and 1995 have been entered into the database; the FY 1994 RRT report has been issued; and the FY 1995 RRT report is in progress. Data from semiannual reports have been retrieved and entered into the database. Standards related to HEPA filter test and procurement activities are now scheduled for issuance by FY 1996. Continuation of these activities depends on whether DOE will continue to support the HEPA filter test program. The history and activities of the FTFs and the TSG at Los Alamos have been reported at previous Air Cleaning Conferences. Data from the FY 1991 Annual Report of FTF activities was presented at the 1992 Air Cleaning Conference. Preparation of the Annual Reports was temporarily suspended in 1992. However, all of the FTF Semiannual report data have been retrieved and entered into the data base. This paper focuses primarily on the results of HEPA filter tests conducted by FTFs during FY 1992 - FY 1995, and the possible effects of the DOE program uncertainties on the quality of HEPA filters for installation at the DOE sites. 15 refs., 13 tabs.

  20. Transient Heating and Thermomechanical Stress Modeling of Ceramic HEPA Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, Brandon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kelly, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haslam, Jeffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to showcase an initial finite-element analysis model of a ceramic High-Efficiency Particulate (HEPA) Air filter design. Next generation HEPA filter assemblies are being developed at LLNL to withstand high-temperature fire scenarios by use of ceramics and advanced materials. The filters are meant for use in radiological and nuclear facilities, and are required to survive 500°C fires over an hour duration. During such conditions, however, collecting data under varying parameters can be challenging; therefore, a Finite Element Analysis model of the filter was conducted using COMSOL ® Multiphysics to analyze the effects of fire. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) modelling offers several opportunities: researchers can quickly and easily consider impacts of potential design changes, material selection, and flow characterization on filter performance. Specifically, this model provides stress references for the sealant at high temperatures. Modeling of full filter assemblies was deemed inefficient given the computational requirements, so a section of three tubes from the assembly was modeled. The model looked at the transient heating and thermomechanical stress development during a 500°C air flow at 6 CFM. Significant stresses were found at the ceramic-metal interfaces of the filter, and conservative temperature profiles at locations of interest were plotted. The model can be used for the development of sealants that minimize stresses at the ceramic-metal interface. Further work on the model would include the full filter assembly and consider heat losses to make more accurate predictions.

  1. Efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filter on microorganism removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuaybamroong, P; Chotigawin, R; Supothina, S; Sribenjalux, P; Larpkiattaworn, S; Wu, C-Y

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the application of photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) to the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter for disinfection of airborne microorganisms. Experiments were conducted at two TiO2 loadings (1870 +/- 169 and 3140 +/- 67 mg/m(2)) on the HEPA filter irradiated with UV-A at the intensity of 0.85 +/- 0.18 or 4.85 +/- 0.09 mW/cm(2) under two relative humidity conditions (45 +/- 5% and 75 +/- 5%). Inactivation and penetration of four microorganisms were tested, including Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis. It was found that microorganisms retained on a photocatalytic filter were inactivated around 60-80% and even 100% for S. epidermidis when the PCO reactions occurred. Lower penetration was also found from the photocatalytic filter for all airborne microorganisms. High humidity decreased photocatalysis efficacy. Increasing TiO2 loading or irradiance intensity did not substantially affect its disinfection capability. The high efficiency particulate air filter is used widely to remove particulates and microorganisms from the air stream. However, the filter may become a source of microbes if those retained microorganisms proliferate and re-entrain back into the filtered air. This study demonstrates that such a problem can be handled effectively by using photocatalytic reactions to inactivate those confined microorganisms. A 60-100% microbe reduction can be achieved for a wide variety of microorganisms to provide better indoor air quality for hospitals, offices, and domestic applications.

  2. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fretthold, J.K. [Rocky Flats Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Slawski, J.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Multiple HEPA filter test methods, January--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, B.; Kyle, T.; Osetek, D.

    1977-06-01

    The testing of tandem high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems is of prime importance for the measurement of accurate overall system protection factors. A procedure, based on the use of an intra-cavity laser particle spectrometer, has been developed for measuring protection factors in the 10/sup 8/ range. A laboratory scale model of a filter system was constructed and initially tested to determine individual HEPA filter characteristics with regard to size and state (liquid or solid) of several test aerosols. Based on these laboratory measurements, in-situ testing has been successfully conducted on a number of single and tandem filter installations within the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory as well as on extraordinary large single systems at Rocky Flats. For the purpose of recovery and for simplified solid waste disposal, or prefiltering purposes, two versions of an inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner have been devised and are undergoing testing. Initial experience with one of the systems, which relies on an electrostatic spraying phenomenon, indicates performance efficiency of greater than 99.9% for flow velocities commonly used in air cleaning systems. Among the effluents associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing is /sup 129/I. An intra-cavity laser detection system is under development which shows promise of being able to detect mixing ratios of one part in 10/sup 7/, I/sub 2/ in air.

  4. HEPA Filter Disposal Write-Up 10/19/16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loll, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Process knowledge (PK) collection on HEPA filters is handled via the same process as other waste streams at LLNL. The Field technician or Characterization point of contact creates an information gathering document (IGD) in the IGD database, with input provided from the generator, and submits it for electronic approval. This document is essentially a waste generation profile, detailing the physical, chemical as well as radiological characteristics, and hazards, of a waste stream. It will typically contain a general, but sometimes detailed, description of the work processes which generated the waste. It will contain PK as well as radiological and industrial hygiene analytical swipe results, and any other analytical or other supporting knowledge related to characterization. The IGD goes through an electronic approval process to formalize the characterization and to ensure the waste has an appropriate disposal path. The waste generator is responsible for providing initial process knowledge information, and approves the IGD before it routed to chemical and radiological waste characterization professionals. This is the standard characterization process for LLNL-generated HEPA Filters.

  5. Requirements for a cleanable steel HEPA filter derived from a systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01

    A systems analysis was conducted to determine customer requirements for a cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in DOE Environmental Management (EM) facilities. The three principal drivers for cleanable steel HEPA are large cost savings, improved filter reliability, and new regulations; they produce a strong incentive to DOE customers to use cleanable steel HEPA filters. Input for customer requirements were obtained from field trips to EM sites and from discussions. Most existing applications require that cleanable steel HEPA filters meet size/performance requirements of standard glass HEPA filters; applications in new facilities can relax size/weight/pressure drop requirements on a case-by-case basis. We then obtained input from commercial firms on availability of cleanable steel HEPA filters. Systems analysis then showed that currently available technology was only able to meet customer needs in a limited number of cases. Further development is needed to meet requirements of EM customers. For cleanable steel HEPA to be retrofitted into existing systems, pressure drop and weight must be reduced. Pressure drop can be reduced by developing steel fiber media from 0.5 {mu}m dia steel fibers. Weight can be reduced by packaging the steel fiber media in one of the standard HEPA configurations. Although most applications will be able to use standard 304 or 316L alloys, an acid resistant alloy such as Hastelloy or Inconel will be needed for incinerator and other thermal processes.

  6. Method for HEPA filter leak scanning with differentiating aerosol detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, B.J.; Banks, E.M.; Wikoff, W.O. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    While scanning HEPA filters for leaks with {open_quotes}Off the Shelf{close_quote} aerosol detection equipment, the operator`s scanning speed is limited by the time constant and threshold sensitivity of the detector. This is based on detection of the aerosol density, where the maximum signal is achieved when the scanning probe resides over the pinhole longer than several detector time-constants. Since the differential value of the changing signal can be determined by observing only the first small fraction of the rising signal, using a differentiating amplifier will speed up the locating process. The other advantage of differentiation is that slow signal drift or zero offset will not interfere with the process of locating the leak, since they are not detected. A scanning hand-probe attachable to any NUCON{reg_sign} Aerosol Detector displaying the combination of both aerosol density and differentiated signal was designed. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  7. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters from polyester and polypropylene fibre nonwovens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters are designed to keep small harmful particles from entering a control environment or to prevent them from escaping. Nonwoven fabrics for filtration application were produced from...

  8. Penanganan Llmbah Radioaktif Padat Aktivitas Rendah Pasca Penggantian Hepa Filter Di Irm

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Susanto; Sunardi, Sunardi; Farawan, Bening

    2013-01-01

    PENANGANAN LlMBAH RADIOAKTIF PADAT AKTIVITAS RENDAH PASCA PENGGANTIAN HEPA FILTER DI IRM. Penanganan limbah radioaktif padat aktivitas rendah pasca penggantian hepa filter di IRM telah dilakukan. Proses penanganan limbah tersebut mengacu kepada Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 27 Tahun 2002, tentang Pengelolaan Limbah Radioaktif dan Keputusan Kepala Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir (BAPETEN) nomor : 03/Ka-BAPETEN/V-99, Tentang Ketentuan Keselamatan Untuk Pengelolaan Limbah Radioaktif...

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  10. Summary of meeting on disposal of LET&D HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-21

    This report is a compilation of correspondence between Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company and the US EPA over a period of time from 1988 to 1992 (most from 1991-92) regarding waste management compliance with EPA regulations. Typical subjects include: compliance with satellite accumulation requirements; usage of ``Sure Shot`` containers in place of aerosol cans; notice of upcoming recyclable battery shipments; disposition of batteries; HEPA filter leach sampling and permit impacts; functional and operation requirements for the spent filter handling system; summary of meeting on disposal of LET and D HEPA filters; solvent substitution database report; and mercury vapor light analytical testing.

  11. A new method for in-place testing of tandem HEPA filter installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, B G; Osetek, D J

    1979-11-01

    A new in-place high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter testing procedure has been developed, based on the use of an intracavity laser particle spectrometer for ultrasensitive detection of challenge particulate concentrations downstream of tandem HEPA filter installations. The feasibility of these measurements had initially been demonstrated on a small-scale laboratory system where overall protection factors of 10(9) were routinely measured. The primary scaling problem for systems up to 20 000 CFM was in producing sufficient challenge aerosol. This was accomplished by the design and construction of a high-volume thermal dioctyl phthalate generator. The results of acceptance testing of 13 tandem HEPA filter systems, performed with both the spectrometer technique and conventional light-scattering photometry, are displayed and problem areas discussed.

  12. Comparison of MERV 16 and HEPA filters for cab filtration of underground mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecala, A B; Organiscak, J A; Noll, J D; Zimmer, J A

    2016-08-01

    Significant strides have been made in optimizing the design of filtration and pressurization systems used on the enclosed cabs of mobile mining equipment to reduce respirable dust and provide the best air quality to the equipment operators. Considering all of the advances made in this area, one aspect that still needed to be evaluated was a comparison of the efficiencies of the different filters used in these systems. As high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters provide the highest filtering efficiency, the general assumption would be that they would also provide the greatest level of protection to workers. Researchers for the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) speculated, based upon a previous laboratory study, that filters with minimum efficiency reporting value, or MERV rating, of 16 may be a more appropriate choice than HEPA filters in most cases for the mining industry. A study was therefore performed comparing HEPA and MERV 16 filters on two kinds of underground limestone mining equipment, a roof bolter and a face drill, to evaluate this theory. Testing showed that, at the 95-percent confidence level, there was no statistical difference between the efficiencies of the two types of filters on the two kinds of mining equipment. As the MERV 16 filters were less restrictive, provided greater airflow and cab pressurization, cost less and required less-frequent replacement than the HEPA filters, the MERV 16 filters were concluded to be the optimal choice for both the roof bolter and the face drill in this comparative-analysis case study. Another key finding of this study is the substantial improvement in the effectiveness of filtration and pressurization systems when using a final filter design.

  13. 340 vault K1 exhaust system HEPA filter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, T.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-01

    A previous evaluation documented in report WHC-SD-GN-RPT-30005, Rev. 0, titled ``Evaluation on Self-Contained High Efficiency Particulate Filters,`` revealed that the SCHEPA filters do not have required documentation to be in compliance with the design, testing, and fabrication standards required in ASME N-509, ASME N-510, and MIL-F-51068. These standards are required by DOE Order 6430.IA. Without this documentation, filter adequacy cannot be verified. The existing SCHEPA filters can be removed and replaced with new filters and filter housing which meet current codes and standards.

  14. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1{mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015 % at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03 % penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. 33 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Further development of the cleanable steel HEPA filter, cost/benefit analysis, and comparison with competing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Wilson, K.; Witherell, C.; McGregor, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have made further progress in developing a cleanable steel fiber HEPA filter. We fabricated a pleated cylindrical cartridge using commercially available steel fiber media that is made with 1 {mu}m stainless steel fibers and sintered into a sheet form. Test results at the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Station at Oak Ridge show the prototype filter cartridge has 99.99% efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols and a pressure drop of 1.5 inches. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned using reverse air pulses. Our analysis of commercially optimized filters suggest that cleanable steel HEPA filters need to be made from steel fibers less than 1 {mu}m, and preferably 0.5 {mu}m, to meet the standard HEPA filter requirements in production units. We have demonstrated that 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers can be produced using the fiber bundling and drawing process. The 0.5 {mu}m steel fibers are then sintered into small filter samples and tested for efficiency and pressure drop. Test results on the sample showed a penetration of 0.0015% at 0.3 {mu}m and a pressure drop of 1.15 inches at 6.9 ft/min (3.5 cm/s) velocity. Based on these results, steel fiber media can easily meet the requirements of 0.03% penetration and 1.0 inch of pressure drop by using less fibers in the media. A cost analysis of the cleanable steel HEPA filter shows that, although the steel HEPA filter costs much more than the standard glass fiber HEPA filter, it has the potential to be very cost effective because of the high disposal costs of contaminated HEPA filters. We estimate that the steel HEPA filter will save an average of $16,000 over its 30 year life. The additional savings from the clean-up costs resulting from ruptured glass HEPA filters during accidents was not included but makes the steel HEPA filter even more cost effective. We also present the results of our evaluation of competing technologies with metallic and

  16. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  17. Structural performance of HEPA filters under simulated tornado conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, H. L.; Gregory, W. S.; Ricketts, C. I.; Smith, P. R.

    1982-02-01

    The response of high efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado conditions was determined. The data include the structural limits of the filters, their resistance at high flow rates, and the effects of filter design features and tornado parameters. Considering all the filters tested, the mean break pressure or structural limit was found to be 2.35 pse (16.2 kPa). The maximum value was 2.87 psi (19.8 kPa), and the low value found was 1.31 psi (9.0 kPa). The type of failure was usually a medium break of the downstream filter fold. The types of filters that were evaluated were nuclear grade with design flow rates of 1000 cfm (0.472 cu m/s), standard separators, and folded medium design. The parameters evaluated that are characteristic of the filter included manufacturer, separator type, face-guards, pack tightness, and aerosol loading. Manufacturer and medium properties were found to have a large effect on the structural limits.

  18. The effect of media area on the dust holding capacity of deep pleat HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J. [AWE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Loughborough, D. [AEAT Harwell, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The high potential cost of storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes places a premium on the longevity of installed HEPA filters in situations in radioactive processing facilities where dust capacity is a life determining factor. Previous work investigated the dust holding capacity v pressure drop characteristics of different designs of HEPA filter and also the effect of using graded density papers. This paper records an investigation of the effect of media area variation on the dust holding capacity of the {open_quotes}deep-pleat{close_quotes} design of HEPA filter. As in the previously reported work two test dusts (carbon black and sub micron sodium chloride) in the range (0.15 - 0.4{mu}m) were used. Media area adjustment was effected by varying the number of separators within the range 60 - 90. Results with the coarser dust allowed an optimum media area to be identified. Media areas greater or smaller than this optimum retained less dust than the optimum for the same terminal pressure drop. Conversely with the finer sodium chloride aerosol the dust holding capacity continued to increase up to the maximum area investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides in thermally treated HEPA filter media generated from nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Choi, Wang-Kyu; Lee, Suk-Chol; Min, Byung-Youn; Yang, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the present study was to apply thermal treatments to reduce the volume of HEPA filter media and to investigate the volatility and leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides during thermal treatment. HEPA filter media were transformed to glassy bulk material by thermal treatment at 900°C for 2h. The most abundant heavy metal in the HEPA filter media was Zn, followed by Sr, Pb and Cr, and the main radionuclide was Cs-137. The volatility tests showed that the heavy metals and radionuclides in radioactive HEPA filter media were not volatilized during the thermal treatment. PCT tests indicated that the leachability of heavy metals and radionuclides was relatively low compared to those of other glasses. XRD results showed that Zn and Cs reacted with HEPA filter media and were transformed into crystalline willemite (ZnO·SiO(2)) and pollucite (Cs(2)OAl(2)O(3)4SiO(2)), which are not volatile or leachable. The proposed technique for the volume reduction and transformation of radioactive HEPA filter media into glassy bulk material is a simple and energy efficient procedure without additives that can be performed at relatively low temperature compared with conventional vitrification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Custom Robotic System for Inspecting HEPA Filters in the Payload Changeout Room at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James E., Jr.; Looney, Joe

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the prime objective is to describe a custom 4-dof (degree-of-freedom) robotic arm capable of autonomously or telerobotically performing systematic HEPA filter inspection and certification in the Shuttle Launch Pad Payload Changeout Rooms (PCR's) on pads A and B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This HEPA filter inspection robot (HFIR) has been designed to be easily deployable and is equipped with the necessary sensory devices, control hardware, software and man-machine interfaces needed to implement HEPA filter inspection reliably and efficiently without damaging the filters or colliding with existing PCR structures or filters. The main purpose of the HFIR is to implement an automated positioning system to move special inspection sensors in pre-defined or manual patterns for the purpose of verifying filter integrity and efficiency. This will ultimately relieve NASA Payload Operations from significant problems associated with time, cost and personnel safety, impacts realized during non-automated PCR HFIR filter certification.

  1. The inactivation and removal of airborne Bacillus atrophaeus endospores from air circulation systems using UVC and HEPA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V A; Cannons, A C; Amuso, P T; Cattani, J

    2008-02-01

    To (i) evaluate the UV radiation in the 'C' band/high efficient particulate air (UVC/HEPA) instrument's potential to inactivate spores of Bacillus atrophaeus and selected Bacillus species and (ii) test whether a titanium dioxide coating inside the cylindrical HEPA filter improves the system's efficacy. Known amounts of dried spore preparations of B. atrophaeus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus thuringiensis were exposed to the UVC lamp within a cylindrical HEPA filter for different time lengths (30 min to 48 h) and with different air flow speeds (0-235 l s(-1)). The log(10) reduction (range 5-16 logs) of colony forming units for spores exposed to the UVC compared with the unexposed spores was significant (P HEPA filter significantly increased the inactivation of spores (P HEPA unit could inactivate spores of B. atrophaeus, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. stearothermophilus and B. thuringiensis. The UVC/HEPA unit represents an effective method of decontaminating circulating air within an air-duct system as found in a building.

  2. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  3. Air cleaning systems analysis and HEPA filter response to simulated tornado loadings. [TVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, W.S.; Andrae, R.W.; Duerre, K.H.; Horak, H.L.; Smith, P.R.; Ricketts, C.I.; Gill, W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer code, TVENT, for predicting tornado-induced depressurization in air cleaning systems is described. TVENT easily fits on many computers with input/output formats that are familiar to most analysts and HVAC designers. Applications of TVENT to several nuclear facilities in Idaho, New York, and New Mexico are described. Flow-resistance data of HEPA filters for use in TVENT are also described. At low flow resistance appears to be mainly caused by a diffusion mechanism, while at high flow the resistance seems to be caused by the mechanism of momentum exchange.

  4. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Institute for Clean Energy Technology Mississippi State University NSR&D Aged HEPA Filter Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacks, Robert [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Stormo, Julie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rose, Coralie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rickert, Jaime [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Waggoner, Charles A. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Data have demonstrated that filter media lose tensile strength and the ability to resist the effects of moisture as a function of age. Testing of new and aged filters needs to be conducted to correlate reduction of physical strength of HEPA media to the ability of filters to withstand upset conditions. Appendix C of the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook provides the basis for DOE’s HEPA filter service life guidance. However, this appendix also points out the variability of data, and it does not correlate performance of aged filters to degradation of media due to age. Funding awarded by NSR&D to initiate full-scale testing of aged HEPA filters addresses the issue of correlating media degradation due to age with testing of new and aged HEPA filters under a generic design basis event set of conditions. This funding has accelerated the process of describing this study via: (1) establishment of a Technical Working Group of all stakeholders, (2) development and approval of a test plan, (3) development of testing and autopsy procedures, (4) acquiring an initial set of aged filters, (5) testing the initial set of aged filters, and (6) developing the filter test report content for each filter tested. This funding was very timely and has moved the project forward by at least three years. Activities have been correlated with testing conducted under DOE-EM funding for evaluating performance envelopes for AG-1 Section FC Separator and Separatorless filters. This coordination allows correlation of results from the NSR&D Aged Filter Study with results from testing new filters of the Separator and Separatorless Filter Study. DOE-EM efforts have identified approximately 100 more filters of various ages that have been stored under Level B conditions. NSR&D funded work allows a time for rigorous review among subject matter experts before moving forward with development of the testing matrix that will be used for additional filters. The NSR&D data sets are extremely valuable in as much

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1997-10-27

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air

  7. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  8. The case for improved HEPA-filter mechanical performance standards revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Under benign operating conditions, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter units serve as reliable and relatively economical components in the air cleaning systems of nuclear facilities worldwide. Despite more than four decades of filter-unit evaluation and improvements, however, the material strength characteristics of the glass fiber filter medium continue to ultimately limit filter functional reliability. In worst-case scenarios involving fire suppression, loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA`s), or exposure to shock waves or tornado induced flows, rupture of the filter medium of units meeting current qualification standards cannot be entirely ruled out. Even under so-called normal conditions of operation, instances of filter failure reported in the literature leave open questions of filter-unit reliability. Though developments of filter units with improved burst strengths have been pursued outside the United States, support for efforts in this country has been comparatively minimal. This despite user requests for filters with greater moisture resistance, for example. Or the fact that conventional filter designs result in not only the least robust component to be found in a nuclear air cleaning system, but also the one most sensitive to the adverse effects of conditions deviating from those of normal operation. Filter qualification-test specifications of current codes, standards, and regulatory guidelines in the United States are based primarily upon research performed in a 30-year period beginning in the 1950`s. They do not seem to reflect the benefits of the more significant developments and understanding of filter failure modes and mechanisms achieved since that time. One overseas design, based on such knowledge, has proven reliability under adverse operating conditions involving combined and serial challenges. Its widespread use, however, has faltered on a lack of consensus in upgrading filter performance standards. 34 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Design of HEPA-filters above autoclaves and freeze-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B

    1998-01-01

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing some processes and process equipment cause temperature differences relative to the surrounding air, e.g. sterilisation and freeze-drying processes. Generally there is a temperature difference when a door to such equipment is opened. This can cause a flow of room air through the opening, creating a contamination risk, especially when manual handling of material is performed in this area. To minimize this risk, a HEPA-filter unit should be installed above the opening to provide clean air and protect the opening. The airflow needed through the HEPA-filters depends mainly on the temperature difference between the chamber and the room and the size of the opening. The flow of clean air should be greater than that of the theoretically calculated flow in order to minimize contamination hazards. In this paper the theoretical relations are discussed and design criteria are presented in a simplified form with graphical representations. Results from a case study are described and the experimentally estimated air-flow values are compared with the theoretically calculated values.

  10. Exposure assessment of four pharmaceutical powders based on dustiness and evaluation of damaged HEPA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Marcus; Koponen, Ismo K; Jensen, Keld A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we show the different dustiness characteristics of four molecular pharmaceutical powder candidates and evaluate the performance of HEPA filters damaged with three different pinhole sizes and exposed to dust using real industrial powders in a miniaturized EN15051 rotating drum dustiness tester. We then demonstrate the potential use of such data using first-order exposure modeling to assess the potential worker exposure and transmission of active powder ingredients into ventilation systems. The four powders had highly variable inhalable dustiness indices (1,036 - 14,501 mg/kg). Dust particle size-distributions were characterized by three peaks; the first occurred around 60-80 nm, the second around 250 nm, and the third at 2-3 μm. The second and third peaks are often observed in dustiness test studies, but peaks in the 60-80 nm range have not been previously reported. Exposure modeling in a 5 times 20 kg powder pouring scenario, suggests that excessive dust concentrations may be reached during use of powders with the highest dustiness levels. By number, filter-damage by three pinhole sizes resulted in damage-dependent penetration of 70-80 nm-size particles, but by volume and mass the penetration is still dominated by particles larger than 100 nm. Whereas the exposure potential was evident, the potential dust concentrations in air ducts following the pouring scenario above were at pg/m(3) levels. Hence, filter penetration at these damage levels was assumed to be only critical, if the active ingredients were associated with high hazard or unique product purity is required. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: An example of a typical particle number time-series of a complete dustiness test. It provides information on the HEPA-filter used including a scanning electron microscopy image of it. It also

  11. Mold colonization during use of preservative-treated and untreated air filters, including HEPA filters from hospitals and commercial locations over an 8-year period (1996-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Daniel L; Simmons, Robert B; Crow, Sidney A; Ahearn, Donald G

    2005-07-01

    High efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA; 99.97% efficient at 0.3 microm) filters, filters with ASHRAE particulate arrestance rating of 90-95% at 1 mum (90-95% filters), and lower efficiency cellulosic-polyester filters from air conditioning systems in hospitals and commercial buildings were removed from the systems and examined microscopically for mold colonization. Cellulosic-type filters from systems with water entrainment problems typically were colonized, or became colonized upon incubation in moisture chambers. Species of Acremonium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were most common. With air filters of all types, treatment of filter media with an antimicrobial preservative tended to reduce or delay colonization. Mold colonization of HEPA and 90-95% filters was observed most often on the load surfaces, but two untreated HEPA filters were permeated with fungi, one with Aspergillus flavus, the other with Cladosporium sp. Air filters in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, particularly those with chronic or periodic exposure to moisture, may serve as point sources for indoor molds.

  12. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  13. Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Agui, J. H.; Vijayakimar, R

    2016-01-01

    Contaminants generated aboard crewed spacecraft by diverse sources consist of both gaseous chemical contaminants and particulate matter. Both HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material, such as activated carbon, which are both commonly employed for cabin atmosphere purification purposes have efficacy for removing nanoparticulate contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. The phenomena associated with particulate matter removal by HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material are reviewed relative to their efficacy for removing fine (less than 2.5 micrometers) and ultrafine (less than 0.01 micrometers) sized particulate matter. Considerations are discussed for using these methods in an appropriate configuration to provide the most effective performance for a broad range of particle sizes including nanoparticulates.

  14. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  15. Bacterial communities in commercial aircraft high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters assessed by PhyloChip analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korves, T M; Piceno, Y M; Tom, L M; Desantis, T Z; Jones, B W; Andersen, G L; Hwang, G M

    2013-02-01

    Air travel can rapidly transport infectious diseases globally. To facilitate the design of biosensors for infectious organisms in commercial aircraft, we characterized bacterial diversity in aircraft air. Samples from 61 aircraft high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters were analyzed with a custom microarray of 16S rRNA gene sequences (PhyloChip), representing bacterial lineages. A total of 606 subfamilies from 41 phyla were detected. The most abundant bacterial subfamilies included bacteria associated with humans, especially skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and with water and soil habitats. Operational taxonomic units that contain important human pathogens as well as their close, more benign relatives were detected. When compared to 43 samples of urban outdoor air, aircraft samples differed in composition, with higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria lineages in aircraft samples, and higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria lineages in outdoor air samples. In addition, aircraft and outdoor air samples differed in the incidence of taxa containing human pathogens. Overall, these results demonstrate that HEPA filter samples can be used to deeply characterize bacterial diversity in aircraft air and suggest that the presence of close relatives of certain pathogens must be taken into account in probe design for aircraft biosensors. A biosensor that could be deployed in commercial aircraft would be required to function at an extremely low false alarm rate, making an understanding of microbial background important. This study reveals a diverse bacterial background present on aircraft, including bacteria closely related to pathogens of public health concern. Furthermore, this aircraft background is different from outdoor air, suggesting different probes may be needed to detect airborne contaminants to achieve minimal false alarm rates. This study also indicates that aircraft HEPA filters could be used

  16. Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT performed in non-HEPA filter rooms: initial experience from a single center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Naithani, R; Mishra, P; Mahapatra, M; Seth, T; Dolai, T K; Bhargava, R; Saxena, R

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, it is important to ascertain the safety of performing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in single rooms without high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. We present our experience of performing 40 such transplants from July 2004 to November 2007. Source of stem cells was peripheral blood in 33, bone marrow in six and combined in one. G-CSF started from day +1. The indications were SAA-18, CML-7, AML-7, ALL-2, myelodysplastic syndrome-2 and thalassemia major-4. The median age was 19 years (range 2.2-46) with 29 male and 11 female participants. Antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis was administered along with conditioning, and at the onset of fever, systemic antibiotics were started. Antifungal agents were added if fever persisted for 3 days. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 10 days (range 8-17). Fever occurred in 38 (95%) for a median of 5 days (range 1-38), and blood cultures were positive in seven (17.5%). Systemic antibiotics were used in 95% and antifungals in 57.5% cases. The 30-day mortality was nil, and 100-day mortality was 1 (2.5%). After day 100, there were eight fatalities (20%) due to chronic GVHD-3, relapse-2, graft rejection-2, disseminated tuberculosis and aspergillosis-1. Our experience suggests that allogeneic HSCT can be safely performed in non-HEPA filter rooms in India.

  17. [Glass fibre HEPA filters. II. Communication: Microbiological and physico-chemical researchs on used and unusued, hydrophilic and hydrophobic filter materials in an air conditioning plant (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüden, H; Mihm, U; Schoemann, D; Botzenhart, K; Thofern, E

    1975-07-01

    Hydrophobic and hydrophilic, used and unused HEPA filters from various manufacturers, inoculated with vegetative bacteria, bacterial and fungal spores, were exposed to clean outside air for up to 17 weeks in an air conditioning plant. With relative humidities up to 60%, an increase in germ count could not be found. The rate of killing the micro-organisms inoculated were different and were generally higher on used filters. The low water content of the filter material was apparently not sufficient for microbial growth. In addition, the increase in electric conductivity and reduction of pH value resulting from deposition of substances from the outside air with an acid reaction ascertained in the aqueous filter extracts had a negative effect on the living conditions of the microorganisms.

  18. A double-blind study of the effectiveness of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the treatment of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, R E; Mauriello, P M; Davis, G B; Georgitis, J W; DeMasi, J M

    1990-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in alleviating allergic respiratory symptoms. Thirty-two patients were studied who had symptomatic perennial rhinitis and/or asthma during the fall and winter months and had a positive skin test with house dust or house dust--mite extract. An ENVIRACAIRE room air cleaner was placed in the bedroom for 8 weeks. In a random manner, the active filter was used for 4 weeks and a blank filter for 4 weeks. There was an average 70% reduction in the particulate matter greater than or equal to 0.3 micron with the HEPA filter. In a double-blind design, results were assessed by analysis of the patients' symptom/medication scores and subjective evaluation. For the total study, there was no difference in the total symptom/medication scores or individual symptom scores during the placebo and active-filter periods. Analysis of the last 2 weeks of each filter period in which respiratory infection was absent demonstrated definite differences in total and individual symptoms, suggesting active-filter benefit. Patients' subjective responses also suggested benefit from the filter. The overall impression is that the HEPA filter can reduce allergic respiratory symptoms.

  19. Microanalysis of indoor aerosols and the impact of a compact high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, M E

    1999-03-01

    Aerosol particles in municipal atmospheres are of increasing public health concern; however, since most of our time is spent indoors, indoor aerosols must be researched in counterpart. Compact High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter systems are commonly employed in residences to alleviate airborne dust concentrations. In this study, a detailed and original methodology was used to determine concentrations and types of submicrometer aerosols, as well as of large (> 4 microns) dust particles. Scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify and characterize ambient aerosols collected from filtered and non-filtered rooms. Particle concentrations were significantly lower in samples collected in the presence of the filter system (mean 23 to 8 coarse particles liter-1, 63% reduction; 13 to 3 inorganic submicron particles cm-3, 76% reduction; 85 to 33 total submicron particles cm-3, 62% reduction; all P filter systems are effective at reducing submicron aerosol concentrations, they may improve the health of individuals such as asthmatics, who experience health problems caused by anthropogenic fine particles.

  20. Evaluation on the Collection Efficiency and Performance of the Sound Pressure Machine Equipped with a HEPA Filter Eliminating Asbestos Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Wha Me

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When the one-pass collection efficiency of each size of particles of the sound pressure machine equipped with a glass fiber HEPA filter to get rid of friable asbestos at the asbestos elimination field was evaluated, the collection efficiency of those with the size of 0.3um was examined to be 98.91%. That of the particles of 0.5um size was proved to be 99.21% on average, which is a little bit higher than that of 0.3um size. The 1.0um particles showed 100% of efficiency, and the collection efficiency of each size had statistically meaningful differences.

  1. Ceramic High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Final Report CRADA No. TC02102.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morse, T. [Flanders Corp., Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermor e National Laboratory (LLNL) and Flanders-Precisionaire (Flanders), to develop ceramic HEP A filters under a Thrust II Initiative for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) project. The research was conducted via the IPP Program at Commonwe alth of Independent States (CIS) Institutes, which are handled under a separate agreement. The institutes (collectively referred to as "CIS Institutes") involved with this project were: Bochvar: Federal State Unitarian Enterprise All-Russia Scientific and Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (FSUE VNIINM); Radium Khlopin: Federal State Unitarian Enterprise NPO Radium Institute named (FSUE NPO Radium Institute); and Bakor: Science and Technology Center Bakor (STC Bakor).

  2. [Glass fibre HEPA filters. I. Communication: Microbiological and physico-chemical researchs on used and unused, hydrophobic and hydrophilic filter materials at relative humidities up to 98% in the climatic test chamber (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüden, H; Botzenhart, K; Mihm, U; Tenge, H; Thofern, E

    1975-07-01

    1. At high humidities up to 98%, an increase in bacteria cannot be detected. This applies to all HEPA filters investigated from the various manufacturers, independent of whether they are hydrophilic or hydrophobic, used or unused. 2. Fungal growth can only be obtained when large amounts of nutrient material (e.g. bacterial cultures) are present. In these cases a streaky growth appears . Under normal conditions of use, however, such intense contamination is not to be expected because of the prefiltration. Penetration only occurs with fungi. 3. Limitation of supply air humidity to 90% or less seems therefore to be unjustified on the basis of these investigations, if prefiltration and a satisfactory intermixing section can be guaranteed technically, and condensation is avoided. 4. HEPA filters of Grade S from various manufacturers and with different behaviour with respect to water do not allow bacterial growth even in the presence of nutrients. Additional measures for the killing of bacteria are therefore not considered necessary.

  3. The impacts of traffic-related and woodsmoke particulate matter on measures of cardiovascular health: a HEPA filter intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Brauer, Michael; Karlen, Barbara; Carlsten, Chris; van Eeden, Stephan; Allen, Ryan W

    2015-06-01

    Combustion-generated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Both traffic-related air pollution and residential wood combustion may be important, but few studies have compared their impacts. To assess and compare effects of traffic-related and woodsmoke PM2.5 on endothelial function and systemic inflammation (C reactive protein, interleukin-6 and band cells) among healthy adults in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, using high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to introduce indoor PM2.5 exposure gradients. We recruited 83 healthy adults from 44 homes in traffic-impacted or woodsmoke-impacted areas to participate in this randomised, single-blind cross-over intervention study. PM2.5 concentrations were measured during two consecutive 7-day periods, one with filtration and the other with 'placebo filtration'. Endothelial function and biomarkers of systematic inflammation were measured at the end of each 7-day period. HEPA filtration was associated with a 40% decrease in indoor PM2.5 concentrations. There was no relationship between PM2.5 exposure and endothelial function. There was evidence of an association between indoor PM2.5 and C reactive protein among those in traffic-impacted locations (42.1% increase in C reactive protein per IQR increase in indoor PM2.5, 95% CI 1.2% to 99.5%), but not among those in woodsmoke-impacted locations. There were no associations with interleukin-6 or band cells. Evidence of an association between C reactive protein and indoor PM2.5 among healthy adults in traffic-impacted areas is consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related particles, even at relatively low concentrations, play an important role in the cardiovascular effects of the urban PM mixture. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01570062). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  5. Particle Removal Efficiency of the Portable HEPA Air Cleaner in a Simulated Hospital Ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Hua; Li, Yuguo; Sun, Hequan

    2010-01-01

    Use of a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter in a room is believed to assist in reducing the risk of transmission of infectious diseases through removing the particles or large droplets to which pathogens may be attached. Use of a portable HEPA filter(s) in hospital wards is hypothesized...... to increase the effective ventilation rate (for particles only). Use of a portable HEPA filter is also hypothesized to increase the effective airflow rate of the general ward to the standard of an isolation ward for emerging infection diseases. This may be a good solution for housing patients when the number...... of beds in an isolation ward is insufficient. An experiment was conducted in a full scale experimental ward with a dimension of 6.7 m × 6 m × 2.7 m and 6 beds to test these hypotheses for a portable HEPA filter. The removal efficiency for different size particles was measured at different locations...

  6. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and horse antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation performed in non-HEPA filter rooms for multiply transfused patients with severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Prem, S; Mahapatra, M; Seth, T; Chowdhary, D R; Mishra, P; Pillai, L; Narendra, A M V R; Mehra, N K; Saxena, R; Choudhry, V P

    2006-04-01

    Multiply transfused patients of severe aplastic anemia are at increased risk of graft rejection. Five such patients underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical siblings with a fludarabine-based protocol. The conditioning consisted of fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day x 6 days, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day x 2 days and horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) x 4 days. Two different ATG preparations were used: ATGAM (dose 30 mg/kg/day x 4 days) or Thymogam (dose 40 mg/kg/day x 4 days). Engraftment: median time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >0.5 x 10(9)/l was 11 days (range: 8-17) and median time to platelet count >20 x 10(9)/l was 11 days (range: 9-17). At a median follow-up of 171 days (range: 47-389), there has been no graft rejection and all patients are in complete remission. Acute GVHD (grade 1) occurred in one patient only. Chronic GVHD developed in two patients (extensive in one and limited in another). The transplants were performed in non-HEPA filter rooms. In only one patient, systemic antifungal therapy (voriconazole) was used. The use of Thymogam brand of ATG for conditioning is being reported for the first time. Our experience suggests that this fludarabine-based protocol allows rapid sustained engraftment in high-risk patients without significant immediate toxicity.

  7. Testing cleanable/reuseable HEPA prefilters for mixed waste incinerator air pollution control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, B.W.; Paul, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the US DOE Savannah River Site is undergoing preoperational testing. The CIF is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes from site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing incinerators, air pollution control experience, and recommendations from consultants. This approach resulted in a facility design using experience from other operating hazardous/radioactive incinerators. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Operation of the pilot facility has provided long-term performance data of integrated systems and critical facility components. This has reduced facility startup problems and helped ensure compliance with facility performance requirements. Technical support programs assist in assuring all stakeholders the CIF can properly treat combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas strewn before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  9. Destination: Geology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  10. Caracterização e desempenho de filtros com nanofibras e HEPA utilizando nanopartículas

    OpenAIRE

    Pianowski Salussoglia, A.I.; Guerra Béttega, V.; Tronville, Paolo Maria; Lopes Aguiar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the performance of a traditional HEPA filter medium with other types of filter media containing nano-fibers paying special attention to the nano-particle size range below 100 nm. We characterized all media both at micro-scale to study their fiber size distribution and at macro-scale to measure their airflow resistance and removal efficiency resolved by particle size down to a few nano-meters.

  11. Destination Marketing and Management

    OpenAIRE

    KOCKOVÁ, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Work presents the theoretical aspects of destination management and marketing. It defines the destination management and sustainable development of tourism. The work is applied to destination management and destination marketing in region Sokolovsko. For this destiaci is proposed marketing strategy and marketing mix.

  12. Advancing Destination Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, A. George

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the mental representations that individuals hold about tourist destinations are important to understand their intentions. These mental destination representations have often been investigated by applying the concept of destination image. This study argues that the extant literature...... held in individuals‘ minds about destinations. The present study further outlines preferable methods and measures for each component, thus aiding researchers to investigate mental destination representations...

  13. Promoting tourism destination image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources

  14. Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Yuksel; Hosany, Sameer

    2006-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive tourism market place, destination marketers face the challenge of attracting tourists through destination branding and destination personality building practices. As places become substitutable, destination personality, defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a destination, is seen as a viable metaphor for crafting a destination’s unique identity. At the conceptual level, the importance of destination personality has been widely acknowledged,...

  15. Destination marketing approach ofenhancing the competitiveness of Bukhara tourist destination

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAGIMOV N.; KURBANOVA M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reveals theoretical bases of raising competitiveness of Bukhara touristic region through Destination marketing approach and elaborates practical recommendationsfor the establishment of Destination marketing organizations.

  16. TOURIST DESTINATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Andrea MEZEI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development has environmental and social consequences upon local and global communities. The impact of tourism must be kept within certain limits which are set up by sustainable tourism. Meanwhile the viability of the investment must be assured. Tourism development matrix is the tourist destination. Destination management must ensure the balance between economic, social, cultural, and environmental activities. Competitive destination management organization means a harmonious combination between planning, lobby, coordination and marketing (promotion. The recommendation of an integrated meta plan for Romanian balneal spa could be the choice for a successful tourism development.

  17. Tourist destination image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korićanin Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In taking an advantages in tourism seems that image of specific tourist destination play an important role. This is very complex process but also a target for a wide list of potential stakeholders - not only organizations in this industry. Paper discuss a few relevant issues in connection to importance as well as development process of creating an image of tourist destination including well known Anhold model.

  18. A Quasi-Experimental Study Analyzing the Effectiveness of Portable High-Efficiency Particulate Absorption Filters in Preventing Infections in Hematology Patients during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increased risk of infection for patients caused by construction and renovation near hematology inpatient clinics is a major concern. The use of high-efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA filters can reduce the risk of infection. However, there is no standard protocol indicating the use of HEPA filters for patients with hematological malignancies, except for those who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This quasi-experimental study was designed to measure the efficacy of HEPA filters in preventing infections during construction. Materials and Methods: Portable HEPA filters were placed in the rooms of patients undergoing treatment for hematological malignancies because of large-scale construction taking place near the hematology clinic. The rates of infection during the 6 months before and after the installation of the portable HEPA filters were compared. A total of 413 patients were treated during this 1-year period. Results: There were no significant differences in the antifungal prophylaxis and treatment regimens between the groups. The rates of infections, clinically documented infections, and invasive fungal infections decreased in all of the patients following the installation of the HEPA filters. When analyzed separately, the rates of invasive fungal infections were similar before and after the installation of HEPA filters in patients who had no neutropenia or long neutropenia duration. HEPA filters were significantly protective against infection when installed in the rooms of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients who were undergoing consolidation treatment, and patients who were neutropenic for 1-14 days. Conclusion: Despite the advent of construction and the summer season, during which environmental Aspergillus contamination is more prevalent, no patient or patient subgroup experienced an increase in fungal infections following the installation of HEPA filters. The protective

  19. TOURIST DESTINATION MARKETING RADAUTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic phenomenon, which is in continuous change. The tourism market is in constant transformation due to competition and growing. Tourist destinations, is facing many challenges in order to enter and remain on the market. Thus tourist destination is a well-defined service which is an assembly designed to meet tourists. The marketing mix includes the following elements: product, price, distribution, promotion. Tourists come to this area because of monasteries, some of which are included in UNESCO and are recognized nationally and internationally. Thus Romanian tourists choose this tourist destination just for a weekend. To prolong the stay of both foreigners and Romanians, as well as to attract a large number of tourists is necessary to develop tourism products type tours: 5-6 days for visiting the tourist area of Radauti. These products must contain an offer as varied and diverse, so every day contain different activities and be adjusted, for example by age segments. Linked pricing policy usually access tariffs are differentiated between Romanian and foreign tourists, being lower in the first category. Travel agencies prefer to organize package tours on request only devise some that distribute them internally and externally. There are initiatives to promote tourism area Radauti, due to the high attractiveness among destinations in Romania. Thus, this must be considered a tourist destination tourism brand renowned nationally and internationally.

  20. Effect of Environmental Parameters on the Biocidal Performance of Iodine-Treated Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Chang-Yu; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Reiemenschneider, Lindsey; Theodore, Alexandros D

    2008-01-01

    .... The novel medium displayed excellent viable removal efficiency (VRE) for bacterial spores with a negligible pressure drop in various environmental conditions, suggesting an alternative to HEPA filters for the removal of bacterial spore aerosols...

  1. Destined for disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Guiaux; Annette Roest; Jurjen Iedema

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Voorbestemd tot achterstand? Are children who grow up in poverty destined for disadvantage? Are they still poor 25 years later, when they are adults, and are they also more socially excluded in adulthood?  And if so, why? This publication explores the extent to which

  2. Destination: Alumni Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly today, with the growing and sophisticated skill set alumni professionals need to get the job done, alumni relations has become a destination career rather than a stop along the way. Modern alumni relations is "so much more than homecoming and punch-and-cookie receptions." It's marketing, volunteer management, and social networking. To…

  3. Rethinking Destination Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Kock, Florian; Assaf, Albert G.

    . The article further provides an extensive review of the literature with regard to the definitions, dimensionality, antecedents, and outcomes of the focal concepts as well as geographical scope of destination imagery and image studies and methodologies. This review has led to a novel understanding...

  4. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T. [Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Rivera, M.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-03

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials.

  5. Functional significance of the hepaCAM gene in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepaCAM gene encodes a new immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, and its expression is suppressed in a variety of human cancers. Additionally, hepaCAM possesses properties often observed in tumor suppressor genes. However, the expression and biological function of hepaCAM has not been investigated in bladder cancer. Therefore we sought to examine hepaCAM expression and the relationship between its structure and function in human transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCCB. Materials and methods HepaCAM expression was evaluated in 28 normal and 34 TCCB bladder specimens and 2 TCCB cell lines using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The wild-type hepaCAM and the extracellular domain-truncated mutant gene were transfected into the TCCB cell line T24, and the biological properties of both the wild-type gene and the domain-truncated mutant were then assessed. Results HepaCAM expression was down-regulated in 82% (28/34 of TCCB specimens and undetectable in the 2 TCCB cell lines tested. The localization of hepaCAM appeared to be dependent on cell density in T24 cells. In widely spread cells, hepaCAM accumulated on the perinuclear membrane and the cell surface protrusions, whereas in confluent cells, hepaCAM was predominantly localized at the sites of cell-cell contacts on the cell membrane. Functionally, hepaCAM expressed not only increased cell spreading, delayed cell detachment, enhanced wound healing and increased cell invasion; it also inhibited cell growth (P Conclusions HepaCAM is involved in cell adhesion and growth control, and its expression is frequently silenced in TCCB. The extracellular domain of hepaCAM is essential to its physiological and biological functions.

  6. Travel Photography: Destination Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    Travel photography is a growing and highly popular form of tourism in most parts of the world but despite huge potentials, certain places in the world have yet to capitalize on this opportunity. Among these destinations, Nepal, a country filled with breath-taking landscape and ever-vibrant and growing urban cities has done little to provide this experience of trav-el photography to travelers. Hence, the goal of this Bachelor’s thesis was to develop an at-tractive, affordable and unforgettable...

  7. Ecotourism Destinations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Ioana Merce

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania has about 800 protected areas, which now covers about 5% of the country. Most ecotourism destinations are located within or adjacent to these protected areas such as Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, northern communities National Park, Yosemite National Park, Apuseni Natural Park. In Romania there are still non-fragmented forest, and over a third of the population of bears, wolves and lynx in Europe, unique paradise of birds in the Danube Delta, more than 12 000 caves and, not least, full of authentic local traditions. Ecotourism allows recovery and conservation of the country's natural capital.

  8. Destins de violence

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Le lien entre la violence et l’irreprésentable, la présence de la violence dans le discours comme événement dans le texte, sont des questions qui se découpent derrière les « Figures de la violence ». Mais qui fait violence ? Qui fait violence à qui ? Quel est le destin de cette violence inhérente à un discours, quel en est le destinataire ? De quel sujet vient-elle ? Violence et pulsion « Violence » est un terme peu usité en psychanalyse. Pourtant c’est ce terme que Freud choisit d’employer l...

  9. Use of evidence in 3 local level HEPA policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Juel Lau, Cathrine; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of relevant evidence for HEPA, resources as well as organizational structure, culture and capacity. Discussion: Our insight into the actual impact of research in HEPA policy making is still sketchy. However, projects such as REPOPA will help to further our understanding of how research and other kind...

  10. Sami tourism in destination development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lise Smed

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous tourism has become an important component of the tourism industry. Previous indigenous tourism research has indicated three conflict areas that can have an impact on destination development - internal conflicts over indigenous identity, the use of indigenous culture in destination...... marketing, and land-use conflicts. To varying degrees these areas of conflict have been found to impact local and regional destination development in northern Europe. This paper draws on case studies to understand how conflicts in Sami tourism in local and regional destination development are addressed...... challenging to address through collaboration due to the history of colonisation by nation states. Such prevailing conflicts place certain requirements on the facilitator of collaboration processes in tourism destination development....

  11. Mold Occurring on the Air Cleaner High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters Used in the Houses of Child Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs w...

  12. « Destin d’une sentence… sur le destin »

    OpenAIRE

    Paré-Rey, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Nous nous proposons d’étudier le « Destin d’une sentence… sur le destin ». Nous suivrons le trajet d’une sentence de Sénèque (Agunt uolentem fata, nolentem trahunt, « Le destin conduit celui qui acquiesce et entraîne celui qui refuse », Ep. 107, 11) en partant du contexte de son insertion dans la correspondance du philosophe latin et en essayant de dégager les sources de cette pensée. Puis nous poserons quelques jalons de sa réception, très riche, en essayant de compre...

  13. Network Analysis of Cooperation in Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošík Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation on the tourism market causes that the competition is not formed only between stakeholders in a destination, but more and more it is created among destinations. Therefore tourism stakeholders in a destination have to act together and cooperate. The cooperative behaviour of destination stakeholders is seen as a main prerequisite of applying the cooperative destination management, which influences the competitiveness of destination on tourism market.

  14. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  15. Particle emission characteristics of filter-equipped vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakumas, S; Willeke, K; Grinshpun, S A; Reponen, T; Mainelis, G; Friedman, W

    2001-01-01

    Industrial vacuum cleaners with final high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters traditionally have been used for cleanup operations in which all of the nozzle-entrained dust must be collected with high efficiency, for example, after lead-based paint abatement in homes. In this study household vacuum cleaners ranging from $70 to $650 and an industrial vacuum cleaner costing more than $1400 were evaluated relative to their collection efficiency immediately after installing new primary dust collectors in them. Using newly developed testing technology, some of the low-cost household vacuum cleaners equipped with a final HEPA filter were found to have initial overall filtration efficiencies comparable to those of industrial vacuum cleaners equipped with a final HEPA filter. The household vacuum cleaners equipped with a final HEPA filter efficiently collect about 100% of the dry dust entrained by the nozzle. For extensive cleaning efforts and for vacuum cleaning of wet surfaces, however, industrial vacuum cleaners may have an advantage, including ruggedness and greater loading capacity. The methods and findings of this study are applicable to field evaluations of vacuum cleaners.

  16. Generating Multi-Destination Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junsong; Fan, Jiepeng; Luo, Zhenshan

    2017-08-01

    Multi-destination maps are a kind of navigation maps aimed to guide visitors to multiple destinations within a region, which can be of great help to urban visitors. However, they have not been developed in the current online map service. To address this issue, we introduce a novel layout model designed especially for generating multi-destination maps, which considers the global and local layout of a multi-destination map. We model the layout problem as a graph drawing that satisfies a set of hard and soft constraints. In the global layout phase, we balance the scale factor between ROIs. In the local layout phase, we make all edges have good visibility and optimize the map layout to preserve the relative length and angle of roads. We also propose a perturbation-based optimization method to find an optimal layout in the complex solution space. The multi-destination maps generated by our system are potential feasible on the modern mobile devices and our result can show an overview and a detail view of the whole map at the same time. In addition, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our method, and the results prove that the multi-destination maps achieve our goals well.

  17. Functional polymer-dependent 3D culture accelerates the differentiation of HepaRG cells into mature hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yichiro; Kawai, Kenji; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Chesné, Christophe; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Suemizu, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The hepatoma-derived cell line HepaRG is regarded as an in vitro model of drug metabolism because fully differentiated HepaRG cells demonstrate functional metabolic responses comparable to those of primary human hepatocytes. Recently, it was demonstrated that the 3D culture of HepaRG cells enhanced their metabolic functions and toxicological responses. We approached the mechanisms underlying these enhancement effects. We compared 2D-cultured HepaRG cells with 3D-cultured HepaRG spheroids in the gene expression patterns and the metabolic functions. In the present study, we performed 3D culture of HepaRG cells using functional polymers (FP). To reveal the in vivo differentiation ability, we transplanted the 3D-cultured HepaRG spheroids into TK-NOG mice. A comparison between 2D and 3D cultures revealed that 3D-cultured HepaRG spheroids demonstrated reductions in bile duct marker expression, accelerated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4, and increases in the ratio of albumin-expressing hepatocytes. Furthermore, catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 were modified by omeprazole and rifampicin in the 3D-cultured HepaRG spheroids. Transplantation analysis revealed that 3D-cultured HepaRG spheroids formed hepatocyte-like colonies rather than cholangiocytes in vivo. Our results indicated that the enhancement of hepatic functions in 3D-cultured HepaRG cells was induced by selective hepatocyte differentiation and accelerated hepatocyte maturation. HepaRG spheroids reproduced the metabolic responses of human hepatocytes. Therefore, FP-dependent 3D-cultured HepaRG cells may serve as an excellent in vitro model for evaluating the hepatic metabolism and toxicity. © 2016 The Authors. Hepatology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Hepatology.

  18. 2014 St. Gallen Consensus on destination management

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Laesser, Christian; Beritelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main insights of the second Biennial Forum on Advances in Destination Management (ADM), held in St. Gallen (Switzerland). Issues in five domains preoccupied the discourse of scholars and practitioners alike: (1) the definition of ‘destination', (2) the purpose and legitimacy of destination management organizations (DMO), (3) governance and leadership in destination networks, (4) destination branding, and (5) sustainability. For each domain, this consensus offers a pu...

  19. Tutorial: Nanomedicine: destination or journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, C. A.

    2002-08-01

    Nanomedicine in a broad sense is the application of nano-scale technologies to the practice of medicine. The creation of nanodevices such as nanobots capable of performing therapeutic functions in vivo is a destination within the emerging field of nanomedicine. On the journey to that destination, significant technological advances across multiple scientific disciplines continue to be proposed, validated and commercialized. Advances in delivering therapy, miniaturization of analytical tools, improved computational and memory capabilities and developments in remote communications will be integrated allowing for the development of such nanobots. Nanomedicine is both a destination and a journey. The journey will cross new frontiers, uncover new knowledge and bring new horizons to the understanding and practice of medicine.

  20. Mold occurring on the air cleaner high-efficiency particulate air filters used in the houses of child patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-09-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs were coded as HEPA-A, -B, and -C, respectively, and tested for the presence of mold. The colony forming units (CFUs) corresponding to the HEPA-A, -B, and -C filters were estimated to be 6.51 × 10(2) ± 1.50 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), 8.72 × 10(2) ± 1.69 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), and 9.71 × 10(2) ± 1.35 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, and other fungal groups were detected in the 2,494 isolates. The distribution of these fungal groups differed among the three filters. Cladosporium was the major fungal group in filters HEPA-A and -C, whereas Penicillium was the major fungal group in the filter HEPA-B. Nine fungal species, including some of the known allergenic species, were identified in these isolates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most common mold among all the three filters. This is the first report on the presence of fungi in the air cleaner HEPA filters from ADCPHs in Korea.

  1. Flowrate testing of the bag filter LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC (LANCS Industries) at 1 psig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Karissa Lyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, Charlotte Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The air flowrate through a flexible HEPA grade filter (Part LANCS-BOP 6CPVC-1.5-2SPVC www.lancsindustries.com) was measured at 48 ALPM for a differential pressure drop of 1.0 psig (28 inWC, 7.0 kPa). These filters are rated by the manufacturer to have a flowrate of 3 ALPM at a differential pressure drop of 1 inWC (0.25 kPa). The Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerosol Engineering Facility used one of their test rigs (originally developed to measure the pressure drop in capsule HEPA filters) to measure the airflow through the LANCS bag filter.

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  3. Responsibilities of the destination country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Bailliet

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available According to UNHCR’s Recommended Principles and Guidelines for Human Rights and Human Trafficking,1 human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries may need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide better protection to the victims of trafficking.

  4. Responsibilities of the destination country

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia M Bailliet

    2006-01-01

    According to UNHCR’s Recommended Principles and Guidelines for Human Rights and Human Trafficking,1 human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries may need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide better protection to the victims of trafficking.

  5. Destination memory in Korsakoff's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Matton, C.; Bacquet, J.E.; Urso, L.; Cool, G.; Guidez, F.; Potier, S.; Nandrino, J.L.; Antoine, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory,

  6. Destination Memory in Korsakoff's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Matton, C.; Bacquet, J.E.; Urso, L.; Cool, G.; Guidez, F.; Potier, S.; Nandrino, J.L.; Antoine, P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Context memory, or the ability to remember the context in which an episodic event has occurred (e.g., where and when an event took place), has been found to be compromised in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study examined whether a similar deficit would be observed for destination memory,

  7. GEOINFORMATION MONITORING OF TOURIST DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the General approaches for monitoring tourist destinations on the basis of GIS-technologies. Great attention is paid to the possible development of apps to promote tourist areas. Again this article describes functional blocks of monitoring in GIS, and the possibility of modeling processes in tourism.

  8. Applications of nonwoven filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    The multi-client technical and marketing report, Nonwovens in Filtration (1987) World Wide, has been completed by Filter Media Consulting, Inc. According to this 450-page report, $818 million in sales worldwide in nonwoven filter media represents a substantial segment of the entire nonwoven market. This total is mainly roll goods with a few exceptions. Meltblown composites represent $108 million, 13% of the total, and is the fastest growing segment as compared to needled felts, dry formed, thermobonded, spunbonded, wet laid and other unique processes, all extensively covered in this report. Included are 20 filtration applications covered in 190 pages, such as baghouse and dust filtration, Torit-type cartridge filters, HEPA/ULPA filtration, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Major markets are addressed, and trends in different fields are highlighted throughout the report.

  9. Clarifications regarding medical tourism destinations marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    STANCIOIU Aurelia-Felicia; Botoş Andreea; Pârgaru Ion

    2014-01-01

    ..., at least, to consumers’ expectations. In order to optimize the new type of tourism, it is necessary to be correlated with the relevant resources of the destination, which, harmonized, can lead to the elaboration of destination marketing...

  10. MARKETING URBAN DESTINATIONS THROUGH FESTIVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Georgieva ANASTASSOVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of enormous competition on the international tourist market, destination branding is getting an increasing importance as a way to attract more tourists and visitors. There is an overall trend away from product features towards lifestyle or value systems which reveals that the consumer of today makes choices based on whether or not a product fits into her or his lifestyle and whether a destination represents  a desirable tourist experience. After theoretical literature review on brand identity, the results of a festival visitors’ opinion survey about “Include the city” festival’s contribution to the brand identity of Burgas city are discussed. The survey methodology includes descriptive statistics, Z-score method in order to classify in groups visitor’s opinion as well as content analysis of visitors’ opinion. Three research hypotheses are checked and suggestions about the festival’s marketing contribution in three aspects to the brand identity extension of urban destination Burgas are presented.

  11. Exposure Assessment of Four Pharmaceutical Powders Based on Dustiness and Evaluation of Damaged HEPA Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Marcus; Koponen, Ismo K.; Jensen, Keld A.

    2014-01-01

    ingredients were associated with high hazard or unique product purity is required. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resource: An example of a typical particle...

  12. Leaks in nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, Ronald Clyde [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters, also known as high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, are commonly used in air cleaning systems for removal of hazardous aerosols. Performance of the filter units is important in assuring health and environmental protection. The filter units are constructed from pleated packs of fiberglass filter media sealed into rigid frames. Results of previous studies on such filter units indicate that their performance may not be completely predicted by ideal performance of the fibrous filter media. In this study, departure from ideal performance is linked to leaks existing in filter units and overall filter unit performance is derived from independent performance of the individual filter unit components. The performance of 14 nuclear grade HEPA filter units (size 1, 25 cfm) with plywood frames was evaluated with a test system that permitted independent determination of penetration as a function of particle size for the whole filter unit, the filter unit frame, and the filter media pack. Tests were performed using a polydisperse aerosol of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate with a count median diameter of 0.2 {mu}m and geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Flow rate and differential pressure were controlled from 1% to 100% of design values. Particle counts were made upstream and downstream of the filter unit with an optical particle counter (OPC). The OPC provided count information in 28 size channels over the particle diameter range from 0.1 to 0.7 μm. Results provide evidence for a two component leak model of filler unit performance with: (1) external leaks through filter unit frames, and (2) internal leaks through defects in the media and through the seal between the media pack and frame. For the filter units evaluated, these leaks dominate overall filter unit performance over much of the flow rate and particle size ranges tested.

  13. Bridging knowledge capital with tourism destination stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejrum, Lone Møller; Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    process for the bachelor students at the IHM programme is according to the Problem Based Learning (PBL) principles to ensure the students’ motivation. Thus the students are participating in finding and defining the challenges and problems for the destination combining their theoretical knowledge...... individual interviews, focus group discussions and ethnographic observations. Findings/recommendations: - This is a conceptual paper that focuses on investigating the cooperation between hospitality knowledge institutions and destination stakeholders focusing on the specific case of the Italian destination...... Campi Flegrei. The ambition of this paper is to give a contribution to destination management and development theories and to explore the outcome of bridging knowledge institutions with destination stakeholders....

  14. Revisiting tourist behavior via destination brand worldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kayak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking tourists’ perspective rather than destination offerings as its core concept, this study introduces “perceived destination brand worldness” as a variable. Perceived destination brand worldness is defined as the positive perception that a tourist has of a country that is visited by tourists from all over the world. Then, the relationship between perceived destination brand worldness and intention to revisit is analyzed using partial least squares regression. This empirical study selects Taiwanese tourists as its sample, and the results show that perceived destination brand worldness is a direct predictor of intention to revisit. In light of these empirical findings and observations, practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. SLOVENIAN SPORT TOURISM DESTINATIONS AND THEIR COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Uran Maravić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the competitiveness of Slovenian sport tourism destinations and compares it with other domestic destinations and those abroad. The methodology is based on different destination competitiveness models. An integrated instrument of the sport destination competitiveness was developed and tested for validity of content and used to assess the competitiveness. There are eight main hypotheses tested. The research results confirm the main hypothesis − that Slovenian tourism managers believe Slovenian destinations are more competitive at home than abroad. The contribution of the research lies in the fact that it has applied the generic instrument for measuring destination competitiveness on sport tourism destinations and, for the first time, their competitiveness is measured in Slovenia.

  16. Impact of Tourist Perceptions, Destination Image and Tourist Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective this research paper is develops a destination loyalty theoretical model by using tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction. These study analysis components, attributes, factor influencing the destination image and examine the tourist satisfaction and determinants of destination loyalty. This is a conceptual paper attempts at evaluating recent empirical on destination image, tourist satisfaction and loyalty. The conceptual framework model is developed on the basis of existing theoretical and empirical research in the field of destination marketing. The models include four constructs. Tourist Perception constructs has been influenced by factors like Historical and Cultural Attractions, Destination Affordability, Travel Environment, Natural Attractions, Entertainments and Infrastructure. Destination image construct has been influenced by factors like Infrastructure & Facilities, Heritage Attractions, Natural Made Attractions, Destination Safety & Cleanness, Friendly Local Community & Clam Atmosphere, Rejuvenation and Service Price and Affordability. The satisfaction construct has been influenced by factors like Entertainments, Destination Attractions and Atmosphere, Accommodation, Food, Transportation Services and Shopping. The destination loyalty construct has influenced by intentions to revisit, word of mouth promotion and recommending to others . The earlier study result reveals that tourist perception, destination image and tourist satisfaction directly influence destination loyalty. The outcomes of the study have significant managerial implications for destination marketing managers.

  17. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  18. Categorization of Destinations and Formation of Mental Destination Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    format. We demonstrate how the new analytical framework can be applied to analyze and compare patterns of associations which individuals have of multiple destinations. Subsequently, this paper elaborates potential contributions the Bayesian relational modeling framework makes to the tourism research......Segmentation analysis in tourism research is challenged by an excessive number of variables used. The biclustering approach to segmentation is considered a promising approach to address the problem of an inappropriately large number of variables involved. This paper introduces, to tourism research......, a disruptive biclustering approach advanced by recent developments of Bayesian relational modeling. This new approach, for the first time in tourism research, allows to design and conduct a segmentation analysis by simultaneously biclustering multiple datasets consisting of cases and variables in a parallel...

  19. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  20. Evaluating the Efficiency of Hepatoprotector Hepa Veda in Patients with Liver Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of efficiency of monotherapy with hepatoprotector Hepa veda in patients with liver pathology. There were found a significant decrease of aminotransferase level in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and a tendency to decrease in patients with chronic viral hepatitis C that showed the efficiency of this hepatoprotector.

  1. Internal Brand Management of Destination Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Natasha; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Gardiner, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Achieving a consistent brand experience across a destination and all brand-touch points is a major challenge in destination branding efforts. Strategies to manage the complexity of coordination across multiple network stakeholders are therefore critical for destination management organisations....... However, theories to inform these strategies are limited. This paper proposes that internal brand management theory provides a framework to explore strategies that may increase operator buy-in to the destination brand, thus creating a more consistent brand experience for visitors. Semi......-structured interviews with members of a destination brand network indicate that highly centralised networks hinder operator buy-in to the destination brand. Informal communication via more personalised sub-networks rather than directive leadership appear to facilitate knowledge sharing and create support mechanisms...

  2. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  3. Destination brand experience and visitor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Barnes, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    experience (DBE), which provides a more holistic and unified view of the destination brand. It examines the direct and mediated role of DBE components in determining revisit intentions and word-of-mouth recommendations. The findings suggest that DBE is an important determinant of all study outcomes......Destination branding has developed considerably as a topic area in the last decade with numerous conceptualizations focusing on different aspects of the brand. However, a unified view has not yet emerged. This paper examines destination branding via a new conceptualization, destination brand...

  4. Destination and source memory in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Verny, C.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults

  5. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  6. 10 CFR 110.28 - Embargoed destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Embargoed destinations. 110.28 Section 110.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.28 Embargoed destinations. Cuba Iran Iraq North Korea Syria Sudan ...

  7. Destination competitivenes: A challenging process for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Armenski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree to which a country can benefit from its tourism industry depends largely on this competitive position on the international tourist market. Therefore, it is very important for one destination to realise its real competitive position on the tourism market as well as to address its weaknesses comparing them to its major competitors. There are different models for measuring the competitiveness. Among all, we follow the framework of authors Dwyer, Livaic and Mellor (2003, so called Integrated model of destination competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to present the model of destination competitiveness and results of the survey, based on indicators associated with the model. The results showed that Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and created resources than in destination management while, according to the Integrated model, Serbia is less competitive in demand conditions, which refer to the image and awareness of the destination itself.

  8. Statistical analysis of tourism destination competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Gardini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing relevance of tourism industry for modern advanced economies has increased the interest among researchers and policy makers in the statistical analysis of destination competitiveness. In this paper we outline a new model of destination competitiveness based on sound theoretical grounds and we develop a statistical test of the model on sample data based on Italian tourist destination decisions and choices. Our model focuses on the tourism decision process which starts from the demand schedule for holidays and ends with the choice of a specific holiday destination. The demand schedule is a function of individual preferences and of destination positioning, while the final decision is a function of the initial demand schedule and the information concerning services for accommodation and recreation in the selected destinations. Moreover, we extend previous studies that focused on image or attributes (such as climate and scenery by paying more attention to the services for accommodation and recreation in the holiday destinations. We test the proposed model using empirical data collected from a sample of 1.200 Italian tourists interviewed in 2007 (October - December. Data analysis shows that the selection probability for the destination included in the consideration set is not proportional to the share of inclusion because the share of inclusion is determined by the brand image, while the selection of the effective holiday destination is influenced by the real supply conditions. The analysis of Italian tourists preferences underline the existence of a latent demand for foreign holidays which points out a risk of market share reduction for Italian tourism system in the global market. We also find a snow ball effect which helps the most popular destinations, mainly in the northern Italian regions.

  9. High-efficiency particulate arrest-filter vacuum cleaners increase personal cat allergen exposure in homes with cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Robin B; Durrell, Bethan; Bishop, Sophie; Curbishley, Lisa; Woodcock, Ashley; Custovic, Adnan

    2003-04-01

    On the basis of experimental chamber studies, vacuum cleaners with double-thickness bags and integral high-efficiency particulate arrest (HEPA) air filters are claimed to reduce airborne allergen levels and are currently recommended to allergic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum cleaning on personal inhaled cat allergen exposure in homes with cats. Five unused new vacuum cleaners were compared with an old non-HEPA filter vacuum cleaner. Each vacuum cleaner was tested in an experimental chamber and in 5 homes with cats. Inhaled cat allergen was measured by nasal air sampling. New vacuum cleaners failed to leak any allergen in the experimental chamber. There was a significant increase in inhaled cat allergen during vacuum cleaning in homes (F = 48.39, df = 1.4, P =.002) with no difference between the old vacuum cleaner and the unused new vacuum cleaners (5-fold and 3-fold increase compared to baseline, respectively; F = 0.005, df = 1.4, P =.95). The use of new HEPA-filter vacuum cleaners increases inhaled cat allergen in homes with cats. The use of HEPA-filter modern vacuum cleaners to reduce pet allergen exposure in the homes of pet owners should not be justified merely on the basis of experimental chamber data.

  10. Destiny of Destinations: Can TDM Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Bacsi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism destination management (TDM is a popular catchword of current tourism research. A research, co-financed by the European Union through the Hungary-Croatia IPA Cross-border Co-operation Programme, within the project ’Health &Rural Tourism DM Model’ (project no.: HUHR/1101/2.1.3/0006, was carried out in 2013 to analyse the specialities of TDM in health tourism destinations, the physical and human resources of such destinations, aspects of sustainability and competitiveness, the main factors of success. Primary data were collected by surveys and interviews carried out in six spa towns of Western Hungary. The main findings indicated, that the major natural natural endowment is medicinal water in the research area, tourism infrastructure and superstructure are sufficient, although the range of services, and marketing of health tourism services should be improved. Destination management organisations perform least efficiently in attracting investors. The attitudes of stakeholders of the tourism sector towards the idea of TDM differ, while in less successful destinations they are more inclined to cooperate this way, they are rather reluctant to do so in successful destinations. Assessing the traits of tourism service providers, the natural assets, the local community and the targeted tourist segments a general model of health tourism destinations is outlined by the four componenets of the well-known VICE model.

  11. Proteomic analysis of plasma membranes isolated from undifferentiated and differentiated HepaRG cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowska Izabela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, a DNA virus of the Hepadnaviridae family, leads to severe disease, such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The early steps of the viral life cycle are largely obscure and the host cell plasma membrane receptors are not known. HepaRG is the only proliferating cell line supporting HBV infection in vitro, following specific differentiation, allowing for investigation of new host host-cell factors involved in viral entry, within a more robust and reproducible environment. Viral infection generally begins with receptor recognition at the host cell surface, following highly specific cell-virus interactions. Most of these interactions are expected to take place at the plasma membrane of the HepaRG cells. In the present study, we used this cell line to explore changes between the plasma membrane of undifferentiated (− and differentiated (+ cells and to identify differentially-regulated proteins or signaling networks that might potentially be involved in HBV entry. Our initial study identified a series of proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma membrane of (− and (+ cells and are good candidates for potential cell-virus interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first study using functional proteomics to study plasma membrane proteins from HepaRG cells, providing a platform for future experiments that will allow us to understand the cell-virus interaction and mechanism of HBV viral infection.

  12. Innovative Governance Strategies in Meetings Destination Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Organisations (DMOs). These conditions lead to ambiguity and conflicts regarding strategic planning, authoritative decision making, development of a clear destination brand identity and unanimous support during destination brand delivery. Lacking the predictability of corporate organisational structures, DMOs...... and an organizational culture based on consensus, and external efficiency, achieved by an innovative flexible cooperation network adapting to environmental changes. Conceptually, we add new details and aspects to Sheehan et al.’s framework of destination promotion triad.   References D’ Angella, F. & Go, F.M. (2009...

  13. Tourist destination marketing: Organization and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević Bojan V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing activities in tourism are conducted in tourist companies as well as in tourist destinations. In the latter, marketing activities are organized through the functioning of the so-called destination marketing organizations. It is a common name for different organizational forms, given that it could be a single company which has developed a resort, an association of tourist companies or an organization established by the public sector. In this respect, destination marketing organizations differ among themselves by a greater number of criteria, which determine their functions, methods of functioning, etc.

  14. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  15. EUROPEAN NAUTICAL TOURISTS: EXPLORING DESTINATION IMAGE PERCEPTIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen E Lam González; Javier de León Ledesma; Carmelo J León González

    2015-01-01

      The present paper aims at exploring the European nautical tourists' perceptions of image, in relation to the type of nautical sport they carry out and the type of nautical destination they visit...

  16. Handbook: Southern Finland as a wedding destination

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmuradov, Ismat; Nadan, Kumarsingh

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the creation and further developing of Southern Finland’s image as wedding destination. The main aim is to achieve it by creating a destination wedding handbook for Southern Finland while studying its potential of usage for foreign wedding couples who wish to celebrate their wedding in Southern Finland. Based on qualitative research methods, primary data was generated from unstructured interviews and by participants’ observation. The theo...

  17. Competitiveness of tourist destinations: the study of 65 key destinations for the development of regional tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo Medeiros Barbosa; Carlyle Tadeu Falcão de Oliveira; Cristiane Rezende

    2010-01-01

    Tourism has reached world importance in the economy. The competition in tourism has intensified between destinations, whether the destinations are cities, regions or countries. In this sense, the evaluation of the tourism competitiveness of these destinations may be helpful in planning and prioritizing actions that will benefit the industry. This article discusses the concept of competitiveness by the multidimensional view of performance, efficiency and unit analysis. Using the theoretical fr...

  18. Cleaning efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air-filtered vacuuming and "dry steam" cleaning on carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Lih-Ming; Yu, Chang Ho; Ashley, Peter; Rhoads, George

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies for lead exposure reduction have indicated the difficulty in reducing surface contamination of carpets with the use of regular vacuum cleaners. To find a solution, a household vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter and a dust finder indicator, and a "dry steam" cleaner previously reported effective in reducing dust mite allergens in carpets and mattresses were tested for effectiveness in reducing lead dust in carpets. Fifty homes of lead-exposed children were tested in New Jersey. A selected carpet in the living area of each home was tested with two interventions: half was cleaned by HEPA vacuuming twice (VAC-VAC) and the other half by dry steaming between the two HEPA vacuumings (VAC-DSC-VAC). Wipe and vacuum samples, representing surface dust and total dust collections, respectively, were taken before and after cleaning. The wipe and vacuum sample data indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced dust lead levels (p vacuum sampling (p = 0.072). A subset of sample data collected before repeat vacuuming (VAC-DSC) suggested that repeat vacuuming after dry steam cleaning is unnecessary. In summary, slow and steady HEPA vacuuming with the help of a dust finder indicator reduces surface and overall lead dust in carpets, and dry steam cleaning further reduces surface lead contamination as compared with HEPA vacuuming alone.

  19. Revisiting the destination image construct through a conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Matos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In a highly complex and dynamic sector like tourism, the current economic crisis brings to destination managers not only challenges but also opportunities. The image destinations promote to the market is a key element in the tourist decision-making process when choosing a tourism destination. This paper’s purpose is, therefore, to review and explore the destination image construct and its implications for the destination, and also to present a model of destination image based on previous studies. Implications for creating, enhancing and implementing the correct marketing programs for tourism destinations are provided.

  20. A Model of Tourism Destination Competitiveness: The case of the Italian Destinations of Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Goffi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism worldwide is becoming increasingly competitive. Competitiveness has been associated in the tourism literature as a critical element for the success of tourism destinations. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying and analyzing the various factors that influence the competitiveness of tourism destinations. The paper extends the Richie & Crouch (2000 model and develops a set of indicators that considers the different issues concerning tourism competitiveness. The indicators are focused on the various dimensions of sustainability. The paper offers insights into the model, each determinant has been extensively described. The aim of the paper is to test whether and to what extent the current set of indicators integrated into the present model can help explaining the competitiveness of a tourism destination. The model is tested on a unique dataset of 610 Italian Destinations of Excellence. Principal Component Analysis is applied on the responses to the items measuring destination competitiveness.

  1. BUCOVINA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION AND THE IMPACT OF THE RECENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CRISIS. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A MODERN DESTINATION MANAGEMENT APPROACH IN INTERNATIONAL DESTINATION MARKETING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heike BÄHRE; Ulrike FERGEN; Carmen CHASOVSCHI

    2013-01-01

    .... Based on a theoretical planning approach in destination marketing management, Bucovina is to be regarded as a destination situated at the end of the involvement stage of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC...

  2. Tourist destination branding on social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković-Šošić Bojana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have become the modern means of communication. Intensive electronic word of mouth to mouth (eWOM leads to faster sharing of experiences, and the creation of positive and negative attitudes. On the other hand, branding of tourist destinations has become one of the most powerful resources in the implementation of marketing strategies in tourism. The aim of this study, which is based on primary research, is to examine the concept of electronic word of mouth, as well as the role of social networks in the process of branding tourist destinations.

  3. Destination visual image and expectation of experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, H.; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2011-01-01

    A unique experience is the essence of tourism sought by tourists. The most effective way to communicate the notion of a tourism experience at a destination is to provide visual cues that stimulate the imagination and connect with potential tourists in a personal way. This study aims...... at understanding how a visual image is relevant to the expectation of experiences by deconstructing images of a destination and interpreting visitors' perceptions of these images and the experiences associated with them. The results suggest that tourists with different understandings of desirable experiences found...

  4. Clarifications regarding medical tourism destinations marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIOIU Aurelia-Felicia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of tourism (stand-alone, connected or components, from marketing experience, implies a broad spectrum of challenges, which, placed in a planned background, has the purpose the creation and then, the development of tourism products that correspond, at least, to consumers’ expectations. In order to optimize the new type of tourism, it is necessary to be correlated with the relevant resources of the destination, which, harmonized, can lead to the elaboration of destination marketing strategies, in this situation being the medical tourism, component of health tourism.

  5. The relationship between destination proximity, destination mix and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max

    2008-01-01

    The presence and mix of destinations is an important aspect of the built environment that may encourage or discourage physical activity. This study examined the association between the proximity and mix of neighbourhood destinations and physical activity. Secondary analysis was undertaken on physical activity data from Western Australian adults (n=1394). These data were linked with geographical information systems (GIS) data including the presence and the mix of destinations located within 400 and 1500 m from respondents' homes. Associations with walking for transport and recreation and vigorous physical activity were examined. Access to post boxes, bus stops, convenience stores, newsagencies, shopping malls, and transit stations within 400 m (OR 1.63-5.00) and schools, transit stations, newsagencies, convenience stores and shopping malls within 1500 m (OR 1.75-2.38) was associated with participation in regular transport-related walking. A dose-response relationship between the mix of destinations and walking for transport was also found. Each additional destination within 400 and 1500 m resulted in an additional 12 and 11 min/fortnight spent walking for transport, respectively. Proximity and mix of destinations appears strongly associated with walking for transport, but not walking for recreation or vigorous activity. Increasing the diversity of destinations may contribute to adults doing more transport-related walking and achieving recommended levels of physical activity.

  6. A Research for Determining the Relationship between Destination Image and Destination Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Artuğer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between destination image and destination personality. The sample group of the study consisted of tourists visiting Alanya district of Antalya province between June and August 2013. A brand personality scale developed by Aaker (1997 and a survey used for grading the destination image were used as tools for collecting data which were obtained from a total of 395 tourists for the application. Descriptive analyses such percentage, frequency, factor analysis (confirmatory and explanatory as well as statistical tests such as the reliability analysis were used for analyzing the obtained data. In addition the relationship between destination image and destination personality was analyzed with the Structural Equation Modeling (SEMAt the conclusion of the study there appeared to be negative and very weak relationship between affective image and destination personality while the relationship between cognitive image and destination personality appeared to be positive and strong. In addition Aaker’s (1997 5 dimensional brand personality grading turned out to be 4 dimensions. These dimensions were determined as excitement, ruggedness, competence and sincerity

  7. Testing chemical carcinogenicity by using a transcriptomics HepaRG-based model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, T Y; Yildirimman, Reha; Ceelen, Liesbeth; Vilardell, Mireia; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Ates, Gamze; Heymans, Anja; Gmuender, Hans; Bort, Roque; Corvi, Raffaella; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Li, Ruoya; Mouchet, Nicolas; Chesne, Christophe; van Delft, Joost; Kleinjans, Jos; Castell, Jose; Herwig, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The EU FP6 project carcinoGENOMICS explored the combination of toxicogenomics and in vitro cell culture models for identifying organotypical genotoxic- and non-genotoxic carcinogen-specific gene signatures. Here the performance of its gene classifier, derived from exposure of metabolically competent human HepaRG cells to prototypical non-carcinogens (10 compounds) and hepatocarcinogens (20 compounds), is reported. Analysis of the data at the gene and the pathway level by using independent biostatistical approaches showed a distinct separation of genotoxic from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens and non-carcinogens (up to 88 % correct prediction). The most characteristic pathway responding to genotoxic exposure was DNA damage. Interlaboratory reproducibility was assessed by blindly testing of three compounds, from the set of 30 compounds, by three independent laboratories. Subsequent classification of these compounds resulted in correct prediction of the genotoxicants. As expected, results on the non-genotoxic carcinogens and the non-carcinogens were less predictive. In conclusion, the combination of transcriptomics with the HepaRG in vitro cell model provides a potential weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of chemical substances.

  8. Testing chemical carcinogenicity by using a transcriptomics HepaRG-based model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, T. Y.; Yildirimman, Reha; Ceelen, Liesbeth; Vilardell, Mireia; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Ates, Gamze; Heymans, Anja; Gmuender, Hans; Bort, Roque; Corvi, Raffaella; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Li, Ruoya; Mouchet, Nicolas; Chesne, Christophe; van Delft, Joost; Kleinjans, Jos; Castell, Jose; Herwig, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The EU FP6 project carcinoGENOMICS explored the combination of toxicogenomics and in vitro cell culture models for identifying organotypical genotoxic- and non-genotoxic carcinogen-specific gene signatures. Here the performance of its gene classifier, derived from exposure of metabolically competent human HepaRG cells to prototypical non-carcinogens (10 compounds) and hepatocarcinogens (20 compounds), is reported. Analysis of the data at the gene and the pathway level by using independent biostatistical approaches showed a distinct separation of genotoxic from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens and non-carcinogens (up to 88 % correct prediction). The most characteristic pathway responding to genotoxic exposure was DNA damage. Interlaboratory reproducibility was assessed by blindly testing of three compounds, from the set of 30 compounds, by three independent laboratories. Subsequent classification of these compounds resulted in correct prediction of the genotoxicants. As expected, results on the non-genotoxic carcinogens and the non-carcinogens were less predictive. In conclusion, the combination of transcriptomics with the HepaRG in vitro cell model provides a potential weight of evidence approach for the evaluation of the genotoxic potential of chemical substances. PMID:26417288

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  10. Social Disorganization in New Latino Destinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Martha; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    Rural industrial restructuring, including growth in meat processing and other nondurable manufacturing, has generated employment opportunities that have attracted Latino in migrants to new nonmetropolitan destinations. Long-time residents, however, are not always receptive. While some observers point to economic and social benefits of a Latino…

  11. TOURISM DESTINATION MAPPING THROUGH CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tourism destination appeared in theory and practice after the development of mass tourism and tourism marketing. They are theoretically “travel market units” or areas that are capable “to exist independently and efficiently in the tourism market according to the principles of marketing and the policy of tourism product”. However the main idea of which we start this paper is that the most of tourism destinations are not born naturally, they were created by implementing an efficient development management of attractions, accessibility and amenities at a specific area level. We consider that the stakeholders can intervene in an area with touristic potential to support the development of rural tourism and implement measures that can transform it in a touristic destination. With this purpose in mind we present in this paper a methodology to map the areas with rural tourism development potential by utilising cluster analysis. The case studies are the villages from Gorj County with touristic potential that have a proximity access to high value natural and/or anthropic touristic resources. The main results of our research is that in this county exists five areas where can be implemented tourism destination management plans and through which can be assured a better promotion and valorisation of rural tourism.

  12. Destination Characteristics that Drive Hotel Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Woo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The increased market saturation and competition in both domestic and international tourism destinations have renewed interest among hotel operators in identifying the key drivers of hotel performance. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of hotel performance and their ...

  13. Standardization of Inter-Destination Media Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R.; Boronat, F.; Montagud, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is a process in which various receivers of the same content are synchronized in their playout. Standardization of an IDMS solution helps to enable interoperability between receivers manufactured by different companies. This paper describes the efforts by ETSI TISPAN and by the IETF AVTCORE working group on standardization of IDMS.

  14. Standardization of Inter-Destination Media Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R. van; Boronat, F.; Montagud, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is a process in which various receivers of the same content are synchronized in their playout. Standardization of an IDMS solution helps to enable interoperability between receivers manufactured by different companies. This paper describes the efforts

  15. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  16. Evaluation of the ICET Test Stand to Assess the Performance of a Range of Ceramic Media Filter Elements in Support of ASME AG-1 Subsection FO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmel, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-26

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are defined as extended-medium, dry-type filters with: (1) a minimum particle removal efficiency of no less than 99.97 percent for 0.3 micrometer particles, (2) a maximum, clean resistance of 1.0 inch water column (in. WC) when operated at 1,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM), and (3) a rigid casing that extends the full depth of the medium. Specifically, ceramic media HEPA filters provide better performance at elevated temperatures, are moisture resistant and nonflammable, can perform their function if wetted and exposed to greater pressures, and can be cleaned and reused. This paper describes the modification and design of a large scale test stand which properly evaluates the filtration characteristics of a range of ceramic media filters challenged with a nuclear aerosol agent in order to develop Section FO of ASME AG-1.

  17. Competitiveness of tourist destinations: the study of 65 key destinations for the development of regional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Medeiros Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has reached world importance in the economy. The competition in tourism has intensified between destinations, whether the destinations are cities, regions or countries. In this sense, the evaluation of the tourism competitiveness of these destinations may be helpful in planning and prioritizing actions that will benefit the industry. This article discusses the concept of competitiveness by the multidimensional view of performance, efficiency and unit analysis. Using the theoretical framework lifted, this article shows the 'Study on the competitiveness of the 65 destinations inducers of regional tourism development' prepared by the Tourism Ministry, the Brazilian Support Service to Micro and Small Enterprises (Sebrae and Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV, its assumptions that guided this study as well its methodological aspects. Based on this methodology, it was carried out a diagnosis of these 65 destinations selected by the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism to be inducers of tourism in their respective regions. The result of competitiveness reached by these 65 inductors destinations is presented in this article, providing a map of the level of competitiveness of tourism in Brazil.

  18. Microwave Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiafeng

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of microwave filter design based on lumped-element circuit is described in this chapter. The lowpass prototype filters with Butterworth, Chebyshev and quasielliptic characteristics are synthesized, and the prototype filters are then transformed to bandpass filters by lowpass to bandpass frequency mapping. By using immitance inverters ( J - or K -inverters), the bandpass filters can be realized by the same type of resonators. One design example is given to verify the theory ...

  19. Combined use of an electrostatic precipitator and a high-efficiency particulate air filter in building ventilation systems: Effects on cardiorespiratory health indicators in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D B; Xiang, J; Mo, J; Clyde, M A; Weschler, C J; Li, F; Gong, J; Chung, M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J

    2017-12-29

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in combination with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can be a cost-effective approach to reducing indoor particulate exposure, but ESPs produce ozone. The health effect of combined ESP-HEPA filtration has not been examined. We conducted an intervention study in 89 volunteers. At baseline, the air-handling units of offices and residences for all subjects were comprised of coarse, ESP, and HEPA filtration. During the 5-week long intervention, the subjects were split into 2 groups, 1 with just the ESP removed and the other with both the ESP and HEPA removed. Each subject was measured for cardiopulmonary risk indicators once at baseline, twice during the intervention, and once 2 weeks after baseline conditions were restored. Measured indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and ozone concentrations, coupled with time-activity data, were used to calculate exposures. Removal of HEPA filters increased 24-hour mean PM2.5 exposure by 38 (95% CI: 31, 45) μg/m3 . Removal of ESPs decreased 24-hour mean ozone exposure by 2.2 (2.0, 2.5) ppb. No biomarkers were significantly associated with HEPA filter removal. In contrast, ESP removal was associated with a -16.1% (-21.5%, -10.4%) change in plasma-soluble P-selectin and a -3.0% (-5.1%, -0.8%) change in systolic blood pressure, suggesting reduced cardiovascular risks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PPAR agonists reduce steatosis in oleic acid-overloaded HepaRG cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogue, Alexandra [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Anthérieu, Sébastien; Vluggens, Aurore [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Umbdenstock, Thierry [Technologie Servier, Orléans (France); Claude, Nancy [Institut de Recherches Servier, Courbevoie (France); Moureyre-Spire, Catherine de la; Weaver, Richard J. [Biologie Servier, Gidy (France); Guillouzo, André, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr [Inserm UMR 991, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Université de Rennes 1, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2014-04-01

    Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of chronic liver disease there is no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are closely associated with hepatic lipid metabolism, they seem to play important roles in NAFLD. However, the effects of PPAR agonists on steatosis that is a common pathology associated with NAFLD, remain largely controversial. In this study, the effects of various PPAR agonists, i.e. fenofibrate, bezafibrate, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, muraglitazar and tesaglitazar on oleic acid-induced steatotic HepaRG cells were investigated after a single 24-hour or 2-week repeat treatment. Lipid vesicles stained by Oil-Red O and triglycerides accumulation caused by oleic acid overload, were decreased, by up to 50%, while fatty acid oxidation was induced after 2-week co-treatment with PPAR agonists. The greatest effects on reduction of steatosis were obtained with the dual PPARα/γ agonist muraglitazar. Such improvement of steatosis was associated with up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation activity and down-regulation of many genes involved in lipogenesis. Moreover, modulation of expression of some nuclear receptor genes, such as FXR, LXRα and CAR, which are potent actors in the control of lipogenesis, was observed and might explain repression of de novo lipogenesis. Conclusion: Altogether, our in vitro data on steatotic HepaRG cells treated with PPAR agonists correlated well with clinical investigations, bringing a proof of concept that drug-induced reversal of steatosis in human can be evaluated in in vitro before conducting long-term and costly in vivo studies in animals and patients. - Highlights: • There is no pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of NAFLD. • This study demonstrates that PPAR agonists can reduce fatty acid-induced steatosis. • Some nuclear receptors appear to be potent actors in the control

  1. A Dual Process Approach to Understand Tourists’ Destination Choice Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Florian; Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, Albert

    2017-01-01

    are mentally processed in tourists' minds. Specifically, the seminal dual processing approach is applied to the destination image literature. By doing this, we argue that some components of mental destination representations are processed systematically while others serve as inputs for heuristics......Most studies that investigate tourists' choices of destinations apply the concept of mental destination representations, also referred to as destination image. The present study investigates tourists’ destination choice processes by conceptualizing how different components of destination image...... that individuals apply to inform their decision making. Understanding how individuals make use of their mental destination representations and how they color their decision-making is essential in order to better explain tourist behavior....

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of consumer narratives for destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Park, S.; Fesenmaier, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using tourists' stories to promote destinations is believed to be an innovative approach in destination marketing. This study conceptualizes and investigates the effectiveness of such an approach. This study supports the underlying premise of introducing narrative in marketing, that is...

  3. Cytotoxic T cell immunity against the non-immunogenic, murine, hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 is directed towards the novel alternative form of macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lisheng; Zhang, Jian Gang; Samathanam, Christina A; Delgado, Christina; Tarbiyat-Boldaji, Mary; Dan, Qinghong; Hoa, Neil; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Alipanah, Reza; Pham, Jimmy T H; Sanchez, Ramon; Wepsic, H Terry; Morgan, Timothy R; Jadus, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    Mouse Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were transduced with the membrane form of macrophage colony stimulating factor (mM-CSF). When mM-CSF transduced Hepa1-6 cells were injected subcutaneously into mice, these cells did not form tumors. The spleens of these immunized mice contained cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) that killed the unmodified Hepa1-6 cells. We show that the alternative form of macrophage colony stimulating factor (altM-CSF) induced CTL-mediated immunity against Hepa1-6 cells. AltM-CSF is restricted to the H-2D(b) allele. CTLs killed RMA-S cells loaded with exogenous altM-CSF peptide. Vaccination of mice with dendritic cells pulsed with the altM-CSF peptide stimulated anti-Hepa1-6 CTLs. Hyper-immunization of mice with mM-CSF Hepa1-6 cells showed inflammation of the liver and kidneys. Although altM-CSF was expressed within liver and kidney cells, its intensity was lower than Hepa1-6 cells. AltM-CSF was detected within the human HepG2 cell line. These studies suggest that altM-CSF may be a tumor antigen for HCC.

  4. The influence of social media in destination choice

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Min-En Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of social media in destination choice. The evolution of social media within tourism has provided further impetus towards destination information search and image formation. To this end, existing studies have presented the influence of social media at destination micro-levels, such as accommodation and restaurants. At a macro-level, some studies have investigated the influence of social media on a destination. However, current scope is l...

  5. City Image – As Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciulescu Gabriela Cecilia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a competitive industry, even on a global scale. If access to a destination or attraction is too complicated, time consuming, expensive or not providing adequate capacity, even the most spectacular attraction will remain a secret to most tourists, as they will prefer competitive alternatives” (Smiths, 2003. And to continue this, it is considered that „that cultural differences and uniqueness are important if one wants cultural products to become a commercial success” (Lindenberg, 2004. When cultural tourists are looking to experiment or to improve their knowledge, the question is: “Which are the best strategies and practices to market that experience and knowledge for the cultural tourists” (Kantanen, 2005. This paper will be dedicated to presenting city tourist destinations, their marketing and market positioning, also to analyze the way in which potential customers’ perception is built and how the process can be influenced, and to analyze the way the tourist product is assembled.

  6. Tourism experience, destination and event management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitić Andriela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tend to show some of the challenges of matured and world-known tourism destination, as well some of the modalities in keeping and increasing a level of Honolulu cluster's competitiveness. Accordingly, specific tourism experience as socio-cultural dimension of destination competitiveness was evaluated. A core of the paper is primary research of tourism event "Brunch on the Beach" Honolulu, Hawaii, that was done in 2004. Data for analysis were collected during the internship that author did in the City and Country - Honolulu. Internship was a part of JFDP scholarship received by the American Councils for International Educations (ACIE. George Washington University was the institution where the author completed the most of specialization and which gave a support for the internship organization. Questionnaire method was used for the research, while SPSS software was used for data analyses.

  7. Social Media Strategies and Destination Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    initiatives of DMOs of Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and the Scandinavian Tourist Board Asia/Pacific in the Nordic European Region. The study provides empirical evidence of emerging social media strategies among DMOs and confirms the growing importance of these new media. The findings point...... to the conflicting relationship between corporate culture and social media culture, the challenges innovative communication tools present for traditional management structures, poor levels of formalization and the lack of a knowledge base which results in ad-hoc decision making. Overall, the paper discusses......This study provides insights into social media practices and strategic considerations used by destination management organizations (DMOs). It examines a theoretical model of generic social media strategies for destination management and applies qualitative methods to analyze the social media...

  8. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along with their eff......This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along......; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...

  9. Crew Scheduling for Netherlands Railways: "destination: customer"

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, Leo; Fischetti, Matteo

    2000-01-01

    textabstract: In this paper we describe the use of a set covering model with additional constraints for scheduling train drivers and conductors for the Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers. The schedules were generated according to new rules originating from the project "Destination: Customer" ("Bestemming: Klant" in Dutch). This project is carried out by NS Reizigers in order to increase the quality and the punctuality of its train services. With respect to the scheduling of drivers and condu...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.39 - Destination and route signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destination and route signs... Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.39 Destination and route signs. (a) Where destination or route information is displayed on the exterior of a vehicle, each vehicle shall have illuminated signs on the front...

  11. Brand Equity of a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Kyung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current climate of severe competition among tourist destinations, the importance of brand equity in tourism marketing is increasing. This study looks at the impact of branding in relation to the largest group of inbound overseas tourists to South Korea, the Chinese. Data for the current study were obtained from a survey of tourists visiting Seoul from the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and the Chinese living in Southeast Asia. The survey was conducted in popular sightseeing spots, four and five-star hotels in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, and the Incheon International Airport. The respondents were selected randomly, with effort expended to avoid any potential bias in the composition of the sample. Out of a total of 385 distributed questionnaires, 350 (China 191, Hong Kong 71, Taiwan 68, others 20 were selected as valid and finally used in the analysis. The results of this study suggest that price and word of mouth have beneficial effects on perceived quality, publicity, and brand awareness, and advertisement has beneficial effects on brand image. We also found that brand awareness and perceived quality have impacts on brand image, and brand image is related to brand loyalty. This is a pioneering study on the relationships between influencing factors, destination brand equity and its elements, and brand loyalty, with respect to Seoul, South Korea, as a tourism destination for tourists from China.

  12. Managements and marketing in Korca tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Shkira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. This paper reports on experiences and activities that are taken in destination management and marketing in Korça tourist region. Primarily it is told about importance of management and the role of marketing in the development of tourist destination and how to be combined them to grow up competitive advantages. Then are described all main problems of destination management and marketing in Korça region and all problems that are viewed in tourist villages of this region. In the end is suggested a model that can be used to develop sustainable tourism, to grow up profits and to reduce negative impacts that would come from this industry.

  13. VARIABLES OF THE IMAGE OF TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ban Olimpia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The image of a destination is more than a distinguishing element; it is a component of the supply and brings more value to it. The image of a destination can be the decisive component, while the other elements re relatively alike (1. The image of a tourist destination is strongly connected to the image of a country, the image of a nation and the image of a place. The image of a place is formed for a receiver naturally by accumulating experiences with that place, the use of the sources of personal and impersonal information. For the transmitter, the image is the result of some direct and indirect actions. The branding of the place is the conscientious and coordinated process of an image achievement. In the paper there are presented some examples of actions of image research, an essential step having in view the branding or re-branding It is presented a study of the citizens of Oradea regarding their perception of tourist Romania.

  14. Hispanic Assimilation and Fertility in New Destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T; Johnson, Kenneth M; Turner, Richard N; Churilla, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005-2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican-origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., noncitizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics - and Mexican-origin Hispanics in particular - cannot be explained entirely by socio-demographic characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005-2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, county of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with sub-cultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas.

  15. Acceptable knowledge summary report for combustible/noncombustible, metallic, and HEPA filter waste resulting from {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.S.Z.; Foxx, C.L.

    1998-02-19

    All transuranic (TRU) waste must be sufficiently characterized and certified before it is shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allows use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization. EPA uses the term AK in its guidance document and defines AK and provides guidelines on how acceptable knowledge should be obtained and documented. This AK package has been prepared in accordance with Acceptable Knowledge Documentation (TWCP-QP-1.1-021,R.2). This report covers acceptable knowledge information for five waste streams generated at TA-55 during operations to fabricate various heat sources using feedstock {sup 238}Pu supplied by the Savannah River Site (SRS). The {sup 238}Pu feedstock itself does not contain quantities of RCRA-regulated constituents above regulatory threshold limits, as known from process knowledge at SRS and as confirmed by chemical analysis. No RCRA-regulated chemicals were used during {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities at TA-55, and all {sup 238}Pu activities were physically separated from other plutonium processing activities. Most of the waste generated from the {sup 238}Pu fabrication activities is thus nonmixed waste, including waste streams TA-55-43, 45, and 47. The exceptions are waste streams TA-55-44, which contains discarded lead-lined rubber gloves used in the gloveboxes that contained the {sup 238}Pu material, and TA-55-46, which may contain pieces of discarded lead. These waste streams have been denoted as mixed because of the presence of the lead-containing material.

  16. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  17. Review of Literature of the Rural Heritage Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadi Alaa J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural heritage tourism destination management is an essential knowledge area that should be investigated to achieve sustainable destination, especially for an emerging destination. The goal of this process is to ensure that these elements are thoroughly inspected and rigidly organized due to the main concepts, theories, methods and approaches mentioning different perspectives to tackle these certain elements. In order to cope with the complexity of the relation between the destination elements and its characteristics and sequence of the maturity of the selected destination, all that needs in-depth knowledge to assist the researchers in developing and improving different types of approaches and tools, and in structuring and assessing the destination. We develop a neat backbone literature review concerning the all aspects of the sustainable rural heritage tourism destination. We review the existing methods, approaches and theories applied on the relative field, and further study the relevant challenges that have been the target of investigation in the academic literature. The paper is intended to be the newest and the most important existing study on the topic of rural heritage emerging tourism destination. The results are particularly relevant to practitioners seeking a better grasp on managing tourism destination as well as achieving sustainability in tourism destinations. As a major finding of the review, the results strongly suggest the need for more practitioner-oriented and industry-driven empirical studies in the area of flexible managerial framework to cope with special and dynamic characteristics of different tourism destinations.

  18. Promotion as a Tool in Sustaining the Destination Marketing Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mulec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the tourism destination in the right and best possible way is today one of vital marketing activities of all Destination Management Organizations. Only successful promotion can entice and attract potential travelers to visit the destination. The number of new destinations is increasing every year and some of them are quite similar. Market segmentation is one of the starting points for devising marketing strategy. Only by presenting the destination to the right segment of potential clients in the right way will a destination maximize the effectiveness of its marketing and promotion. Tourism destination marketers will continue to face considerable challenges in the future: they will have to take account of the needs, wants and expectations of more mature and knowledgeable customers, and the corresponding need for more up-to-date and reliable information upon which to base decision-making. In the future only marketing which includes collaborative dimensions will meet its objectives fully.

  19. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  20. Predictors of trips to food destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Frank, Lawrence; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian; Glanz, Karen; Chapman, Jim

    2012-05-20

    Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies should assess the food environment around

  1. Optimal filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Brian D O

    1979-01-01

    This graduate-level text augments and extends beyond undergraduate studies of signal processing, particularly in regard to communication systems and digital filtering theory. Vital for students in the fields of control and communications, its contents are also relevant to students in such diverse areas as statistics, economics, bioengineering, and operations research.Topics include filtering, linear systems, and estimation; the discrete-time Kalman filter; time-invariant filters; properties of Kalman filters; computational aspects; and smoothing of discrete-time signals. Additional subjects e

  2. The Influence Of Destination Personality And Perceived Value On Destination Image In National Park Bunaken And Wakatobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursaban R. Suleman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the concept destination personality perceived value and destination image. In particular this study aims to determine how much influence destination personality and perceived value to destination image on marine tourism in Bunaken and Wakatobi National Park. This type of research is descriptive and verified. The survey was conducted using questionnaires to 223 tourists traveling in Bunaken and Wakatobi especially scuba diving activities. By analyzing using the SEM structural equation model with AMOS program. Descriptive research results indicate that the destination personality perceived value owned marine tourism Bunaken and Wakatobi has been running very good with the exception of the destination image is considered pretty good. While the research results verification that destination personality affect destination image with a standard deviation of 0.46 or effect 46. Then the perceived value affects the destination image with the effect of a standard deviation of 0.30 30. Then the effect of simultaneous destination personality and perceived value to destination image with a standard deviation of 0.39 or 39.

  3. European nautical tourists: exploring destination image perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Lam González, Yen E.; Javier de León Ledesma; Carmelo J. León González

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Nautical tourism is considered to be an under-exploited research area, if we take into account its evolution and growth prospects. This lack of knowledge is probably one of the main reasons the sector has not reached its maximum. The present paper aims at exploring the European nautical tourists´ perceptions of image, in relation to the type of nautical sport they carry out and the type of nautical destination they visit. Methodology – The research was conducted in the Canary Isl...

  4. Validation of Hepa-index as a non-invasive biomarkers panel for assessment of hepatic fibrosis in Egyptians with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboraie, Mohamed; Schütte, Kerstin; Khairy, Marwa; Elsharkawy, Marwa; Asem, Noha; Elghamry, Fathy; Shalaby, Helmy; Esmat, Gamal; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-11-01

    To validate the diagnostic performance of Hepa-Index in predicting different stages of hepatic fibrosis in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Methods: Hundred treatment naïve chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients were prospectively enrolled between June 2014 and January 2015. They were subjected to: platelet count, alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG), total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol, liver biopsy and histopathological staging of hepatic fibrosis according to METAVIR scoring system. Hepa-Index was calculated according to the formula: Hepa-Index=exp (-0.021 x platelet +1.65 x α2-MG+0.2 x total bilirubin + 0.026 x GGT -1.215 x total cholesterol) / (1+exp (-0.021 x platelet + 1.65 x α2-MG + 0.2 x total bilirubin +0.026 x GGT -1.215 x total cholesterol).  Results: Hepa-Index correlates positively with the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Cut off values of Hepa-Index were: 0.2 for predicting significant hepatic fibrosis (≥F2 METAVIR), 0.3 for severe hepatic fibrosis (≥F3 METAVIR) and 0.4 for cirrhosis (F4 METAVIR). Hepa-Index was able to detect significant fibrosis with sensitivity of 69.4%, specificity of 76.3% and AUROC of 0.803. Hepa-Index was also able to detect severe hepatic fibrosis with sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 64.5% and AUROC of 0.783 and cirrhosis with sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity of 68.5% and AUROC of 0.744. Conclusion: Hepa-Index is a good non-invasive biomarkers panel that can be used for non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  5. Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  6. DESTINATION MANAGEMENT AND IMAGING KINTAMANI TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Agustini Karta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kintamani destination has become a forerunner to the development of tourism in Bali. The last few years the brand Kintamani Destinations increasingly unpopular. This study aims to explain the paradigm shift and the role of management Kintamani Destinations in shaping the quality of service, image, satisfaction, and visitor’s loyalty integrated manner affecting the sustainability of tourism. Management acts as a service provider consisting of stakeholders. Research on management aspects (supply side has been implemented in the first phase qualitatively through depth interview. In stage II, conducted quantitative research on aspects of service quality, image, satisfaction and loyalty of visitors to Kintamani using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling. By accidental sampling questionnaire conducted to 250 tourists who visit Kintamani Destinations. Later in the third stage, verify the relationship of service quality, image, satisfaction, and loyalty to the sustainability of tourism in Kintamani through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The findings of this research is the paradigm and the role of stakeholders in the destination management affects the quality of services provided in Kintamani. Aspects of quality of service, image, satisfaction significantly affect the loyalty of tourists visiting Kintamani. The four aspects are directly determine the sustainability of tourism in Kintamani. The novelty of this research is both, from the aspect of supply and demand, destination management, service quality, imaging, and satisfaction rating affects loyalty, as well as an integrated manner affecting the sustainability of Kintamani tourism Destinations. These research results bring to all stakeholders that the management of destinations and image dominant influence on the sustainability of Kintamani Tourism Destinations. Thus, these aspects will be the focus of stakeholders in maintaining and developing Kintamani Tourism Destinations. Kintamani Destinations

  7. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  8. QUALITY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ELMAZI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Service quality initiatives are high priorities in many tourist destinations, with expenditure seen as long-term investment for future growth and profitability. My study’s goal is to explain the quality dimensions from the viewpoint of tourism destination. When we start to discuss about tourism quality supply, the main problem we have to consider is the structure of tourism supply as a complex of tangible and intangible elements. Analysis of the quality problem, their measuring and monitoring and marketing strategies based on quality, needs to be built on the specificity of tourist offer, regarding the level of goods and services. Because of this, the level of quality and customer satisfaction of quality is very hard to measure and to control. The first major feature of quality programs development is typically, to identify the key components or dimensions of quality from customer and employee research, i.e. their needs and expectations.

  9. CAPITAL FLOWS AND THEIR SECTORAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.

  10. M e Multidr enriche rug-res ed for sistant CD133 of TG t hepa 3 subp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    ain treatme and tumor r bset of cance studies sugg herapy regu enrich CS therapy regu. DR) human H eatedly at a s ular sensitiv kers express ng. Our resu e six months raction and sulted in en ttenuated the nriched with mad3 pathw lar carcinoma. (HCC) is th wuguoyang_m r stem cells or c litaxel. remain perma. 4 e t hepa.

  11. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. EXPLORING DESTINATION IDENTITY AND DESTINATION IMAGE IN THE NEW AGE OF TOURISM: A CASE STUDY OF BALI BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made - Asti Aksari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali's economy has grown rapidly since a decade ago. This is possible because tourism is growing continuously. However, tourism growth is not optimal because of insufficient promotion and tourism destination identity is unclear.  The growth of Web 2.0 as a platform to share travel information has prompted tourism bodies to pay closer attention to how their destinations are perceived by target markets. Set within the context of the emergence of Web 2.0, a platform designed to enable users to generate and share information on the Internet, this paper evaluates the relationship between destination identity and destination image and adopts the view that a successful destination brand relies on the congruence between destination identity and destination image. The elements of destination identity are composed from the supply side and the elements of destination image are composed from the consumer side. The objective of exploring the alignment between these two perspectives is to propose a model to encourage the alignment of these two perspectives and evaluate the effectiveness of a destination branding strategy.

  13. RESEARCH ON TOURISM DESTINATIONS MARKETING FROM THE PUBLIC RELATIONS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela ARIONESEI; Ivan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, tourism destinations are more and more determined to build a unique and competitive identity and image in consumers’ minds. Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research. In some countries, many without "a tradition in tourism", building a marketing strategy for travel destinations is based on artificial and without substance images/...

  14. A STUDY ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF LUXERY DESTINATION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMEHMET, Bilge; Aydin, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Luxury consumption has an increasing trend despite the recent global economic crisis.  Luxury tourism and luxury hospitality are among the leading categories that drive luxury consumption. The definition of luxury as well the luxury tourism destinations is not a constant and may vary from an individual to another.  The destination to be travelled is one of the important criteria determining luxury perceptions. In this study, consumers’ luxury destination perceptions are sought to be determine...

  15. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics), neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination) were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other than home, so future studies

  16. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  17. Hämeenpuisto as a tourism destination : operational development

    OpenAIRE

    Borgenström, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine Hämeenpuisto as a tourism destination in the framework of UNWTO’s definition of a tourism destination. The objective was to study its capabilities of operating as an independent destination and then give development suggestions on how to make it a successful destination. The aim was to create an interesting development model for Hämeenpuisto that would respond to current issues in Hämeenpuisto and its surrounding environment and to contribute to dev...

  18. Influence of security threats on tourism destination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurež Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the modern security environment and its impact on tourism destination development. Contemporary security environment is a result of historical events affected by the elements of the contemporary safety and political environment. Ground security concepts, which dominate contemporary security environment, are pointed out and further linked to the development of the modern security threats shaping tourism destination development. We are pointing out how the major security threats influence the tourism destination development. Methodology is based on secondary analysis of literature. Several current case studies are made to support conclusions on relationship between security and tourism destination developments.

  19. Role of specific geographic landscapes in city break destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štetić Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban tourist destinations or City Break destinations are representing one of main destination products on tourist market. City Break destinations are big cities, administrative, economic and political centers of states and regions. These cities are 'open' 24 hours per day, seven days in week. Inside these tourist destination we can find different range of products (culture, entertainment, recreation, leisure, history, modern infrastructure. In these destinations season is not present and it lasts trough out the year. Promotional campaigns in City Break destinations are truing to create distinguished images in tourists mind as also as on investors, consumers and future residents. They emphasize advantages that those cities are delivering to their consumers, but often we forget that all these cities are having specific geographic landscapes. In the era of limiting of mass tourism to preserve resources for future generations and emphasizing the importance of sustainable development for tourism perspectives, the importance of specific geographic landscapes inside urban destinations for their further development as tourist destinations an their overall development is slightly neglected.

  20. DESTINATION LOYALTY MODEL OF ELDERLY FOREIGN TOURISTS VISITING BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research was designed to understand loyalty model of elderly foreign tourists visiitng Bali which was undertaken in the main destinations in Bali i.e., Kuta, Nusa Dua, Sanur, Ubud and Lovina. 400 respondents were determined purposively. The criteria were senior tourists aged 55 or over and tourists vacationing in one of Bali’s tourism destinations. Descriptive statistical analysis and the SEM-AMOS structural model analysis tools were undertaken to analyze statistically. The resuts show that (1 Internal motivation does not have a significant effect on destination image. (2 External motivation has a significant effect on destination image and loyalty, but does not have a significant effect on tourist’s satisfaction. (3 Destination image has a significant effect on tourist’s satisfaction. (4 Tourist’s satisfaction has a significant effect on destination loyalty. Two loyalty models were formed: (1 Destination loyalty is directly influenced by tourist’s satisfaction, and indirectly influenced by destination image and external motivation. (2 Destination loyalty is directly influenced by external motivation, but the influence is not as significant as the influence of tourist’s satisfaction on loyalty. Suggestions of the research are maintaining the joint approach to answer various questions through quantitative approach. Improvement strong image of Bali is crucial, such as: (1 improving uniqueness of culture, (2 welcoming local inhabitants, (3 improving tourism infrastructure, and (4 comfortable tourism atmosphere.

  1. Tourists' Transformation Experience: From Destination Architecture to Identity Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Helen Yi; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2010-01-01

    in a destination and if architecture facilitates tourists’ self transformation. Based on narrative structure analysis by deconstruction of travel blog posts, the results suggest that tourists perceive architectural landscape as an important feature that reflects destinations’ identity. Four different interaction......Today’s tourists seek unique destinations that could associate with their self identity in a profound way. It is meaningful for destinations to design unique physical elements that offer transformational travel experiences. This study aims at identifying how tourists encounter architecture...... modes—gazing, touring, reading and pondering are identified. Conversational architectural design is suggested for destinations to create a unique experience....

  2. Toward Web 5.0 in Italian Regional Destination Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Trunfio, Mariapina; Della Lucia, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of Web opportunities for market destinations fosters the co-creating destination value through engaging diverse stakeholders in social communication and knowledge sharing. Leveraging the body of destination management literature focused on Web 2.0, we introduce the debate on the Web’s evolution from 2.0 to 5.0, identifying best practices in digital marketing and the use of innovative Web tools in four Italian regional destinations. DMOs have largely adopted Web 2.0 tools fost...

  3. Branding the Destination Versus the Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Braun, Erik; Petersen, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to a broader understanding of how the branding of places affects both residents and tourists. While branding often relies on simplified messages, the effectiveness of such strategies for complex brands remains questionable. Residents in particular possess a confounded...... knowledge of the place and could disagree with simplified destination brands. To test the role of brand complexity for residents and tourists, we conducted two empirical studies (N = 765; N = 385), showing that, for residents, positive place attitude (i.e., place satisfaction, identification, and attachment......) and place behaviour (i.e., positive word-of-mouth) increase with a higher brand complexity. The second study shows that the positive relationship of brand complexity is stronger for residents than for tourists, supporting the conclusion that brand complexity is relevant for place brands, but that the place...

  4. From regional airport to international flight destination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Lassen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Northern Denmark is becoming an international flight destination through the strategic route development in Aalborg Airport and the integrated collaboration with regional tourism actors. Aalborg Airport is primarily a regional airport serving primarily the people living...... in the northern part of Denmark, but in the past decade the airport has experienced growth in the number of international arrivals. This paper explores who these international travellers are and why they fly to Northern Denmark. Both Aalborg Airport and Northern Denmark in general has an interest in increasing...... of the airport is larger than expected. This finding challenges the current approach to regional development associated with the airport and this paper suggests two new focus points for the further strategic route development in Aalborg Airport: awareness of the geographical reach of the airport...

  5. Challenges facing customer patronage of tourism destinations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings revealed the following challenges facing customer patronage of tourism destinations in South-South region of Nigeria - unqualified and untrained hospitality manpower, poor facility esthetics of the destination, poor consumer purchasing power, political instability and violence, high rate of crime against humanity ...

  6. Exploring Familiarity and Destination Choice in International Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as potential visitors to tourism destinations in Japan. Six one-way ANOVA tests and six chi-square tests were performed to identify the relationships and differences between...

  7. Destination Memory and Cognitive Theory of Mind in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Raffard, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Destination memory, or the ability to remember the destination to whom a piece of information was addressed, is found to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper investigated the relationship between destination memory and theory of mind in AD since both destination memory and theory of mind are social abilities that require processing attributes of interlocutors. Mild AD participants and controls were administered tasks tapping destination memory, affective theory of mind, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind. Relative to controls, AD participants showed compromise in destination memory and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind, but preserved performance on affective and 1st order cognitive theory of mind. Significant correlations were observed between destination memory, and 1st and 2nd order cognitive theory of mind in AD participants and controls. By demonstrating a relationship between compromises in 2nd order theory of mind and in destination memory, our work highlights links between social cognition and memory functioning in AD.

  8. Tourist Information Search and Destination Choice in a Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristian Steen Jacobsen, Jens; Munar, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    word-of-mouth, Web 1.0 sources and own experience are highly resilient and influential when tourists to a well-known destination area decide where to spend their summer holiday. Moreover, results indicate a complementary nature of Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. In this context of destination decision...

  9. 49 CFR 38.39 - Destination and route signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination and route signs. 38.39 Section 38.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.39 Destination and route signs. (a) Where...

  10. MARKETING TRENDS AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Mihić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of the destination in strategic tourism develop- ment. It will then look at international best practice and how the SVP/ Hudson Model can be used as a tool to shape the planning, management and marketing of tourism destinations. This analysis will include a review of the critical success factors from lea- ding destinations and in particular, the role of and need for innovation. The concept ofinnovation in tourism will be examined and examples of how innovation has been used in a range of European destinations will be considered in detail. This will include evi- dence from key stakeholders, as well as analysis of the PR and media interest generated by an innovative approach to tourism destination development. The paper will examine key issues such as branding and positioning, along with the importance of clear strate- gic planning, having an effective destination management organisation and delivering benefits to the host community. In an increasingly competitive marketplace the need for destinations to ‘’stand out in a crowd” is essential. International benchmarking is vital to understand how well you are doing compa- red with your competitors whilst innovation ensures that the competitive edge is always maintained. The paper will include detailed case studies, consideration of the concepts of in- novation and benchmarking and focus on the main lessons for destinations in emerging tourism economies

  11. International students' image of rural Pennsylvania as a travel destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po-Ju Chen; Deborah L. Kerstetter

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the image international students at Penn State have of rural travel destinations in the state of Pennsylvania. In addition, this study investigated whether destination image differed depending upon travel behavior and socio-demographic variables. Four distinct image dimensions, "tourism infrastructure," "...

  12. Resident attitudes, place attachment and destination branding: a research framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Ning; Šegota, Tina

    2015-01-01

    ... for residents to engage in the destination branding process. This calls for rethinking the role of residents in destination branding and the necessity to explore various place attachment dimensions and their outcomes. Findings - This study proposes a conceptual framework to understand the role of residents in the construction of the image of their place ...

  13. Moderating Effects of Craftourism on Place Attachment and Destination Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practice of traditional handicrafts play a significant role in enhancing destination attractiveness. Visitors assign considerable weightage to local craft practices to satisfy their desire to participate in the learning and production process, a case of role-reversal. Promoting this scope of role-reversal has been used by the Destination Marketing Organizations as differentiators. Craftourism has gained considerable momentum. This paper focuses on examining the moderating effects of craftourism on place attachment and destination loyalty. Dimensions of craftourism were identified by applying suitable statistical procedure. The results revealed craftourism, with option for visitors to enact role-reversal, improves the chances of destination loyalty following antecedent effects of place attachment. Keywords: craftourism, place attachment, destination loyalty, visitor, moderating

  14. Online information Impact in the virtual destination image formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Conceição Salmim Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the destination image in the decision process and choice of destination by tourists is transverse to its intangible nature. Recent studies expand and modify the conventional image constructs specifying information sources transmitted through the internet. The scenario resulting from the literature review allows us to understand the importance of experience for touristic activity and theoretical proposition of virtual tourism as "virtual tourist experience", its determinants and its implications for the overall image destination formation. This study presents a literature review base to the empiric research proposal whose general objective comprises the analysis of the influence of factors, such as interactivity, in online communication and contact with virtual tourism experiences online in image destination formation and image destination.

  15. Photographic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigues, Jose Eduardo; Santosdealmeida, Wagner

    1987-12-01

    Some of the main aspects related to photographic filters are examined and prepared as a reference for researchers and students of remote sensing. A large range of information about the filters including their basic fundamentals, classification, and main types is presented. The theme cannot be exhausted in this or any other individual publication because of its great complexity, profound theoretical publication, and dynmaic technological development. The subject does not deal only with filter applications in remote sensing. As much as possible, additional information about the utilization of these products in other professional areas, as pictorial photography, photographic processing, and optical engineering, were included.

  16. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  17. Cultural Centre, Destination Cultural Offer and Visitor Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benxiang Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to establish the link between tourists’ perceptions on cultural offers and their overall satisfaction, and explore the implication of this link for sustainable tourist destination management. Assessing online customers’ reviews, this study identifies a positive correlation between visitors’ perspectives and experiences at the on-site cultural centre and visitors’ destination satisfaction. It suggests that the on-site cultural centre plays a critical role in building up visitors’ perception on cultural attributes of the destination, and its impact on visitor satisfaction is a double-edged sword. Visitors’ positive perspectives on the cultural centre enhance visitors’ experiences and contribute to their destination satisfaction; however, not only does a negative perspective on their cultural and spiritual experience compromise visitors’ satisfaction, but also subsequent negative online reviews damage the destination image and discourage visitor return/visit. The findings help destination management organisations to better understand visitors’ preference for cultural centres and therefore to improve visitors’ cultural experience. This paper appeals for further study of on-site cultural centres’ role in forming destination cultural attributes, and of social media’s potential in enriching cultural experience.

  18. Branding Serbia as a Tourist Destination on the Global Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Paunović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Destination branding has become one of the most popular contemporary topics, both among tourism practitioners and politicians, because there is strong evidence that strong national destination brand supports commercial brands in industries related to tourism. Therefore, factors that influence destination brand loyalty are of crucial importance for understanding and promoting the brand. Building brand loyalty is not just about repeat buying, but also about building customers emotional attachment to the brand. Global growth and diversification of tourist markets has transformed destinations from “vacation industry” concept, to “industry of experience” concept.The study performed statistical tests with a goal to analyze the factors influencing brand loyalty in Serbia: age, length of stay and daily spending. Additionally, sub-brand loyalty levels are presented (by major destinations inside Serbia, markets of origin and by major themes for travel in order to identify groups of tourists that are more loyal, and the ones that are less loyal to the destination brand of Serbia. The study results and recommendations should be used as a contribution towards designing national and regional destination marketing strategies.

  19. Migrant pupils’ scientific performance: the influence of educational system features of origin and destination countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.; Levels, M.; de Heus, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Earlier studies using a double perspective (destination & origin) indicate that several macro-characteristics of both destination and origin countries affect the educational performance of migrant children. This paper explores the extent to which educational system features of destination

  20. Study of behavior, preferences and attitudes visitors tourist destinations Tara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic development of the Serbian economy is tourism. Tourist destinations Tara has great tourism potential. The starting assumption for the development of tourism and creating a tourist destination brand of Tara is the analysis of image of tourism, and this is exactly the subject of the current paper. The image analysis includes the examination of preferences, attitudes and behavior of visitors to this tourist destination. This research is exploratory, but may be a useful starting point for further, more comprehensive research on which the results would be based upon serious analysis and making relevant decisions.

  1. RESEARCH ON TOURISM DESTINATIONS MARKETING FROM THE PUBLIC RELATIONS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ARIONESEI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism destinations are more and more determined to build a unique and competitive identity and image in consumers’ minds. Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research. In some countries, many without "a tradition in tourism", building a marketing strategy for travel destinations is based on artificial and without substance images/perceptions of real and potential tourists. The paper describes the role of marketing in the domain of tourism, emphasizing the importance of public relations in the promotion process of the region of Bucovina.

  2. Partners and innovation in American destination marketing organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian

    2012-01-01

    , this study focuses on destination marketing organizations (DMOs) as they collaborate with destination businesses to assist in the development of new services in marketing the destination. A national survey among American DMOs indicates that partner collaboration is a significant driver of visitor......-orientated innovation. Specifically, innovation success was found to be driven solely by the development of market-oriented rather than strategyoriented new services, indicating that many of the American DMOs respond to visitor changes at the expense of providing new services that somehow do not fit within current...

  3. Covalent binding of quinones activates the Ah receptor in Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Yumi; Puga, Alvaro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    Highly reactive quinone species produced by photooxidation and/or metabolic activation of mono- or bi-aromatic hydrocarbons modulate cellular homeostasis and electrophilic signal transduction pathways through the covalent modification of proteins. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but not mono- or bi-aromatic hydrocarbons, are well recognized as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, quinone species produced from mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbons could potentially cause AhR activation. To clarify the AhR response to mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbon quinones, we studied Cyp1a1 (cytochrome P450 1A1) induction and AhR activation by these quinones. We detected Cyp1a1 induction during treatment with quinones in Hepa1c1c7 cells, but not their parent compounds. Nine of the twelve quinones with covalent binding capability for proteins induced Cyp1a1. Cyp1a1 induction mediated by 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), 1,4-NQ, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) and tert-butyl-1,4-BQ was suppressed by a specific AhR inhibitor and was not observed in c35 cells, which do not have a functional AhR. These quinones stimulated AhR nuclear translocation and interaction with the AhR nuclear translocator. Interestingly, 1,2-NQ covalently modified AhR, which was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay using a specific antibody against 1,2-NQ, resulting in enhancement of xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-derived luciferase activity and binding of AhR to the Cyp1a1 promoter region. While mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbons are generally believed to be poor ligands for AhR and hence unable to induce Cyp1a1, our study suggests that the quinones of these molecules are able to modify AhR and activate the AhR/XRE pathway, thereby inducing Cyp1a1. Since we previously reported that 1,2-NQ and tert-butyl-1,4-BQ also activate NF-E2-related factor 2, it seems likely that some of quinones are bi-functional inducers for phase-I and phase-II reaction of xenobiotics.

  4. Walking in the high-rise city: a Health Enhancement and Pedometer-determined Ambulatory (HEPA) program in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela Y M; Cheung, Mike K T; Tse, Michael A; Shum, Wai Chuen; Lancaster, B J; Lam, Cindy L K

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of good infrastructure in the public estates, many older adults in urban areas are sedentary. The Health Enhancement and Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory (HEPA) program was developed to assist older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension to acquire walking exercise habits and to build social support, while engaged in regular physical activity. This study aimed to describe the HEPA program and to report changes in participants' walking capacity and body strength after 10-week walking sessions. A pre- and postintervention design was used. Pedometers were used to measure the number of steps taken per day before and after the 10-week intervention. Upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, and quality of life were assessed. A total of 205 older adults completed the program and all health assessments. After the 10-week intervention, the average number of steps per day increased by 36%, from 6,591 to 8,934. Lower body strength, upper body strength, and aerobic fitness increased significantly after 10 weeks, along with improvement in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF™-12) physical and mental health component summary scores. A social support network was built in the neighborhood, and the local environment was utilized to make walking possible and enjoyable.

  5. Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  6. Filter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D.P.; Singletary, B.H.; Evans, J.H.

    A plurality of holding tubes are respectively mounted in apertures in a partition plate fixed in a housing receiving gas contaminated with particulate material. A filter cartridge is removably held in each holding tube, and the cartridges and holding tubes are arranged so that gas passes through apertures therein and across the the partition plate while particulate material is collected in the cartridges. Replacement filter cartridges are respectively held in holding canisters mounted on a support plate which can be secured to the aforesaid housing, and screws mounted on said canisters are arranged to push replacement cartridges into the cartridge holding tubes and thereby eject used cartridges therefrom.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Drop Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  8. RESEARCH ON TOURISM DESTINATIONS MARKETING FROM THE PUBLIC RELATIONS’ PERSPECTIVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela ARIONESEI

    2012-01-01

    .... Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research...

  9. The role of brand destination experience in determining revisit intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Barnes, Stuart; Sørensen, Flemming

    experience, which provides a more holistic and unified view of the brand destination. The research uses a logistic regression model to determine the role of satisfaction and brand experience in determining revisit intentions. The study also examines differences among subgroups and four brand experience sub......-constructs. The findings suggest that brand experience is an important determinant of revisit intentions, but that there is variation among respondent groups. The paper rounds off with conclusions and implications for research and practice.......Destination branding has developed considerably as a topic area in the last decade with numerous conceptualizations focusing on different aspects of the brand. However, a unified view has not yet emerged. This paper examines destination branding via a new conceptualization, brand destination...

  10. DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS ABOUT TOURIST IDENTITY IN THE DANUBE GATE DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABINA GHEORGHECI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thus, uncontrollable elements such as nice weather, nature/scenery, accessibility, transformed into controllable elements such as pleasant environment, relaxing atmosphere, infrastructure, can create a favourable artistic image that would determine the tourist to pick the destination. Uncontrollable elements such as local culture, diversity of sport activities, of restaurant, cafes etc. that can increase the value of a destination, transformed into controllable elements such as historical sites, events (cultural activities, festivals etc. form an environment where “there are plenty of things to do” and can create a favourable psychological image that will make the tourist return to this destination. The transformation of these attributes into advantages for the tourist, so that a destination can be differentiated, takes places within a positioning strategy.

  11. The quality of tourism destination – integrated quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Vajčnerová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the quality of tourism services. It mentions various ways of approaching quality management, such as the standards of quality, systems based on ISO standards and systems of complex quality management. It describes approaches applied in the Czech Republic and points out the difficulty keeping the quality in tourism. Tourism services are not offered individually, which is why it is necessary to assess the quality of a whole complex of services within the frame of a tourism product or a tourist destination. The level of tourists' satisfaction is not based on the quality of individual tou­rism services or a destination product but it arises from their overall impression which is formed from the hospitality of local inhabitants, the willingness of employees, the cleanness of the environment, security and so on. The presumption of maintaining the quality of a destination is a unified approach of all participants in tourism development that can be reached by various forms of cooperation. Crea­ting a strategic alliance is one of such possibilities. The main objective of the article is to introduce the European system of Integrated Quality Management (IQM and the tool for assessing the qua­li­ty in a destination “Qualitest”. The Integrated Quality Management is an approach based on the cooperation of all areas taking part in tourism development in a destination. The qua­li­ty is assessed in a complex way with respect to tourism development impacts on local inhabitants and the environment. “Qualitest” is made of 16 indexes that are focused on the quality of a destination and the quality of a product. Each index is evaluated by three indicators that asses the quality of conditions (QPCI, the quality of management (QMI and the quality of a destination performance (QPI. These indicators combine qualitative as well as quantitative values. The precondition for using “Qualitest” in our destinations is the existence of a

  12. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    OpenAIRE

    KASHIF,MUHAMMAD; SAMSI,SITI ZAKIAH MELATU; SARIFUDDIN,SYAMSULANG

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStudies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire deve...

  13. How to attract tourists to Halkidiki : Destination Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marits, Jekaterina

    2010-01-01

    The following report is a bachelor thesis of last year student of BA degree program in Tourism. This is a research-oriented report which investigates Halkidki tourism destination in Greece. The goal of the thesis is to come up with suggestions for improvement of the destination and with strategic objectives, in order to be able to attract more national and international tourists. Thesis consist of quantitative and qualitative researches, which support thesis’s research question. ...

  14. Sport Tourism and Destination Marketing. Case: Innsbruck and Lahti

    OpenAIRE

    Ahvenainen, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on researching sport tourism and its role and importance in destination marketing in two cities, Innsbruck and Lahti. The aim of this study is to discover the strengths and weaknesses of these two cities as sport tourism destinations and find out how important a role sport tourism has in the marketing material produced by these cities. Additionally, this thesis provides some ideas on how to develop sport tourism further in the aforementioned cities. This thesis aims t...

  15. A country's image as tourist destination for external intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Vicol; Adriana Zaiţ

    2014-01-01

    Destination image is an important variable of influence for tourist behavior. Previous studies showed that intermediaries – different travel agencies ‐ influence the visiting intentions of potential tourists, being able to form opinions and shape behaviors. Measuring the perception of travel agencies and other intermediaries about the tourist image of a destination country becomes really important. Reliable and valid measurement instruments are necessary. The vast majority of previous studies...

  16. Destination Europe: The political and economic growth of a continent

    OpenAIRE

    Torbiorn, Kjell M.

    2003-01-01

    Destination Europe interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe - including transatlantic relations - from the end of the Second World War up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. The book fills a definite lacuna in the current literature on Europe, as most studies cover only specific aspects, such as the European Union. Destination Europe by contrast weaves all the different strands ...

  17. Performance evaluation framework for destination management organisations: managers' perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Spyriadis, Thanasis

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop a performance evaluation framework for Destination Management Organisations (DMOs). Although tourism researchers (Ritchie and Crouch 2005; Pike 2005; Bornhorst et al. 2010; Morrison 2013; Pike and Page 2014) acknowledge that the organisational performance of a DMO is a key determinant of destination development and competitiveness, existing studies in this area are scarce. Therefore, the major contribution of this study is towards the advancement of knowledge and un...

  18. Entrepreneurship development in destinations of religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are

  19. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  20. Are Tourists Really Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Destinations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of pro-sustainable behavior and its true economic implications is an important subject for tourism destination marketers and policymakers, especially given that limited research has focused on the economic implications of tourist preferences for more sustainable destinations. Following the identification of three different demand segments using the concept of “sustainable intelligence” (level of commitment, attitude, knowledge and/or behavior with regard to sustainability, this study hypothesizes that the tourist segment with high level of “sustainable intelligence” (called “pro-sustainable tourist” is willing to pay more to visit a more sustainable destination. The main aim of this paper is to use the logistic regression model to estimate the premium price that each segment is willing to pay to visit a sustainable destination. This paper reports the result of a willingness to pay study using data from 1118 respondents visiting the Western Costa del Sol (Andalusia, Spain, a mature sun-and-sand destination that is currently facing several developmental challenges supposedly associated with sustainability. The results obtained from this research study indicate that the tourist segment with high levels of “sustainable intelligence” is willing to pay more to visit a more sustainable tourism destination. However, there is little willingness to pay if the destination’s commitment to sustainability increases the price of the tourism product (26.6% of respondents.

  1. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  2. Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Urban Destinations: Does Space Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon Aranburu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers and tourism developers must understand visitors’ mobility behavior and how they consume space and tourism resources in order to set up sustainable cultural tourism destinations. With this in mind, it should also be pointed out that the mobility patterns of tourists in urban destinations are mainly located in the city center (spatial centrality, the analysis of which enables us to define “how central” the resources (museums, monuments, etc. are and what the interactions between them are. Comprehending which factors influence visitors’ urban mobility behavior is key to understanding tourists’ consumption of space and their connections with the tourism assets of the city. Furthermore, when tourists visit a destination, they make a mental representation of the destination, constructing a mental map of it. Thus, tourists consume not only spaces but also the image of a city/destination. Moreover, the latter influences the former. The quality of surrounding architecture and urbanism plays a crucial role in enhancing the experiential value of a destination and influencing space consumption preferences. Clearly, visitors are more likely to use/consume environments that are easily navigated and mentally legible. In order to explore these patterns, a real experiment was performed based on visitor behavior in the city of Bilbao. In addition, the central places of Bilbao were determined and an analysis of the spatial interaction between cultural sites was performed, making use of a new methodology based on GPS technologies, network analysis, and surveys. This methodology is the main contribution of this work. The results suggest that (1 easy mobility (walkability, accessibility, different transport modes of the visited space facilitates the tourist experience; (2 simple and eligible mental maps of the city that are easily perceived by visitors facilitate the rapid consumption of the tourist destination; and (3 the centrality of the

  3. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  4. Water Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  5. The Branding of Kharkov City as a Tourist Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Nataliya I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing publications and documents of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, the authors clarified the concept of «tourist destination»; considered and clarified the concept of «brand of the tourist destination»; suggested the mechanism for development of the brand of the tourist destination. The existing brand of Kharkiv – «Kharkiv – smart city» – has been analyzed and it was concluded that this brand is promising and successful for educational tourism, for attracting foreign students and scholars – connoisseurs of new technologies and science fiction. The direction of further work on the brand of Kharkiv city as a tourist destination is to enhance the already existing brand «Kharkiv – smart city» by introducing a set of marketing communications, aggressive advertising campaign in Ukrainian and international media and travel exhibitions. Besides, it is considered to be promising to design brands intended for other target segments of consumers – «Kharkiv – historic city», «Kharkiv – sport city», etc., which will lead to a synergistic effect in the tourism industry of Kharkiv. Prospects for further research in this direction are studying new strategic directions of development of Kharkiv city as a tourist destination

  6. PROMOTION: BRANDING TOOL FOR MACEDONIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Milenkovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In times when competition between countries in the world is stronger, in order to attract as many tourists as possible, and strengthening their brand as a tourist destination, Republic of Macedonia started to build and strengthen its tourism brand. Due to the enormous competition, traditional destinations maintain and improve their brand through new innovative tourist attractions. On the contrary, the new tourist destinations strongly attack potential tourists with intention of gaining a better position on the tourist market. The subject of this paper is Macedonia as a tourist destination seen through the prism of promotional activities that Agency for promotion and support tourism in Republic of Macedonia realized in period 2009– 2012. This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 65 tourist stockholders (travel agencies and hotels in Macedonia in 2012. In this study it will be analyzed what other countries have undertaken regarding the aspect of promotion of their tourist product, concerning promotion of their tourist destination and what Macedonia has undertaken and should undertake regarding that aspect.

  7. A model of destination competitiveness/sustainability: Brazilian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Brent Ritchie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the understanding I have gained from several years of research, and from several more years of ongoing discussions with industry leaders regarding the nature of competitiveness among tourism destinations. This understanding has been captured, in summary form, in the model of Destination Competitiveness/Sustainability (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003. This model contains seven (7 components which we have found to play a major role, from a policy perspective, in determining the competitiveness/sustainability of a tourism destination. In addition to the valuable understanding which these seven components provide from a policy perspective, the specific elements of each the major components provide a more useful/practical guidance to those who are responsible for the ongoing management of a DMO (Destination Management Organization. With this overview in mind, this paper will provide a detailed review and explanation of the model that I have developed with colleague, Dr. Geoffrey I. Crouch of Latrobe University in Melbourne, Australia. Based on previous presentations throughout the world, it has proven very helpful to both academics and practitioners who seek to understand the complex nature of tourism destination competitiveness/sustainability.

  8. IMPORTANT - PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS AS A TOOL IN DESTINATION MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamica NENE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korça Region is located in the Southeast of Albania and borders Greece and Macedonia to the South and the East. It is a mountainous region with two major lakes, Lake Ohrid, the oldest lake in Europe, which is shared with Macedonia and Lake Prespa which is shared with Greece and Macedonia (100km2 in Albania.If we consider the last years, there is an increasing tendency to improve the tourist facilities and to attract the tourist market which is interested for activities in open nature and relax in fresh and pure air. These demands could be met very well in Korca destination which is characterized by suitable climatic conditions and tourist services. Eventually a combination of development of town tourism and tourist villages helped the sustainability of the development of Korca as tourist destination in general.The main purpose of this paper is to present the using of important - performance analysis in marketing destination for the development of tourism.Highlights: (1 the paper considers multifarious goals of the destination management; (2 a computer booking system is used by hotels and guest houses in the region; (3 the relationship between what a tourists wants to find in a destination and that he finds in fact.

  9. Oxidative stress plays a major role in chlorpromazine-induced cholestasis in human HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Bachour-El Azzi, Pamela; Dumont, Julie; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Fromenty, Bernard; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2013-04-01

    Drugs induce cholestasis by diverse and still poorly understood mechanisms in humans. Early hepatic effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ), a neuroleptic drug known for years to induce intrahepatic cholestasis, were investigated using the differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected as early as 15 minutes after CPZ treatment and was associated with an altered mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of the pericanalicular distribution of F-actin. Inhibition of [3H]-taurocholic acid efflux was observed after 30 minutes and was mostly prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) cotreatment, indicating a major role of oxidative stress in CPZ-induced bile acid (BA) accumulation. Moreover, 24-hour treatment with CPZ decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the two main canalicular bile transporters, bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3). Additional CPZ effects included inhibition of Na+ -dependent taurocholic cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression and activity, multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) overexpression and CYP8B1 inhibition that are involved in BA uptake, basolateral transport, and BA synthesis, respectively. These latter events likely represent hepatoprotective responses which aim to reduce intrahepatic accumulation of toxic BA. Compared to CPZ effects, overloading of HepaRG cells with high concentrations of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids induced a delayed oxidative stress and, similarly, after 24 hours it down-regulated BSEP and MDR3 in parallel to a decrease of NTCP and CYP8B1 and an increase of MRP4. By contrast, low BA concentrations up-regulated BSEP and MDR3 in the absence of oxidative stress. These data provide evidence that, among other mechanisms, oxidative stress plays a major role as both a primary causal and an aggravating factor in the early CPZ-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 American Association for

  10. Tailored liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis improves the coverage of the intracellular metabolome of HepaRG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykx, Matthias; Negreira, Noelia; Beirnaert, Charlie; Van den Eede, Nele; Rodrigues, Robim; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Laukens, Kris; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-03-03

    Metabolomics protocols are often combined with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) using mostly reversed phase chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, e.g. quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometers to measure as many metabolites as possible. In this study, we optimised the LC-MS separation of cell extracts after fractionation in polar and non-polar fractions. Both phases were analysed separately in a tailored approach in four different runs (two for the non-polar and two for the polar-fraction), each of them specifically adapted to improve the separation of the metabolites present in the extract. This approach improves the coverage of a broad range of the metabolome of the HepaRG cells and the separation of intra-class metabolites. The non-polar fraction was analysed using a C18-column with end-capping, mobile phase compositions were specifically adapted for each ionisation mode using different co-solvents and buffers. The polar extracts were analysed with a mixed mode Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) system. Acidic metabolites from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, together with phosphorylated compounds, were best detected with a method using ion pairing (IP) with tributylamine and separation on a phenyl-hexyl column. Accurate mass detection was performed with the QTOF in MS-mode only using an extended dynamic range to improve the quality of the dataset. Parameters with the greatest impact on the detection were the balance between mass accuracy and linear range, the fragmentor voltage, the capillary voltage, the nozzle voltage, and the nebuliser pressure. By using a tailored approach for the intracellular HepaRG metabolome, consisting of three different LC techniques, over 2200 metabolites can be measured with a high precision and acceptable linear range. The developed method is suited for qualitative untargeted LC-MS metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-motivation in tourist destinations, redistribution and power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Díaz Domínguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are constantly required to renew their products, services and projected image. This is possible, among other processes, through business innovation and co-management between tour operators and administrations in order to reach markets. This paper focusses on case studies of two specialised agrotourism businesses located in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, and shows how innovation in products is limited when tour operators also come to control the supply of small and medium-sized companies, at least in destinations where mass tourism predominate. Here remotivation is presented as a means of providing the tourist with local supply in the destination in a way that allows it to stand out, aid the creation of local businesses and products, enrich the tourist experience and redistribute the profits of tourism across the area.

  12. Virtual Community Based Destination Marketing with YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Thelijjagoda, Samantha; Good, Alice

    2016-01-01

    YouTube has now evolved into a powerful medium for social interaction. Utilizing YouTube for enhancing marketing endeavours is a strategy practiced by marketing professionals across several industries. This paper rationalizes on the different strategies of leveraging YouTube-based platforms...... for effective destination marketing by the hospitality industry (hotels) and provides insights on the critical drivers and challenges embedded within YouTube-based community interactions for destination marketing. The comments made by YouTube users have been subjected to a content analysis and the results...... are reported under the five broad clusters of virtual communities. More broadly, the typology of virtual communities is adapted to evaluate the YouTube platform for effective destination marketing....

  13. Modelling the Image Research of a Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic area of the tourism destination image has a high expansion in marketing, the efforts of its conceptualization and phenomenalism being remarkable among specialists. In this context, the authors propose a systemic approach, the result of which refers to a model regarding the image research of a tourism destination, whose validation has been attained using Transalpina destination. The model created by the authors envisages morphological features and specific functional relationships, which are consistent with the marketing theory, and, in context, with the consumer behaviour theory. The conceptualmethodological solutions are magnified by applicative-experimental validations, which enhance the theoretical and practical valences of the created model. The main direction of developing the elaborated model consists in efforts of formalization and abstracting, in the perspective offered by several scientific disciplines.

  14. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...... and tourism firms. Based on the empirical evidence it seems that the positive impact that cross-border shopping can have on attracting large numbers of tourists into the region can outweigh the negative impact of tourists preferring border shops to local products and services: cross-border shopping has become...

  15. Sochi Market Analysis as a Health Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Serdyukova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major characteristics of Sochi market as a health tourism destination, analyses the structure of resort collective accommodation facilities, dynamics of tourist flows and their structure, prevailing kinds of tourism and estimates tourist flows of health tourism in Sochi in 2008-2012. The authors indicate major characteristics and trends of Sochi tourist market development and the prospects of Sochi development as a health tourism destination. The percent of health tourist flow in the general tourist flow of Sochi and the percent of domestic tourist flow in the sector of collective accommodation facilities are estimated. The authors came to the conclusion that to develop tourism in Sochi in post-Games period, it is necessary to promote Sochi as a health tourism destination.

  16. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  17. Filtered or Unfiltered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Ann; Haycock, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey questionnaire of public and school libraries that investigated the use of Internet filtering software. Considers filter alternatives; reasons for filtering or not filtering; brand names; satisfaction with site blocking; satisfaction with the decision to install filter software; and guidelines for considering filters.…

  18. How to develop sustainable tourism in rural destinations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štetić Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical distinction between countries of tourist offer and countries of tourist demand has already been surpassed considering that many countries of tourist demand (USA, Germany, Great Britain … earn much more from tourism than the countries of tourist offer (Italy, Greece, Portugal …. The changes in customers' behaviour are reflected through restructuring of tourist movements towards new destinations. What is essential in creating, promoting and marketing tourist destinations for the specific tourism forms development is the identification of all the positive and negative factors that influence the development of these destinations. Converting a potential into a tourist destination depends on many factors both in qualitative and in quantitative sense. Discovering an area of preserved environment that also possesses attractive motifs presents the beginning of the possible tourist destination creating. Further 'destiny' of a tourist destination depends on its planning and development intensity. Rural tourism is a significant component of integral and sustainable development and revitalization of the village, as well as a component that is missing in stimulating the local market development for agricultural and non-agricultural activities in the country, along with a special stimulation to employment. Serbia possesses remarkable natural resources and other potentials for the development of all forms of rural tourism. However, rural tourism in Serbia is an insufficiently organized field that is not being developed adequately to the possibilities available to it. That is why this paper wants to point out the potential opportunities for the development of rural tourism in Serbia through sustainable development and correct performance policy on both national and international tourist market.

  19. Sustainability development and competitiveness of Rome as a tourist destination

    OpenAIRE

    Valeri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives – The aim of the paper is to study the sustainability level of the city of Rome (Italy) as a tourist destination. The paper’s basic assumption is based on the fact that, compared to other international tourist destinations, Rome is high on the list as far as the number of international visitors is concerned, yet it is not the city at the top of the list. Design/Methodology/Approach – The methodology used is that of case study research (Yin, 2003). The results will be evaluated b...

  20. Developing ecotourism destinations in Romania. A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania has an outstanding natural and cultural heritage which is not yet valorised to its full potential through ecotourism. In order to do so, the existence of green tourism businesses is not enough to assure authentic ecotourism experiences. Ecotourism principles and guidelines need to be applied and reinforced by all stakeholders: businesses, governmental authorities and NGOs, with the aim of developing ecotourism destinations. In this context, the present paper uses a case study approach to outline the challenges of developing these ecotourism destinations in Romania. Several initiatives and projects are outlined as well as their work in progress.

  1. The Unique Destination Proposition of Eskisehir: Industrial Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the transformation of Unique Sales Proposition (USP concept which is one of the most important strategies of advertising history, to the Unique Destination Proposition (UDP for the case of Eskisehir. This study aims to propose industrial heritage as the UDP of Eskisehir by a descriptive approach. Industrial heritage helps Eskisehir destination brand to attain a meaningful, sustainable and distinctive dimension from its competitors. The current industrial heritage samples of Eskisehir were initially evaluated in this context. Subsequently, in the focus of the relation between industrial heritage and tourism, an excursion route and a tour program is suggested including the unique industrial heritage values of Eskisehir.

  2. Tourism Destinations Network Analysis, Social Network Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is becoming one of the world's largest economical sources, and is expected to become the world's first industry by 2020. Previous studies have focused on several aspects of this industry including sociology, geography, tourism management and development, but have paid less attention to analytical and quantitative approaches. This study introduces some network analysis techniques and measures aiming at studying the structural characteristics of tourism networks. More specifically, it presents a methodology to analyze tourism destinations network. We apply the methodology to analyze mazandaran’s Tourism destination network, one of the most famous tourism areas of Iran.

  3. Solutions for Destination Management on Agri-Tourism Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Petroman; Cornelia Marin; Constantin Buzatu; Adrian Dumitrescu; Ştefan Coman; Andreea Stan; Daniela Avramescu

    2012-01-01

    Farm tourism can be an alternative to agricultural jobs in rural communities with real agri-tourism potential. To improve destination management, we need to implement a type of management based on knowledge management. A second type of management that is a must in farm tourism is the integrated management of agri-tourism destination quality based on a code of good practices in the integrated management of quality. In order to improve agri-tourism management quality, we need to apply best mana...

  4. Synthesis of Dual-Size Cellulose-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Nanofiber Composites via One-Step Electrospinning Method for High-Performance Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgis, Ratna; Murata, Hiroyuki; Goi, Yohsuke; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo; Bao, Li

    2017-06-20

    Dual-size nanofibers consisting of a random mixture of nano- and submicron-size nanofibers are promising structures for specific applications such as air filters because of their increased specific surface area and low pressure drop. Synthesis of dual-size nanofibers using one-step electrospinning was reported here for the first time. The formation of well-mixed nano- and submicron-size cellulose-polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofiber composites was accomplished utilizing the physical properties of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (i.e., high thixotropy and high magnitude of zeta potential) and tuning the charge of the polymer jet, which influences the formation and shape of Taylor cone, and Coulombic explosion. The dual-size nanofibers were then spun on the surface of a HEPA filter to obtain a multilayer air filter. Aerosol filtration measurements show that this multilayer air filter has an incredibly high performance, shown by the high quality factor (Qf), 0.117 Pa-1, which is 10 times the Qf of commercial HEPA filters.

  5. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  6. Structured filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Christopher; Wiebe, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    A major challenge facing existing sequential Monte Carlo methods for parameter estimation in physics stems from the inability of existing approaches to robustly deal with experiments that have different mechanisms that yield the results with equivalent probability. We address this problem here by proposing a form of particle filtering that clusters the particles that comprise the sequential Monte Carlo approximation to the posterior before applying a resampler. Through a new graphical approach to thinking about such models, we are able to devise an artificial-intelligence based strategy that automatically learns the shape and number of the clusters in the support of the posterior. We demonstrate the power of our approach by applying it to randomized gap estimation and a form of low circuit-depth phase estimation where existing methods from the physics literature either exhibit much worse performance or even fail completely.

  7. THE FESTIVALS AS A TOOL ON OHRID TOURISM DESTINATION BRANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Strezovski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is about festivals in the southern west city in the Republic of Macedonia – Ohrid, empirical research of influence of the Ohrid summer festival on Ohrid tourism destination branding. Its strength to attract foreign tourist and the role of Ohrid municipality and tourism stockholders to use festival as a tool to attract more foreign tourist and branding Ohrid as a tourism destination. Nowadays, many tourist organization develop strategy for creating or support festivals on their destination. The festivals have strong influence of the destination attracting many foreign tourist. Some cities are branding as a festival cities, attract over million visitors per year. Ohrid summer festival as a member of European festival association, is the most important festival in Ohrid city but also in the country. The festival has the role to promote and present culture achievements from the country but also it is attractive factor for foreign tourist to visit Ohrid city and the region in the summer period. It is held from 12 of July until 20 of August each year. Ohrid municipality should incorporate Ohrid summer festival and other festivals in general promotion on Ohrid city. It should support and create new festivals.This paper presents an action research conducted on a sample of 150 foreign visitors on Ohrid summer festival during the festival from 12 July till 20 august 2010.

  8. Marketing Destination Information in a Tourism Driven Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies the destination information marketing as an aid to the Cross River Tourism bid. A questionnaire was designed to elicit responses from the stakeholders in the tourism industry. Out of 69 questionnaire copies administered on tourist and workers in three popular hotels in Calabar (University of Calabar Hotel, ...

  9. YouTube's Role in Destination Image Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jakopović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary promotion of tourist destinations represents a challenge and gives rise to many questions in a regard to numerous ways of communicating and transferring information. With concern to modern communication practices in society and due to fast-paced lifestyle, individuals are looking for information online and are making decisions based on available Internet data. Attracting tourists through traditional promotional techniques such as brochures, leaflets, printed guidebooks, fairs and festivals are unsufficient with a respect to the rising number of online users. Promotion of tourism is based on destination image which is created through direct or mediated experience and projected on the minds of individuals. It is greatly dependent on available information mostly visual. YouTube is a popular video sharing site that counts over one billion users. It gives open access to a great number of videos and therefore could have an important role in promoting tourist destinations. The website was firstly used for non-commercial purposes but today it is very attractive for advertisers. The author examines phenomena of YouTube and its potential for destination image creation. The aim of this article is to give an insight on characteristics of promotional videos used for tourism and to explore how various national and local tourist boards can use them on YouTube. The author identifies the public relations profession’s role in creation of promotional audio-visual material.

  10. Destination discount : A sensible road for national brands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleersnyder, B.; Koll, O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to study the consequences of listing national brands in discounters. Is the discount channel a promising outlet for manufacturer brands? Is it an effective means to attract new buyers? Which combination of brand and discount destination at which price is best suited for

  11. Destination brands and website evaluation: a research methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Fernández-Cavia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The World Wide Web has become the primary instrument used by tourists in order to search for information. As a result, tourism websites pertaining to destinations need to be appealing and must convey their brand image in an appropriate, effective manner. However, there is no methodology in place to assess the quality and communicative effectiveness of destination websites that is scientifically sound and universally accepted. The development of such a methodology is one of the tasks we have proposed within the framework of the research project: “New strategies for advertising and promoting Spanish tourism brands online” (CSO2008-02627, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Method: The project team have developed an interdisciplinary, all-embracing analysis template combining certain automated analyses with other qualitative and quantitative ones. The template comprises a total of 12 subject areas and 154 indicators prepared on the basis of contributions from prominent experts in each of the fields of work. This article sets out the analysis methodology drawn up and possible applications are given. Results: The primary aim of the project is to provide an assessment methodology that would make it possible to optimise destination brand websites, thus providing a tool to support the work of public tourism destination managers.

  12. The impact of climate on holiday destination choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigano, A.; Hamilton, J.M.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The holiday destination choice is analysed for tourists from 45 countries, representing all continents and all climates. Tourists are deterred by distance, political instability and poverty, and attracted to coasts. Tourists prefer countries with a sunny yet mild climate, shun climates that are too

  13. Challenges Facing Customer Patronage of Tourism Destinations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    problems that bedevil the marketing of tourism destinations in Nigeria thereby hampering customer patronage (Adora, 2010, World Trade Organisation, 2005). These problems according to Udabor (2013), Ashikodi (2011), Abang (2010) Olarewaju. (2009), Ukabuilu, (2007), World Trade Organisation (2005) and Oluwole ...

  14. A visual analysis of a cultural tourism destination | Eringa | Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study uses visual cues for two purposes: first, to evaluate the motivating factors that lead travellers with different cultural background to select their travel destination, and second, to explore the influence of visual communication in the promotion of cultural tourism. The research studied the impact of visual information ...

  15. IPTV inter-destination synchronization: A network-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Mekuria, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel network-based approach to inter-destination media synchronization. The approach meets the need for synchronization in advanced TV concepts like social TV and offers high scalability, unlike conventional end-point based approaches. The solution for interdestination media

  16. Tradition as an initiator of rural tourism destinations development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a form of tourism that best illustrates the importance of tradition in the development of tourist destinations. Music, dance, clothing, culinary specialties of local cuisine, unique natural beauty and the very mentality and hospitality of people in rural areas, represent some of the factors that influence the tourist's consciousness when choosing this type of holiday. The research is focused on the main hypothesis that the tradition is an initiator of rural tourism destinations development. Furthermore, this would imply positive effects in the field of tourism and economy in general and the economy of the region. The goal of the paper is to show the importance of tradition in the cultural identity of rural areas and potentials of tradition in the role of initiating rural tourism destinations development. The interview with staff members in Pozarevac Tourism Organization has helped in the SWOT analysis of the observed rural destination. An empirical research is conducted on a random sample of 232 participants in order to highlight the benefits of rural tourism development in Pozarevac and its surrounding area. The data were processed in SPSS program (version 17.0.

  17. Medical Tourist's Perception in Selecting their Destination: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Abdullah Am; Manaf, Noorhazilah A; Omar, Azura

    2012-01-01

    The need for better healthcare has grown significantly in recent years. In addition, the rising healthcare costs in the U.S. and in many European countries have forced many patients to seek medical treatment abroad, which has created the demand for medical tourism. With little yet known as to the perception of a medical tourist's destination selection, this study aims to explore medical tourist's perception in selecting their destination while going for medical treatment. Realizing the current need to examine closely the perception of medical tourists, this study had conducted a secondary study to collect data for assessing and identification of the key factors on patient's perception and destination selection criteria. The result confirms the existence of a very strong relationship between cost, service quality, treatment types and availability and marketing impact on the perception of the medical tourists' in selecting their medical tourism destination. This study offers support for the proposed conceptual model and an empirical basis for comparison in future research.

  18. Brand Personality and the Evolution of Destination Kenya during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers an intellectual discourse for destination managers by exploring alternative branding approaches used during the colonial period in Kenya, now that the image is under siege both internally through socio-economic instability and unprecedented levels of poaching, and externally through travel warnings, ...

  19. Inter-Destination Media Synchronization, now standardized by ETSI TISPAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Stokking, H.M.; Niamut, O.M.; Walraven, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    nter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is een reeks van technologieën voor de synchronisatie van mediacontent op meerdere televisies. Sociale televisie is een belangrijke toepassing van IDMS. Sociale televisie stelt vrienden in staat om een televisieprogramma samen te bekijken vanaf

  20. STARTING POINT FOR BRANDING SLAVONIA AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Bolfek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Branding in tourism is a process that selects a particular destination by its characteristics, thus creating destination identity. The greatest success in this process is achieved by emphasizing authenticity, where Slavonia has great potential. By creating international recognisability of the region, a brand attracts investments and a skilled labour force, thus indirectly having a positive effect on export growth. Values that should draw the attention of both domestic and foreign tourists, i.e. values that are sufficiently attractive to bring tourists, are embedded in the brand. These values should be realistically based. Although Slavonia is an underdeveloped region in terms of tourism, it has a realistic perspective to become a desirable tourist destination. The paper provides analysis of the results of the conducted primary research about the perception that tourists have about Slavonia as a tourist destination. One of the goals was to determine the key components and areas that would be used in the future as a foundation for the definition of a unique brand identity of Slavonia and creation of a desirable tourist environment in this area. Based on the conducted research, clear indicators reflect the opinion of tourists which makes Slavonia unique and attractive, being at the same time elements of its unique brand identity. The results showed that the possible strong driving force of tourism development in Slavonia may include products such as rural tourism, thematic events, special interests (cycling, hiking, fishing and hunting, religious tourism, health and nautical tourism. Another conclusion that was made during the research is that Slavonia should aim at the target population. Thus, segmentation results in several target groups such as tourists with special interests, tourists preferring cultural heritage and other traditional values, nature lovers, recreational athletes and athletes. The aim was to gather data that could be used in the

  1. An empirical survey on perceived value from tourism destination based on brand equity model: A case study of Qeshm Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Qaemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism destination brand equity is defined as all assets (or debts of brands provided with name and symbol of tourism destination to make changes in value services of experiences. In many cases, brand equity is more than physical assets. This survey performs an investigation to identify effective factors in tourism destination equity, cause and affects relationships, and proposes a model for perceived value of tourism destination. The proposed study is performed in one of free islands named Gheshm. The preliminary results indicate that there is a positive relationship between tourism destination brand awareness and destination brand equity, tourism destination brand image, destination brand equity and tourism destination brand loyalty.

  2. Evaluation of HepaRG cells for the assessment of indirect drug-induced hepatotoxicity using INH as a model substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anika; Pelz, Thomas; Rennert, Knut; Mosig, Alexander; Decker, Michael; Lupp, Amelie

    2017-10-01

    HepaRG cells are widely used as an in vitro model to assess drug-induced hepatotoxicity. However, only few studies exist so far regarding their suitability to detect the effects of drugs requiring a preceding activation via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. A prototypic substance is the anti-tuberculosis agent INH, which is metabolized into N-acetylhydrazine, which then triggers hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test if this effect can also be detected in HepaRG cells and if it can be counteracted by the known hepatoprotectant silibinin. For this purpose, differentiated HepaRG cells were treated with increasing concentrations of INH (0.1-100 mM) or 10 mM INH plus escalating concentrations of silibinin (1-100 µM). After 48 h of treatment, cell morphology and parameters indicating cell vitality, oxidative stress, and liver cell function were assessed. High concentrations of INH led to severe histopathological changes, reduced cell vitality and glutathione content, increased LDH and ASAT release into the medium, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and elevated cleaved caspase-3 expression. Additionally, glycogen depletion and reduced biotransformation capacity were seen at high INH concentrations, whereas at low concentrations an induction of biotransformation enzymes was noticed. Silibinin caused clear-cut protective effects, but with few parameters INH toxicity was even aggravated, most probably due to increased metabolization of INH into its toxic metabolite. In conclusion, HepaRG cells are excellently suited to evaluate the effects of substances requiring prior toxification via the CYP system, such as INH. They additionally enable the identification of complex substance interactions.

  3. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  4. Walking in the high-rise city: a Health Enhancement and Pedometer-determined Ambulatory (HEPA program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung AYM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Angela YM Leung,1,2 Mike KT Cheung,3 Michael A Tse,4 Wai Chuen Shum,5 BJ Lancaster,1,6 Cindy LK Lam7 1School of Nursing, 2Research Centre on Heart, Brain, Hormone and Healthy Aging, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 3Centre on Research and Advocacy, Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, 4Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, 5Sheng Kung Hui Holy Carpenter Church Social Services, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 7Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Due to the lack of good infrastructure in the public estates, many older adults in urban areas are sedentary. The Health Enhancement and Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory (HEPA program was developed to assist older adults with diabetes and/or hypertension to acquire walking exercise habits and to build social support, while engaged in regular physical activity. This study aimed to describe the HEPA program and to report changes in participants’ walking capacity and body strength after 10-week walking sessions. A pre- and postintervention design was used. Pedometers were used to measure the number of steps taken per day before and after the 10-week intervention. Upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility, and quality of life were assessed. A total of 205 older adults completed the program and all health assessments. After the 10-week intervention, the average number of steps per day increased by 36%, from 6,591 to 8,934. Lower body strength, upper body strength, and aerobic fitness increased significantly after 10 weeks, along with improvement in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF™-12 physical and mental health component summary scores. A social support network was built in the neighborhood, and the local environment was

  5. Destination Quality Perception in the Context of Different Behavioural Characteristics of Visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryglová Kateřina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Visitors’ perceptions of the quality of a tourism destination are fundamental for effective destination management and marketing. This paper deals with the topic of destination quality from the viewpoint of demand, i.e. from the viewpoint of a destination visitor. The results of perceiving the destination quality partial factors in the context of different behavioural characteristics of a visitor are presented, particularly, the way how spending and organizing a holiday influences the perception of destination quality factors (Kruskal-Wallis test. The research nineteen factors were designed on the basis of contemporary theories and on qualitative research. Some important quality aspects related to tourism were identified and assessed for the Czech population. The primary data were obtained through a questionnaire survey with quota sampling (n = 1097. The dependence of destination quality perception on the way of spending the holiday was revealed in the case of 8 factors (e.g., Availability of transportation to the destination, Availability and quality of information; Additional infrastructure, Sense of security, Destination cleanliness, Uniqueness of destination, Price level in the destination, Cultural monuments. The significant differences identified among various groups of respondents are described in detail in this study. The research findings contribute to better understanding of the behavioural mechanism and can be used by destination managers to design communication strategies for different segments of consumers for individual destinations to improve their competiveness.

  6. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  7. SOUTH KOREA'S DESTINATION IMAGE: COMPARING PERCEPTIONS OF FILM AND NONFILM CHINESE TOURISTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiheng Zeng; Weisheng Chiu; Chul Won Lee; Hyun-Wook Kang; Chanmin Park

    2015-01-01

      The authors examined South Korea's destination image for Chinese tourists and compared the differences between visitors who had come to that destination because of exposure to movies or television...

  8. Workplace Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanopowder Released from a Bag Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers who use laboratory-scale synthesis systems to manufacture nanomaterials could be easily exposed to airborne nanomaterials during the research and development stage. This study used various real-time aerosol detectors to investigate the presence of nanoaerosols in a laboratory used to manufacture titanium dioxide (TiO2. The TiO2 nanopowders were produced via flame synthesis and collected by a bag filter system for subsequent harvesting. Highly concentrated nanopowders were released from the outlet of the bag filter system into the laboratory. The fractional particle collection efficiency of the bag filter system was only 20% at particle diameter of 100 nm, which is much lower than the performance of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA filter. Furthermore, the laboratory hood system was inadequate to fully exhaust the air discharged from the bag filter system. Unbalanced air flow rates between bag filter and laboratory hood systems could result in high exposure to nanopowder in laboratory settings. Finally, we simulated behavior of nanopowders released in the laboratory using computational fluid dynamics (CFD.

  9. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available flexible, and allows design tradeoffs to be evaluated in an intuitive way. Keywords: Cavity resonator filters, microwave filters, coupled transmission lines. 1 Introduction Interdigital filters are popular at the higher microwave frequencies for a... number of reasons. Ideal interdigital filters have perfect symmetry which means that they have better phase and delay characteristics than combline filters [1]. The couplings between the resonators of interdigital filters are also lower than those...

  10. Inhibition of hepatitis B viral entry by nucleic acid polymers in HepaRG cells and primary human hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Guillot

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major public health concern worldwide with 240 million individuals chronically infected and at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatments rarely cure chronic hepatitis B infection, highlighting the need for new anti-HBV drugs. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs are phosphorothioated oligonucleotides that have demonstrated a great potential to inhibit infection with several viruses. In chronically infected human patients, NAPs administration lead to a decline of blood HBsAg and HBV DNA and to HBsAg seroconversion, the expected signs of functional cure. NAPs have also been shown to prevent infection of duck hepatocytes with the Avihepadnavirus duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV and to exert an antiviral activity against established DHBV infection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the specific anti-HBV antiviral activity of NAPs in the HepaRG human hepatoma cell line and primary cultures of human hepatocytes. NAPs with different chemical features (phosphorothioation, 2'O-methyl ribose, 5-methylcytidine were assessed for antiviral activity when provided at the time of HBV inoculation or post-inoculation. NAPs dose-dependently inhibited HBV entry in a phosphorothioation-dependent, sequence-independent and size-dependent manner. This inhibition of HBV entry by NAPs was impaired by 2'O-methyl ribose modification. NAP treatment after viral inoculation did not elicit any antiviral activity.

  11. The Amazing Race to India: Prominence in Reality Television Affects Destination Image and Travel Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    T. TESSITORE; M. PANDELAERE; VAN DE KERCKHOVE, A.

    2013-01-01

    Considering the increasing popularity of reality television shows, this research investigated the impact of a destination placement in reality television on tourism. Two experiments reveal that a reality show can change the image of the destination in which the show is set. This positively affects cognitive, affective and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, it changes perceptions in accordance with the depiction of the destination in the reality show, increases knowledge about the destination,...

  12. Research of consumer motives and attitudes about tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on consumer behavior and the consumption system is one of the crucial tasks for destination marketing. The information on consumers' needs, priorities in satisfying them, motives, their solvency and the degree of realized satisfaction represent the basis for the development of marketing strategies and value creation. It is of special importance to identify and clarify the factors that determine consumers' preferences in the process of different options evaluation and the choice of a tourist destination. Consumer behavior and the consumption system are determined by the influence of a large number of factors: geographical, economic, demographic, social, psychological, etc. Only through simultaneous interaction of these factors, the complex processes of translating stimuli in the minds of consumers into their certain reactions in the process of purchasing and using the products could be understood.

  13. ROMANIA AS TOURISM DESTINATION – AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Emilia CHASOVSCHI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Only few steps have already been pointed towards bringing Romania at its proper place on the European tourism market. And big challenges are still there, outside, waiting to be settled. Tourism is indeed a very nice sector, but, if we all consider ourselves tourists, it doesn’t, necessary, mean that we all know tourism is done. The present paper offers an outside perspective of Romanian tourism; a perspective based on a research done among the German tour operators and reveals some strengths and weaknesses of Romania, as a tourism destination. These points are delivering an original view, through the eyes of foreign tour operators or tourists that visited the country or the destinations within.

  14. Selling the favela: thoughts and polemics about a tourist destination

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Freire-Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation ...

  15. Designing a mobile multiple destination app for city traveling

    OpenAIRE

    Potapkina, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there is neither a certain way nor practice for planning long or short distance trips with multiple destinations on mobile specifically. Smartphone use in traveling is growing daily, but real-time tour planning is not commonly used. Offline GPS offers a great opportunity for navigation, yet travelers literally cannot plan their travel day on mobile with a full program of sightseeing, eating and entertainment included. With growing customer demands, how can we solve this and ease the...

  16. STRATEGY FOR THE DESTINATIONAL E-MARKETING & SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Sehanovic; Giorgio Cadum; Igor Sehanovic

    2010-01-01

    Every tourist destination should make and implement a destination’s marketing and sales strategy. A very important part of destination’s sales and marketing strategy is the e-marketing and sales strategy. The cooperation of specialized regional development agencies, regional tourist board, local (city and county) tourist boards, hoteliers, tourist agencies, conservators, entertainment and cultural program developers, private accommodation owners and others involved in creation of destination’...

  17. Does racism affect a migrant's choice of destination?

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Ruby

    2009-01-01

    I explicitly introduce racial conflict and cultural attitudes on racial diversity as determinants of destination choice to test their continued relevance to African Americans. I construct several measures of racial intolerance towards African Americans using hate crime activity and the feelings of white Americans about race extracted from a national social attitudes survey. Recognizing that African American migration may actually spawn hate crimes against them, I use a control function method...

  18. Sustainable Coastal Destination Development: Fostering Green Practices of Restaurateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Derriks; Tara Hoetjes

    2015-01-01

    Coastal tourism destinations are reinventing themselves, concentrating on product improvement and image enhancement. Reinventing sustainably is key and restaurants are an important factor. Research upon the processes of change in the industry seems to be fragmented and undefined in its conclusions. Knowledge is lacking on what specifically drives innovation in the hospitality industry. Since restaurants seem to be focusing more than ever on implementing green strategies, incorporating sustain...

  19. 75 FR 19882 - Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party, Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party... support of the Benchmark Destination Corporate Party Fireworks Display. This safety zone is being... City of San Francisco will sponsor the Benchmark Destinations Corporate Party Fireworks Display on July...

  20. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Destination airport. 121.185 Section 121.185 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Destination airport. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section no person operating a... determining the allowable landing weight at the destination airport the following is assumed: (1) The airplane...

  1. 19 CFR 122.93 - Procedure at destination or exportation airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure at destination or exportation airport... Transit § 122.93 Procedure at destination or exportation airport. (a) Delivery to port director. When a bonded shipment arrives at the destination or exportation airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall...

  2. Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based

  3. Tourism Destination Benchmarking: Evaluation and Selection of the Benchmarking Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luštický Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development has an irreplaceable role in regional policy of almost all countries. This is due to its undeniable benefits for the local population with regards to the economic, social and environmental sphere. Tourist destinations compete for visitors at tourism market and subsequently get into a relatively sharp competitive struggle. The main goal of regional governments and destination management institutions is to succeed in this struggle by increasing the competitiveness of their destination. The quality of strategic planning and final strategies is a key factor of competitiveness. Even though the tourism sector is not the typical field where the benchmarking methods are widely used, such approaches could be successfully applied. The paper focuses on key phases of the benchmarking process which lies in the search for suitable referencing partners. The partners are consequently selected to meet general requirements to ensure the quality if strategies. Following from this, some specific characteristics are developed according to the SMART approach. The paper tests this procedure with an expert evaluation of eight selected regional tourism strategies of regions in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Great Britain. In this way it validates the selected criteria in the frame of the international environment. Hence, it makes it possible to find strengths and weaknesses of selected strategies and at the same time facilitates the discovery of suitable benchmarking partners.

  4. Sustainable Coastal Destination Development: Fostering Green Practices of Restaurateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Derriks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal tourism destinations are reinventing themselves, concentrating on product improvement and image enhancement. Reinventing sustainably is key and restaurants are an important factor. Research upon the processes of change in the industry seems to be fragmented and undefined in its conclusions. Knowledge is lacking on what specifically drives innovation in the hospitality industry. Since restaurants seem to be focusing more than ever on implementing green strategies, incorporating sustainability into restaurant practices is not an unexplored area. However, the how and why it is incorporated or not, can be different per restaurant. The objective of this study is to identify possibilities of change in restaurateur practices, which can lead to interventions that will foster sustainable destination development in Vrouwenpolder; a coastal destination within the Netherlands. For the identification of interventions that could advance the sustainability enacted in restaurateur practices, a qualitative research was conducted. Practices of restaurateurs in Vrouwenpolder are identified and compared to perceived-to-be ideal practices. Analysis of data collection draws on practice theory, and resulted into recommendations for advancing the sustainability enacted in restaurateur practices. It seems to be that primarily the meaning within a practice is decisive in whether sustainability is integrated or not.

  5. BRAND EQUITY OF LAHORE FORT AS A TOURISM DESTINATION BRAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that measure the brand equity of destination brands by using the Customer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE model in a developing country context are scarce. The present study investigates the destination brand equity of the Lahore Fort by employing the CBBE model in a developing country context of Pakistan. Following the positivist tradition, we adopted a survey-based approach to collect data from 237 tourists visiting the Lahore Fort. Data were collected through a questionnaire developed to explain the relationship of brand awareness, brand image, brand association, and brand loyalty with Lahore Fort’s overall brand equity. We used various robust statistical techniques such as correlation, regression and confirmatory factor analysis (using PLS method to reach meaningful conclusions and found that brand image and brand associations positively contribute to brand loyalty. Furthermore, brand loyalty significantly contributes towards overall brand equity. Pragmatically, this study measures the customer based brand equity of the Lahore Fort, a destination brand. The results are useful as they suggest a few strategies that can help policy makers to enhance Lahore Fort’s brand performance.

  6. Development of Diversified Tourism Destination Products – A Case Study of Tourism Destination, Municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena PETKOVA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that there is a variety of products and accordingly a diversity of types of tourism in the municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria: urban and "non-urban", mass and specialized, tourism based on natural and anthropogenic, on tangible and intangible resources. In this regard, diverse tourism products of the destination may be offered to its visitors, which to a greater extent meets their various needs and contributes to the sustainable tourism development. Thus, the aim of the paper is to reveal whether tourism professionals in Sofia are aware of the possibilities for combining various types of tourism and promoting the diversified destination tourism product among local and foreign visitors.

  7. Active Optical Lattice Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Evans

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.

  8. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  9. Destination memory in Alzheimer's Disease: when I imagine telling Ronald Reagan about Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Destination memory refers to remembering the destination of information that people output. This present paper establishes a new distinction between external and internal processes within this memory system for both normal aging and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Young adults, older adults, and mild AD patients were asked either to tell facts (i.e., external destination memory condition) or to imagine telling facts (i.e., internal destination memory condition) to pictures of famous people. The experiment established three major findings. First, the destination memory performance of the AD patients was significantly poorer than that of older adults, which in turn was poorer than that of the young adults. Furthermore, internal destination processes were more prone to being forgotten than external destination memory processes. In other words, participants had more difficulty in remembering whether they had previously imagined telling the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., imagined condition) than in remembering whether they had previously told the facts to the pictures or not (i.e., enacted condition). Second, significant correlations were detected between performances on destination memory and several executive measures such as the Stroop, the Plus-Minus and the Binding tasks. Third, among the executive measures, regression analyses showed that performance on the Stroop task was a main factor in explaining variance in destination memory performance. Our findings reflect the difficulty in remembering the destination of internally generated information. They also demonstrate the involvement of inhibitory processes in destination memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H. [Micro Composite Materials Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Exploring the Personality Traits of Portugal as a Tourist Destination: Perspective of the Czech Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Guerreiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality of a destination is vital to build a coherent destination brand and strengthen the place identity. Furthermore, brand personality appears in literature as a strategic axis that can be explored by tourist destinations in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. Since a brand encompasses not only functional but also symbolic elements, its image, as perceived by consumers, can be assessed with respect to both its functional and psychological components. Hence, this exploratory study investigates the brand personality of Portugal as a tourist destination, from the perspective of the Czech market, through a destination image approach. The online survey instrument included open-ended items to depict functional and psychological destination features and additional questions to characterize the profile of a sample of Czech university students. The main findings of this research highlight positive personality traits that are related to the brand of Portugal, which suggest its potential as a vacation destination for the Czech market under study.

  12. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone induce DNA damage and cell signalling in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvik, N.E. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway); Arlt, V.M.; Nagy, E. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Brookes Lawley Building, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Solhaug, A. [Section for Toxicology, Department of Feed and Food Safety, National Veterinary Institute Pb 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Tekpli, X. [EA SeRAIC, Equipe labellisee Ligue contre le Cancer, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Schmeiser, H.H. [Research Group Genetic Alteration in Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Refsnes, M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway); Phillips, D.H. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Brookes Lawley Building, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA SeRAIC, Equipe labellisee Ligue contre le Cancer, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-02-03

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutant found in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. In the present work we have characterised the effects of 3-NBA and its metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) on cell death and cytokine release in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These effects were related to induced DNA damage and changes in cell signalling pathways. 3-NBA resulted in cell death and caused most DNA damage as judged by the amount of DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabelling assay), single strand (ss)DNA breaks and oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay) detected. An increased phosphorylation of H2AX, chk1, chk2 and partly ATM was observed using flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Both compounds increased phosphorylation of p53 and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK). However, only 3-NBA caused an accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and a translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis, indicating that cell death was a result of the triggering of DNA signalling pathways. The highest phosphorylation of Akt and degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} (suggesting activation of NF-{kappa}B) were also seen after treatment with 3-NBA. In contrast 3-ABA increased IL-6 release, but caused little or no toxicity. Cytokine release was inhibited by PD98059 and curcumin, suggesting that ERK and NF-{kappa}B play a role in this process. In conclusion, 3-NBA seems to have a higher potency to induce DNA damage compatible with its cytotoxic effects, while 3-ABA seems to have a greater effect on the immune system.

  13. Iconic Destination: a Snapshot of Sustainable Tourism in Pisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries. According to the World Tourism Organization, Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with more than 47.7 million tourists a year (2013. At the same time, the increasing number of studies focused on sustainable tourism demonstrates a growing interest about the topic. In addition, practitioners’ attitude is changing and the most important actors of the market are acting in a more sustainable way and developing reports on their eco-friendly performances. Nowadays, the entire supply chain maybe environmentally sustainable. From the reservation to the post-holiday phase, it is possible to select the more eco-friendly suppliers. The main companies operating in the different stages of the process are demonstrating a concrete interest on sustainable development. This new challenge is generated through the information flow between local authorities, private firms and final customers. We propose to make a reflection based on the latter actors’ attitude. Our research aims to investigate the level of sensitivity of tourists about environmental sustainability from two different perspectives: self-evaluation and real purchasing behavior. We conducted a face-to-face survey among tourists in Pisa, in Piazza dei Miracoli, during May 2015. By using a structured questionnaire, we gathered primary data from a sample of 406 respondents. We selected respondents randomly. Pisa is the perfect location to obtain information from several typologies of tourists, with different levels of awareness of sustainable issues. Itis one of the most important tourist destination in Italy and it is an iconic destination recognized worldwide thanks to the attractiveness of the leading tower. The results of our study is a snapshot of the current level of awareness among tourists. The analysis of the questionnaires revealed tourist profiles, their eco-friendly behaviors, their concerns about sustainability

  14. Going Round in Circles: Mobility, Destination and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Clarke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the changing approaches to transport in urban tourism as seen through the move from functional sectoral accounts towards a perspective informed by the experience economy. By reviewing the traditional service offers, it is possible to unpack what lies within the service dominant logics that lead to co-creation of value and the realisation of quality tourism experiences. The paper then considers the adoption and adaptation of traditional forms of transport within the value proposition in urban tourism. Mobility in tourism is a strangely new focus of attention, strangely because without it there would be no tourism to speak of. However mobility requires a framework of civil and legal entitlements that allow people to move and a transport infrastructure that allows those rights to be realised in both working and leisure time situations. This article will address the construction of the tourism transport infrastructure by examining the ways in which the transportation elements in mobility have been re-thought within tourism. The first part of the paper will re-construct an account of transport and mobility which deals with it in terms of the functions and logistics of delivery, both between points of origin and destinations, and within destinations. These perspectives can be seen in the texts which shape the basic tourism curriculum (Cooper et al, 2008; Page, 2009 and explain how tourism and transport have developed over the years by integrating the opportunities provided by the new technologies – motorised vehicles (both cars and coaches, trains, ships and aeroplanes – to allow for the development of a range of destinations. Lumsdon and Page (2004 introduced a new approach to transport and tourism by distinguishing between transport for tourism and transport as tourism, which provides a linkage between the first and second parts of this article. The second part will develop an account of mobility in tourism that demonstrates

  15. Selling the favela: thoughts and polemics about a tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Freire-Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on my own research experience on such a polemic field of investigation.

  16. NASA Technology Area 07: Human Exploration Destination Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Alexander, Leslie; Landis, Rob; Linne, Diane; Mclemore, Carole; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo; Brown, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) led Space Technology Roadmap definition efforts. This paper will given an executive summary of the technology area 07 (TA07) Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS). These are draft roadmaps being reviewed and updated by the National Research Council. Deep-space human exploration missions will require many game changing technologies to enable safe missions, become more independent, and enable intelligent autonomous operations and take advantage of the local resources to become self-sufficient thereby meeting the goal of sustained human presence in space. Taking advantage of in-situ resources enhances and enables revolutionary robotic and human missions beyond the traditional mission architectures and launch vehicle capabilities. Mobility systems will include in-space flying, surface roving, and Extra-vehicular Activity/Extravehicular Robotics (EVA/EVR) mobility. These push missions will take advantage of sustainability and supportability technologies that will allow mission independence to conduct human mission operations either on or near the Earth, in deep space, in the vicinity of Mars, or on the Martian surface while opening up commercialization opportunities in low Earth orbit (LEO) for research, industrial development, academia, and entertainment space industries. The Human Exploration Destination Systems (HEDS) Technology Area (TA) 7 Team has been chartered by the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to strategically roadmap technology investments that will enable sustained human exploration and support NASA s missions and goals for at least the next 25 years. HEDS technologies will enable a sustained human presence for exploring destinations such as remote sites on Earth and beyond including, but not limited to, LaGrange points, low Earth orbit (LEO), high Earth orbit (HEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), the Moon, near

  17. Going round in circles: mobility, destination and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Clarke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the changing approaches to transport in urban tourism as seen through the move from functional sectoral accounts towards a perspective informed by the experience economy. By reviewing the traditional service offers, it is possible to unpack what lies within the service dominant logics that lead to co-creation of value and the realisation of quality tourism experiences. The paper then considers the adoption and adaptation of traditional forms of transport within the value proposition in urban tourism. Mobility in tourism is a strangely new focus of attention, strangely because without it there would be no tourism to speak of. However mobility requires a framework of civil and legal entitlements that allow people to move and a transport infrastructure that allows those rights to be realised in both working and leisure time situations. This article will address the construction of the tourism transport infrastructure by examining the ways in which the transportation elements in mobility have been re-thought within tourism. The first part of the paper will re-construct an account of transport and mobility which deals with it in terms of the functions and logistics of delivery, both between points of origin and destinations, and within destinations. These perspectives can be seen in the texts which shape the basic tourism curriculum and explain how tourism and transport have developed over the years by integrating the opportunities provided by the new technologies – motorised vehicles (both cars and coaches, trains, ships and aeroplanes – to allow for the development of a range of destinations. Lumsdon and Page (2004 introduced a new approach to transport and tourism by distinguishing between transport for tourism and transport as tourism, which provides a linkage between the first and second parts of this article. The second part will develop an account of mobility in tourism that demonstrates how their uniqueness derives

  18. Social Trust, Safety and the Choice of Tourist Destination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    Does social trust influence safety and tourists’ destination choice? Our claim is that the roots of safety may take two forms: either formal institutions or informal institutions. Formal institutions concern how society can build up control mechanisms through the legal system, police authority...... the safety of tourists (and locals) without signalling a problem with safety. Building social trust may further enhance the feeling of safety and thereby attract even more tourists. Thus, our trust-safety theory may guide the active use of social trust by tourist officials and policy makers....

  19. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...

  20. Competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination: Analysis of selected key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popesku Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the favourable competitiveness position, tourist destination has to offer quality experiences to tourists that can make the destination more attractive compared to other tourist destinations. The role of destination management is to exploit and develop existing resources by using clear and effective strategies for developing tourism products and creating additional value of tourist experience. The first step of analysis is to define destination competitiveness by using the indicators which will review and give the guidelines for improvement of competitive position. This paper discusses the tourist destinations' competitiveness and indicators for its measurement with a special reference to Serbia. Tourism development of Serbia is a big chance for overall economic development of the country. Current competitive position of Serbian tourism on international market is not satisfactory and this paper is trying to analyze and to point out the reasons of Serbia's tourism low competitiveness. Conclusions about the competitive positioning of Serbia as a tourist destination are drawn out firstly based on the relevant studies as well as on the Serbian Tourism Development Strategy. The results of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (WEF TTCI reports for Serbia are also presented. Based on own research, this paper is also showing the results related to competitiveness of Serbia as a tourist destination in terms of two groups of indicators: natural, cultural and historical resources as well as destination management. According to the results, Serbia is more competitive in its natural, cultural and historical resources comparing to the role of destination management.

  1. Identity of the state as a tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čugurović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary market conditions every country has to compete for its part of customers, tourists, investors, students, events. Accordingly, great attention is paid to marketing and communication and branding as its integral parts. In this paper country brand is explored from the tourism aspect as a destination brand or, in other way, from the aspect of the way the countries have formed and designed their brands in order to attract as many tourists they can. One of the fundamental aspects of brand is its identity, visual and verbal concretization created in order to identify and differentiate itself from its competitors. Brand identity elements are logo, slogan, colors and ways of their implementation. In this paper the best country brands from each continent and country brands which are specific or different from other will be presented and discussed according to the Future Brand research for 2010, which ranks the country brands from the whole world. Country brands are analyzed in terms of their design, whether brand design contains formal state symbols like flag, emblem and anthem, or it has elements to which the brand 'wants' to be associated with. The comparative analysis of selected brands is done and should point out the importance of building strong country brand identities for countries as tourist destinations.

  2. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

  3. Models of entrepreneurship development in rural tourism destinations in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in this paper is the development and the application of entrepreneurship in rural tourism destinations. The aim of the paper is to identify key forms of rural entrepreneurship tourism in Vojvodina. General analytic-synthetic method of research was applied, spanning from the bibliographic-speculative to empirical approach. It has been determined that messuages, villages as tourist products, ethno-houses, and rural households that provide services of accommodation and food, eco-active tourism, tourism offer of food and drinks produced in the system of organic production, as well as traditional rural events, can be the basis of rural tourism product in Vojvodina. The development of rural tourism should be based on effective investment in the tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects that are in accordance with modern trends of demand. Investment into tourism offer in rural tourism destinations would influence the growth of income made from rural tourism, and therefore, the economic development of those areas.

  4. In Defense of Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents responses to 10 common arguments against the use of Internet filters in libraries. Highlights include keyword blocking; selection of materials; liability of libraries using filters; users' judgments; Constitutional issues, including First Amendment rights; and censorship. (LRW)

  5. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  6. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  7. DESTINATION IMAGE OF BALI BASED ON THE PUSH MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS, IDENTITY AND DESTINATION CREATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF FOREIGN SENIOR TOURIST*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the senior traveler segment is the high purchasing power the length of stay in a destination, making this market segment increasingly important in present and future. Consequently, this research aims to establish a model of motivation and its relationship with the image of Bali as an international tourism destination, especially from the perspective of senior tourists. This research employed survey method and utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Factor analysis condensed various indicators into several key indicators to form a model with goodness of fit. Indicators representing push motivation variable include the improvement of health/fitness and the drive to perform physical exercise. Indicators representing destination identity variable include the culture and nature of Bali. Indicators representing destination creation variable include the service quality of travel agencies and service quality of travel guides. Indicators representing destination image variable include the image of cultural uniqueness and holiday atmosphere of Bali. The survey in this study involved 400 respondents of senior tourists, exclusively only foreign nationals. Goodness of fit is affirmed on the results of the analysis model, which answered the hypothesis that push motivation and destination creation affect destination images.

  8. APPROACHES IN INVESTIGATING ROMANIA’S IMAGE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION AMONG THE TURKISH STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia BAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The image of the tourist destination plays an essential role in the decision making process regarding the choice of a holiday. Image has a crucial role in the success of the destination because it influences the consumers’ satisfaction and helps in drawing up a promotion strategy for the positioning/repositioning on a certain market, branding/rebranding the tourist destination. Information from different sources contribute to the formation of the image of a certain destination, information which can be distributed into: the promotion performed by the destination; the other’s opinions (direct or indirect; mass-media and the popular culture. We intended to investigate Romania’s image a a tourist destination among the Turkish students. The results showed that the students had very poor knowledge of our country.

  9. EVALUATING THE IMAGE OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS. THE CASE OF THE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY OF THE CANARY ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana - Andreea SARAGEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increased competition on the international tourism market, the assessment of destination image has become a research subject for both managers aiming to improve destination positioning and academic researchers. In order to obtain a competitive advantage, every tourist destination must identify, maintain and reinforce, through appropriate marketing policies, unique items that form and build over time "the destination' s image". Accordingly, the ultimate target of the tourist destinations' promoters should be to achieve a high level of coincidence between the promoted or projected image and the perceived image of the destination, held by potential and actual tourists. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illustrate promotional techniques and methods used by the authorities of the Canary Islands over the years (projected image, and to identify, through a survey among the citizens of Braşov, the image that they have of the Canary Islands (perceived image.

  10. [Role of context recall in destination memory decline in normal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Allain, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, little was known about destination memory, or memory for the destination of outputted information. In the present work, this memory was evaluated in 32 older adults and 36 younger adults, who had to associate proverbs to pictures of famous people and decide, on a subsequent recognition task, whether they had previously told that proverb to that face or not. When deciding about the destination, participants had to provide contextual judgment, that is, whether each picture had been previously exposed in color or in black and white. Participants also performed a neuropsychological battery tapping episodic memory and executive functions. Findings showed poor destination recall in older participants. Destination recall in older adults was reliably predicted by with their context recall. Destination memory seems to be particularly affected by aging, a deterioration that can be related to deficits in processing contextual features during encoding.

  11. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  12. Filter service system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Cheryl L [Peoria, IL; Nordyke, Daniel S [Arlington Heights, IL; Crandell, Richard A [Morton, IL; Tomlins, Gregory [Peoria, IL; Fei, Dong [Peoria, IL; Panov, Alexander [Dunlap, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL; Habeger, Craig F [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-12-09

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, a system for removing matter from a filtering device includes a gas pressurization assembly. An element of the assembly is removably attachable to a first orifice of the filtering device. The system also includes a vacuum source fluidly connected to a second orifice of the filtering device.

  13. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model sta...

  14. Destination marketing management adjustment in situation of globalization and clusterization in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Ognjen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes few concepts: PPP (Public-Private Partnership, DMO (Destination Management Organization and Clusters, that have recently came into focus in tourism policy worldwide. Understanding of concepts must be of great interest for Serbian tourism policy, especially in implementation phase of the Strategy of tourism development in Serbia and its application in tourist destination management (Master plans of destinations that Strategy ponders as a priority. .

  15. Marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyan Marinov

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to outline possibilities for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism. It gives à definition of the Balkan region as à tourist destination. The target cultural tourist segments of the region are indicated. The strategic marketing mix is drawn for the positioning of the Balkans on the market of cultural tourism. The possible organizational platform for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination is shown.

  16. The Perceived Image of Helsinki as a Tourist Destination in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Plantinga, Fleur

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to research the perceived image of Helsinki as a tourist destination in the Netherlands. Therefore, the research question ‘how is the image of Helsinki as a tourist destination perceived in the Netherlands?’ will be examined. First, different processes and the AIDA model will explain the tourist’s buying behaviour. Next, a definition of the destination image is created and its formation will be elaborated. Destination branding will be, inter alia, explained by means o...

  17. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  18. Hospital discharge destinations for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients treated for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Todd J; Smith, Hayden L; Chigazola, Angela; Wortman, Mikelle R; Sidwell, Richard A; Piper, John G

    2013-01-01

    To examine hospital discharge destinations for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients treated for traumatic brain injury. Retrospective cohort study with patient matching. Ethnicity status not determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .2150). Patient hospital length of stay determined a significant predictor of discharge destination (P = .0072), with every 1 day increase in length of stay, resulting in a 12% increase in odds of being discharged to care facility. Study data suggest that length of stay can predict discharge destination for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients in a medium-sized trauma center in the Midwest.

  19. Regenerative particulate filter development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamp, V. A.; Boex, M. W.; Hussey, M. W.; Larson, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Development, design, and fabrication of a prototype filter regeneration unit for regenerating clean fluid particle filter elements by using a backflush/jet impingement technique are reported. Development tests were also conducted on a vortex particle separator designed for use in zero gravity environment. A maintainable filter was designed, fabricated and tested that allows filter element replacement without any leakage or spillage of system fluid. Also described are spacecraft fluid system design and filter maintenance techniques with respect to inflight maintenance for the space shuttle and space station.

  20. Citizenship and tourism: Two looks and a destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Fernández Poncela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The text presents different eyes to the city of Mexico today. Its aim is to show and analyze images and opinions, memory, the imaginary and social representations of how brief and general. For this purpose has two social groups, domestic and foreign tourists are taken on the one hand, and of other habitants of the city. The methodology basically focuses on the application of interviews with both groups, review, comparison, analysis and interpretation. Finally there are coincidences and differences too in results obtained narratives, two eyes on the same object, the geographical and cultural, for the same destination. Something that refers to lot's people from a positive or a negative conception. Also the places, culture, history and activities seem positive to tourists. According to citizenship, fewer cars, better transport and more education and culture are desired.

  1. Estimation of Origin-Destination Trip Matrices for Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Novačko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of data assessment for the requirements of a classical four-step model of traffic demand in individual traffic in small cities. The procedure is carried out by creating an initial origin-destination trip matrix using data from the traffic count and by defining the average rate of trip generation within single households. The research applied fuzzy logic for the correction of the initial trip matrix. The paper also presents the recommendations for defining the borders of traffic zones, as well as the locations of traffic counts. A flowchart has been used to show a summarized presentation of the proposed model. In the last part of the paper the model was tested on an example of a smaller city in the Republic of Croatia.

  2. GRANITE CUTTING WASTE: TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION FOR THE FINAL DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The granite processing market is one of the most promising business areas of the mineral sector, with an average growth of the world production of about 6% per year. The granite extraction generates residues in the form of powder rock of 20-25 wt.% of the total benefited. The granite dust must be carefully managed since it can cause siltation of rivers and human health risks. This paper presents two routes for the final destination of this waste: the vitrification process aiming the production of fibers for thermo-acoustic insulation, and the magnetic separation in order to recover the steel grit. Results showed that the forms of treatments presented are economically and ecologically viable since they represent a cost reduction in the waste disposal, and also provide the production of new materials with commercial value.

  3. Near-Earth Asteroids: Destinations for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) is a system that monitors the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population to identify NEAs whose orbital characteristics may make them potential destinations for future round-trip human space flight missions. To accomplish this monitoring, Brent Barbee (GSFC) developed and automated a system that applies specialized trajectory processing to the orbits of newly discovered NEAs, and those for which we have updated orbit knowledge, obtained from the JPL Small Bodies Database (SBDB). This automated process executes daily and the results are distributed to the general public and the astronomy community. This aids in prioritizing telescope radar time allocations for obtaining crucial follow-up observations of highly accessible NEAs during the critical, because it is often fleeting, time period surrounding the time at which the NEAs are initially discovered.

  4. Ceramic fiber filter technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, B.L.; Janney, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Fibrous filters have been used for centuries to protect individuals from dust, disease, smoke, and other gases or particulates. In the 1970s and 1980s ceramic filters were developed for filtration of hot exhaust gases from diesel engines. Tubular, or candle, filters have been made to remove particles from gases in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification-combined-cycle power plants. Very efficient filtration is necessary in power plants to protect the turbine blades. The limited lifespan of ceramic candle filters has been a major obstacle in their development. The present work is focused on forming fibrous ceramic filters using a papermaking technique. These filters are highly porous and therefore very lightweight. The papermaking process consists of filtering a slurry of ceramic fibers through a steel screen to form paper. Papermaking and the selection of materials will be discussed, as well as preliminary results describing the geometry of papers and relative strengths.

  5. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  6. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  7. A model of destination image promotion with a case study of Nanjing, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Li; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    Destination image has long been a popular research topic in tourism studies. However, methods used to integrate image in real marketing practice and evaluating the market performance in a systematic way are still puzzling to practitioners. A destination image promotion model is proposed in this paper as an effort to solve the problem. The roles of some major factors...

  8. Tourists’ Satisfaction at Trijuginarayan: An Emerging Spiritual and Adventure Tourist Destination in Garhwal Himalaya India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Bagri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourists’ satisfaction has been acknowledged as one of the most important elements of competitive advantage and formulating effective destination management strategies because it is a reliable standard to evaluate performance of tangible and intangible elements of tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to investigate tourists’ satisfaction by examining the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance in a tourist destination. Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India was selected as the study area for this research. Importance-Performance Analysis was employed to examine the relationship between importance and performance of various destination attributes. Results revealed that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. The findings alert concerned tourism stakeholders for outlining effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in a given destination.

  9. PROMOTING TOURIST DESTINATIONS THROUGH SPORT EVENTS. THE CASE OF BRAŞOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  10. Tourism Destination Management (Case Study in Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Manggala Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tourism sector as one of the leading sectors in Pasuruan still faces many obstacles. The constraints associated with conditions that require improvement on tourist destination related to the presence of infrastructure, zoning, the gap between the tourism destination in the West and the East area, up to the level of visitation which has decreased from year to year. The aims of the studi were to describe and analyze Tourism Destination Management conducted by Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati object to become competitive and sustainable tourism destination. This study used a qualitative approach with a case study method locus in the Department of Culture and Tourism Pasuruan. The results of this study indicate that the tourism destination management of Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati when reviewed in terms of competitiveness, still needs a lot of improvement related to the presence of tourism facilities and the quality of employees as service providers. In terms of sustainability, it shows that the synergy between the regional government and tourism stakeholders need to be improved. The need for the establishment of cooperation with third parties in management of tourism destination in Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati, can be used to optimize the carrying capacity and tourist destination marketing system at Banyu Biru and Ranu Grati in order to compete in a competitive and sustainable way Keywords: tourism destination management, competitiveness, sustainability

  11. Emerging Australian Education Markets: A Discrete Choice Model of Taiwanese and Indonesian Student Intended Study Destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Steven; Madden, Gary; Simpson, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Isolates factors influencing choice of Australia as a preferred destination for international students in emerging regional markets. Uses data obtained from a survey of students in Indonesia and Taiwan to estimate a U.S./Australia and rest-of-world/Australia discrete destination-choice model. This model identifies key factors determining country…

  12. 14 CFR 121.203 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limitations: Destination airport. 121.203 Section 121.203 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... airport. (a) No person operating a nontransport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight... destination airport; and (2) Is greater than the weight allowable if the landing is to be made on the runway...

  13. The atractiveness and competitiveness of tourist destinations: A study on Southern Italian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cracolici, M.F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper aims to assess the relative attractiveness of competing tourist destinations on the basis of individual visitors' perceptions regarding a holiday destination. Using the feeling of tourist well-being achieved by individual tourists we evaluate indirectly the competitive ability of

  14. An investigation of dematerialization planning options at tourism destinations: Technical and behavioural dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to develop a conceptual framework and associated methods for evaluating alternative tourism planning strategies in terms of dematerialization and acceptability amongst tourists. Its objectives are to (1) examine the technical potential of dematerialization planning options in tourism destinations, (2) investigate tourist perspectives concerning destination planning alternatives that promote dematerialization, (3) assess the travel market responses and demateri...

  15. Generic Kalman Filter Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E., II; Crues, Edwin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Generic Kalman Filter (GKF) software provides a standard basis for the development of application-specific Kalman-filter programs. Historically, Kalman filters have been implemented by customized programs that must be written, coded, and debugged anew for each unique application, then tested and tuned with simulated or actual measurement data. Total development times for typical Kalman-filter application programs have ranged from months to weeks. The GKF software can simplify the development process and reduce the development time by eliminating the need to re-create the fundamental implementation of the Kalman filter for each new application. The GKF software is written in the ANSI C programming language. It contains a generic Kalman-filter-development directory that, in turn, contains a code for a generic Kalman filter function; more specifically, it contains a generically designed and generically coded implementation of linear, linearized, and extended Kalman filtering algorithms, including algorithms for state- and covariance-update and -propagation functions. The mathematical theory that underlies the algorithms is well known and has been reported extensively in the open technical literature. Also contained in the directory are a header file that defines generic Kalman-filter data structures and prototype functions and template versions of application-specific subfunction and calling navigation/estimation routine code and headers. Once the user has provided a calling routine and the required application-specific subfunctions, the application-specific Kalman-filter software can be compiled and executed immediately. During execution, the generic Kalman-filter function is called from a higher-level navigation or estimation routine that preprocesses measurement data and post-processes output data. The generic Kalman-filter function uses the aforementioned data structures and five implementation- specific subfunctions, which have been developed by the user on

  16. Stakeholder cooperation in implementation of the sustainable development concept: Montenegrin tourist destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Pjerotic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving diverse stakeholders in tourism planning is receiving growing recognition. Tourism destination planning is a complex process, due to the existence of a wide variety of stakeholders with a wide range of opinions, multiple problem visions and different interests. Despite the complexity of the planning process one feature acknowledged for successful destination management planning is high level of stakeholder cooperation. The paper examines the level of stakeholder cooperation on the specific example of the sustainable development concept implementation in Montenegrin tourism. It starts with two hypotheses: first, the development level of instruments for managing tourist destination depends on stakeholder cooperation level in a particular destination, and second, implementation of the sustainable development concept is positively correlated with the development of instruments for managing tourist destination. The results have indicated poor implementation of tourism development plans and low level of stakeholder cooperation.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DESIGN OF SPECIFIC TOURISM PRODUCTS FOR THE TOURISM DESTINATION ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PAULA RAŢIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania, as tourism destination with its component micro-destinations (Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat - Crişana, Transylvania, Bucovina, Maramureş, Moldavia and Dobrogea, possesses many tourism attractions and at the same time has a real tourism potential. The fact that it is not included among the Europe’s „valuable” destinations represents a loss both for its inhabitants and for Europeans in general, too. One of the reasons is the lack of an image consolidated by identity elements or / and simply the lack of image that would represent the starting point for development of appropriate tourism products (developing a strategy. This paper proposes, starting from the image perceived by the inhabitants about their own destination – based on the example of Transylvania – to emphasize the importance and also the role of the destination image in developing the main directions of actions and, especially, in developing the strategy for the specific tourism products.

  18. Evaluating Bloemfontein’s image as a tourist destination: A tour operator’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Strydom

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tour operators have been identified as vital information sources influencing the images and decision-making processes of tourists. Bloemfontein is situated in Central South Africa.  Tourism marketers believe that the city is an ideal stopover destination for national tour operators  en route to other destinations.  Research was conducted among national tour operators in Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town to determine their perceptions of Bloemfontein and whether they regard the city as a tourist or stopover destination.  The research indicates that the city is not regarded as a tourist destination, but is seen as an ideal stopover destination which could be included in future tour itineraries.  It is currently excluded because operators are unfamiliar with the tourism offering(s of Bloemfontein due to insufficient marketing by the tourism officials of the city.

  19. Tourism destination image of Russia in the perspective of the portuguese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Arslanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the importance of destination image has been increasingly analyzed and it is generally considered to be vital in the marketing of destinations. It can be noted that the tourism industry in Russia has not been the subject of a great deal of research with regard to its destination image. Therefore the purpose of this work is to assess Russia’s destination image in the perspective of Portuguese people. The research instrument was an online questionnaire, comprised of open-ended and closed questions. A combination of two software programs, NVivo and IBM SPSS Statistics 21, was employed to analyze the data. This exploratory study suggests that Portuguese peoples’ perceptions of Russia are mostly favorable and they have a high awareness about Russia’s destination features.

  20. A Novel Evaluation Approach for Tourist Choice of Destination Based on Grey Relation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision-making process of choosing an ideal tourism destination is influenced by a number of psychological and nonpsychological variables. Tourists need a method to quickly and easily select a suitable destination. Driven by this practical decision issue, a novel approach of tourist destination evaluation, grey relation analysis (GRA, is developed and applied to the ranking evaluation of Taiwan tourism destinations in China. In the evaluating process, we apply entropy to calculate the weight of each index, which is a more objective method of calculating weights. The results of the study indicate that although the same size is small and the distribution of data is unknown, GRA can still be successfully used in evaluating tourist destinations. In addition, we compare the GRA results with the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and show that more accurate ranking results can be obtained.

  1. The Role of Marketing Mix Components in Destination Choices of Visitors and the Case of Dalyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ÖZER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of the eight components of the marketing mix, as being product, price, distribution, promotion, person, partnership, program and package, upon choice of a destination.For this research purpose, data was collected by face-to-face interviews and survey from 260 foreign tourists visiting the region of Dalyan. First, the marketing mix components were classified according to their importance determined by the arithmetic averages. Then, multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether the marketing mix components had an effect on the destination choice. The analysis found that the variables of ‘product’ and ‘person’ had an effect on the Dalyan destination choice. This result shows that the ’product’ is an influencial factor, as expected, on the choice of the Dalyan destination, within the scope of ecotourism, visited by the tourists. In addition, ‘person’ is also important factor on the destination choice for the Dalyan region.

  2. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    OpenAIRE

    Arathy Rajagopal; B. Geethanjali; Arulprakash P

    2015-01-01

    A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers...

  3. In vitro evaluation of major in vivo drug metabolic pathways using primary human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells in suspension and a dynamic three-dimensional bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Malin; Ulvestad, Maria; Ellis, Ewa; Weidolf, Lars; Andersson, Tommy B

    2012-10-01

    Major human specific metabolites, not detected during in vivo and in vitro preclinical studies, may cause unexpected drug interactions and toxicity in human and delays in clinical programs. Thus, reliable preclinical tools for the detection of major human metabolites are of high importance. The aim of this study was to compare major drug metabolic pathways in HepaRG cells, a human hepatoma cell line, to fresh human hepatocytes, cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and human in vivo data. Furthermore, the maintenance of cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities in a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) bioreactor were evaluated over time by using HepaRG cells and human hepatocytes. (14)C-diclofenac and a candidate from AstraZeneca's drug development program, (14)C-AZD6610, which are metabolized by P450 and UGT in vivo, were used as model substrates. The proportion of relevant biotransformation pathways of the investigated drug was clearly different in the various cell systems. The hydroxylation route was favored in primary human hepatocytes, whereas the glucuronidation route was favored in HepaRG cells. The human in vivo metabolite profile of AZD6610 was best represented by human hepatocytes, whereas all major diclofenac metabolites were detected in HepaRG cells. Moreover, the metabolite profiles in cryopreserved and fresh human hepatocytes were essentially the same. The liver bioreactor using both fresh human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells retained biotransformation capacity over 1 week. Thus, the incubation time can be increased from a few hours in suspension to several days in 3D cultures, which opens up for detection of metabolites from slowly metabolized drugs.

  4. Opsonisation of nanoparticles prepared from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(trimethylene carbonate)-b-poly(malic acid) amphiphilic diblock copolymers: Impact on the in vitro cell uptake by primary human macrophages and HepaRG hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vene, Elise; Barouti, Ghislaine; Jarnouen, Kathleen; Gicquel, Thomas; Rauch, Claudine; Ribault, Catherine; Guillaume, Sophie M; Cammas-Marion, Sandrine; Loyer, Pascal

    2016-11-20

    The present work reports the investigation of the biocompatibility, opsonisation and cell uptake by human primary macrophages and HepaRG cells of nanoparticles (NPs) formulated from poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PMLA-b-PHB) and poly(β-malic acid)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PMLA-b-PTMC) diblock copolymers, namely PMLA800-b-PHB7300, PMLA4500-b-PHB4400, PMLA2500-b-PTMC2800 and PMLA4300-b-PTMC1400. NPs derived from PMLA-b-PHB and PMLA-b-PTMC do not trigger lactate dehydrogenase release and do not activate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines demonstrating the excellent biocompatibility of these copolymers derived nano-objects. Using a protein adsorption assay, we demonstrate that the binding of plasma proteins is very low for PMLA-b-PHB-based nano-objects, and higher for those prepared from PMLA-b-PTMC copolymers. Moreover, a more efficient uptake by macrophages and HepaRG cells is observed for NPs formulated from PMLA-b-PHB copolymers compared to that of PMLA-b-PTMC-based NPs. Interestingly, the uptake in HepaRG cells of NPs formulated from PMLA800-b-PHB7300 is much higher than that of NPs based on PMLA4500-b-PHB4400. In addition, the cell internalization of PMLA800-b-PHB7300 based-NPs, probably through endocytosis, is strongly increased by serum pre-coating in HepaRG cells but not in macrophages. Together, these data strongly suggest that the binding of a specific subset of plasmatic proteins onto the PMLA800-b-PHB7300-based NPs favors the HepaRG cell uptake while reducing that of macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fundamentals of Stochastic Filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of stochastic filtering is to determine the best estimate for the state of a stochastic dynamical system from partial observations. The solution of this problem in the linear case is the well known Kalman-Bucy filter which has found widespread practical application. The purpose of this book is to provide a rigorous mathematical treatment of the non-linear stochastic filtering problem using modern methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the theoretical analysis of numerical methods for the solution of the filtering problem via particle methods. The book should provide sufficient

  6. Stripe delay filters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharov, Alexander V.; Ilchenko, Mykhailo Ye.; Trubarov, Igor V.; Pinchuk, Ludmila S.

    2016-01-01

    There are considered constructions of microsized stripe delay filters, which are realized on a basis of ceramic materials with high dielectric permittivity. Delay time of non-minimal phase filters is 7–12 ns at frequencies of 1900 MHz with relative bandwidth of 3.6–3.85%. Filters dimensions are comparable with ones used in portable communication devices. Dimensions of researched three-resonator filter at frequency of 1900 MHz are 8.4×5×2 mm with material dielectric permittivity εr = 92, and 5...

  7. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  8. Enzyme immunoassay use in the identification of Giardia spp. in Perna perna mussels destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Carvalho Machado do Couto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. do Couto M.C.M., Silva V.L., Pinheiro J. & do Bomfim T.C.B. Enzyme immunoassay use in the identification of Giardia spp. in Perna perna mussels destined for human consumption. [Utilização do Ensaio Imunoenzimático no Diagnóstico de Giardia spp. em Moluscos Perna perna Destinados ao Consumo Humano.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:8-15, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 - Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: melcouto@ufrrj.br Marine bivalve molluscs are important due to the expansion of mariculture and because they are considered bioindicators of environmental pollution. Bivalve molluscs are capable of filtering large volumes of water and can accumulate waterborne pathogens, such as cysts of Giardia intestinalis, especially in their gills and digestive gland. Thus, the ingestion of raw or undercooked molluscs can be a potential source of human infection. This study aimed to use the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique to detect cysts of Giardia spp. in tissues of mussels of the species Perna perna destined for human consumption in the coast at the Municipality of Mangaratiba in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each sample was prepared from a pool of 10 animals, totalling 72 samples of mussel tissue that were evaluated for the presence of Giardia spp. by ELISA. For sampling, only individuals with an average of 6 cm of valve length were analyzed, which is considered the ideal size for consumption. In each sample, the individuals were dissected, and only the gills and digestive gland were used, which were homogenized with the aid of a mixer and filtered to remove coarse residues. The use of the enzyme kit followed the recommendations of the manufacturer with minor modifications. Among the 72 samples used, only 22% were positive for the presence of Giardia spp

  9. THE BRAND EQUITY OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS - THE MEANING OF THE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's global economy, each place competes with other places for economic benefits. Destination has become a product that has to be promoted and sold in the most advantageous terms. The work bellow is an analysis of "brand equity" concept for touristic destinations, as found in the specific literature. Destination brands differ from product brands, major distinction being given by their stability/ instability. Brands of products are stable; this constant is maintained by the use of quality standards. Even in case of services, situation can be controlled, as quality standards could be perpetuated by a franchise system. Destinations are not depending on a single person, who decides, but a variety of them, economic agents, businesses, institutions and local population that can create/print form and structure changes of the destination. The concept de brand equity applied for touristic destinations, is something relatively recent. The dimensions of a brand for touristic destinations are: awareness, image, loyalty, quality and value. All these dimensions build the branding equity of a destination. There is interdependency, between quality, image, loyalty and value. In order to determine the perception in regards to the quality of tourism services in Romania, in 2010 a comprehensive study was done among the inhabitants of Oradea city. Through this study we have pursued several objectives: to assess the importance of service characteristics, performance evaluation of tourism services in Romania, tourism personnel evaluation, in terms of evaluation and performance, perception of the quality-price ratio for Romania, compared with other tourist destinations. We call on the exploratory study conducted, as the value of the dimension- destination of the brand equity is given by the price-quality ratio. Using an explorative study on the market of Oradea city, it was highlighted the connection between perception of touristic services, estimation price

  10. Nicotine, cotinine, and b-nicotyrine inhibit NNK-induced DNA-strand break in the hepatic cell line HepaRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez; Sierra, Ana Belen; Camacho, Oscar M; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Minet, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Recent in vitro work using purified enzymes demonstrated that nicotine and/or a nicotine metabolite could inhibit CYPs (CYP2A6, 2A13, 2E1) involved in the metabolism of the genotoxic tobacco nitrosamine NNK. This observation raises the possibility of nicotine interaction with the mechanism of NNK bioactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine or a nicotine metabolite such as cotinine might contribute to the inhibition of NNK-induced DNA strand breaks by interfering with CYP enzymes. The effect of nicotine and cotinine on DNA strand breaks was evaluated using the COMET assay in CYP competent HepaRG cells incubated with bioactive CYP-dependent NNK and CYP-independent NNKOAc (4-(acetoxymethylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone). We report a dose-dependent reduction in DNA damage in hepatic-derived cell lines in the presence of nicotine and cotinine. Those results are discussed in the context of the in vitro model selected.

  11. Destinations without regulations: Informal practices in Romanian rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Miruna Rădan-Gorska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an ethnographic account of the informal practices I encountered during my fieldwork in three touristic destinations in the Romanian countryside. In these places, as in other parts of rural Romania, over half of the accommodation units are unregistered, making tourism ‘on the black’ [market] widespread. This research is focused on unregistered businesses, as well as on those that aim to be law-abiding, but sometimes engage in informal practices. A typology of informal practices is outlined, dividing them into intended, unintended, and contextual. These categories are illustrated with evidence from interview data and from mass media accounts. Informality is discussed in relation to the legislative framework and to the actions of those authorities responsible with enforcing regulations. Local sense-making strategies are taken into account in explaining informal practices, as well as the wider national and historical contexts. The positive and negative implications of informality are examined and the article concludes by making a number of suggestions that could help to develop more appropriate norms and policies regarding rural guesthouses.

  12. Ventricular assist devices as destination therapy: psychosocial and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sherry; Kostick, Kristin; Delgado, Estevan; Bruce, Courtenay R

    2015-01-01

    One of the candidate evaluation challenges is determining when and how psychosocial domains influence short- and long-term destination therapy ventricular assist device (DT-VAD) outcomes. There are very few DT-VAD studies and no validated instruments to identify psychosocial risk factors. General practice is to borrow from the transplant literature, which may not be applicable to this unique device application. We question the relevance of using transplant psychosocial evaluation for patients who are candidates for DT-VAD only, particularly because these patients require a certain level of cognitive, psychological, and behavioral functioning to ensure proper long-term self-care with the VAD. We may be missing important psychological characteristics in our pre-evaluations by "borrowing" from the transplant literature, thereby underplaying significant factors that are especially relevant for DT-VAD candidates. Conversely, we may be screening out candidates who may benefit greatly from DT-VAD by using transplant criteria as part of the screening process. We use a case study to illustrate some of the challenges of weighing psychosocial risk factors in the DT-VAD population and to emphasize the need for developing distinct psychosocial assessment criteria for DT-VAD patients.

  13. The significance of the tourist destination of Zlatibor spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The territory of Zlatibor is known as a region of exquisite beauty, rich in natural and anthropogenic values, and as such it is a significant tourist destination. The tourism on Zlatibor started developing a long time ago, however, recently there has formed a type of settlement with tourism as its basic function, with no adequate planned development and control, which deviates from the natural and aesthetic environment, disturbing the rare and autochthonous quality of the territory. Zlatibor’s beauty has been disturbed with unplanned construction and the development of tourism which is not sustainable in the long-term. The aim of this paper is to point out to the significance of spatial planning for further development of tourism on this mountain and give suggestions on further development which would neutralise, revitalise and improve the already degraded territory. Only by managing the territory of Zlatibor properly, as a resource for tourism, will its economic, ecologic and aesthetic value increase, which will ensure a long term benefit on a local, regional and national level. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  14. Madeira—a tourist destination for asthma sufferers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Irene; Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Camacho, Roberto; Berenguer, Pedro; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Madeira Island is a famous tourist destination due to its natural and climatic values. Taking into account optimal weather conditions, flora richness and access to various substrates facilitating fungal growth, we hypothesised a very high risk of elevated fungal spore and pollen grain concentrations in the air of Funchal, the capital of Madeira. Concentration levels of the most allergenic taxa were measured from 2003 to 2009, using a 7-day volumetric air sampler, followed by microscopy analysis. Dependence of bioaerosols on the weather conditions and land use were assessed using spatial and statistical tools. Obtained results were re-visited by a comparison with hospital admission data recorded at the Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital in Funchal. Our results showed that despite propitious climatic conditions, overall pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations in the air were very low and did not exceed any clinically established threshold values. Pollen and spore peak concentrations also did not match with asthma outbreaks in the winter. Identification of places that are "free" from biological air pollution over the summer, such as Madeira Island, is very important from the allergic point of view.

  15. From the Cover: Three-Dimensional (3D) HepaRG Spheroid Model With Physiologically Relevant Xenobiotic Metabolism Competence and Hepatocyte Functionality for Liver Toxicity Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa C; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Dixon, Darlene; DeVito, Michael J; Paules, Richard S; Ferguson, Stephen S

    2017-09-01

    Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using invitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5). This invitro model maintains a stable phenotype over multiple weeks in both 96- and 384-well formats, supports highly reproducible tissue-like architectures and models pharmacologically- and environmentally important hepatic receptor pathways (ie AhR, CAR, and PXR) analogous to primary human hepatocyte cultures. HepaRG spheroid cultures use 50-100× fewer cells than conventional two dimensional cultures, and enable the identification of metabolically activated toxicants. Spheroid size, time in culture and culture media composition were important factors affecting basal levels of xenobiotic metabolism and liver enzyme inducibility with activators of hepatic receptors AhR, CAR and PXR. Repeated exposure studies showed higher sensitivity than traditional 2D cultures in identifying compounds that cause liver injury and metabolism-dependent toxicity. This platform combines the well-documented impact of 3D culture configuration for improved tissue functionality and longevity with the requisite throughput and repeatability needed for year-over-year toxicology screening. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...

  17. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and inter...

  19. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a

  20. Vena cava filter; Vena-cava-Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmberger, T. [Klinikum Bogenhausen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fulminant pulmonary embolism is one of the major causes of death in the Western World. In most cases, deep leg and pelvic venous thrombosis are the cause. If an anticoagulant/thrombotic therapy is no longer possible or ineffective, a vena cava filter implant may be indicated if an embolism is threatening. Implantation of the filter is a simple and safe intervention. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into consideration that the data base for determining the indications for this treatment are very limited. Currently, a reduction in the risk of thromboembolism with the use of filters of about 30%, of recurrences of almost 5% and fatal pulmonary embolism of 1% has been reported, with a risk of up to 20% of filter induced vena cava thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Die fulminante Lungenembolie zaehlt zu den Haupttodesursachen in der westlichen Welt. In der Mehrzahl der Faelle sind tiefe Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombosen ursaechlich verantwortlich. Ist eine antikoagulative/-thrombotische Therapie nicht (mehr) moeglich oder unwirksam, kann bei drohender Emboliegefahr die Vena-cava-Filterimplantation indiziert sein. Die Filterimplantation ist eine einfache und sehr sichere Intervention. Dennoch muss bei der Indikationsstellung beruecksichtigt werden, dass die Datenlage zur Wirksamkeit sehr limitiert ist. So wird aktuell ueber eine Reduktion des Thrombembolierisikos um 30% bei Embolierezidiven von knapp 5% und fatalen Lungenembolien von 1% unter Filterprophylaxe berichtet, bei einem Risiko von bis zu 20% fuer die filterinduzierte Vena-cava-Thrombose. (orig.)

  1. Analog active filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghausi, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of active filters during the time from 1920 to 1980 is considered, taking into account the hardware used to implement a filtering network for voice frequency over 60 years. From 1920 to 1960 the majority of voice-frequency filters was realized as discrete RLC networks. After the development of transistors, it was realized that size and cost reductions could be achieved by replacing the inductors with active networks. In the early 1970's, batch-processed thin-film hybrid integrated circuits began to be employed. The synthesis of transfer functions which are predominantly input/output types is considered. Attention is given to direct realizations, synthesis using component simulation, cascade synthesis, multiple-loop feedback design, active-R and active-C filters, aspects of sensitivity, and switched-capacitor filters.

  2. Learning Separable Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Amos; Tekin, Bugra; Rigamonti, Roberto; Lepetit, Vincent; Fua, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Learning filters to produce sparse image representations in terms of over-complete dictionaries has emerged as a powerful way to create image features for many different purposes. Unfortunately, these filters are usually both numerous and non-separable, making their use computationally expensive. In this paper, we show that such filters can be computed as linear combinations of a smaller number of separable ones, thus greatly reducing the computational complexity at no cost in terms of performance. This makes filter learning approaches practical even for large images or 3D volumes, and we show that we significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods on the curvilinear structure extraction task, in terms of both accuracy and speed. Moreover, our approach is general and can be used on generic convolutional filter banks to reduce the complexity of the feature extraction step.

  3. The role of the film as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different film genres and their role as a media communications instrument for the tourist destination promotion strategy. The general objective of the paper is to point to the significance of film for the tourist destination recognisability as well as its perception in the public eye. The specific objectives of the paper are directed at the analysis of individual roles that different film genres have in the tourist destination promotion strategy. The research methods employed in the paper entail film identification and its role in media communications, the identification both of different film genres and their specific features, then, the observation of their application in the tourist destination promotion strategy, and eventually, the identification of their significance in the process of raising the public's awareness of the destination itself as well as the creation of positive perception of the destination with the targeted audience. In this regard, the paper focuses on the following: feature films, documentary films, tourist-related report, promotional tourist films, messages conveyed through films to the targeted audience as well as the strategies and methods employed in the film as a promotional tool. One of the key findings of the paper is to highlight the significance of each film genre in the process of tourist destination promotion, whereas their combination represents an important segment of media strategies in the field of tourism, and is a prerequisite for the desired positioning in the contemporary tourism market.

  4. Factors Affecting the Attractiveness of Medical Tourism Destination: An Empirical Study on India- Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    SULTANA, Seyama; HAQUE, Ahasanul; MOMEN, Abdul; YASMIN, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background In this edge, medical tourism is not a new idea. Medical treatment is one of the essential demands of human beings and it requires high quality and intensive care. Beside western world, few developing countries are playing key roles as medical tourism destinations. India is one of the leading names among these countries. The purpose of the paper is to find the factors influencing the attractiveness of India as a health tourism destination. Methods The study has found the major contributing factors and their relative importance in the attractiveness of the health tourism destination that is India from consumers’ perspectives by conducting survey with an application of structural equation modelling approach. Results In Indian context, medical tourists consider service quality and cost mostly to select any medical destination. In addition they also give value to the destination competitiveness but tourist attitude is less important in comparison with other factors affecting their destination choice. Since the study has used structural equation modelling approach to test the hypothesis and figure out the relative importance of the factors, the fundamental indices such as Normed Chi square(less than 3), RMSEA (less than 0.08) and CFI (more than 0.90) values show the overall model fit of the proposed model. Conclusion In order to transform a country such as India as an attractive and competitive medical tourist destination in this time of globalization, a step should be taken to control cost ensuring the quality of services. PMID:25909055

  5. Branding Sicily as Gastronomically Attractive Destination, viewed by Kempinski Hotel Giardino di Costanza

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinina, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate the opportunity of destination brand-ing through the tool of its gastronomy. In order to render concrete to the topic I chose a popular destination – Sicily and Sicilian gastronomy. It is a fact that the theme of gastronomic direction in tourism and the role of gastronomy in des-tination branding is not developed at all. Besides, personally I have been always attracted by gastronomic experiences in tourism. So it was a challenge for my-self to explor...

  6. NASA's Space Launch System: One Vehicle, Many Destinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will start its missions in 2017 with 10 percent more thrust than the Saturn V rocket that launched astronauts to the Moon 40 years ago. From there it will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. The International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for all three destinations. This paper will explore the capability of SLS to meet those requirements and enable those missions. It will explain how the SLS Program is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and developing advanced technology based on heritage systems, from the initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability through a block upgrade approach to an evolved 130-t capability. It will also detail the significant progress that has already been made toward its first launch in 2017. The SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they will need for extended trips to explore new frontiers. In addition, this paper will summarize the SLS rocket's capability to support science and robotic precursor missions to other worlds, or uniquely high-mass space facilities in Earth orbit. As this paper will explain, the SLS is making measurable progress toward becoming a global

  7. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  8. Far infrared interference filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, S P; Möller, K D

    1969-08-01

    Capacitive meshes for far ir, low pass filters are prepared from Cu layers on 2.5 micro plastic film. The properties of these meshes of different mesh constants g with their different combinations in two-mesh, fourmesh, and eight-mesh filters are studied in the spectral region 160 cm(-1) to 10 cm(-1) by the use of a grating spectrometer. The applications of these meshes as low pass filters in the far ir spectral region in a grating spectrometer are described.

  9. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  10. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  11. A Semiotic Model of Destination Representations Applied to Cultural and Heritage Tourism Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, Jody; Thomsen, Robert Chr.

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that semiotic analysis can be applied advantageously in tourism studies. C.S. Peirce’s representation triad is applied to destination representations by conceptualizing destinations, related activities, or entities as objects; photographs or textual descriptions as signs......; and potential tourists’ comprehension of the sign as interpretants. Three formal analyses of selected photographs used by convention and visitor bureaus (VISIT FLORIDA, Destination Halifax and VisitDenmark) illustrate how the sign-object relationship is always characterized by a combination of iconic, indexical......, and symbolic qualities, each of which destination marketers should consider in choosing representations because of the influence those qualities exert on reception. It is argued that the semiotic model can help marketers make informed decisions about the relevance and probable impact of the iconicity...

  12. Solving a four-destination traveling salesman problem using Escherichia coli cells as biocomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Michael; Rozema, Mark; Zhang, Tuo Huang; Zeng, Dawson; Chiu, Stephanie; Kwan, Rachel; Moorhouse, Cadence; Murray, Cameron; Tseng, Nien-Tsu; Ridgway, Doug; Sauvageau, Dominic; Ellison, Michael

    2014-12-19

    The Traveling Salesman Problem involves finding the shortest possible route visiting all destinations on a map only once before returning to the point of origin. The present study demonstrates a strategy for solving Traveling Salesman Problems using modified E. coli cells as processors for massively parallel computing. Sequential, combinatorial DNA assembly was used to generate routes, in the form of plasmids made up of marker genes, each representing a path between destinations, and short connecting linkers, each representing a given destination. Upon growth of the population of modified E. coli, phenotypic selection was used to eliminate invalid routes, and statistical analysis was performed to successfully identify the optimal solution. The strategy was successfully employed to solve a four-destination test problem.

  13. The Scale of Exploration: Planetary Missions Set in the Context of Tourist Destinations on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, L. V.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Mest, S. C.; Williams, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    What if the Apollo astronauts explored Washington, DC, or the Mars Exploration Rovers explored Disney World? We present educational versions of the traverse maps for Apollo and MER missions set in the context of popular tourist destinations on Earth.

  14. Origin destination disaggregation using fratar biproportional least squares estimation for truck forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This working paper describes a group of techniques for disaggregating origin-destination tables : for truck forecasting that makes explicit use of observed traffic on a network. Six models within : the group are presented, each of which uses nonlinea...

  15. A Model of Market Positioning of Destinations Based on Online Customer Reviews of Lodgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodríguez-Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a methodology to determine the competitive online positioning of lodging companies in different tourist destinations. The rise of the digital age has allowed many customers to share their opinions through specialized websites, providing a dynamic and constantly updated evaluation of the market. In this context, competitiveness is an essential factor in the economic sustainability of destinations. The competitive positioning of destinations is determined by the scale of variables used by Booking.com. The price and lodging category variables are also used, as well as three new variables derived from the initial scale: the quality average, value and added value. This methodology provides a tool to determine the level of competitiveness of the lodging offered in tourist destinations, based on which, actions can be taken to improve destinations’ positioning.

  16. Privacy-preserving methods to retrieve origin-destination information from connected vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report investigates technical approaches to address privacy concerns associated with two innovative : applications enabled by connected vehicle systems, i.e., origin-destination (OD) flow measurement and differentiated : congestion pricing. The ...

  17. Privacy-preserving methods to retrieve origin-destination information from connect vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report investigates technical approaches to address privacy concerns associated with two innovative : applications enabled by connected vehicle systems, i.e., origin-destination (OD) flow measurement and differentiated : congestion pricing. The ...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-48 - F.o.b. Destination-Evidence of Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accomplished by common carrier, a signed copy of the commercial bill of lading for the supplies covered by the... the delivery document showing receipt at the destination specified in the contract. (b) The Contractor...

  19. CONCEPTUALISING TOURIST BASED BRAND-EQUITY PYRAMID: AN APPLICATION OF KELLER BRAND PYRAMID MODEL TO DESTINATIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anish Yousaf; Insha Amin; Anil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Different scales available for measuring the brand-equity of destinations are found to be much tourist centric and did not present a holistic view regarding building sustainable customer based brand...

  20. WEBSITES AS A PROMOTING TOOL FOR THE IDENTITY OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vicente Sales Melo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its advent, the Internet has become an important tool for tourism. Furthermore, some studies tend to indicate that this may contribute directly to the process of identity formation of a tourism destination. Thus, this paper investigates how websites can help in promoting the identity of tourist destinations on the Internet. The study is characterized as exploratory qualitative in nature, which is constituted from a desk research. It was possible to verify that the website is a key means for managing the identity of a tourist destination, as this can help visitors to form a positive image of the place being visited from the information that makes up the identity of the destination.

  1. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  2. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  3. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imagin...

  4. Compact photonic spin filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yougang; Liu, Zhenxing; Liu, Yachao; Zhou, Junxiao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2016-10-01

    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a compact photonic spin filter formed by integrating a Pancharatnam-Berry phase lens (focal length of ±f ) into a conventional plano-concave lens (focal length of -f). By choosing the input port of the filter, photons with a desired spin state, such as the right-handed component or the left-handed one, propagate alone its original propagation direction, while the unwanted spin component is quickly diverged after passing through the filter. One application of the filter, sorting the spin-dependent components of vector vortex beams on higher-order Poincaré sphere, is also demonstrated. Our scheme provides a simple method to manipulate light, and thereby enables potential applications for photonic devices.

  5. The relation between personality traits and psychographic positions of travel destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov, Amet

    2017-01-01

    Understanding potential visitors is one of the fundamental tasks for researchers and businesses, destination marketing organizations as well as many other stakeholders in tourism domain. Despite the fact that Internet has become one of the major marketing channels for hospitality and tourism, researchers indicate that there is a notable gap in understanding how to effectively use social media in travel destination marketing. The present study investigates the relationship between personality ...

  6. The relation between personality traits and psychographic positions of travel destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov, Amet

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Understanding potential visitors is one of the fundamental tasks for researchers and businesses, destination marketing organizations as well as many other stakeholders in tourism domain. Despite the fact that Internet has become one of the major marketing channels for hospitality and tourism, researchers indicate that there is a notable gap in understanding how to effectively use social media in travel destination marketing. The...

  7. PESTEL analysis of tourism destinations in the perspective of business tourism (MICE)

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Gregorić

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this research is to apply PESTEL analysis on two different destinations (Croatia and Qatar) in order to find our their specific attributes as well as to analyse weather we can learn from their advantages and disadvantages due to the fact that one is rich on natural attractions while other one is mostly characterised by humand made attractions. Design is done by using the core of PESTEL analysis where each destination is analysed according to political, economical, socio-cultural, t...

  8. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mariani; Buhalis, Dimitrios; Longhi, C.; Vitouladiti, O.

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  9. Moderating impact of tourism relationship management dimensions on tourism service quality, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess the moderating impact of recently introduced tourist relationship management (TRM framework on service quality perception-tourist satisfaction-destination loyalty link. Tourist relationship management framework draws inspiration from customer relationship management (CRM model with validated addition of dimensions compatible to tourism dynamics. The study, carried out in Santiniketan, India, confirmed moderating impact of dimensional performance of tourist relationship management on perceived tourism service quality-tourist satisfaction-destination loyalty link.

  10. Web-based Expert Decision Support System for Tourism Destination Management in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Yekini Nureni Asafe; Adetoba Bolaji; Aigbokhan Edwin Enaholo; Olufemi Olubukola

    2013-01-01

    The use of Information Technologies have played and currently playing prominent roles in many organizations, such as business, education, commerce. The tourism industry has witnessed the use and application of various computer-based systems in carrying out one or more activities or operation. But currently there is no computer-based system tourist destination to integrate the tourists (from outside Nigeria) and tourists center within Nigeria, so that tourists can make a pre destination plan a...

  11. The Effect of the Social and Physical Environment on Children's Independent Mobility to Neighborhood Destinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian, Hayley E.; Klinker, Charlotte D.; Villanueva, Karen

    2015-01-01

    METHODS: Parents in RESIDE's fourth survey reported whether their child (8-15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend's house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures...... with additional school grounds (P children's local...... for children's independent mobility to parks. BACKGROUND: Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children's independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined....

  12. Dynamic differentiation and the creative process in tourism management destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Miguel Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The triggering process and the entrepreneurship have been gradually gaining ground in the academic community as a field of study. However, the interpretations surrounding fragmented and continue without a universal definition. This reflection seeks to gather and present the main aspects related to entrepreneurship and dissect the process through a framework known as 4-P framework. Similarly, in recent decades, tourism has received greater attention from researchers in various sciences, varying only by the different emphases considered: economic, social, cultural and environmental. Tourism is one of the economic sectors in which a great degree of involvement is needed by the entrepreneurial sector: diversification of tourism products and services is needed to cope with increased demand for new types of tourism needs. As other emerging sectors in a modern economy, tourism is a dynamic and ever-changing industry. So, entrepreneurship and innovation are assumed as critical factors in its development, both globally and regionally (Russell & Faulkner, 2004. The study has as purpose to provide a better understanding regarding the essence of entrepreneurship: theoretical and practical implications (Ma & Tan, 2006 with a view to tourism. Entrepreneurship is considered a central force of economic development, as it generates growth and serves as a vehicle for innovation and change. Regarding the methodology used here, this is a conceptual paper with a literature review that brings together the major components of entrepreneurship and its implications tourist perspective and conceptual model of the dynamic nature of the Triggering Process and innovation (e.g. eTourism, augmented reality systems and electronic applicability of cyberspace. An interdisciplinary perspective, this study aims to understand the distinctive dynamics and creation process in the management of tourist destinations, proposing the empirical application of the illustrative conceptual

  13. Filtered stochastic calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2001-01-01

    By introducing a color filtration to the multiplicity space, we extend the quantum Ito calculus on multiple symmetric Fock space to the framework of filtered adapted biprocesses. In this new notion of adaptedness,``classical'' time filtration makes the integrands similar to adapted processes, whereas ``quantum'' color filtration produces their deviations from adaptedness. An important feature of this calculus, which we call filtered stochastic calculus, is that it provides an explicit interpo...

  14. Events as a Framework for Tourist Destination Branding – Case Studies of Two Cultural Events in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Trošt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Events have become an increasingly significant component of destination branding. Many destinations throughout the world have developed events portfolios as a strategic initiative to attract tourists and to reinforce their brand. In this paper, the focus of research will be on tourist destination branding by means of events. The relationship between events and destination branding is examined through six phases of the process of building a destination brand identity with the use of events. When it comes to destination branding, a need for an analysis of strategic documents of destination development imposes because event tourism strategies help destinations plan how to use events in a tourism role. The purpose of this study is to examine which factors are of the top priorities when using events as a marketing approach. The method of case study will be used, by which two cultural events which take place in the Republic of Croatia will be analyzed, namely, “Špancirfest” in Varaždin and “Trka na prstenac” in Barban. Varaždin and Barban are on different levels in their branding work. The different sizes and locations of the destinations naturally affect the operating procedures. This article may be of interest to destination marketers and event organizers, especially in developing destinations which intend to differentiate themselves from the competitive market.

  15. Destination memory and familiarity: better memory for conversations with Elvis Presley than with unknown people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Samson, Séverine

    2015-06-01

    Familiarity is assumed to exert a beneficial effect on memory in older adults. Our paper investigated this issue specifically for destination memory, that is, memory of the destination of previously relayed information. Young and older adults were told familiar (Experiment 1) and unfamiliar (Experiment 2) proverbs associated with pictures depicting faces of celebrities (e.g., Elvis Presley) or unknown people, with a specific proverb assigned to each face. In a later recognition task, participants were presented with the previously exposed proverb-face pairs and for each pair had to decide whether they had previously relayed the given proverb to the given face. In general, destination performance was found to be higher for familiar than for unfamiliar faces. However while there was no difference between the two groups when the proverbs being relayed were unfamiliar, the advantage of face familiarity on destination memory was present only for older adults when the proverbs being relayed were familiar. Our results show that destination memory in older adults is sensitive to familiarity of both destination and output information.

  16. Foreign Visitor's Evaluation of Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga as a Tourism destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nicolaides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A tourism environment which is educational and exciting, safe, clean, relatively cheap to access and where transportation is readily available, contributes immensely to a tourist’s travel satisfaction. Given these factors, this study seeks to interrogate two aspects of relevance, namely the relative importance of the items that define the tourism environment, and how foreign visitors evaluate tourism to Lasithi prefecture and Spinalonga island in Crete. It is abundantly clear from the research conducted that what tourists prize the most is a safe environment which is easily accessible, and cheap to visit. Competition among tourist destinations is today more severe than ever before, due to the large increase in international tourists globally. Spinalonga island, like every destination has an image which must be transmitted to the potential market so as to obtain a competitive position. Consequently, the destination marketers need to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their tourism area so as to make it more marketable. They must position Spinalonga island in such a way as to make it recognisable as an important and interesting place to visit while in Crete. How tourists evaluate a destination subjectively and a quantitative analysis on the evaluation system of the tourism environment are thus also considered. Effective strategic destination image management is critical for attracting tourists and other resources that are capable of creating value-add for a destination.

  17. Comparing Destination Image and Loyalty between First-time and Repeat-visit Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the difference between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The study was undertaken to examine aspects of underlying factors of destination image that influenced tourists’ willingness to recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as well as spread positive word-of-mouth to others. In addition, it was to ascertain the relationship between destination image and loyalty among first-time and repeat-visit tourists. The data was collected at Kuala Lumpur International Airport at the departure hall using self-administered questionnaires. 248 usable questionnaires were returned and analysed. The findings of the study revealed that both groups of tourists perceived Malaysia as providing a nature-based destination. The study also empirically proved that both first-time and repeat-visit tourists were willing to disseminate positive word-of-mouth and recommend Malaysia to their friends and relatives as a vacation destination to visit. However, there was a significant difference in destination loyalty between first-visit and repeat-visit tourists.

  18. Good, Better, Best Practise – A Comparative Analysis of Official Destination Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Louw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The uplifting financial impact that tourism may have on local and global economies of scale has resulted in tourists becoming a highly sought-after commodity capable of turning almost any tourism destination and its attractions into thriving exports. With the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the introduction of smart technologies in particular, however, tourism has become not only more accessible, but arguably also more competitive with an online, try-before-you-buy tourism experience now becoming a reality. Subsequently, the battle is no longer for top offline destination only, but also for online destination of choice. An opportunity thus exists for Official Destination Websites (ODWs to take advantage of these, and additional opportunities, to enhance a prospective tourist’s online, pre-tourism experience. By analysing seven of the world’s most popular destinations’ capital city ODWs, one comes to realise that ODWs have become an integrated, rather than independent, part of facilitating tourism. As such, the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining an ODW to increase the likelihood of a possible tourist conversion from mere browser to buyer is highlighted. Finally, the similarities and differences between the analysed ODWs are also listed in an attempt to guide prospective tourism destinations in their endeavour to establish a new ODW, as well as allowing destinations with an existing ODW to possibly implement improvements.

  19. Tourists and Local Stakeholders Attitudes Towards Offer and Market Position of Tourist Destination Budva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ana Tripković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are various definitions of tourist destination. All of them define tourist destination as an area with specific tourist facilities and attractions, (primary and secondary elements which tourists choose as their journey goal. Budva individually represents the largest tourist destination due to number of arrivals and overnight stays. During its life cycle Budva has gone through different phases as a tourist destination. This thesis implies that it is not enough to use only common quantitative indicator of visitor number to define proper the position of tourist destination and predict further development. This text is based on a comparative analysis of the attitudes of tourists and local stakeholders in the three field researches, conducted in the period between 2015 and 2016. The thesis comes to the conclusion that the actual growth is based on meeting the needs of existing markets and tourists. On the other side, aspect of desired market position disagrees with scores of tourist offer elements- which should be input for improvement and preparation for the next stage in the destination development.

  20. THE QUALITY OF THE TOURIST DESTINATIONS A KEY FACTOR FOR INCREASING THEIR ATTRACTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliborka Blazeska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that the tourism is extremely important for any country including Republic of Macedonia, it is necessary to pay attention to the quality of the tourist destinations and increasing of their attractiveness. So winners in the field of tourism will be those countries that have attractive tourist destination that will attract a lot of visitors. In this paper is defined the relationship between the factors of attractiveness of the destination and the achieving of competitiveness. In order to become competitive in the global market, the tourist destination has to be innovative and to continually search for new competitive advantages. Those kind of competitive advantages enable stable and long-term sustainable development of the tourist destination. In this paper special emphasis is put to the monitoring of the quality of the tourist destination with constant inquiries of the tourists (domestic and foreign regarding the most important segments of the quality of the tourist product which they are using, in order to perceive the satisfaction or the eventual dissatisfaction in order to be taken concrete strategies for the following period. The obtained results clearly confirm the dissatisfaction with the road infrastructure and signalization, the price of the services and the conditions for the stay, as well as the additional attractions that were expected to get.

  1. Contactor/filter improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelman, David

    1989-01-01

    A contactor/filter arrangement for removing particulate contaminants from a gaseous stream includes a housing having a substantially vertically oriented granular material retention member with upstream and downstream faces, a substantially vertically oriented microporous gas filter element, wherein the retention member and the filter element are spaced apart to provide a zone for the passage of granular material therethrough. The housing further includes a gas inlet means, a gas outlet means, and means for moving a body of granular material through the zone. A gaseous stream containing particulate contaminants passes through the gas inlet means as well as through the upstream face of the granular material retention member, passing through the retention member, the body of granular material, the microporous gas filter element, exiting out of the gas outlet means. Disposed on the upstream face of the filter element is a cover screen which isolates the filter element from contact with the moving granular bed and collects a portion of the particulates so as to form a dust cake having openings small enough to exclude the granular material, yet large enough to receive the dust particles. In one embodiment, the granular material is comprised of prous alumina impregnated with CuO, with the cover screen cleaned by the action of the moving granular material as well as by backflow pressure pulses.

  2. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  3. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...: emission elimination devices, high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, wetting agent fume... mist eliminators (MPMEs), high efficiency scrubbers, or HEPA filters. Some facilities use add-on... scrubber) or a combination of add-on controls (such as a CMP plus a HEPA filter or an MPME plus a HEPA...

  4. 40 CFR 745.83 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government agency; or a nonprofit organization. HEPA vacuum means a vacuum cleaner which has been designed with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter as the last filtration stage. A HEPA filter... cleaner must be designed so that all the air drawn into the machine is expelled through the HEPA filter...

  5. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  6. Filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    Cathodic arc plasmas are contaminated with macroparticles. A variety of magnetic plasma filters has been used with various success in removing the macroparticles from the plasma. An open-architecture, bent solenoid filter, with additional field coils at the filter entrance and exit, improves macroparticle filtering. In particular, a double-bent filter that is twisted out of plane forms a very compact and efficient filter. The coil turns further have a flat cross-section to promote macroparticle reflection out of the filter volume. An output conditioning system formed of an expander coil, a straightener coil, and a homogenizer, may be used with the magnetic filter for expanding the filtered plasma beam to cover a larger area of the target. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this filter can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  7. Sensory pollution from bag filters, carbon filters and combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, G; Clausen, G; Weschler, C J

    2008-02-01

    Used ventilation filters are a major source of sensory pollutants in air handling systems. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the net effect that different combinations of filters had on perceived air quality after 5 months of continuous filtration of outdoor suburban air. A panel of 32 subjects assessed different sets of used filters and identical sets consisting of new filters. Additionally, filter weights and pressure drops were measured at the beginning and end of the operation period. The filter sets included single EU5 and EU7 fiberglass filters, an EU7 filter protected by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC. Furthermore, its pressure drop changed very little during the 5 months of service, and it had the added benefit of removing a large fraction of ozone from the airstream. If similar results are obtained over a wider variety of soiling conditions, such filters may be a viable solution to a long recognized problem. The present study was designed to address the emission of sensory offending pollutants from loaded ventilation filters. The goal was to find a low-polluting solution from commercially available products. The results indicate that the use of activated carbon (AC) filters downstream of fiberglass bag filters can reduce the degradation of air quality that occurs with increasing particle loading. A more practical solution, yet comparably effective, is a stand-alone particle

  8. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  9. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  10. Filters for Submillimeter Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    New manufacturing process produces filters strong, yet have small, precise dimensions and smooth surface finish essential for dichroic filtering at submillimeter wavelengths. Many filters, each one essentially wafer containing fine metal grid made at same time. Stacked square wires plated, fused, and etched to form arrays of holes. Grid of nickel and tin held in brass ring. Wall thickness, thickness of filter (hole depth) and lateral hole dimensions all depend upon operating frequency and filter characteristics.

  11. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-05-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households.

  12. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  13. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  14. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  15. EXPERIENCE OF ORNITHINE ASPARTATE (HEPA-MERZ AND PROBIOTICS BIOFLORUM FORTE IN THE TREATMENT OF NON-SEVERE FORMS OF ALCOHOLIC AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Ilchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ornithine aspartate, probiotic Bioflorum Forte and their combination with steatosis and steatohepatitis in patients  with alcohol and non-alcoholic  fatty  liver disease. Materials and methods.  An open, randomized,  comparative  clinical study, which included 30 outpatients and inpatients with a diagnosis of steatosis, steatohepatitis. We analyzed the clinical symptoms, functional state of the liver. With the help of questionnaires  (Grids LeGo and post intoxication alcohol syndrome have established the presence of chronic alcohol intoxication. Test transmissions of numbers used to characterize the cognitive function, as well as detection  of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Quality of life was assessed by questionnaire for patients with chronic liver disease — CLDQ (The chronic liver disease questionnaire. The duration of treatment was4 weeks. Results: all three treatment regimens have demonstrated therapeutic  efficacy: clinical improvement, recovery of liver function and results in cognitive function. When combined therapy also produced a significant improvement  in patients’ quality of life. It is shown that  the safety and tolerability of the means employed, adverse events were not reported. Conclusion: the results obtained allow us to recommend the use of ornithine aspartate (Hepa-Merz, both as monotherapy and as part of complex therapy of steatosis,  steatohepatitis with probiotic Bioflorum Forte in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates the cytotoxicity of amiodarone in Hepa1c1c7 cells: roles of caspase activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingtao; Miyakawa, Kazuhisa; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2013-01-01

    Amiodarone (AMD), a class III antiarrhythmic drug, causes idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity in human patients. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in a rat model of AMD-induced hepatotoxicity under inflammatory stress. In this study, we developed a model in vitro to study the roles of caspase activation and oxidative stress in TNF potentiation of AMD cytotoxicity. AMD caused cell death in Hepa1c1c7 cells, and TNF cotreatment potentiated its toxicity. Activation of caspases 9 and 3/7 was observed in AMD/TNF-cotreated cells, and caspase inhibitors provided minor protection from cytotoxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation were observed after treatment with AMD and were further elevated by TNF cotreatment. Adding water-soluble antioxidants (trolox, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, or ascorbate) produced only minor attenuation of AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity and did not influence the effect of AMD alone. On the other hand, α-tocopherol (TOCO), which reduced lipid peroxidation and ROS generation, prevented AMD toxicity and caused pronounced reduction in cytotoxicity from AMD/TNF cotreatment. α-TOCO plus a pancaspase inhibitor completely abolished AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, activation of caspases and oxidative stress were observed after AMD/TNF cotreatment, and caspase inhibitors and a lipid-soluble free-radical scavenger attenuated AMD/TNF-induced cytotoxicity.

  17. Nicotine, cotinine, and β-nicotyrine inhibit NNK-induced DNA-strand break in the hepatic cell line HepaRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Patricia; Sierra, Ana Belen; Camacho, Oscar M; Baxter, Andrew; Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Minet, Emmanuel

    2014-07-15

    Recent in vitro work using purified enzymes demonstrated that nicotine and/or a nicotine metabolite could inhibit CYPs (CYP2A6, 2A13, 2E1) involved in the metabolism of the genotoxic tobacco nitrosamine NNK. This observation raises the possibility of nicotine interaction with the mechanism of NNK bioactivation. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine or a nicotine metabolite such as cotinine might contribute to the inhibition of NNK-induced DNA strand breaks by interfering with CYP enzymes. The effect of nicotine and cotinine on DNA strand breaks was evaluated using the COMET assay in CYP competent HepaRG cells incubated with bioactive CYP-dependent NNK and CYP-independent NNKOAc (4-(acetoxymethylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone). We report a dose-dependent reduction in DNA damage in hepatic-derived cell lines in the presence of nicotine and cotinine. Those results are discussed in the context of the in vitro model selected. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  19. A PC Controlled Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Looy

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a switched capacitor filter design using the SC22324 1C, which is fitted with an E2PROM. It contains four digitally programmable switched-capacitor filter sections, in order to obtain different responses. The SC22324 also contains the on-chip RAM. We'd like to explain, how could the on-chip RAM controlled via a PC. In this way the chip may be used afterwards with a menu where the user may select the wanted parameters.

  20. Parzen Particle Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Erdogmus, Deniz; Principe, Jose C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a Parzen density estimator any distribution can be approximated arbitrarily close by a sum of kernels. In particle filtering this fact is utilized to estimate a probability density function with Dirac delta kernels; when the distribution is discretized it becomes possible to solve an otherw......Using a Parzen density estimator any distribution can be approximated arbitrarily close by a sum of kernels. In particle filtering this fact is utilized to estimate a probability density function with Dirac delta kernels; when the distribution is discretized it becomes possible to solve...

  1. ANALISIS DAYA SAING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DESTINATION COMPETITIVENESS MODEL (Studi pada Heritage Tourism di Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edriana Pangestuti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to understand the relationship between destination competitiveness factors (such as the tourist’s image, service quality, satisfaction and behavioral intention. Little empirical research has explored these relationships from the heritage tourist’s perspective. A mixed method was used to achieve the study’s objectives and test the conceptual model. Twelve in-depth interviews and 400 questionnaire surveys (international and domestic were conducted using purposive technique sampling. A structural equation modeling (SEM technique was applied to identify, evaluate and develop the dimensions and test the relationship between these dimensions simultaneously. The final model showed that service quality has a significant relationship with satisfaction but an insignificant relationship with behavioral intention. In addition, this study provided new insights, determining that destination image and service quality factors influence destination competitiveness via the mediating of tourists’ satisfaction in a heritage tourism context. This shows the importance of destination image and service quality for measuring competitiveness. This present model will be useful as a guide for future research for measuring destination competitiveness in the heritage tourism context. Understanding destination competitiveness factors will help marketers predict future travel behavior and develop effective strategies in order to compete with other destinations. Keywords: destination image, satisfaction, service quality, behavioral intention and destination competitiveness ABSTRAK Penelitian ini berusaha memahami hubungan antara faktor daya saing destinasi (seperti citra destinasi, kualitas layanan, kepuasan dan niat perilaku. Beberapa penelitian serupa telah dilakukan dengan melihat dari perspektif wisatawan. Metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif (Mix method digunakan untuk menguji model konseptual. Dua belas narasumber dan 400 kuesioner (wisatawan

  2. Creation of the competition's profile of Serbia as a tourism destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubavić Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last several decades tourism has more and more significant role in economic and social development of other countries, as well as in everyday life of a contemporary man. The Republic of Serbia, also, tends to use valorization of its touristic potentials to realize numerous objectives of its economic and general social development. Number of destinations that offer their tourist products on the tourist market increases, leading to intensified competition. Competitiveness is emphasized as a crucial issue in contemporary tourism, as destinations strive to be better than competitors. Observed from today's perspective we can come to a general conclusion that Serbia as a touristic destination, still hasn't taken adequate competitive position regarding other tourist destinations in the region. The aim of this paper is to point out the necessity of repositioning the present competitive position of Serbia to make it, within as short time period as possible, an attractive tourist destination on the regional and international tourist market. With adequate implementation of theoretical concepts and chosen research methods this paper is expected to enrich domestic professional literature from this field, also to point out new possibilities of Serbian tourism development to creators and those who carry out such economic and touristic politics.

  3. Marketing everything and theming sameness: Urban destination marketing in contemporary Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the academic and practitioner literature on urban destination marketing, suggesting that it contains within it a dominant paradigm which the author characterises as 'the theory of marketing competitive advantage'. As such, this theory requires towns and cities to differentiate themselves through the provision of unique products, based on which they subsequently undertake branding, market positioning, distribution and other activities through bespoke destination marketing organisations (DMOs. Practice is then contrasted with theory by reference to a discordant strad of the literature as well as the actual destination marketing currently being undertaken in 60 European towns and cities. The theory of marketing competitive advantage is shown to be an ideal which rarely translates into practice. Irrespective of whether or not a town or city possesses competitive advantage, DMO destination marketing gravitates almost inexorably towards a 'marketing of everything'. Such an approach, in turn, reduces to a bland and monolithic 'theming of urban sameness', all of which is diametrically opposite to what one would expect to be the case as per the theory of marketing competitive advantage. The author contends that this gap between theory and practice matters, necessitating a rethinking of how academics and practitioners should in future seek to explain or otherwise account for urban destination marketing.

  4. AN EXAMINATION OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RURAL DESTINATIONS FROM THE SUPPLY SIDE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are now faced with increased competition at the market and holders of tourist policy and offers have realized that understanding the factors that contribute to a better positioning in the market place, and therefore the competitiveness, is of crucial importance for further development. The aim of this paper is to determine how much Vojvodina is competitive as a rural tourism destination, and to assess the current state of all the factors that affect/could affect the competitiveness of rural tourism destinations in Vojvodina Province (Northern Serbia. The total of 136 tourism experts were interviewed, and we concluded that the key resources and attraction of rural areas in Vojvodina are rated better than the macro and industry-related factors. This suggests that a rural development strategy should have a special bond with resources and attractions of the destination, that priority should be given to maintaining all aspects of safety and security, continuous improvement of services, diversity of culinary products, as well as the application of the principles of sustainability in environmental management. The work of national and provincial institutions should have the aim to ensure that the destination has a clear idea of where it is going and what it takes to become successful in the long term.

  5. Good, Better, Best Practise – A Comparative Analysis of Official Destination Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Louw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uplifting financial impact that tourism may have on local and global economies of scale has resulted in tourists becoming a highly sought-after commodity capable of turning almost any tourism destination and its attractions into thriving exports. With the rapid evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the introduction of smart technologies in particular, however, tourism has become not only more accessible, but arguably also more competitive with an online, try-before-you-buy tourism experience now becoming a reality. Subsequently, the battle is no longer for top offline\tdestination only, but also for online destination of choice. An opportunity thus exists for Official Destination Websites (ODWs to take advantage of these, and additional opportunities, to enhance a\tprospective tourist’s online, pre-tourism experience. By analysing seven of the world’s most popular destinations’ capital city ODWs, one comes to realise that ODWs have become an integrated, rather than independent, part of facilitating tourism. As such, the importance of developing, implementing and maintaining an ODW to increase the likelihood of a possible tourist conversion from mere browser to buyer is highlighted. Finally, the similarities and differences between the analysed ODWs are also listed in an attempt to guide prospective tourism destinations in their endeavour to establish a new ODW, as well as allowing destinations with an existing ODW to possibly implement improvements.

  6. Data collection methods in health services research: hospital length of stay and discharge destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, M N; Bowles, K-A; Skinner, E H; Mitchell, D; Haas, R; Ho, M; Salter, K; May, K; Markham, D; O'Brien, L; Plumb, S; Haines, T P

    2015-01-01

    Hospital length of stay and discharge destination are important outcome measures in evaluating effectiveness and efficiency of health services. Although hospital administrative data are readily used as a data collection source in health services research, no research has assessed this data collection method against other commonly used methods. Determine if administrative data from electronic patient management programs are an effective data collection method for key hospital outcome measures when compared with alternative hospital data collection methods. Prospective observational study comparing the completeness of data capture and level of agreement between three data collection methods; manual data collection from ward-based sources, administrative data from an electronic patient management program (i.PM), and inpatient medical record review (gold standard) for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Manual data collection from ward-based sources captured only 376 (69%) of the 542 inpatient episodes captured from the hospital administrative electronic patient management program. Administrative data from the electronic patient management program had the highest levels of agreement with inpatient medical record review for both length of stay (93.4%) and discharge destination (91%) data. This is the first paper to demonstrate differences between data collection methods for hospital length of stay and discharge destination. Administrative data from an electronic patient management program showed the highest level of completeness of capture and level of agreement with the gold standard of inpatient medical record review for both length of stay and discharge destination, and therefore may be an acceptable data collection method for these measures.

  7. Connecting the Members of Generation Y to Destination Brands: A Case Study of the CUBIS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Bochert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is direct correlation between building powerful destination brands and the degree to which tourists and locals share the brands values. The massive penetration of the active population by Generation Y has generated a major shift in tourism marketing, based on the profile of this cohort. The members of Generation Y are very different from previous generations. The so-called “digital natives” share high technological proficiency; they like to share their skills; they are disloyal consumers; and they are affected by trends. In order to connect with members of Generation Y and to actively involve them into the life of tourist destinations, viral, participative, interactive, networked and versatile marketing techniques should be employed. This article introduces the Intelligent Solution for Brand Culturalization (CUBIS Project, which is a collaborative research initiative that offers to Destination Management Organizations an innovative idea of how to connect the members of Generation Y with destination brands using information and communication technologies (ICT. The CUBIS Project aims to create emotional attachment with the brand values and supports the adoption of the brand by young locals and tourists. The CUBIS idea is flexible and highly adaptable to other destinations. The article uses exploratory qualitative research in the form of a case study.

  8. The Effect of the Social and Physical Environment on Children's Independent Mobility to Neighborhood Destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley E; Klinker, Charlotte D; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew W; Foster, Sarah A; Zubrick, Stephan R; Divitini, Mark; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-06-16

    Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children's independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined. Parents in RESIDE's fourth survey reported whether their child (8-15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend's house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures included neighborhood perceptions and items specific to local independent mobility. Independent mobility to local destinations ranged from 30% to 48%. Independent mobility to a local park was less likely as the distance to the closest park (small and large size) increased and less likely with additional school grounds (P mobility to school was less likely as the distance to the closest large park increased and if the neighborhood was perceived as unsafe (P mobility to a park or shops decreased if parenting social norms were unsupportive of children's local independent movement (P mobility appears dependent upon the specific destination being visited and the impact of neighborhood features varies according to the destination examined. Findings highlight the importance of access to different types and sizes of urban green space for children's independent mobility to parks.

  9. Bucharest: Analysis of an ‘old’ destination with a new tourism identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia Stăncioiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To be able to promote itself efficiently on the market, a destination, given the marketing perspective – has to be aware about the authentic and crucial elements of its own identity as being the only way to transfer, virtually and materially, of what it has best – the social-cultural and artistic identity (which, from a tourist perspective, represents its perceived image, along with psychological and artistic image of the destination. Hence without a detailed knowledge of this aspect, the promotion leads to a presentation of a distorted image of the destination which, in time, can distort the socio-cultural identity of the inhabitants of that region. To build the image of a destination (a notoriously long and complex process, begins with the need to profoundly understand tourists’ complexity of expectations (both functional and psychological and, on their basis, to use these as attributes of the destination in order to improve attractiveness. In Romania’s case such an aspect gains more importance due to the fact that, after the 1989, young generation, an important population segment, seem to register a continuous and dangerous process of “identity erosion”, which over time could result into disconnecting from the essence of the Romanian spirit, not being able to understand or even ignoring sense of belonging, sense of identity, heritage and “tourism heritage”.

  10. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-01-20

    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  11. Tourist Profile and Destination Brand Perception: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies

  12. Multi-Destination Cognitive Radio Relay Network with SWIPT and Multiple Primary Receivers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Habob, Ahmed A.

    2017-05-12

    In this paper, we study the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) technique in a multi-destination dual-hop underlay cognitive relay network with multiple primary receivers. Information transmission from the secondary source to destinations is performed entirely via a decode- and-forward (DF) relay. The relay is assumed to have no embedded power source and to harvest energy from the source signal using a power splitting (PS) protocol and employing opportunistic scheduling to forward the information to the selected destination. We derive analytical expressions for the outage probability assuming Rayleigh fading channels and considering the energy harvesting efficiency at relay, the source maximum transmit power and primary receivers interference constraints. The system performance is also studied at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values where approximate expressions for the outage probability are provided and analyzed in terms of diversity order and coding gain. Monte-Carlo simulations and some numerical examples are provided to validate the derived expressions and to illustrate the effect of various system parameters on the system performance. In contrast to their conventional counterparts where a multi- destination diversity is usually achieved, the results show that the multi-destination cognitive radio relay networks with the SWIPT technique achieve a constant diversity order of one.

  13. The Determinants of Tourist Use of Public Transport at the Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Of all the activities associated with tourism, transport is the one that creates most pollution. However, the mobility of tourists at their destination is an activity that has so far received very little attention from researchers in comparison with that afforded to the transport mode used to travel from their point of origin to their destination. This paper provides new evidence about the use of public transport by tourists at their final destination. The study is based on data obtained from a survey conducted with tourists (N = 4336 on the Costa Daurada (Catalonia, a Mediterranean sun and beach resort. The empirical analysis is based on estimations made using a multinomial model of the transport mode chosen by tourists to travel to the Costa Daurada combined with another model that estimated the probability of them using public transport during their stay. The results show that the tourists who arrived by private car were the ones who least used public transport at the destination. This was despite the fact that these tourists had the profile that made them most likely to use this type of transportation. On the other hand, although the tourists who arrived by plane had the profile that made them least likely to use public transport, they were the ones who used it most. It is, therefore, possible to conclude that, in addition to tourist profile, another key factor in deciding whether tourists will use public transport at their destination is whether they will take their own car.

  14. Differences of perceived image generated through the Web site: Empirical Evidence Obtained in Spanish Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jose Blazquez-Resino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a study of the perceived destination image created by promotional Web Pages is expounded in an attempt to identify their differences as generators of destination image in the consumers’ mind. Specifically, it seeks to analyse whether the web sites of different Spanish regions improve the image that consumers have of the destination, identifying their main dimensions and analysing its effect on satisfaction and intentions of the future behaviour of potential visitors. To achieve these objectives and verify the hypotheses, a laboratory experiment was performed, where it was determined what changes are produced in the tourist´s previous image after browsing the tourist webs of three different regions. Moreover, it analyses the differences in the effect of the perceived image on satisfaction and potential visitors´ future behavioural intentions. The results obtained enable us to identify differences in the composition of the perceived image according to the destination, while confirming the significant effect of different perceived image dimensions regarding satisfaction. The results allow managers to gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of their sites from a consumer perspective as well as suggestions to follow in order to achieve greater efficiency in their communication actions in order to improve the motivation of visitors to go to the destination.

  15. An Entropy-Perspective Study on the Sustainable Development Potential of Tourism Destination Ecosystem in Dunhuang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Feng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the characteristic of the tourism destination ecosystem from perspective of entropy in Dunhuang City. Given these circumstances, an evaluation index system that considers the potential of sustainable development was formed based on dissipative structure and entropy change for the tourism destination ecosystem. The sustainable development potential evaluation model for tourism destination ecosystem was built up based on information entropy. Then, we analyzed each indicator impact for the sustainable development potential and proposed some measures for the tourism destination ecosystem. The conclusions include: (a the requirements of Dunhuang tourism destination ecosystem on the natural ecosystem continuously grew between 2000 and 2012; (b The sustainable development potential of the Dunhuang tourism destination ecosystem was on an oscillation upward trend during the study period, which is dependent on government attention, and pollution problems were improved.

  16. Enhanced Optical Filter Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, David

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a supplement to the classic texts by Angus Macleod and Philip Baumeister, taking an intuitive approach to the enhancement of optical coating (or filter) performance. Drawing from 40 years of experience in thin film design, Cushing introduces the basics of thin films, the commonly used materials and their deposition, the major coatings and their applications, and improvement methods for each.

  17. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  18. Sand Filter Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    EXWC) performed the evaluation at the Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA . The two year evaluation period began with one year of sand filter operation...appear dirty? If you answered “ yes ” to the first question and “ yes ” to either of the other questions, investigate this technology for your

  19. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal covolution and

  20. Underwater Sound Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutger van Aalst; Ines Simic

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a possible solution to the underwater sound filtering problem, using Blind Source Separation. The problem regards splitting sound from a boat engine and the water waves to prove the possibility to extract one sound fragment from the other on the open sea. The illustrations shown

  1. Microelement content of bone tissue in transosseous osteosynthesis by II-izarov technique in high-altitude destinations (experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Erokhin A.N.; Isakov B.D.; Nakoskin A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the redistribution of microelements in bone tissue in osteosynthesis in high-altitude destinations. Material and Methods. The study was performed on 72 mongrel dogs of both sexes aged 1-3 years, weighing 10—15 kg. 32 dogs have been experienced the extended leg in lowlands destinations, another group of 32 animals have been experienced elongation produced in high-altitude destinations. The control group consisted of 8 healthy dogs of low mountain areas. The standard technique of ...

  2. An evaluation related to the effect of strategic facility management on choice of medical tourism destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcan Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study based on literature review aims to evaluate and emphasize the affect of the strategic facility management (SFM on choice of medical tourism destination. Medical Tourism, which ranges from the health care services involving a cure to the wellness services involving no specific health trouble to pleasure and amusement services, is one of the most growing sectors in the world. Cost and quality of medical services are among the main reasons for the choice of destination. Strategic facility management has a positive correlation on the levels of quality, cost and customer satisfaction. Thus medical tourism and destination managers should take into account of the potential advantages of value creation offered through SFM in order to be chosen by customers (stakeholders.

  3. Prédestination ou prédétermination dans l’islam ?

    OpenAIRE

    Djedi, Youcef

    2012-01-01

    Dans ses quelques traitements de la doctrine islamique de la prédestination, Max Weber se réfère à la thèse du pasteur luthérien Friedrich Ulrich sur la prédestination dans l’islam et le christianisme. Or l’un des moments forts de cette thèse consiste précisément à distinguer entre « prédestination» proprement dite et « prédétermination», cette dernière caractérisant alors davantage la conception islamique, tenue pour plus faiblement sotériologique. Consolidée par la caution wébérienne, pour ...

  4. Developing marketing strategies for tourism destinations in peripheral areas of Europe: the case of Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartl, Ann

    This thesis concentrates on the subject of destination marketing with a specific focus on the process of developing strategies through a Destination Marketing Organisation (DMO) for a peripheral area, illustrated by a case study from the Danish island of Bornholm. It investigates the theoretical...... foundations for destination marketing, concluding that there should be a shift in focus from general marketing theory to a broader application of organisational theories and associated fields, enabling the DMO to improve performance. The specific conditions for and structures of peripheral areas indicate...... by viewing them as cooperative customers. Thus the DMO needs to apply the principles of marketing to the development process of the strategy itself, and therefore to view the strategic plan as a product of the DMO, which needs to be marketed. The theoretical analysis shows that DMOs cannot control all...

  5. Destination Branding Kota Jember Pada Pemberitaan Jember Fashion Carnaval 2016 di Media Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntadliroh Muntadliroh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jember Fashion Carnaval (JFC 2016 telah banyak diberitakan di media online selama bulan Agustus – September 2016. Karnaval tahunan ini memberikan implikasi pada upaya destination branding Kota Jember. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis isi pemberitaan JFC 2016 di media online selama bulan Agustus – September 2016. Fokus penelitian ini adalah pemaknaan teks/pesan pemberitaan JFC 2016 yang membentuk destination branding Kota Jember. Metode yang digunakan adalah content analysis dengan pendekatan kuantitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberitaan JFC 2016 merepresentasikan tahapan pembangunan destination branding Kota Jember dengan sumber informasi terbanyak dari birokrat (39%, konten berita terbesar berisi topik review JFC 2016 dan penyelenggaraan JFC 2016 masing-masing sebanyak (20%, kategori berita terbanyak bertema lifestyle (40%, dan didominasi tone berita positif (70%.

  6. New destinations, new trajectories? The educational progress of Hispanic youth in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T; Ladd, Helen F; Vigdor, Jacob L

    2012-01-01

    Since 1990, Latin American immigrants to the United States have dispersed beyond traditional gateway regions to a number of "new destinations." Both theory and past empirical evidence provide mixed guidance as to whether the children of these immigrants are adversely affected by residing in a nontraditional destination. This study uses administrative public school data to study over 2,800 8- to 18-year-old Hispanic youth in one new destination, North Carolina. Conditional on third-grade socioeconomic indicators, Hispanic youth who arrive by age 9 and remain enrolled in North Carolina public schools close achievement gaps with socioeconomically similar White students by sixth grade and exhibit significantly lower high school dropout rates. Their performance resembles that of first-generation youth in more established immigration gateways. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Stakeholder Involvement in Tourism Destination Development: A Case of Dunga Beach and Wetland, Kisumu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Otieno Wanga

    2014-09-01

    In Kenya, Tourism is the second largest source of foreign exchange revenue following agriculture; it however, faces numerous challenges sustainability due the complex nature of tourism destinations. Tourism destinations are complex and dynamic systems that involve various stakeholders each with different understanding of same tourism system. These different perceptions can be tapped to develop a common tourism model that helps achieve the overall sustainable tourism development objective of a given destination. This paper describes participatory systems approach to develop a shared understanding amongst stakeholders of the tourism system in Dunga Beach and Wetland, in Kisumu County, Kenya. The process includes the development of a systems model that represents a holistic understanding of the interconnectedness and relationships between the various components that impact on sustainable development of tourism in Dunga. The model is intended for use as a framework for enhancing ecotourism experiences by stakeholders who are ecotourism experience providers in Dunga for the satisfaction of tourists in Dunga beach and wetland.

  8. Destination image and crime in Mexico: An analysis of foreign government travel advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Monterrubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.

  9. Destination image and crime in Mexico: An analysis of foreign government travel advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carlos Monterrubio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Destination image has been recognised as an influential component of travel decision processes. Although organic sources of information play an important role in shaping destination image, researchers have often ignored the types of sources and the information they deliver. In particular, official websites where government travel advice is given, especially in relation to crime, have been widely excluded from scholarly research. This paper analyses the relationship between crime-related travel advice given by foreign governments and Mexico’s destination image. Qualitative content analysis of official websites from the US, Canada, the UK and Spain reveals that the travel advice given relates largely to the violence and insecurity that Mexico is currently experiencing. “No advisory in effect”, “Exercise caution” and “Defer non-essential travel” are messages commonly found in the governments’ travel advice about Mexico.

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  11. MEASURING DESTINATION SERVICE QUALITY (STUDI TENTANG PELAKSANAAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN KEBUN BINATANG BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin Syarifuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Destination service quality is the important aspect in the tourism world, because it caused to the visitor satisfaction and to the repeat visit to the destination. Zoo in Bandung is the destination that pays attention to service quality, in order to be able to increase the repeat visit of the tourists. Relating to this research that the research focused to explain destination service quality at Bandung Zoo. Research method used is descripttve quantitative method by using percentage analysis, range, and interval. The population is all visitors to Bandung Zoo for one periode, with the sample measure is 100 people. The result showed that destination service quality Bandung Zoo, reached with the total score 6.597 of the ideal score 7.000. Based on the result that destination service quality at Bandung Zoo is Good, referring to tangible, responsiveness, assurance, reliability and emphaty aspects.   Keywords : Service Quality, Tangible, Responsiveness, Assurance, Reliability, dan Emphaty     Abstrak - Kualitas pelayanan objek wisata merupakan aspek penting dalam dunia pariwisata, karena akan berdampak pada kepuasan pengunjung, dan ujungnya berdampak pula pada kunjungan ulang ke destinasi. Kebun binatang Bandung merupakan destinasi pariwisata yang sangat memperhatikan kualitas pelayanan, dengan harapan meningkatkanya tingkat kunjungan ulang ke destinasi tersebut. Berkaitan dengan penelitian ini bahwa tujuan penelitian difokuskan untuk menjelaskan tentang kualitas pelayanan objek wisata di Kebun Binatang Bandung. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif kuantitatif dengan menggunakan analisis persentase, range, serta tingkat interval. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh pengunjung ke Kebun Binatang Bandung, untuk periode tertentu, dengan ukuran sampel 100 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pelayanan objek wisata Kebun Binatang Bandung, tercapai dengan skor total 6.597 dari skor ideal 7.000. Berdasarkan hasil

  12. Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: Role of street layout and local destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-03-01

    Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  14. FPGA implementation of filtered image using 2D Gaussian filter

    OpenAIRE

    Leila kabbai; Anissa Sghaier; Ali Douik; Mohsen Machhout

    2016-01-01

    Image filtering is one of the very useful techniques in image processing and computer vision. It is used to eliminate useless details and noise from an image. In this paper, a hardware implementation of image filtered using 2D Gaussian Filter will be present. The Gaussian filter architecture will be described using a different way to implement convolution module. Thus, multiplication is in the heart of convolution module, for this reason, three different ways to implement multiplication opera...

  15. Competitive branding policies for medium mountain tourism destinations: a case study from the Val di Sole (Trento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tizzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to address the issue of medium mountain destination branding from a multidisciplinary perspective, focusing on the Italian tourism area of the Val di Sole as a case study.After having summarized the main potentialities and constraints in medium mountain tourism management, the research applies the many-sided concept of in-between place to the destination branding aspects. Finally, the analysis of destination branding policies carried out in the Val di Sole, a medium mountain Alpine area in the Italian Provincia Autonoma of Trento, offers an overview of the basic success factors in medium mountain destinations enhancement.

  16. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  17. SPORTS EVENTS AS A TOOL TO LEVERAGE THE TOURISM DESTINATION IMAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Elsa; Mascarenhas, Maria Margarida; Pires, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Sports events have been used to promote host communities in the global marketplace. A model of strategic leveraging of sport events was created by Chalip (2004), where one of the strategic goals is to “enhance host´s destination image”. This paper presents the findings of a research related with the leveraging process of a portfolio of nautical sports events hosted in a tourist community of Algarve- Portugal, in order to reinforce the destination image of one of its main tourist resorts - Por...

  18. The Role of Hypertext in Consumer Decision Making. The Case of Travel Destination Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Valdez Munoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel is one of the most popular items people tend to be comfortable with purchasing over the Internet. Hypertext is a form of electronic text composed of blocks of words (or images linked electronically by multiple paths, chains, or trails. This study explores the importance of hypertext in the travel destination choice from websites. Results show that hypertext links containing images of destinations, informative texts, and search tools are the three most important features utilized by tourist website browsers. This study aims to offer insights into new areas for further research on tourism websites design, application and evaluation.

  19. A conceptual framework for the study of social capital in new destination immigrant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernosky de Flores, Catherine H

    2010-07-01

    Mexican immigration to the United States is an intragenerational phenomenon. Young adult Mexicans leave their families of origin in search of employment opportunities that pull them to new destination communities. A conceptual framework that defines and relates the concepts of human capital, personal networks, social capital, and resources is introduced. The influence of social capital on the capacity of immigrants to access resources is described. The framework informed the design of a study to examine the approaches used by Mexican immigrant women to access resources for healthy childbearing in the absence of traditional family support systems in a new destination community.

  20. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLACE BRANDING AND DESTINATION BRANDING FOR LOCAL BRAND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor-Alexandru BRICIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To highlight the principles used in the design and development of a regional brand strategy we need to identify the disciplinary and the theoretical referential that would best fit the branding approach. This paper will address the main forms of branding: place branding, location branding and destination branding, as a specialized form of destination marketing. From the theoretical point of view, by identifying the fundamental and the management brand model, the regional tourism brand concept is regarded by positioning it in the category (the most general one of place branding.

  1. Architecture as a Tool for Branding in Rural Istrian Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Medica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural and protected environments with authentic widespread traditional construction have become one of the fundamental touristic resources. Traditional architecture is a very crucial part of collective cultural heritage. Although it is ample and widespread, only since recent times it has been given its economical value as well as it has been included in tourism. According to the context above, authors have come up with a hypothesis stating that with implying branding of traditional architectural heritage, a positive influence on enrichment of touristic offerings of certain destination will be achieved. The authors defend and fulfill their hypothesis by analyzing different research on the example of rural destinations in Istria.

  2. Ages of origin and destination for a difference in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwood Carlson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of a difference in life expectancies may identify ages at which the difference originates in mortality differences, or may identify age at which the difference results in different values of person-years lived (life table population. This study shows that the two approaches are orthogonally related to each other, and derives an origin-destination decomposition matrix in which summing in one direction produces Andreev's origin-decomposition results, while summing in the other direction produces destination-decomposition corresponding to directly-observed differences in nLx values.

  3. Mobile Social Computing for Destination Marketing: Valuing Territoriality and Social Contagion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    Mobile social computing has become an important platform for daily experiences and has caused a tremendous impact on people’s interaction with and interpretation of objects, materials, and images of tourist places. This study explores how locative media shapes tourist behavior and how destination...... production. As an implication, destination marketing using locative media should build upon the three distinct components characterizing mobile social computing: mobility, social contagion, and social gaming. Mobile social computing enables tourism and hospitality businesses to capitalize on the coupling...

  4. Developing a holistic framework for analysis of destination management and/or marketing organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen

    2017-01-01

    and organizations. The analysis reveals a number of important factors, including whether the DMOs are focused on survival or development, on experiences or communication, and on internally or externally oriented governance. Finally, it reveals that Danish DMOs constantly negotiate between their various roles......This paper presents a holistic framework for analysis of destination management and/or marketing organizations (DMOs) and explores how these work in a highly complex tourism environment. Six destinations are investigated through 61 qualitative interviews with representatives from tourism businesses...

  5. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...

  6. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  7. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  8. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  9. Particle flow superpositional GLMB filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucan, Augustin-Alexandru; Li, Yunpeng; Coates, Mark

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we propose a Superpositional Marginalized δ-GLMB (SMδ-GLMB) filter for multi-target tracking and we provide bootstrap and particle flow particle filter implementations. Particle filter implementations of the marginalized δ-GLMB filter are computationally demanding. As a first contribution we show that for the specific case of superpositional observation models, a reduced complexity update step can be achieved by employing a superpositional change of variables. The resulting SMδ-GLMB filter can be readily implemented using the unscented Kalman filter or particle filtering methods. As a second contribution, we employ particle flow to produce a measurement-driven importance distribution that serves as a proposal in the SMδ-GLMB particle filter. In high-dimensional state systems or for highly- informative observations the generic particle filter often suffers from weight degeneracy or otherwise requires a prohibitively large number of particles. Particle flow avoids particle weight degeneracy by guiding particles to regions where the posterior is significant. Numerical simulations showcase the reduced complexity and improved performance of the bootstrap SMδ-GLMB filter with respect to the bootstrap Mδ-GLMB filter. The particle flow SMδ-GLMB filter further improves the accuracy of track estimates for highly informative measurements.

  10. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  11. Popping the filter bubble

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Katie; Cronin, G; Welch, L

    2017-01-01

    So-called “fake news” is everywhere and is having a major impact on daily life from politics to education. The rapid growth of information and the numbers of people who can create it means that we need more sophisticated tools to process the news we receive. Join us to learn about different methods you can use to be your own fact checker and pop your filter bubble.

  12. Offsetting the Affective Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chametzky, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When forced to deal with a stressful, unfamiliar situation, how do people react? People are familiar, in a traditional setting, with sensory overload. But in an online environment, when learners are anxious, they exhibit different behaviors to help mediate their anxiety. Additionally, in an online environment, since visual clues are often lacking, how do these behaviors manifest themselves? People navigate stressful and/or unfamiliar situations by offsetting their affective filter.

  13. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...

  14. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... furnace filters frequently. Use high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. When cleaning: Wipe away dust with a damp ... a week. Use a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter to help control the dust that vacuuming stirs ...

  15. Learners' Attitudes toward Regional Dialects and Destination Preferences in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the impact of short-term study abroad on the language attitudes of college-level learners of Arabic in the United States. It investigated students' destination preferences in various Arabic-speaking countries, their attitudes toward learning Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and regional dialects, and the factors that they perceived…

  16. Changing Destinations: Ideal Attraction and Actual Movement of Cross-Border Tertiary Students from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalization has driven growth in the market for cross-border students. Mainland China, with a burgeoning economy and the largest national population, has become an important source of cross-border students. This study identifies ideal attraction in mainland China to destinations for cross-border tertiary education, as expressed by ideal first…

  17. Wildlife Safari Tourist Destinations in Tanzania: Experiences from Colonial to Post-Colonial Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilungu, H.; Munishi, P.; Leemans, R.; Amelung, B.

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania is currently one of the world's most visited countries for wildlife
    tourism, but its main destinations are at risk from changes in climate and local
    land-use. The consequences of these changes on tourism demand are,
    however, unclear. Despite Tanzania's two centuries of

  18. Organizing English Learner Instruction in New Immigrant Destinations: District Infrastructure and Subject-Specific School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Lowenhaupt, Rebecca; Sweet, Tracy M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of shifting demographics and standards-based reform, school districts in new immigrant destinations are charged with designing infrastructures that support teaching and learning for English learners (ELs) in core academic subjects. This article uses qualitative data and social network analysis to examine how one district in the…

  19. Estimation and prediction of origin-destination matrices for I-66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This project uses the Box-Jenkins time-series technique to model and forecast the traffic flows and then : uses the flow forecasts to predict the origin-destination matrices. First, a detailed analysis was conducted : to investigate the best data cor...

  20. The challenge of proximity : The (un)attractiveness of near home tourism destinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2015-01-01

    According to Franklin and Crang (2001) ‘[t]ourism studies [have] often privileged the exotic and strange, reflecting anthropological legacies, to speak of dramatic contrasts between visitors and locals’ (p.8). This is also reflected in current practices of destination branding, where nations,