WorldWideScience

Sample records for hep detectors prevention

  1. EMC Phenomena in HEP Detectors: Prevention and Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) studies applied to high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. They are focused on the quantification of the front-end electronic (FEE) sensitivity to conductive noise coupled through the input/output cables. Immunity tests performed on FEE prototypes of both the CMS hadron calorimeter and the CMS silicon tracker are presented. These tests characterize the sensitivity of the FEE to common and differential mode noise coupled through the power cables and the slow control network. Immunity tests allow evaluating the weakest areas of the system to take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector, saving time and important costs

  2. Detector Simulations with DD4hep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, M.; Frank, M.; Gaede, F.; Lu, S.; Nikiforou, N.; Sailer, A.

    2017-10-01

    Detector description is a key component of detector design studies, test beam analyses, and most of particle physics experiments that require the simulation of more and more different detector geometries and event types. This paper describes DD4hep, which is an easy-to-use yet flexible and powerful detector description framework that can be used for detector simulation and also extended to specific needs for a particular working environment. Linear collider detector concepts ILD, SiD and CLICdp as well as detector development collaborations CALICE and FCal have chosen to adopt the DD4hep geometry framework and its DDG4 pathway to Geant4 as its core simulation and reconstruction tools. The DDG4 plugins suite includes a wide variety of input formats, provides access to the Geant4 particle gun or general particles source and allows for handling of Monte Carlo truth information, eg. by linking hits and the primary particle that caused them, which is indispensable for performance and efficiency studies. An extendable array of segmentations and sensitive detectors allows the simulation of a wide variety of detector technologies. This paper shows how DD4hep allows to perform complex Geant4 detector simulations without compiling a single line of additional code by providing a palette of sub-detector components that can be combined and configured via compact XML files. Simulation is controlled either completely via the command line or via simple Python steering files interpreted by a Python executable. It also discusses how additional plugins and extensions can be created to increase the functionality.

  3. Detector simulations with DD4hep

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)668365; Frank, Markus; Gaede, Frank-Dieter; Lu, Shaojun; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Sailer, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Detector description is a key component of detector design studies, test beam analyses, and most of particle physics experiments that require the simulation of more and more different detector geometries and event types. This paper describes DD4hep, which is an easy-to-use yet flexible and powerful detector description framework that can be used for detector simulation and also extended to specific needs for a particular working environment. Linear collider detector concepts ILD, SiD and CLICdp as well as detector development collaborations CALICE and FCal have chosen to adopt the DD4hep geometry framework and its DDG4 pathway to Geant4 as its core simulation and reconstruction tools. The DDG4 plugins suite includes a wide variety of input formats, provides access to the Geant4 particle gun or general particles source and allows for handling of Monte Carlo truth information, e.g. by linking hits and the primary particle that caused them, which is indispensable for performance and efficiency studies. An extend...

  4. HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Detector Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolakis, J; et al.

    2018-03-12

    A working group on detector simulation was formed as part of the high-energy physics (HEP) Software Foundation's initiative to prepare a Community White Paper that describes the main software challenges and opportunities to be faced in the HEP field over the next decade. The working group met over a period of several months in order to review the current status of the Full and Fast simulation applications of HEP experiments and the improvements that will need to be made in order to meet the goals of future HEP experimental programmes. The scope of the topics covered includes the main components of a HEP simulation application, such as MC truth handling, geometry modeling, particle propagation in materials and fields, physics modeling of the interactions of particles with matter, the treatment of pileup and other backgrounds, as well as signal processing and digitisation. The resulting work programme described in this document focuses on the need to improve both the software performance and the physics of detector simulation. The goals are to increase the accuracy of the physics models and expand their applicability to future physics programmes, while achieving large factors in computing performance gains consistent with projections on available computing resources.

  5. Elastic stability and HEP detectors: a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2018-01-01

    Destabilizing -- or "buckling" -- phenomena can compromise the quality of a physics detector long before the point of collapse has been reached. We rehearse on the two types of buckling : snap-through versus bifurcation. Then, we discuss bifurcation problems in a detector example. This introductory text specifically targets a non-engineer audience.

  6. 3D IC for future HEP detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, J; Badman, R; Lipton, R; Johnson, M; Spiegel, L; Deptuch, G; Ye, Z; Heintz, U; Narain, M; Triphati, M; Kenney, C; Parker, S; Siddons, D P

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. We describe ongoing R and D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This includes the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce ''active tiles'' which can be tested and assembled into arrays of arbitrary size with high yield

  7. The study of methodologies of software development for the next generation of HEP detector software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuzheng; Wang Taijie; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the characteristics of the next generation of HEP (High Energy Physics) detector software, and describes the basic strategy for the usage of object oriented methodologies, languages and tools in the development of the next generation of HEP detector software

  8. HEPS-BPIX, a single photon counting pixel detector with a high frame rate for the HEPS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Jie; Ning, Zhe; Lu, Yunpeng; Fan, Lei; Li, Huaishen; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Lan, Allan K.; Ouyang, Qun; Wang, Zheng; Zhu, Kejun; Chen, Yuanbo [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    China's next generation light source, named the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS), is currently under construction. HEPS-BPIX (HEPS-Beijing PIXel) is a dedicated pixel readout chip that operates in single photon counting mode for X-ray applications in HEPS. Designed using CMOS 0.13 µm technology, the chip contains a matrix of 104×72 pixels. Each pixel measures 150 µm×150 µm and has a counting depth of 20 bits. A bump-bonded prototyping detector module with a 300-µm thick silicon sensor was tested in the beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A fast stream of X-ray images was demonstrated, and a frame rate of 1.2 kHz was proven, with a negligible dead time. The test results showed an equivalent noise charge of 115 e{sup −} rms after bump bonding and a threshold dispersion of 55 e{sup −} rms after calibration.

  9. Polycrystalline scintillators for large area detectors in HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosovitskiy, G.; Fedorov, A.; Karpyuk, P.; Kuznetsova, D.; Mikhlin, A.; Kozlov, D.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.

    2017-06-01

    After significant increase of the accelerator luminosity throughout the High Luminosity phase of LHC, charged hadrons and neutrons with fluences higher than 1014 p/cm2 per year in the largest pseudo-rapidity regions of the detectors will cause increased radiation damage of materials. Increasing activation of the experimental equipment will make periodical maintenance and replacement of detector components difficult. Therefore, the selected materials for new detectors should be tolerant to radiation damage. Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce) crystal was found to be one of the most radiation hard scintillation materials. However, production of YAG:Ce in a single crystalline form is costly, because crystal growth is performed at temperature near 1900°C with a very low rate of transformation of a raw material into a crystal. We propose translucent YAG:Ce ceramics as an alternative cheaper solution. Ceramic samples were sintered up to density ~98% of the theoretical value and were translucent. The samples have demonstrated light yield of 2200 phot./MeV under 662 keV γ-quanta, which gives the expected response to minimum ionizing particle around 3000 phot. for 2 mm thick plate. Scintillation light yield, registered under surface layer excitation with α-particles, was 50-70% higher than for the reference single crystal YAG:Ce.

  10. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalwani, Kavita, E-mail: kavita.phy@mnit.ac.in [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Jaipur-302017 (India); Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh [University of Delhi (DU), Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  11. Study the radiation damage effects in Si microstrip detectors for future HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their superior tracking capabilities. In future HEP experiments, like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, the silicon tracking detectors will be operated in a very intense radiation environment. This leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors, which in turn will affect the operating performance of Si detectors. It is important to complement the measurements of the irradiated Si strip detectors with device simulation, which helps in understanding of both the device behavior and optimizing the design parameters needed for the future Si tracking system. An important ingredient of the device simulation is to develop a radiation damage model incorporating both bulk and surface damage. In this work, a simplified two-trap model is incorporated in device simulation to describe the type-inversion. Further, an extensive simulation of effective doping density as well as electric field profile is carried out at different temperatures for various fluences.

  12. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  13. Plasmodium falciparum Hep1 Is Required to Prevent the Self Aggregation of PfHsp70-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O Nyakundi

    Full Text Available The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and need to be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria, and molecular chaperones play a key role in the efficient translocation and proper folding of these proteins in the matrix. One such molecular chaperone is the eukaryotic mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; however, it is prone to self-aggregation and requires the presence of an essential zinc-finger protein, Hsp70-escort protein 1 (Hep1, to maintain its structure and function. PfHsp70-3, the only Hsp70 predicted to localize in the mitochondria of P. falciparum, may also rely on a Hep1 orthologue to prevent self-aggregation. In this study, we identified a putative Hep1 orthologue in P. falciparum and co-expression of PfHsp70-3 and PfHep1 enhanced the solubility of PfHsp70-3. PfHep1 suppressed the thermally induced aggregation of PfHsp70-3 but not the aggregation of malate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase, thus showing specificity for PfHsp70-3. Zinc ions were indeed essential for maintaining the function of PfHep1, as EDTA chelation abrogated its abilities to suppress the aggregation of PfHsp70-3. Soluble and functional PfHsp70-3, acquired by co-expression with PfHep-1, will facilitate the biochemical characterisation of this particular Hsp70 protein and its evaluation as a drug target for the treatment of malaria.

  14. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for deformation monitoring of GEM foils in HEP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Bianco, S; Caponero, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Raffone, G; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics (HEP) as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, radiation hard and low space- consuming temperature and humidity devices. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. A network of FBG sensors has been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterize the mechanical stress applied to the foils. The preliminary results of the test performed on a full size GE1/1 final prototype and possible future developments will be discussed.

  15. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, Maurizio; Calvo, Daniela; Giacomini, Gabriele; Wheadon, Richard; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10 16 n eq /cm 2 . Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics

  16. Development of thin pixel detectors on epitaxial silicon for HEP experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscardin, Maurizio, E-mail: boscardi@fbk.eu [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Calvo, Daniela [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Giacomini, Gabriele [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Wheadon, Richard [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [FBK, CMM, Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The foreseen luminosity of the new experiments in High Energy Physics will require that the innermost layer of vertex detectors will be able to sustain fluencies up to 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Moreover, in many experiments there is a demand for the minimization of the material budget of the detectors. Therefore, thin pixel devices fabricated on n-type silicon are a natural choice to fulfill these requirements due to their rad-hard performances and low active volume. We present an R and D activity aimed at developing a new thin hybrid pixel device in the framework of PANDA experiments. The detector of this new device is a p-on-n pixel sensor realized starting from epitaxial silicon wafers and back thinned up to 50–100 μm after process completion. We present the main technological steps and some electrical characterization on the fabricated devices before and after back thinning and after bump bonding to the front-end electronics.

  17. Top quark production cross-section measurements with the ATLAS detector at EPS-HEP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Christopher Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair and single-top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top-quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-quark pair production in the TeV regime.

  18. Prevention of phosphine-induced cytotoxicity by nutrients in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Rashedinia

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis that phosphine-induced cytotoxicity was due to decrease of ATP levels. ATP suppliers could prevent its toxicity by generating ATP through glycolysis. α-keto compounds such as dihydroxyacetone and α-ketoglutarate may bind to phosphine and restore mitochondrial respiration.

  19. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity.

  20. The GBT-SCA, a radiation tolerant ASIC for detector control and monitoring applications in HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caratelli, A.; Bonacini, S.; Kloukinas, K.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.; Oliveira, R. De; Paillard, C.

    2015-01-01

    The future upgrades of the LHC experiments will increase the beam luminosity leading to a corresponding growth of the amounts of data to be treated by the data acquisition systems. To address these needs, the GBT (Giga-Bit Transceiver optical link [1,2]) architecture was developed to provide the simultaneous transfer of readout data, timing and trigger signals as well as slow control and monitoring data. The GBT-SCA ASIC, part of the GBT chip-set, has the purpose to distribute control and monitoring signals to the on-detector front-end electronics and perform monitoring operations of detector environmental parameters. In order to meet the requirements of different front-end ASICs used in the experiments, it provides various user-configurable interfaces capable to perform simultaneous operations. It is designed employing radiation tolerant design techniques to ensure robustness against SEUs and TID radiation effects and is implemented in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. This work presents the GBT-SCA architecture, the ASIC interfaces, the data transfer protocol, and its integration with the GBT optical link

  1. DD4Hep based event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Frank, Markus; Gaede, Frank-Dieter; Hynds, Daniel; Lu, Shaojun; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Petric, Marko; Simoniello, Rosa; Voutsinas, Georgios Gerasimos

    The DD4HEP detector description toolkit offers a flexible and easy-to-use solution for the consistent and complete description of particle physics detectors in a single system. The sub-component DDREC provides a dedicated interface to the detector geometry as needed for event reconstruction. With DDREC there is no need to define an additional, separate reconstruction geometry as is often done in HEP, but one can transparently extend the existing detailed simulation model to be also used for the reconstruction. Based on the extension mechanism of DD4HEP, DDREC allows one to attach user defined data structures to detector elements at all levels of the geometry hierarchy. These data structures define a high level view onto the detectors describing their physical properties, such as measurement layers, point resolutions, and cell sizes. For the purpose of charged particle track reconstruction, dedicated surface objects can be attached to every volume in the detector geometry. These surfaces provide the measuremen...

  2. A modern approach to HEP visualization - ATLASrift

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the times when HEP computing needs were mainly fulfilled by mainframes, graphics solutions for event and detector visualizations were necessarily hardware as well as experiment specific and impossible to use anywhere outside of HEP community. A big move to commodity computing did not precipitate a corresponding move of graphics solutions to industry standard hardware and software. In this paper, we list functionalities expected from contemporary tools and describe their implementation by a specific application: ATLASrift. We start with a basic premise that HEP visualization tools should be open in practice and not only in intentions. This means that a user should not be limited to specific and little used platforms, HEP-only software packages, or experiment-specific libraries. Equally important is that no special knowledge or special access rights are needed. Using industry standard frameworks brings not only sustainability, but also good support, a lot of community contributed tools, and a possibility of ...

  3. A study on methodological of software development for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuzheng; Dai Guiliang

    1999-01-01

    The HEP related software system is a large one. It comprises mainly detector simulation software, DAQ software and offline system. The author discusses the advantages of OO object oriented methodologies applying to such software system, and the basic strategy for the usage of OO methodologies, languages and tools in the development of the HEP related software are given

  4. A sensitive detector to prevent smuggling of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.; Rost, R.; Miller, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    A drive through detector systems using four plastic scintillators and associated electronics for the detections of small amounts or uranium or plutonium in cars is described. The system has been calibrated with various sample of special nuclear material and the lower detection limits are presented. (author)

  5. Notification determining technical standards concerning prevention of radiation injuries by electron capture detectors for gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, the ordinance and the regulation for the execution of the law. This rule is applied to electron capture detectors for gas chromatography under the law. Basic terms are defined, such as detector radiation source, detector container and carrier gas. The detectors shall consist of detector radiation sources and containers, and the containers must be such that the radiation sources can not be easily taken away and never cause the danger to fall off. The induction and discharge mouths of the detector containers shall be shut tightly with caps, etc. The main structures and radiation sources of detectors shall be made of materials, which are difficult to corrode, and do not melt and easily cause chemical change below 800 deg. C. Detector radiation sources shall be made of metals plated with nickel 63 less than 20 milli-curie. The radiation dose rate on the surface of a detector shall be shielded to less than 0.06 milli-rem an hour. The temperature of detectors and carrier gas shall not exceed 350 deg. C. Corrosive gas shall not be used as carrier gas. The period of effective indication is 5 years. The method of washing, and the conditions of leak, heat-resistance and shock-resistance examinations are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  6. Java Analysis Studio and the hep.lcd class library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronan, M.T.

    2000-02-14

    The Java Analysis Studio and the hep.lcd class library provide a general framework for performing Java-based Linear Collider Detector (LCD) studies. The package is being developed to fully reconstruct 500 GeV to 1.5 TeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation events for analyzing detector options and performance. The current North American LCD reconstruction effort is aimed at comparing different detailed detector models by performing full detector simulation and reconstruction. This paper describes the JAS/hep.lcd distributed analysis framework and some aspects of the reconstruction and analysis object modeling.

  7. HEP Community White Paper on Software Trigger and Event Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Johannes; et al.

    2018-02-23

    Realizing the physics programs of the planned and upgraded high-energy physics (HEP) experiments over the next 10 years will require the HEP community to address a number of challenges in the area of software and computing. For this reason, the HEP software community has engaged in a planning process over the past two years, with the objective of identifying and prioritizing the research and development required to enable the next generation of HEP detectors to fulfill their full physics potential. The aim is to produce a Community White Paper which will describe the community strategy and a roadmap for software and computing research and development in HEP for the 2020s. The topics of event reconstruction and software triggers were considered by a joint working group and are summarized together in this document.

  8. Development of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased, p-on-n silicon strip detectors in India for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Ranjan, Kirti; Dierlamm, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Eber, Robert; Demarteau, Marcel

    2018-02-01

    P-on-n silicon strip sensors having multiple guard-ring structures have been developed for High Energy Physics applications. The study constitutes the optimization of the sensor design, and fabrication of AC-coupled, poly-silicon biased sensors of strip width of 30 μm and strip pitch of 55 μm. The silicon wafers used for the fabrication are of 4 inch n-type, having an average resistivity of 2-5 k Ω cm, with a thickness of 300 μm. The electrical characterization of these detectors comprises of: (a) global measurements of total leakage current, and backplane capacitance; (b) strip and voltage scans of strip leakage current, poly-silicon resistance, interstrip capacitance, interstrip resistance, coupling capacitance, and dielectric current; and (c) charge collection measurements using ALiBaVa setup. The results of the same are reported here.

  9. A magnet system for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the sequence of steps that lead to the design of a magnet system for modern HEP detectors. We start looking to the main types of magnets used in HEP experiments, along with some basic formulae to set the main parameters, such as ampere-turns, impedance and stored energy. A section is dedicated to the description of the iron yoke, with emphasis on magnet-detector integration and assembly, steel characteristics, stray field issues and alternative design. In the second part of the chapter we start looking at a brief history of superconducting magnets and a comparison between warm and superconducting ones. Following that, we describe the commonly used superconducting cables, the conductor design and technology and the winding techniques. A section of the chapter is dedicated to the cryogenic design, vacuum insulation and other ancillary systems. We also describe the power circuit, with the power supply unit, the current leads, the current measurement devices and other instruments and safety...

  10. HEP.TrkX [Vidyo

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of charged particle tracks is a central task in the processing of physics data at the LHC and other colliders. Current state-of-the-art tracking algorithms are based on the Kalman filter and have seen great success both offline and at trigger level. However, these algorithms scale poorly with increasing detector occupancy, and it is foreseen that significant changes will be needed to achieve efficient track reconstruction in very high luminosity conditions. The HEP.TrkX pilot project aims to develop and explore machine-learning-based algorithms for particle tracking, with the goal of identifying candidate techniques for a more scalable tracking algorithm. In this talk we will discuss the techniques explored in the project so far, with emphasis on algorithms based on recurrent and convolutional neural networks. We will demonstrate the performance of these algorithms on toy detector data, and discuss plans to adapt them into complete algorithms for seed-finding and/or full track reconstructio...

  11. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  12. Confronting new technological challenges in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2000-01-01

    The new technological challenges that will have to be confronted in HEP are mainly due to the new physics issues. What is beyond the standard model? That is the question. This review will first list the physics demands in order to explore this unknown world. It will then show with appropriate examples, how the new physics will require confronting new technological challenges in: designing new accelerators, developing new detectors, designing new front-end readout systems and using the new software and hardware tools for the online readout and DAQ systems

  13. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  14. ``High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)'' onboard the ERG satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, T.; Takashima, T.; Kasahara, S.; Miyake, W.; Hirahara, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20, 2016, and now explores how relativistic electrons in the radiation belts are generated during space storms. "High energy Electron exPeriment (HEP)" onboard the ERG satellite observes 70 keV - 2 MeV electrons and provides three-dimensional velocity distribution of electrons every spacecraft spin period. Electrons are observed by two types of camera designs, HEP-L and HEP-H, with regard to geometrical factor and energy range. HEP-L observes 0.1 - 1 MeV electrons and its geometrical factor (G-factor) is 10-3 cm2 str, and HEP-H observes 0.7 - 2 MeV and G-factor is 10-2 cm2 str. HEP-L and HEP-H each consist of three pin-hole type cameras, and each camera consist of mechanical collimator, stacked silicon semiconductor detectors and readout ASICs. HEP-H has larger opening angle of the collimator and more silicon detectors to observe higher energy electrons than HEP-L. The initial checkout in orbit was carried out in February 2017 and it was confirmed that there was no performance degradation by comparing the results of the initial checkout in orbit and the prelaunch function tests. Since late March, HEP has carried out normal observation. HEP observed losses and recovery of the outer radiation belt electrons several times up to now. In this presentation we introduce the HEP instrument design, prelaunch tests results and report the initial results in orbit.

  15. HEP data analysis using jHepWork and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.

    2009-01-01

    A role of Java in high-energy physics (HEP) and recent progress in development of a platform-independent data-analysis framework, jHepWork, is discussed. The framework produces professional graphics and has many libraries for data manipulation.

  16. HEP in Greek Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Vourakis, Stylianos

    2017-03-01

    The HEP Inquiry learning resources created over the last four years by the European outreach projects are reviewed. The resources are mostly addressed to high school students and the purpose is to ignite their interest on science. In addition, at the University of Athens for the last four years we have been using the HYPATIA online event analysis tool as a lab course for fourth year undergraduate physics students, majoring in HEP. Each year 40-50 students highly appreciated the course, since they get a direct involvement in the actual toplevel research. Up to now, the course was limited to visual inspection of a few tens of ATLAS events. Recently we have enriched the course with additional analysis exercises, which involve large samples of events. The students, through a user friendly interface can analyze the samples (both signal and background ones) and optimize the cut selection in order to search for the Higgs decay H □ 4 leptons. Recently ATLAS released 1/fb of data, so starting now the students analyse real data.

  17. Development of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Richer, J; Barsuk, S; Shah, M K; Catanesi, M G; Colaleo, A; Maggi, M; Loddo, F; Berardi, V; Bagliesi, M; Menon, G; Richter, R; Lahonde-hamdoun, C; Dris, M; Chechik, R; Ochi, A; Hartjes, F; Lopes, I M; Deshpande, A; Franz, A; Fiutowski, T A; Ferreira, A; Bastos de oliveira, C A; Miller, B W; Monrabal-capilla, F; Liubarsky, I; Plazas de pinzon, M C; Tsarfati, T; Voss, B J R; Carmona martinez, J M; Stocchi, A; Dinu, N; Semeniouk, I; Giebels, B; Marton, K; De leo, R; De lucia, E; Alviggi, M; Bellerive, A; Herten, L G; Zimmermann, S U; Giomataris, I; Peyaud, A; Schune, P; Delagnes, E; Delbart, A; Charles, G; Wang, W; Markou, A; Arazi, L; Cibinetto, G; Edo, Y; Neves, F F; Solovov, V; Stoll, S; Sampsonidis, D; Dabrowski, W; Mindur, B; Sauli, F; Calapez de albuquerque veloso, J F; Kahlaoui, N; Sharma, A; Zenker, K; Cebrian guajardo, S V; Luzon marco, G M; Guillaudin, O J H; Cornebise, P; Lounis, A; Bruel, P J; Laszlo, A; Mukerjee, K; Nappi, E; Nuzzo, S V; Bencivenni, G; Tessarotto, F; Levorato, S; Dixit, M S; Riallot, M; Jeanneau, F; Nizery, F G; Maltezos, S; Kyriakis, A; Lyashenko, A; Van der graaf, H; Ferreira marques, R; Alexa, C; Liyanage, N; Dehmelt, K; Hemmick, T K; Polychronakos, V; Cisbani, E; Garibaldi, F; Koperny, S Z; Das neves dias carramate, L F; Munoz-vidal, J; Gutierrez, R; Van stenis, M; Resnati, F; Lupberger, M; Desch, K K; Chefdeville, M; Vouters, G; Ranieri, A; Lami, S; Shekhtman, L; Dolgov, A; Bamberger, A; Landgraf, U; Kortner, O; Ferrero, A; Aune, S; Attie, D M; Bakas, G; Balossino, I; Tsigaridas, S; Surrow, B; Gnanvo, K A K; Feege, N M; Woody, C L; Bhattacharya, S; Capogni, M; Veenhof, R J; Tapan, I; Dangendorf, V; Monteiro bernades, C M; Castro serrato, H F; De oliveira, R; Ropelewski, L; Behnke, T; Boudry, V; Radicioni, E; Lai, A; Shemyakina, E; Giganon, A E; Titov, M; Papakrivopoulos, I; Komai, H; Van bakel, N A; Tchepel, V; Repond, J O; Li, Y; Kourkoumelis, C; Tzamarias, S; Majumdar, N; Kowalski, T; Da rocha azevedo, C D; Serra diaz cano, L; Alvarez puerta, V; Trabelsi, A; Riegler, W; Ketzer, B F; Rosemann, C G; Herrera munoz, D C; Drancourt, C; Mayet, F; Geerebaert, Y; De robertis, G; Felici, G; Scribano memoria, A; Cecchi, R; Dalla torre, S; Gregori, M; Buzulutskov, A; Schwegler, P; Sanchez nieto, F J; Colas, P M A; Gros, M; Neyret, D; Zito, M; Ferrer ribas, E; Breskin, A; Martoiu, V S; Purschke, M L; Loomba, D; Gasik, P J; Petridou, C; Kordas, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Bucciantonio, M; Biagi, S F; Ji, X; Kanaki, K; Zavazieva, D; Capeans garrido, M D M; Schindler, H; Kaminski, J; Krautscheid, T; Lippmann, C; Arora, R; Dafni, T; Garcia irastorza, I; Puill, V; Wicek, F B; Burmistrov, L; Singh, K P; Kroha, H; Kunne, F; Alexopoulos, T; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Bettoni, D; Heijhoff, K; Xiao, Z; Tzanakos, G; Leisos, A; Frullani, S; Sahin, O; Kalkan, Y; Giboni, K; Krieger, C; Breton, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Abbrescia, M; Erriquez, O; Paticchio, V; Cardini, A; Aloisio, A; Turini, N; Bressan, A; Tikhonov, Y; Schumacher, M; Simon, F R; Nowak, S; Herlant, S; Chaus, A; Fanourakis, G; Bressler, S; Homma, Y; Timmermans, J; Fonte, P; Underwood, D G; Azmoun, B; Fassouliotis, D; Wiacek, P; Dos santos covita, D; Monteiro da silva, A L; Yahlali haddou, N; Marques ferreira dos santos, J; Domingues amaro, F

    The proposed R&D collaboration, RD51, aims at facilitating the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. Advances in particle physics have always been enabled by parallel advances in radiation-detector technology. Radiation detection and imaging with gas-avalanche detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with a low material budget, have been playing an important role in many fields. Besides their widespread use in particle-physics and nuclear-physics experiments, gaseous detectors are employed in many other fields: astro-particle research and applications such as medical imaging, material science, and security inspection. While extensively employed at the LHC, RHIC, and other advanced HEP experiments, present gaseous detectors (wire-chambers, drift-tubes, resistive-plate chambers and others) have limitations which may prevent their use in future experiments. Present tec...

  18. LEP dominates LP-HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1991-09-15

    CERN's LEP electron-positron collider was the star of this year's major physics meeting - the Joint International Lepton-Photon Symposium and Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (LP-HEP) - held in Geneva from 25 July - 1 August.

  19. HEP Community White Paper on Software Trigger and Event Reconstruction: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Johannes; et al.

    2018-02-23

    Realizing the physics programs of the planned and upgraded high-energy physics (HEP) experiments over the next 10 years will require the HEP community to address a number of challenges in the area of software and computing. For this reason, the HEP software community has engaged in a planning process over the past two years, with the objective of identifying and prioritizing the research and development required to enable the next generation of HEP detectors to fulfill their full physics potential. The aim is to produce a Community White Paper which will describe the community strategy and a roadmap for software and computing research and development in HEP for the 2020s. The topics of event reconstruction and software triggers were considered by a joint working group and are summarized together in this document.

  20. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Ete, Remi; Irles, Adrian; Mirabito, Lauren; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Currently there is a lot of activity in R&D for future colliders. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each with different requirements for data acquisition and monitoring, which has generated different ad-hoc software solutions. We present DQM4HEP, a generic C++11 framework for online monitoring for particle physics experiments, and results obtained at several testbeams with detector prototypes using the framework as it was developed. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP and EUDAQ, which will allow these to work together as a complete and generic DAQ and monitoring system for any detector test, as part of AIDA-2020.

  1. Electronic circuit design with HEP computational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Mario

    1996-01-01

    CPSPICE is an electronic circuit statistical simulation program developed to run in a parallel environment under UNIX operating system and TCP/IP communications protocol, using CPS - Cooperative Processes Software , SPICE program and CERNLIB software package. It is part of a set of tools being develop, intended to help electronic engineers to design, model and simulate complex systems and circuits for High Energy Physics detectors, based on statistical methods, using the same software and methodology used by HEP physicists for data analysis. CPSPICE simulates electronic circuits by Monte Carlo method, through several different processes running simultaneously SPICE in UNIX parallel computers or workstation farms. Data transfer between CPS processes for a modified version of SPICE2G6 is done by RAM memory, but can also be done through hard disk files if no source files are available for the simulator, and for bigger simulation outputs files. Simulation results are written in a HBOOK file as a NTUPLE, to be examined by HBOOK in batch model or graphics, and analyzed by statistical procedures available. The HBOOK file be stored on hard disk for small amount of data, or into Exabyte tape file for large amount of data. HEP tools also helps circuit or component modeling, like MINUT program from CERNLIB, that implements Nelder and Mead Simplex and Gradient with or without derivatives algorithms, and can be used for design optimization.This paper presents CPSPICE program implementation. The scheme adopted is suitable to make parallel other electronic circuit simulators. (author)

  2. High-energy electron experiments (HEP) aboard the ERG (Arase) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takefumi; Takashima, Takeshi; Kasahara, Satoshi; Miyake, Wataru; Hirahara, Masafumi

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the design, calibration, and operation of high-energy electron experiments (HEP) aboard the exploration of energization and radiation in geospace (ERG) satellite. HEP detects 70 keV-2 MeV electrons and generates a three-dimensional velocity distribution for these electrons in every period of the satellite's rotation. Electrons are detected by two instruments, namely HEP-L and HEP-H, which differ in their geometric factor (G-factor) and range of energies they detect. HEP-L detects 70 keV-1 MeV electrons and its G-factor is 9.3 × 10-4 cm2 sr at maximum, while HEP-H observes 0.7-2 MeV electrons and its G-factor is 9.3 × 10-3 cm2 sr at maximum. The instruments utilize silicon strip detectors and application-specific integrated circuits to readout the incident charge signal from each strip. Before the launch, we calibrated the detectors by measuring the energy spectra of all strips using γ-ray sources. To evaluate the overall performance of the HEP instruments, we measured the energy spectra and angular responses with electron beams. After HEP was first put into operation, on February 2, 2017, it was demonstrated that the instruments performed normally. HEP began its exploratory observations with regard to energization and radiation in geospace in late March 2017. The initial results of the in-orbit observations are introduced briefly in this paper.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Databases and bookkeeping for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blobel, V.; Cnops, A.-M.; Fisher, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    The term database is explained as well as the requirements for data bases in High Energy physics (HEP). Also covered are the packages used in HEP, summary of user experience, database management systems, relational database management systems for HEP use and observations. (U.K.)

  4. LEP dominates LP-HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    CERN's LEP electron-positron collider was the star of this year's major physics meeting - the Joint International Lepton-Photon Symposium and Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics (LP-HEP) - held in Geneva from 25 July - 1 August

  5. Networking: the view from HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Shawn

    2017-10-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. National and global-scale collaborations that characterize HEP would not be feasible without ubiquitous capable networks. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. This paper will briefly discuss the history of networking in HEP, the current activities and challenges we are facing, and try to provide some understanding of where networking may be going in the next 5 to 10 years.

  6. HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Data Analysis and Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauerdick, Lothar; et al.

    2018-04-09

    At the heart of experimental high energy physics (HEP) is the development of facilities and instrumentation that provide sensitivity to new phenomena. Our understanding of nature at its most fundamental level is advanced through the analysis and interpretation of data from sophisticated detectors in HEP experiments. The goal of data analysis systems is to realize the maximum possible scientific potential of the data within the constraints of computing and human resources in the least time. To achieve this goal, future analysis systems should empower physicists to access the data with a high level of interactivity, reproducibility and throughput capability. As part of the HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper process, a working group on Data Analysis and Interpretation was formed to assess the challenges and opportunities in HEP data analysis and develop a roadmap for activities in this area over the next decade. In this report, the key findings and recommendations of the Data Analysis and Interpretation Working Group are presented.

  7. Towards Provenance and Traceability in CRISTAL for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Shamdasani, Jetendr; McClatchey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the CRISTAL object lifecycle management system and its use in provenance data management and the traceability of system events. This software was initially used to capture the construction and calibration of the CMS ECAL detector at CERN for later use by physicists in their data analysis. Some further uses of CRISTAL in different projects (CMS, neuGRID and N4U) are presented as examples of its flexible data model. From these examples, applications are drawn for the High Energy Physics domain and some initial ideas for its use in data preservation HEP are outlined in detail in this paper. Currently investigations are underway to gauge the feasibility of using the N4U Analysis Service or a derivative of it to address the requirements of data and analysis logging and provenance capture within the HEP long term data analysis environment.

  8. HEP visualization and video technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, P.; Swoboda, D.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scientific visualization for HEP analysis is briefly reviewed. The applications are highly interactive and very dynamical in nature. At Fermilab, E687, in collaboration with Visual Media Services, has produced a 1/2 hour video tape demonstrating the capability of SGI-EXPLORER applied to a Dalitz Analysis of Charm decay. This short contribution describes the authors experience with visualization and video technologies

  9. Microelectronics and nanoelectronics trends, and applications to HEP instrumentation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Lecture 1 : Microelectronics and HEP instrumentation CMOS technology has been the leading technology in microelectronics for more that 30 years thanks to its outstanding capability to miniaturization and low power consumption. A brief history of the microelectronics semiconductor industry is presented with applications for LEP and LHC experiments. Lecture 2: Future trends in microelectronics and nanoelectronics Trends in miniaturization point to the fabrication of ULSI nanoscale CMOS circuits by the end of the decade. Device issues and quantum effects in nanoscale MOS transistor will be discussed. Beyond CMOS technology, several technology avenues based on nanotechnology are under investigation. We will present some promising nanoelectronic devices and circuits based on Single Electron Tunneling (SET) transistor, nanowire, quantum dot and carbon nanotubes. Lecture 3: Monolithic pixel detectors Microvertex detectors for particle physics experiments currently uses hybrid silicon pixel detector. Novel emerging m...

  10. A reflection on Software Engineering in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carminati, Federico

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been making very extensive usage of computers to achieve its research goals. Fairly large program suites have been developed, maintained and used over the years and it is fair to say that, overall, HEP has been successful in software development. Yet, HEP software development has not used classical Software Engineering techniques, which have been invented and refined to help the production of large programmes. In this paper we will review the development of HEP code with its strengths and weaknesses. Using several well-known HEP software projects as examples, we will try to demonstrate that our community has used a form of Software Engineering, albeit in an informal manner. The software development techniques employed in these projects are indeed very close in many aspects to the modern tendencies of Software Engineering itself, in particular the so-called “agile technologies”. The paper will conclude with an outlook on the future of software development in HEP.

  11. Database characterisation of HEP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorkowski, Mariusz; Grancher, Eric; Topurov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Oracle-based database applications underpin many key aspects of operations for both the LHC accelerator and the LHC experiments. In addition to the overall performance, the predictability of the response is a key requirement to ensure smooth operations and delivering predictability requires understanding the applications from the ground up. Fortunately, database management systems provide several tools to check, measure, analyse and gather useful information. We present our experiences characterising the performance of several typical HEP database applications performance characterisations that were used to deliver improved predictability and scalability as well as for optimising the hardware platform choice as we migrated to new hardware and Oracle 11g.

  12. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  13. DQM4HEP - A Generic Online Monitor for Particle Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián; Coates, Tom; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Cussans, David; Éte, Remi; Mirabito, Laurent; Pingault, Antoine; Wing, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a lot of activity in R&D for future collider experiments. Multiple detector prototypes are being tested, each one with slightly different requirements regarding the format of the data to be analysed. This has generated a variety of ad-hoc solutions for data acquisition and online data monitoring. We present a generic C++11 online monitoring framework called DQM4HEP, which is designed for use as a generic online monitor for particle physics experiments, ranging from small tabletop experiments to large multi-detector testbeams, such as those currently ongoing/planned at the DESY2 or CERN SPS beamlines. We present results obtained using DQM4HEP at several testbeams where the CALICE AHCAL, SDHCAL and SiWECAL detector prototypes have been tested. During these testbeams, online analysis using DQM4HEP's framework has been developed and used. We also present the currently ongoing work to integrate DQM4HEP within the EUDAQ tool. EUDAQ is a tool for common and generic data acquisition within the ...

  14. A scintillation detector signal processing technique with active pileup prevention for extending scintillation count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from scintillation detectors is proposed for very high count-rate situations where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in determining the energy of the event. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. With this technique, pileup events can be recovered and the energy of every recovered event can be optimally measured despite multiple pileups. A prototype circuit demonstrated that the maximum count rates have been increased by more than 10 times, comparing to the standard pulse-shaping method, while the energy resolution is as good as that of the pulse shaping (or the fixed integration) method at normal count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec for NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired are 3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (commonly used in fast processing designs) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied

  15. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  16. A new experiment-independent mechanism to persistify and serve the detector geometry of ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Riccardo Maria; Boudreau, Joseph; Vukotic, Ilija

    2017-10-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the-fly on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS software framework “Athena”, which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. This operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geometry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify (in software development in general, and in HEP computing in particular, persistifying means taking an object which lives in memory only - for example because it was built on-the-fly while processing the experimental data, - serializing it and storing it on disk as a persistent object) and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. The new mechanism is composed by a new file format and the modules to make use of it. The new file format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a file, and it is especially optimized to describe large complex detectors with the minimum file size, making use of shared instances and storing compressed representations of geometry transformations. Then, the detector description can be read back in, to fully restore the in-memory geometry tree. Moreover, a dedicated REST API is being designed and developed to serve the geometry in standard exchange formats like JSON, to let users and applications download specific partial geometry information. With this new geometry persistification a new generation of applications could be developed, which can use the actual detector geometry while being platform-independent and experiment-independent.

  17. Data management in HEP: An approach

    CERN Document Server

    Furano, F

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe an approach to data access and data management in High Energy Physics (HEP), which privileges performance, simplicity and scalability, in storage systems that co-operate. We also show why the typical HEP workload is well positioned to access geographically distributed data repositories and then weigh the advantages and disadvantages of accessing data across the Wide Area Network. We discuss some points related to the architecture that a data access/management system should have in order to exploit these possibilities. Currently, this kind of methods were explored by using the xrootd/Scalla software suite, that is a workable example of a distributed non-transactional data repository for the HEP environment. The Scalla architecture naturally allows us to build globally federated repositories congruent with diverse HEP collaborations and their data access needs. These methodologies, however, are based on the concept of caching associated to a performant messaging system and to an efficie...

  18. ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antypas, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Riley, Katherine [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Williams, Tim [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wells, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Straatsma, Tjerk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Almgren, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amundson, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bailey, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bard, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bloom, K. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Bockelman, B. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Borgland, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Borrill, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Boughezal, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brower, R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Cowan, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Finkel, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frontiere, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fuess, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ge, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gnedin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gottlieb, S. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gutsche, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Han, T. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Heitmann, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoeche, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ko, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kononenko, O. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LeCompte, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Li, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lukic, Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ng, C. -K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Oleynik, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); O' Shea, B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Petravick, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Petriello, F. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Power, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qiang, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reina, L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Rizzo, T. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ryne, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schram, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spentzouris, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Toussaint, D. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Vay, J. -L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viren, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wurthwein, F. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Xiao, L. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    This draft report summarizes and details the findings, results, and recommendations derived from the ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review meeting held in June, 2015. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude -- and in some cases greater -- than that available currently. 2) The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability, of both facilities and researchers, to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. 3) Data rates and volumes from HEP experimental facilities are also straining the ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. 4) A close integration of HPC simulation and data analysis will aid greatly in interpreting results from HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. 5) Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP's research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources the experimental HEP program needs a) an established long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, b) an ability to map workflows onto HPC resources, c) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations that can have thousands of individual members, d) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be available at ASCR facilities, e) to build up and train a workforce capable of developing and using simulations and analysis to support HEP scientific research on next-generation systems.

  19. ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman; et al.

    2016-03-30

    This draft report summarizes and details the findings, results, and recommendations derived from the ASCR/HEP Exascale Requirements Review meeting held in June, 2015. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) Larger, more capable computing and data facilities are needed to support HEP science goals in all three frontiers: Energy, Intensity, and Cosmic. The expected scale of the demand at the 2025 timescale is at least two orders of magnitude -- and in some cases greater -- than that available currently. 2) The growth rate of data produced by simulations is overwhelming the current ability, of both facilities and researchers, to store and analyze it. Additional resources and new techniques for data analysis are urgently needed. 3) Data rates and volumes from HEP experimental facilities are also straining the ability to store and analyze large and complex data volumes. Appropriately configured leadership-class facilities can play a transformational role in enabling scientific discovery from these datasets. 4) A close integration of HPC simulation and data analysis will aid greatly in interpreting results from HEP experiments. Such an integration will minimize data movement and facilitate interdependent workflows. 5) Long-range planning between HEP and ASCR will be required to meet HEP's research needs. To best use ASCR HPC resources the experimental HEP program needs a) an established long-term plan for access to ASCR computational and data resources, b) an ability to map workflows onto HPC resources, c) the ability for ASCR facilities to accommodate workflows run by collaborations that can have thousands of individual members, d) to transition codes to the next-generation HPC platforms that will be available at ASCR facilities, e) to build up and train a workforce capable of developing and using simulations and analysis to support HEP scientific research on next-generation systems.

  20. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; Jayatilaka, Bo; Kowalkowski, Jim; Pivarski, Jim; Sehrish, Saba; Mantilla Surez, Cristina; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tran, Nhan

    2017-10-01

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and promise a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets and could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. In this talk, we present an active LHC Run 2 analysis, searching for dark matter with the CMS detector, as a testbed for Big Data technologies. We directly compare the traditional NTuple-based analysis with an equivalent analysis using Apache Spark on the Hadoop ecosystem and beyond. In both cases, we start the analysis with the official experiment data formats and produce publication physics plots. We will discuss advantages and disadvantages of each approach and give an outlook on further studies needed.

  1. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam-Bourdarios, C; Cameron, D; Filipčič, A; Lancon, E; Wu, W

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans. (paper)

  2. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdarios, Claire; Filipcic, Andrej; Lancon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte-Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans.

  3. Real-time UNIX in HEP data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, S.; Gaponenko, I.; Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Mornacchi, G.; Prigent, D.; Sanchez-Corral, E.; Skiadelli, M.; Toppers, A.; Duval, P.Y.; Ferrato, D.; Le Van Suu, A.; Qian, Z.; Rondot, C.; Ambrosini, G.; Fumagalli, G.; Aguer, M.; Huet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Today's experimentation in high energy physics is characterized by an increasing need for sensitivity to rare phenomena and complex physics signatures, which require the use of huge and sophisticated detectors and consequently a high performance readout and data acquisition. Multi-level triggering, hierarchical data collection and an always increasing amount of processing power, distributed throughout the data acquisition layers, will impose a number of features on the software environment, especially the need for a high level of standardization. Real-time UNIX seems, today, the best solution for the platform independence, operating system interface standards and real-time features necessary for data acquisition in HEP experiments. We present the results of the evaluation, in a realistic application environment, of a Real-Time UNIX operating system: the EP/LX real-time UNIX system. ((orig.))

  4. GEANT4: simulation for the next generation of HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Giani

    1996-01-01

    GEANT4 (RD44) is a world-wide collaboration of scientists aiming to create the detector simulation tool kit necessary for the next generation of HEP experiments. A large variety of requirements also come from heavy ions physics, CP violation physics, cosmic rays physics, medical applications and space science applications. In order to meet such requirements, a large degree of functionality and flexibility has to provided. GEANT4 is exploiting Object Oriented Technology to achieve these goals. The most relevant Object Oriented methodologies have been studied and a large number of tools and libraries have been investigated and evaluated. An overview of the GEANT4 analysis and design model will be given and the main components of the object models discussed. The main functionality of a first prototype will also be described. An overall view of the collaboration's structure and strategy will also be given. (author)

  5. High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasu, Yoshiji; Ichii, Shingo; Yashiro, Shigeo; Hirayama, Hideo; Kokufuda, Akihiro; Suzuki, Eishin.

    1993-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark programs are indispensable tools to select suitable computer for HEP application system. Industry standard benchmark programs can not be used for this kind of particular selection. The CERN and the SSC benchmark suite are famous HEP benchmark programs for this purpose. The CERN suite includes event reconstruction and event generator programs, while the SSC one includes event generators. In this paper, we found that the results from these two suites are not consistent. And, the result from the industry benchmark does not agree with either of these two. Besides, we describe comparison of benchmark results using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation program with ones from two HEP benchmark suites. Then, we found that the result from EGS4 in not consistent with the two ones. The industry standard of SPECmark values on various computer systems are not consistent with the EGS4 results either. Because of these inconsistencies, we point out the necessity of a standardization of HEP benchmark suites. Also, EGS4 benchmark suite should be developed for users of applications such as medical science, nuclear power plant, nuclear physics and high energy physics. (author)

  6. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    HEP software today is a rich and diverse domain in itself and exists within the mushrooming world of open source software. As HEP software developers and users we can be more productive and effective if our work and our choices are informed by a good knowledge of what others in our community have created or found useful. The HEP Software and Computing Knowledge Base, hepsoftware.org, was created to facilitate this by serving as a collection point and information exchange on software projects and products, services, training, computing facilities, and relating them to the projects, experiments, organizations and science domains that offer them or use them. It was created as a contribution to the HEP Software Foundation, for which a HEP S&C knowledge base was a much requested early deliverable. This contribution will motivate and describe the system, what it offers, its content and contributions both existing and needed, and its implementation (node.js based web service and javascript client app) which has emphasized ease of use for both users and contributors.

  7. NR/HEP: roadmap for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Sperhake, Ulrich; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Ferrari, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Physic in curved spacetime describes a multitude of phenomena, ranging from astrophysics to high-energy physics (HEP). The last few years have witnessed further progress on several fronts, including the accurate numerical evolution of the gravitational field equations, which now allows highly nonlinear phenomena to be tamed. Numerical relativity simulations, originally developed to understand strong-field astrophysical processes, could prove extremely useful to understand HEP processes such as trans-Planckian scattering and gauge–gravity dualities. We present a concise and comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art and important open problems in the field(s), along with a roadmap for the next years. (paper)

  8. CompHEP: developments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dubinin, M. N.; Ilyin, V. A.; Savrin, V. I.; CompHEP Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    New developments of the CompHEP package and its applications to the top quark and the Higgs boson physics at the LHC collider are reviewed. These developments were motivated mainly by the needs of experimental searches of DO (Tevatron) and CMS (LHC) collaborations where identification of the top quark and the Higgs boson in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) or possible extensions of the SM played an important role. New useful features of the CompHEP Graphics User Interface (GUI) are described.

  9. HEP meets ML award talk : XGBoost

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; CHEN, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Tianqi Chen and Tong He (team crowwork) have provided very early in the challenge to all participants XGBoost (for eXtreme Gradient Boosted). It is a parallelised software to train boost decision trees, which has been effectively used by many participants to the challenge. For this, they have won the "HEP meets ML" award which is the invitation to CERN happening today.

  10. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  11. Scaling HEP to Web size with RESTful protocols: The frontier example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykstra, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide-Web has scaled to an enormous size. The largest single contributor to its scalability is the HTTP protocol, particularly when used in conformity to REST (REpresentational State Transfer) principles. High Energy Physics (HEP) computing also has to scale to an enormous size, so it makes sense to base much of it on RESTful protocols. Frontier, which reads databases with an HTTP-based RESTful protocol, has successfully scaled to deliver production detector conditions data from both the CMS and ATLAS LHC detectors to hundreds of thousands of computer cores worldwide. Frontier is also able to re-use a large amount of standard software that runs the Web: on the clients, caches, and servers. I discuss the specific ways in which HTTP and REST enable high scalability for Frontier. I also briefly discuss another protocol used in HEP computing that is HTTP-based and RESTful, and another protocol that could benefit from it. My goal is to encourage HEP protocol designers to consider HTTP and REST whenever the same information is needed in many places.

  12. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Günter; Janczyk, Michael; Von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  13. Dynamic provisioning of a HEP computing infrastructure on a shared hybrid HPC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Konrad; Fleig, Georg; Hauth, Thomas; Janczyk, Michael; Quast, Günter; von Suchodoletz, Dirk; Wiebelt, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Experiments in high-energy physics (HEP) rely on elaborate hardware, software and computing systems to sustain the high data rates necessary to study rare physics processes. The Institut fr Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is a member of the CMS and Belle II experiments, located at the LHC and the Super-KEKB accelerators, respectively. These detectors share the requirement, that enormous amounts of measurement data must be processed and analyzed and a comparable amount of simulated events is required to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Classical HEP computing centers are dedicated sites which support multiple experiments and have the required software pre-installed. Nowadays, funding agencies encourage research groups to participate in shared HPC cluster models, where scientist from different domains use the same hardware to increase synergies. This shared usage proves to be challenging for HEP groups, due to their specialized software setup which includes a custom OS (often Scientific Linux), libraries and applications. To overcome this hurdle, the EKP and data center team of the University of Freiburg have developed a system to enable the HEP use case on a shared HPC cluster. To achieve this, an OpenStack-based virtualization layer is installed on top of a bare-metal cluster. While other user groups can run their batch jobs via the Moab workload manager directly on bare-metal, HEP users can request virtual machines with a specialized machine image which contains a dedicated operating system and software stack. In contrast to similar installations, in this hybrid setup, no static partitioning of the cluster into a physical and virtualized segment is required. As a unique feature, the placement of the virtual machine on the cluster nodes is scheduled by Moab and the job lifetime is coupled to the lifetime of the virtual machine. This allows for a seamless integration with the jobs sent by other user groups and honors the fairshare

  14. Psicopatologia e encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, J; Telles-Correia, D; Canhoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Desde Hipócrates que as alterações psiquiátricas causadas por doença hepática têm fascinado os médicos, mas só em finais do século XIX é que Marcel Nencki e Ivan Pavlov sugeriram a relação entre o aumento de concentração de amónia e a Encefalopatia Hepática (EH). O fruto da reacção entre a amónia e o glutamato (a glutamina, verdadeiro “Cavalo de Tróia da neurotoxidade da amónia”) continua sendo considerado o principal responsável pelas lesões neurológicas, confirmadas rec...

  15. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  16. HEP Science Network Requirements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans-Atlantic connectivity

  17. Support vector machines and generalisation in HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Adrian; Gamboa Goñi, Rodrigo; Hays, Jon; Stevenson, Tom

    2017-10-01

    We review the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and discuss examples of their use in a number of scenarios. Several SVM implementations have been used in HEP and we exemplify this algorithm using the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis (TMVA) implementation. We discuss examples relevant to HEP including background suppression for H → τ + τ - at the LHC with several different kernel functions. Performance benchmarking leads to the issue of generalisation of hyper-parameter selection. The avoidance of fine tuning (over training or over fitting) in MVA hyper-parameter optimisation, i.e. the ability to ensure generalised performance of an MVA that is independent of the training, validation and test samples, is of utmost importance. We discuss this issue and compare and contrast performance of hold-out and k-fold cross-validation. We have extended the SVM functionality and introduced tools to facilitate cross validation in TMVA and present results based on these improvements.

  18. GIFT: an HEP project for file transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, M.L.; Mirabelli, G.; Valente, E.

    1986-01-01

    Started in autumn 1983, GIFT (General Internetwork File Transfer) is a collaboration among several HEP centers, including CERN, Frascati, Oslo, Oxford, RAL and Rome. The collaboration was initially set up with the aim of studying the feasibility of a software system to allow direct file exchange between computers which do not share a common Virtual File Protocol. After the completion of this first phase, an implementation phase started and, since March 1985, an experimental service based on this system has been running at CERN between DECnet, CERNET and the UK Coloured Book protocols. The authors present the motivations that, together with previous gateway experiences, led to the definition of GIFT specifications and to the implementation of the GIFT Kernel system. The position of GIFT in the overall development framework of the networking facilities needed by large international collaborations within the HEP community is explained. (Auth.)

  19. Lipidose hepática felina

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fábia Capeleiro Henriques Siqueira da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Inicialmente descrita como uma doença idiopática por Barsanti et al em 1977, a lipidose hepática felina (LHF) é caracterizada actualmente como uma patologia secundária a um processo primário em mais de 95% dos casos. Esta patologia é mais comum em gatos com condição corporal elevada sujeitos a um período prolongado de privação de alimento. Os gatos apresentam alguma predisposição para a acumulação de triglicéridos a nível hepá...

  20. Modelling hadronic interactions in HEP MC generators

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2015-01-01

    HEP event generators aim to describe high-energy collisions in full exclusive detail. They combine perturbative matrix elements and parton showers with dynamical models of less well-understood phenomena such as hadronization, diffraction, and the so-called underlying event. We briefly summarise some of the main concepts relevant to the modelling of soft/inclusive hadron interactions in MC generators, in particular PYTHIA, with emphasis on questions recently highlighted by LHC data.

  1. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, John; Brun, René; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro; Carminati, Federico

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on the development of a highperformance prototype for particle transport. Achieving a good concurrency level on the emerging parallel architectures without a complete redesign of the framework can only be done by parallelizing at event level, or with a much larger effort at track level. Apart the shareable data structures, this typically implies a multiplication factor in terms of memory consumption compared to the single threaded version, together with sub-optimal handling of event processing tails. Besides this, the low level instruction pipelining of modern processors cannot be used efficiently to speedup the program. We have implemented a framework that allows scheduling vectors of particles to an arbitrary number of computing resources in a fine grain parallel approach. The talk will review the current optimisation activities within the SFT group with a particular emphasis on the development perspectives towards a simulation framework able to profit

  2. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  3. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  4. Future HEP Accelerators: The US Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha [Fermilab; Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-11-02

    Accelerator technology has advanced tremendously since the introduction of accelerators in the 1930s, and particle accelerators have become indispensable instruments in high energy physics (HEP) research to probe Nature at smaller and smaller distances. At present, accelerator facilities can be classified into Energy Frontier colliders that enable direct discoveries and studies of high mass scale particles and Intensity Frontier accelerators for exploration of extremely rare processes, usually at relatively low energies. The near term strategies of the global energy frontier particle physics community are centered on fully exploiting the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), while the intensity frontier HEP research is focused on studies of neutrinos at the MW-scale beam power accelerator facilities, such as Fermilab Main Injector with the planned PIP-II SRF linac project. A number of next generation accelerator facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium- and long-term future programs of accelerator-based HEP research. In this paper, we briefly review the post-LHC energy frontier options, both for lepton and hadron colliders in various regions of the world, as well as possible future intensity frontier accelerator facilities.

  5. A new experiment-agnostic mechanism to persistify and serve the detector geometry of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Vukotic, Ilija

    2017-01-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the-fly on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS software framework "Athena", which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. This operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geometry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. The new mechanism is composed by a new file format and the modules to make use of it. The new file format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a flat file, and it is e...

  6. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  7. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi- insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Kirti; Chatterji, S; Srivastava-Ajay, K; Shivpuri, R K

    2002-01-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction dep...

  8. The use of fast and thermal neutron detectors based on oxide scintillators in inspection systems for prevention of illegal transportation of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Grinyov, B. V.; Piven, L. A.; Pochet, T.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Lysetska, O. K.; Nagornaya, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present results of our studies aimed at practical application of an efficient method for detection of fast and thermal neutrons, which uses the process of inelastic scattering on atom nuclei present in inorganic scintillators. Due to energy transformation in inelastic scattering, the main fraction of gamma-radiation energy falls into the low-energy range (below 0.3 MeV). Detection in this range ensures efficiency that reaches up to 70% (as compared with 1% using conventional LiI(E)-techniques) and depends on the effective atomic number of the scintillator. The most evident practical application field for this method is inspection systems for prevention of illegal transportation of radioactive substances. Especially promising is the creation of a small-sized neutron detector for portable radioactive materials detection systems using the 'scintillator-avalanche photodiode' technology

  9. Hemangioendotelioma hepático del lactante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Jara Santamaría

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El hemangioendotelioma hepático infantil es una afectación poco común que se caracteriza por el desarrollo de una o varias neoplasias de origen vascular en el hígado. Dichas neoplasias generalmente son benignas, aunque tienen un potencial intermedio de transformarse en tumores malignos.  Objetivo: Dar a conocer el caso de una patología de presentación inusual, enfatizar su importancia dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales en estudios radiológicos con tomografía computarizada y ecografía abdominal. Descripción del caso: En el siguiente caso se presenta a un paciente lactante de dos meses de edad, nacido a las 38 semanas de gestación sin ninguna complicación aparente. Tras presentarse a la consulta debido al desarrollo de síntomas propios de la enfermedad, y tras realizar estudios de imagen, tomografía computarizada multicorte corporal y ecografía abdominal, se determinó que el paciente padece de múltiples hemangioendoteliomas hepáticos, sometido a terapia farmacológica y respiratoria además tratamiento intervencionista como embolización, sin tener mejoría, complicándose su cuadro clínico con insuficiencia cardiaca rara en esta patología y progresa hasta su fallecimiento. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de Hemangioendotelioma Hepático del lactante se puede hacer sin la exigencia de una confirmación histológica cuando los hallazgos clínicos, analíticos y de imagen son muy sugestivos. Es raro el curso de esta enfermedad con Insuficiencia cardiaca y fallecimiento del lactante.

  10. Implementation of the HEPS Schoolkit: initial steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Woynarovska, Barbara; Samdal, Oddrun

    This report is an output of one of the work packages of the HEPS project (WP8, Research on Implementation). It is based on a survey administered with the SHE national coordinators, and additional interviews related to the survey. The purpose is to learn at early stages of implementation, to combi...... this insight with the knowledge and lessons learnt from the evaluation, and on this basis, to qualify NIGZ’s support in further development of the SHE network in a continuous and sustainable way....

  11. Online production validation in a HEP environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harenberg, T.; Lang, N.; Maettig, P.; Sandhoff, M.; Volkmer, F. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kuhl, T. [DESY Zeuthen, Zeuthen (Germany); Schwanenberger, C. [DESY Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    In high energy physics (HEP) event simulations, petabytes of data are processed and stored requiring millions of CPU-years. This enormous demand for computing resources is handled by centers distributed worldwide, which form part of the LHC computing grid. The consumption of such an important amount of resources demands for an efficient production of simulation and for the early detection of potential errors. In this article we present a new monitoring framework for grid environments, which polls a measure of data quality during job execution. This online monitoring facilitates the early detection of configuration errors (specially in simulation parameters), and may thus contribute to significant savings in computing resources. (orig.)

  12. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  13. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 μM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 μM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 μM and for 20 h with 5 μM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult

  14. II - Multivariate Classification and Machine Learning in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the history of deep-learning is given and the difference to traditional artificial neural networks is discussed. Advanced methods like convoluted neural networks, recurrent neural networks and unsupervised training are introduced. Interesting examples from this emerging field outside HEP are presented. Possible applications in HEP are discussed.

  15. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  16. Backward particles in 4Hep reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Lebedev, R.M.; Pestova, G.D.; Shimansky, S.S.; Khairetdinov, K.U.; Sobczak, T.; Stepaniak, J.

    1988-08-01

    The invariant differential cross sections were investigated as functions of different backward particle momenta in 4 Hep interactions. Two data samples were used at the 4 He incident momenta 8.6 GeV/c and 13.6 GeV/c. The data were obtained by means of a 1-m hydrogen bubble chamber at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Dubna. The spectra for nuclei showed a monotonous exponentially falling trend at both momenta. Some irregularities were observed in the nucleon and Π + spectra and these were especially visible at a lower beam momentum. The experimental data were satisfactorily reproduced by taking into account the Fermi motion and intermediate Δ-isobar states. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  17. Detector independent cellular automaton algorithm for track reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisel, Ivan; Kulakov, Igor; Zyzak, Maksym [Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Track reconstruction is one of the most challenging problems of data analysis in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, which have to process per second of the order of 10{sup 7} events with high track multiplicity and density, registered by detectors of different types and, in many cases, located in non-homogeneous magnetic field. Creation of reconstruction package common for all experiments is considered to be important in order to consolidate efforts. The cellular automaton (CA) track reconstruction approach has been used successfully in many HEP experiments. It is very simple, efficient, local and parallel. Meanwhile it is intrinsically independent of detector geometry and good candidate for common track reconstruction. The CA implementation for the CBM experiment has been generalized and applied to the ALICE ITS and STAR HFT detectors. Tests with simulated collisions have been performed. The track reconstruction efficiencies are at the level of 95% for majority of the signal tracks for all detectors.

  18. The HEP Game : Simulator Game of Particle Detector & HEP Laboratory Facilities REPORT - Nathaniel Chandra Harjanto - Indonesia- CERN Summer Studentship 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Harjanto, Nathaniel Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of Higgs boson on 4 July 2012, CERN has increased its Outreach aspect to allow more people to gain knowledge about particle physics and the researches related to it especially in CERN. As part of CERN’s Outreach effort to spread the knowledge throughout the world, we work on a collaboration project between ATLAS and LHCb experiments to make a multi-platform game to educate players about particle physics and CERN also let them have fun at the same time so the education process is a lot more effective. The knowledge of Particle Physics is incomprehensible for most people such as children, teenagers, and people in general who are not being specifically a particle physicist. Therefore, there is a need to promote and spread the knowledge on particle physics throughout the world, and CERN as the world leading institution in particle physics research plays an essential role. Particle physics is not a simple matter that is easily understood by most people, thus the challenge is to make an educat...

  19. The HEP Game : Simulator Game of Particle Detector & HEP Laboratory Facilities PRESENTATION - Nathaniel Chandra Harjanto - Indonesia- CERN Summer Studentship 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Harjanto, Nathaniel Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of Higgs boson on 4 July 2012, CERN has increased its Outreach aspect to allow more people to gain knowledge about particle physics and the researches related to it especially in CERN. As part of CERN’s Outreach effort to spread the knowledge throughout the world, we work on a collaboration project between ATLAS and LHCb experiments to make a multi-platform game to educate players about particle physics and CERN also let them have fun at the same time so the education process is a lot more effective. The knowledge of Particle Physics is incomprehensible for most people such as children, teenagers, and people in general who are not being specifically a particle physicist. Therefore, there is a need to promote and spread the knowledge on particle physics throughout the world, and CERN as the world leading institution in particle physics research plays an essential role. Particle physics is not a simple matter that is easily understood by most people, thus the challenge is to make an educat...

  20. The HEP Game : Simulator Game of Particle Detector & HEP Laboratory Facilities POSTER - Nathaniel Chandra Harjanto - Indonesia- CERN Summer Studentship 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Harjanto, Nathaniel Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of Higgs boson on 4 July 2012, CERN has increased its Outreach aspect to allow more people to gain knowledge about particle physics and the researches related to it especially in CERN. As part of CERN’s Outreach effort to spread the knowledge throughout the world, we work on a collaboration project between ATLAS and LHCb experiments to make a multi-platform game to educate players about particle physics and CERN also let them have fun at the same time so the education process is a lot more effective. The knowledge of Particle Physics is incomprehensible for most people such as children, teenagers, and people in general who are not being specifically a particle physicist. Therefore, there is a need to promote and spread the knowledge on particle physics throughout the world, and CERN as the world leading institution in particle physics research plays an essential role. Particle physics is not a simple matter that is easily understood by most people, thus the challenge is to make an educat...

  1. Investigating free radical generation in HepG2 cells using immuno-spin trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Yuya; Summers, Fiona A; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki; Mason, Ronald P

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress can induce the generation of free radicals, which are believed to play an important role in both physiological and pathological processes and a number of diseases such as cancer. Therefore, it is important to identify chemicals which are capable of inducing oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four environmental chemicals, aniline, nitrosobenzene (NB), N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (DMNA), to induce free radicals and cellular damage in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays and morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Free radicals were detected by immuno-spin trapping (IST) in in-cell western experiments or in confocal microscopy experiments to determine the subcellular localization of free radical generation. DMNA induced free radical generation, LDH release and morphological changes in HepG2 cells whereas aniline, NB and DMA did not. Confocal microscopy showed that DMNA induced free radical generation mainly in the cytosol. Preincubation of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine and 2,2'-dipyridyl significantly prevented free radical generation upon subsequent incubation with DMNA, whereas preincubation with apocynin and dimethyl sulfoxide did not. These results suggest that DMNA induces oxidative stress and that reactive oxygen species, metals and free radical generation play a critical role in DMNA-induced cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A.; Bitzes, G.; Dotti, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Jarp, S.; Szostek, P.; Valsan, L.; Botezatu, M.; Leduc, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  3. Encefalopatia hepática porto-sistémica

    OpenAIRE

    Massinha, Paulo Sérgio Arruda

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho de projecto de mestrado em Medicina (Gastroenterologia), apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra A encefalopatia hepática é uma das principais complicações da doença hepática crónica e pode estar presente em 50 a 70% de todos os pacientes cirróticos, incluindo aqueles com alterações demonstráveis apenas por testes psicométricos, sendo uma complicação de grande relevância clínica. Na insuficiência hepática aguda, os doentes podem sucumbir a uma mo...

  4. Does the Intel Xeon Phi processor fit HEP workloads?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A; Bitzes, G; Dotti, A; Lazzaro, A; Jarp, S; Szostek, P; Valsan, L; Botezatu, M; Leduc, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the five years of CERN openlab's efforts focused on the Intel Xeon Phi co-processor, from the time of its inception to public release. We consider the architecture of the device vis a vis the characteristics of HEP software and identify key opportunities for HEP processing, as well as scaling limitations. We report on improvements and speedups linked to parallelization and vectorization on benchmarks involving software frameworks such as Geant4 and ROOT. Finally, we extrapolate current software and hardware trends and project them onto accelerators of the future, with the specifics of offline and online HEP processing in mind.

  5. A Security Monitoring Framework For Virtualization Based HEP Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Ramirez, A.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Grigoras, C.; Betev, L.; Lara, C.; Kebschull, U.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) distributed computing infrastructures require automatic tools to monitor, analyze and react to potential security incidents. These tools should collect and inspect data such as resource consumption, logs and sequence of system calls for detecting anomalies that indicate the presence of a malicious agent. They should also be able to perform automated reactions to attacks without administrator intervention. We describe a novel framework that accomplishes these requirements, with a proof of concept implementation for the ALICE experiment at CERN. We show how we achieve a fully virtualized environment that improves the security by isolating services and Jobs without a significant performance impact. We also describe a collected dataset for Machine Learning based Intrusion Prevention and Detection Systems on Grid computing. This dataset is composed of resource consumption measurements (such as CPU, RAM and network traffic), logfiles from operating system services, and system call data collected from production Jobs running in an ALICE Grid test site and a big set of malware samples. This malware set was collected from security research sites. Based on this dataset, we will proceed to develop Machine Learning algorithms able to detect malicious Jobs.

  6. Deploying HEP applications using Xen and Globus Virtual Workspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A; Desmarais, R; Gable, I; Grundy, D; P-Brown, D; Seuster, R; Vanderster, D C; Sobie, R; Charbonneau, A; Enge, R

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of HEP applications in heterogeneous grid environments can be challenging because many of the applications are dependent on specific OS versions and have a large number of complex software dependencies. Virtual machine monitors such as Xen could be used to package HEP applications, complete with their execution environments, to run on resources that do not meet their operating system requirements. Our previous work has shown HEP applications running within Xen suffer little or no performance penalty as a result of virtualization. However, a practical strategy is required for remotely deploying, booting, and controlling virtual machines on a remote cluster. One tool that promises to overcome the deployment hurdles using standard grid technology is the Globus Virtual Workspaces project. We describe strategies for the deployment of Xen virtual machines using Globus Virtual Workspace middleware that simplify the deployment of HEP applications

  7. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  8. Big Data in HEP: A comprehensive use case study

    OpenAIRE

    Gutsche, Oliver; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elmer, Peter; Jayatilaka, Bo; Kowalkowski, Jim; Pivarski, Jim; Sehrish, Saba; Surez, Cristina Mantilla; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tran, Nhan

    2017-01-01

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the worlds largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems collectively called Big Data technologies have emerged to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats),...

  9. NiMax system for hadronic event generators in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.S.; Komogorov, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have suggested a new approach to the development and use of Monte Carlo event generators in high-energy physics (HEP). It is a component approach, when a complex numerical model is composed of standard components. Our approach opens a way to organize a library of HEP model components and provides a great flexibility for the construction of very powerful and realistic numerical models. To support this approach we have designed the NiMax software system (framework) written in C++

  10. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  11. Encefalopatía hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Otero

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El término encefalopatía hepática describe un amplio espectro de alteraciones neuropsiquiátricas, generalmente reversibles, en pacientes con significativa alteración de la función hepática o cortocircuitos portosistémicos, quirúrgicos o transyugulares (TIPS:Transyugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt. Probablemente la derivación del flujo sanguíneo portal no es suficiente para causar encefalopatía, ya que esta es rara durante las trombosis extrahepáticas de la vena porta. Cada vez más, el termino encefalopatía hepática ha ido reemplazado al de encefalopatía porto sistémica, entre otras razones porque este último tiene el inconveniente de no ser fácilmente aplicable a la encefalopatía que acompaña a la falla hepática aguda o falla hepática fulminante, la cual tiene diferencias con la que se presenta en la falla hepática crónica, sin embargo, pueden ser utilizados indistintamente.

  12. West Foster Creek Expansion Project 2007 HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    During April and May 2007, the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980, 1980a) analyses on five parcels collectively designated the West Foster Creek Expansion Project (3,756.48 acres). The purpose of the HEP analyses was to document extant habitat conditions and to determine how many baseline/protection habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding maintenance and enhancement activities on project lands as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. HEP evaluation models included mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), sharp-tailed grouse, (Tympanuchus phasianellus), Bobcat (Lynx rufus), mink (Neovison vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Combined 2007 baseline HEP results show that 4,946.44 habitat units were generated on 3,756.48 acres (1.32 HUs per acre). HEP results/habitat conditions were generally similar for like cover types at all sites. Unlike crediting of habitat units (HUs) on other WDFW owned lands, Bonneville Power Administration received full credit for HUs generated on these sites.

  13. HEP@Home - A distributed computing system based on BOINC

    CERN Document Server

    Amorim, A; Andrade, P; Amorim, Antonio; Villate, Jaime; Andrade, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Project SETI@HOME has proven to be one of the biggest successes of distributed computing during the last years. With a quite simple approach SETI manages to process large volumes of data using a vast amount of distributed computer power. To extend the generic usage of this kind of distributed computing tools, BOINC is being developed. In this paper we propose HEP@HOME, a BOINC version tailored to the specific requirements of the High Energy Physics (HEP) community. The HEP@HOME will be able to process large amounts of data using virtually unlimited computing power, as BOINC does, and it should be able to work according to HEP specifications. In HEP the amounts of data to be analyzed or reconstructed are of central importance. Therefore, one of the design principles of this tool is to avoid data transfer. This will allow scientists to run their analysis applications and taking advantage of a large number of CPUs. This tool also satisfies other important requirements in HEP, namely, security, fault-tolerance an...

  14. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  15. Experience with HEP analysis on mounted filesystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, Patrick; Gasthuber, Martin; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    We present results on different approaches on mounted filesystems in use or under investigation at DESY. dCache, established since long as a storage system for physics data has implemented the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol. New performance results will be shown with the most current version of the dCache server. In addition to the native usage of the mounted filesystem in a LAN environment, the results are given for the performance of the dCache NFS v4.1/pNFS in WAN case. Several commercial vendors are currently in alpha or beta phase of adding the NFS v4.1/pNFS protocol to their storage appliances. We will test some of these vendor solutions for their readiness for HEP analysis. DESY has recently purchased an IBM Sonas system. We will present the result of a thorough performance evaluation using the native protocols NFS (v3 or v4) and GPFS. As the emphasis is on the usability for end user analysis, we will use latest ROOT versions and current end user analysis code for benchmark scenarios.

  16. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  17. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  18. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  19. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  20. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  1. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector, therefore, in view of Run-2 of LHC, the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and an additional optical link per module was added to overcome in some layers the readout bandwidth limitation when LHC will exceed the nominal peak luminosity by almost a factor of 3. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its operational experience and Pixel Detector performance in LHC.

  2. Development of triple GEM detector for a heavy ion physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Biswal, K.; Gupta, R.

    2015-01-01

    Building and testing of micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects, is an advance area of research in the field of detector development. We have carried out the long-term stability test and the uniformity of the relative gain over a GEM detector. The method of long-term test and uniformity of the relative gain and the results are presented in this article

  3. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  4. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  5. FPGA-based fast pipeline-parameterized-sorter implementation for first level trigger systems in HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a behavioral model of fast, pipeline sorter dedicated to electronic triggering applications in the experiments of high energy physics (HEP). The sorter was implemented in FPGA for the RPC Muon Detector of CMS experiment (LHC accelerator, CERN) and for Backing Calorimeter (BAC) in ZEUS experiment (HERA accelerator, DESY) . A general principle of the applied sorting algorithm was presented. The implementation results were debated in detail for chosen FPGA chips by ALTERA and XILINX manufactures. The realization costs have been calculated as function of system parameters.

  6. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  7. Software Development and Testing Approach and Challenges in a distributed HEP Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Burckhart-Chromek, Doris

    2007-01-01

    In developing the ATLAS [1] Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) software, the team is applying the iterative waterfall model, evolutionary process management, formal software inspection, and lightweight review techniques. The long preparation phase, with a geographically widespread development team required that the standard techniques be adapted to this HEP environment. The testing process is receiving special attention. Unit tests and check targets in nightly project builds form the basis for the subsequent software project release testing. The integrated software is then being run on computing farms that give further opportunites for gaining experience, fault finding, and acquiring ideas for improvement. Dedicated tests on a farm of up to 1000 nodes address the large-scale aspect of the project. Integration test activities on the experimental site include the special purpose-built event readout hardware. Deployment in detector commissioning starts the countdown towards running the final ATLAS experiment. T...

  8. GEANT 4: an Object-Oriented toolkit for simulation in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Kent, P; Sirotenko, V; Komogorov, M; Pavliouk, A; Greeniaus, G L; Kayal, P I; Routenburg, P; Tanaka, S; Duellmann, D; Innocente, V; Paoli, S; Ranjard, F; Riccardi, F; Ruggier, M; Shiers, J; Egli, S; Kimura, A; Urban, P; Prior, S; Walkden, A; Forti, A; Magni, S; Strahl, K; Kokoulin, R; Braune, K; Volcker, C; Ullrich, T; Takahata, M; Nieminen, P; Ballocchi, G; Mora De Freitas, P; Verderi, M; Rybine, A; Langeveld, W; Nagamatsu, M; Hamatsu, R; Katayama, N; Chuma, J; Felawka, L; Gumplinger, P; Axen, D

    2002-01-01

    %RD44 %title\\\\ \\\\The GEANT4 software has been developed by a world-wide collaboration of about 100 scientists from over 40 institutions and laboratories participating in more than 10 experiments in Europe, Russia, Japan, Canada, and the United States. The GEANT4 detector simulation toolkit has been designed for the next generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, with primary requirements from the LHC, the CP violation, and the heavy ions experiments. In addition, GEANT4 also meets the requirements from the space and medical communities, thanks to very low energy extensions developed in a joint project with the European Space Agency (ESA). GEANT4 has exploited advanced software engineering techniques (for example PSS-05) and Object-Oriented technology to improve the validation process of the physics results, and in the same time to make possible the distributed software design and development in the world-wide collaboration. Fifteen specialised working groups have been responsible for fields as diver...

  9. Quality control of the SiPM in the application of large HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongzheng; Cheng Yue; Wang Kaijun; Li Bocheng; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale high-energy physics (HEP) experiments have strict requirements on the reliability, consistency and service life for the detectors, it is imperative to set up a quality control system for the involved Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The essential parameters of the SiPMs are numerous, including reversed leakage current, breakdown voltage, dark count rate, gain, photon detection efficiency, pulse high distribution, temperature coefficient and optical crosstalk etc., characterizing of SiPM should follow an optimal measurement procedures and rules to realize the rapid screening and strict quality control. This paper will introduce the new progress of 1 mm × 1 mm large dynamic range SiPM developed in the Novel Device Laboratory, Beijing Normal University, as well as the measurement guidelines and procedures from chips to packaged devices. (authors)

  10. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  11. Shillapoo Wildlife Area 2007 Follow-up HEP Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-03-01

    In April and May 2007 the Regional HEP Team (RHT) conducted a follow-up HEP analysis on the Egger (612 acres) and Herzog (210 acres) parcels located at the north end of the Shillapoo Wildlife Area. The Egger and Herzog parcels have been managed with Bonneville Power Administration funds since acquired in 1998 and 2001 respectively. Slightly more than 936 habitat units (936.47) or 1.14 HUs per acre was generated as an outcome of the 2007 follow-up HEP surveys. Results included 1.65 black-capped chickadee HUs, 280.57 great blue heron HUs, 581.45 Canada goose HUs, 40 mallard HUs, and 32.80 mink HUs. Introduction A follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) (USFWS 1980) analysis was conducted by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's (CBFWA) Regional HEP Team (RHT) during April and May 2007 to document changes in habitat quality and to determine the number of habitat units (HUs) to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing operation and maintenance (O&M) funds since WDFW acquired the parcels. The 2007 follow-up HEP evaluation was limited to Shillapoo Wildlife Area (SWA) parcels purchased with Bonneville Power Administration funds. D. Budd (pers. comm.) reported WDFW purchased the 612 acre Egger Farms parcel on November 2, 1998 for $1,737,0001 and the 210 acre Herzog acquisition on June 21, 2001 for $500,000 with Memorandum of Agreement funds (BPA and WDFW 1996) as partial fulfillment of BPA's wildlife mitigation obligation for construction of Bonneville and John Day Dams (Rasmussen and Wright 1989). Anticipating the eventual acquisition of the Egger and Herzog properties, WDFW conducted HEP surveys on these lands in 1994 to determine the potential number of habitat units to be credited to BPA. As a result, HEP surveys and habitat unit calculations were completed as much as seven years prior to acquiring the sites. The term 'Shillapoo Wildlife Area' will be used to describe only the Herzog and Egger parcels in this

  12. Cytotoxicity assessments of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The Pharmacological potential, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities of Portulaca oleracea (PO) and Petroselinum sativum (PS) extracts are well known. However, the preventive properties against hepatocellular carcinoma cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to study the anticancer activity of seed extracts of PO and PS on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). The HepG2 cells were exposed with 5-500 μg/ml of PO and PS for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscope were studied. The results showed that PO and PS extracts significantly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 in a concentration dependent manner. The cell viability was recorded to be 67%, 31%, 21%, and 17% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by MTT assay and 91%, 62%, 27%, and 18% at 50, 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PO, respectively by NRU assay. PS exposed HepG2 cells with 100 μg/ml and higher concentrations were also found to be cytotoxic. The decrease in the cell viability at 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml of PS was recorded as 70%, 33%, and 15% by MTT assay and 63%, 29%, and 17%, respectively by NRU assay. Results also showed that PO and PS exposed cells reduced the normal morphology and adhesion capacity of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells exposed with 50 μg/ml and higher concentrations of PO and PS lost their typical morphology, become smaller in size, and appeared in rounded bodies. Our results demonstrated preliminary screening of anticancer activity of Portulaca oleracea and Petroselinum sativum extracts against HepG2 cells, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  13. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  14. Encefalopatia hepática: estudo de 50 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio de Lima Resende

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo retrospectivo de 50 pacientes com encefalopatia hepática atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto a partir de 1959 e discutem os aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e anátomo-patológicos. Expõem os diagnósticos das hepatopatias, os fatores precipitantes dos episódios de coma e pré-coma hepático e enfatizam o papel da gasometria arterial no estabelecimento do diagnóstico.

  15. Fasudil inhibits proliferation and migration of Hep-2 laryngeal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaowen Zhang,1 Nan Wu2 1Medical Research Center, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 2The Core Laboratory for Public Health Science and Practice, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China Background: Rho-kinase signal pathway is a new target for cancer therapy. Fasudil, a selective Rho-kinase inhibitor, is found to exert antitumor effects on several types of cancer, but whether fasudil has antitumor effects on laryngeal carcinoma is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fasudil on laryngeal carcinoma and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in this process. Methods: After treatment with fasudil, changes in biological behaviors, including the growth, proliferation, clone formation, apoptosis, and migration of human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells were observed. The influences on apoptotic protease activity factor-1 (APAF-1-mediated apoptosis pathway and the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by Western blotting and gelatin zymography assay. Results: Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of fasudil to Hep-2 cells was ~3.40×103 µM (95% CI: 2.53–4.66×103 µM. Moreover, fasudil treatment significantly decreased the ability of growth, proliferation, clone formation, and migration of Hep-2 cells, while remarkably increased the apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the expressions of APAF-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3 significantly increased in fasudil treatment group. Meanwhile, fasudil led to a remarkable decrease in the expressions and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion: Our findings first demonstrate that fasudil not only inhibits the proliferation of laryngeal carcinoma cells through activating APAF-1-mediated apoptosis pathway, but also prevents migration by inhibiting the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Therefore, fasudil is an attractive antitumor drug candidate for the treatment of laryngeal carcinoma

  16. Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral

    OpenAIRE

    J Salas Salvado; A Recaséns Garica

    1993-01-01

    Liver disorders induced by parenteral nutrition Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral Liver disorders induced by parenteral nutrition Alteraciones hepáticas inducidas por la nutrición parenteral

  17. Computing challenges in HEP for WLHC grid

    CERN Document Server

    Muralidharan, Servesh

    2017-01-01

    As CERN moves towards preparation for increasing the luminosity of the particle beam towards HL-LHC, predictions shows computing demand would out grow our conservative scaling estimates by over ten times. Fortunately we are talking about a time scale of roughly ten years to develop new techniques and novel solutions to address this gap in compute resources. Experiments at CERN face a unique scenario where in they need to scale both latency sensitive workloads such as data acquisition of the detectors and throughput based ones such as simulations and reconstruction of high level events and physics processes. In this talk we cover some of the ongoing research at tier-0 in CERN which investigates several aspects of throughput sensitive workloads that consume significant compute cycles.

  18. Hopfield neural network in HEP track reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muresan, Raluca; Pentia, Mircea

    1996-01-01

    This work uses neural network technique (Hopfield method) to reconstruct particle tracks starting from a data set obtained with a coordinate detector system placed around a high energy accelerated particle interaction region. A learning algorithm for finding the optimal connection of the signal points have been elaborated and tested. We used a single layer neutral network with constraints in order to obtain the particle tracks drawn through the detected signal points. The dynamics of the systems is given by the MFT equations which determine the system evolution to a minimum energy function. We carried out a computing program that has been tested on a lot of Monte Carlo simulated data. With this program we obtained good results even for noise/signal ratio 200. (authors)

  19. Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0402 TITLE: Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2016 – 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Characterizing the Role of Hep27 in Liver and Colorectal Cancer Stress Tolerance...project has not demonstrated that Hep27 plays a role in ROS tolerance in liver cancer cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hep27, ROS, stress , cancer 16. SECURITY

  20. Development of 3D integrated circuits for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    Three dimensional integrated circuits are well suited to improving circuit bandwidth and increasing effective circuit density. Recent advances in industry have made 3D integrated circuits an option for HEP. The 3D technology is discussed in this paper and several examples are shown. Design of a 3D demonstrator chip for the ILC is presented

  1. I - Multivariate Classification and Machine Learning in HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Traditional multivariate methods for classification (Stochastic Gradient Boosted Decision Trees and Multi-Layer Perceptrons) are explained in theory and practise using examples from HEP. General aspects of multivariate classification are discussed, in particular different regularisation techniques. Afterwards, data-driven techniques are introduced and compared to MC-based methods.

  2. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, R; Raae, L

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  3. A community Q&A for HEP Software and Computing ?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    How often do you use StackOverflow or ServerFault to find information in your daily work? Would you be interested in a community Q&A site for HEP Software and Computing, for instance a dedicated StackExchange site? I looked into this question...

  4. Proceedings of workshop on 'future in HEP computing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yukio; Amako, Katsuya; Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1993-12-01

    The workshop was held on March 11 and 12, 1993, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK). The large flow from the conventional system centering around large versatile computers to the down-sizing taking distributed processing systems in it is formed, but its destination is not yet seen. As the concrete themes of 'future in HEP computing', problems toward down-sizing and the approach, future perspective of the networks, and adaptation of software engineering and pointing to object were taken up. At the workshop, lectures were given on requirements in HEP computing, possible solutions from Hitachi and Fujitsu, and network computing with work-stations regarding down-sizing and HEP computing; approaches in INS and KEK regarding future computing system in HEP laboratories; user requirement for future network, network service available in 1995-2005, multi-media communication and network protocols regarding future networks; object-oriented approach for software development, OOP for real time data acquisition and accelerator control; ProdiG activities and future of FORTRAN, F90 and HPF regarding OOP and physics, and trends in software development methodology. (K.I.)

  5. Trisegmentectomia hepática direita por videolaparoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Autran C. Machado

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em 2007 os autores descreveram a primeira hepatectomia direita por videolaparoscopia realizada no Brasil. Hepatectomia direita ampliada, também conhecida como trisegmentectomia direita, é procedimento altamente complexo e implica em grande retirada do volume hepático. Os autores descrevem a primeira trisegmentectomia direita por videolaparoscopia realizada no Brasil. TÉCNICA: O paciente é colocado em posição supina em decúbito lateral esquerdo. O cirurgião se coloca entre as pernas da paciente. Utilizamos cinco trocartes, três de 12 mm e dois de 5 mm. Devido à embolização prévia da veia porta direita, o hilo hepático não é dissecado. O pedículo portal direito é seccionado com grampeador laparoscópico de carga vascular por meio de acesso intra-hepático, segundo técnica previamente descrita pelos autores. A seguir procede-se a mobilização do fígado direito seguido de dissecção da veia cava retro-hepática e secção da veia hepática direita. Estes passos são realizados sem manobra de Pringle. O fígado é seccionado com combinação de bisturi harmônico e grampeador endoscópico. O pedículo do segmento 4 é seccionado dentro do fígado. O espécime é retirado por meio de incisão supra-púbica e a área cruenta é revista para verificar hemostasia. O procedimento é encerrado e dreno de sistema fechado é posicionado junto à área cruenta. CONCLUSÃO: Trisegmentectomia hepática direita por videolaparoscopia é procedimento factível e seguro e deve ser considerado para pacientes selecionados. Este procedimento deve ser realizado em centros especializados e por cirurgiões com experiência tanto em cirurgia hepática como cirurgia laparoscópica avançada.

  6. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  10. Apoptosis in HEp-2 cells infected with Ureaplasma diversum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Aline Teixeira; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Santos, Angelita Maria Oliveira Gusmão; Martins, Hellen Braga; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Rezende, Izadora Souza; Andrade, Ewerton Ferraz; Campos, Guilherme Barreto; Lobão, Tássia Neves; Cortez, Beatriz Araujo; Monezi, Telma Alvez; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia Maria; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2014-09-04

    Bacterial pathogens have many strategies for infecting and persisting in host cells. Adhesion, invasion and intracellular life are important features in the biology of mollicutes. The intracellular location of Ureaplasma diversum may trigger disturbances in the host cell. This includes activation or inhibition of pro and anti-apoptotic factors, which facilitate the development of host damage. The aim of the present study was to associate U. diversum infection in HEp-2 cells and apoptosis induction. Cells were infected for 72hs with four U. diversum clinical isolates and an ATCC strain. The U. diversum invasion was analyzed by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. The apoptosis was evaluated using pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, and FITC Annexin V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit. The number of internalized ureaplasma in HEp-2 cells increased significantly throughout the infection. The flow cytometry analysis with fluorochromes to detect membrane depolarization and gene expression for caspase 2, 3 and 9 increased in infected cells after 24 hours. However, after 72 hours a considerable decrease of apoptotic cells was observed. The data suggests that apoptosis may be initially induced by some isolates in association with HEp-2 cells, but over time, there was no evidence of apoptosis in the presence of ureaplasma and HEp-2 cells. The initial increase and then decrease in apoptosis could be related to bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPS). Moreover, the isolates of U. diversum presented differences in the studied parameters for apoptosis. It was also observed that the amount of microorganisms was not proportional to the induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 cells.

  11. A potent approach for the development of FPGA based DAQ system for HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Mitra, Jubin; David, Erno; Kiss, Tivadar; Nayak, Tapan Kumar

    2017-10-01

    With ever increasing particle beam energies and interaction rates in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments in the present and future accelerator facilities, there has always been the demand for robust Data Acquisition (DAQ) schemes which perform in the harsh radiation environment and handle high data volume. The scheme is required to be flexible enough to adapt to the demands of future detector and electronics upgrades, and at the same time keeping the cost factor in mind. To address these challenges, in the present work, we discuss an efficient DAQ scheme for error resilient, high speed data communication on commercially available state-of-the-art FPGA with optical links. The scheme utilises GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) protocol to establish radiation tolerant communication link between on-detector front-end electronics situated in harsh radiation environment to the back-end Data Processing Unit (DPU) placed in a low radiation zone. The acquired data are reconstructed in DPU which reduces the data volume significantly, and then transmitted to the computing farms through high speed optical links using 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). In this study, we focus on implementation and testing of GBT protocol and 10GbE links on an Intel FPGA. Results of the measurements of resource utilisation, critical path delays, signal integrity, eye diagram and Bit Error Rate (BER) are presented, which are the indicators for efficient system performance.

  12. A potent approach for the development of FPGA based DAQ system for HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Mitra, Jubin; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; David, Erno; Kiss, Tivadar

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing particle beam energies and interaction rates in modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments in the present and future accelerator facilities, there has always been the demand for robust Data Acquisition (DAQ) schemes which perform in the harsh radiation environment and handle high data volume. The scheme is required to be flexible enough to adapt to the demands of future detector and electronics upgrades, and at the same time keeping the cost factor in mind. To address these challenges, in the present work, we discuss an efficient DAQ scheme for error resilient, high speed data communication on commercially available state-of-the-art FPGA with optical links. The scheme utilises GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) protocol to establish radiation tolerant communication link between on-detector front-end electronics situated in harsh radiation environment to the back-end Data Processing Unit (DPU) placed in a low radiation zone. The acquired data are reconstructed in DPU which reduces the data volume significantly, and then transmitted to the computing farms through high speed optical links using 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). In this study, we focus on implementation and testing of GBT protocol and 10GbE links on an Intel FPGA. Results of the measurements of resource utilisation, critical path delays, signal integrity, eye diagram and Bit Error Rate (BER) are presented, which are the indicators for efficient system performance.

  13. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  14. Serum microRNA miR-206 is decreased in hyperthyroidism and mediates thyroid hormone regulation of lipid metabolism in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingjuan; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Naijian; Kang, Wenqin; Lu, Rongrong; Wu, Huadong; Geng, Yingxue; Zhao, Yaping; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2018-04-01

    The actions of thyroid hormone (TH) on lipid metabolism in the liver are associated with a number of genes involved in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms through which TH impacts on lipid metabolism remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hyperthyroidism on the serum levels of the microRNA (miR) miR‑206 and the role of miR‑206 on TH‑regulated lipid metabolism in liver cells. Serum was obtained from 12 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and 10 healthy control subjects. Human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells were used to study the effects of triiodothyronine (T3) and miR‑206 on lipid metabolism. Expression of miR‑206 in serum and cells was determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells was assessed with Oil Red O staining. Suppression or overexpression of miR‑206 was performed via transfection with a miR‑206 mimic or miR‑206 inhibitor. Serum miR‑206 was significantly decreased in patients with hyperthyroidism compared with euthyroid controls. Treatment of HepG2 cells with T3 led to reduced total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) content, accompanied by reduced miR‑206 expression. Inhibition of endogenous miR‑206 expression decreased intracellular TG and TC content in HepG2 cells. By contrast, overexpression of miR‑206 in HepG2 partially prevented the reduction in TG content induced by treatment with T3. In conclusion, serum miR‑206 expression is reduced in patients with hyperthyroidism. In addition, miR‑206 is involved in T3‑mediated regulation of lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells, indicating a role for miR‑206 in thyroid hormone‑induced disorders of lipid metabolism in the liver.

  15. 175th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Radiation and Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Oliva, P

    2010-01-01

    High energy physics (HEP) has a crucial role in the context of fundamental physics. HEP experiments make use of a massive array of sophisticated detectors to analyze the particles produced in high-energy scattering events. This book contains the papers from the workshop 'Radiation and Particle Detectors', organized by the International School of Physics, and held in Varenna in July 2009. Its subject is the use of detectors for research in fundamental physics, astro-particle physics and applied physics. Subjects covered include the measurement of: the position and length of ionization trails, time of flight velocity, radius of curvature after bending the paths of charged particles with magnetic fields, coherent transition radiation, synchrotron radiation, electro-magnetic showers produced by calorimetric methods and nuclear cascades produced by hadrons in massive steel detectors using calorimetry. Detecting muons and the detection of Cherenkov radiation are also covered, as is the detection of neutrinos by ste...

  16. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Protective effects of the extracts of Barringtonia racemosa shoots against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia racemosa is a tropical plant with medicinal values. In this study, the ability of the water extracts of the leaf (BLE and stem (BSE from the shoots to protect HepG2 cells against oxidative damage was studied. Five major polyphenolic compounds consisting of gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were identified using HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. Cell viability assay revealed that BLE and BSE were non-cytotoxic (cell viabilities >80% at concentration less than 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, respectively. BLE and BSE improved cellular antioxidant status measured by FRAP assay and protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. The extracts also inhibited lipid peroxidation in HepG2 cells as well as the production of reactive oxygen species. BLE and BSE could also suppress the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during oxidative stress. The shoots of B. racemosa can be an alternative bioactive ingredient in the prevention of oxidative damage.

  18. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  19. Advances on micro-RWELL gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Gianfranco; Benussi, L; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Gatta, M; Poli Lener, M; De Oliveira, R; Ochi, A; Borgonovi, L; Giacomelli, P; Ranieri, A; Valentino, V; Ressegotti, M; Vai, I

    2017-01-01

    The R&D; on the micro-Resistive-WELL ($\\mu$-RWELL) detector technology aims in developing a new scalable, compact, spark-protected, single amplification stage Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) for large area HEP applications as tracking and calorimeter device as well as for industrial and medical applications as X-ray and neutron imaging gas pixel detector. The novel micro- structure, exploiting several solutions and improvements achieved in the last years for MPGDs, in particular for GEMs and Micromegas, is an extremely simple detector allowing an easy engineering with consequent technological transfer toward the photolithography industry. Large area detectors (up $1 \\times 2 m^2$) can be realized splicing $\\mu$-RWELL_PCB tiles of smaller size (about $0.5 \\times 1 m^2$ - typical PCB industrial size). The detector, composed by few basic elements such as the readout-PCB embedded with the amplification stage (through the resistive layer) and the cathode defining the gas drift-conversion gap has been largel...

  20. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  1. [Effect of extracted ZG from gardenia on Hep-2 cell membrane post infected with parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV-1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Huang, Yang; Zhao, Ye; Gao, Ying-Jie; Gong, Wen-Feng; Cui, Xiao-Lan

    2007-09-01

    In order to study the anti-viral mechanism of extracted ZG from Gardenia, the effect of extracted ZG on Hep-2 cell membrane potential, Na -K+-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity post infected with parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV-1) was observed. Acetylcholine which was fluorescent labeled with DiBAC4 (3) was taken as positive control to observe the changes of membrane potential and was measured by flow cytometer. The phosphorus determination method and spectrophotometer were used to measure the Na+-K+-ATPase activity of Hep-2 cell membrane post PIV-1 infection. Hep-2 cell membrane phospholipids was labeled with fluorescent NBD-C6-HPC and membrane fluidity was measured by confocal laser scanning microscope. The results demonstated that after PIV-1 infection the Hep-2 cell membrane potential decreased significantly and the membrane was in the state of hyperpolarization, Na+-K+-ATPase activity increased and membrane fluidity decreased significantly. There was no apparent interferring effect of extracted ZG on the changes of membrane potential and Na+-K+-ATPase activity post PIV-1 infection, while membrane fluidity was improved significantly. Acetylcholine improved the state of hyperpolarization. The changes of membrane potential, Na -K+-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity might be the biomechanism of PIV-1 infectoin. The extracted ZG improved membrane fluidity to prevent from PIV-1 infection by protecting the cell membrane, which was probably the mechanism of anti-PIV-1 activity of the extracted ZG, but ZG probably had nothing to do with membrane potential and Na+-K+-ATPase activity.

  2. Encefalopatía Hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Restrepo Gutiérrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En pacientes con enfermedad hepática aguda o crónica la encefalopatía hepática es una complicación progresiva y reversible en su mayoría de veces, que puede reducir la sobrevida y la calidad de vida de quienes la presenten. Dentro de su patogénesis existen diferentes hipótesis entre las cuales la más aceptada ha sido la de la neurotoxicidad por amonio, que incluso podría explicar las otras hipótesis planteadas, como la del edema de los astrocitos, la toxicidad por manganeso, entre otras. La clasificación actual de la encefalopatía hepática se propuso en el congreso mundial de Gastroenterología en 1998 y se basa en la naturaleza de la disfunción hepática, duración y características de las manifestaciones neurológicas. Para su diagnostico se requiere de un buen reconocimiento clínico puesto que es principalmente de exclusión; sin embargo actualmente se cuenta con los criterios de West Haven para clasificar la severidad de su presentación. En este síndrome el tratamiento comprende diferentes elementos –como la dieta proteica, disacáridos no absorbibles y terapia antibiótica, que tienen como finalidad la resolución de las manifestaciones y mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes, aunque sin dejar de lado que tratar los factores precipitantes son la principal medida terapéutica para la encefalopatía hepática. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los últimos conceptos de la encefalopatía hepática; con especial énfasis en su patogénesis, clasificación, diagnostico y tratamiento.

  3. Novel results on fluence dependence and annealing behavior of oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, C; Lozano, M; Campabadal, F; Santander, J; Fonseca, L; Ullán, M; Moreno, A J D

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the latest results on electrical properties degradation of silicon radiation detectors manufactured at the Institut de Microelectronica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM) subjected to proton irradiation at CERN, Switzerland, for high-energy physics (HEP) applications. The evolution of full depletion voltage and leakage current with fluence as well as their annealing behavior with time were studied. The results obtained extend the previous understanding of the role played by technology and oxygenated material in hardening silicon radiation detectors. (15 refs).

  4. Estudio coste-efectividad sobre la medición del gradiente de presión venosa hepática en la profilaxis secundaria de la hemorragia digestiva varicosa A cost-effectiveness study of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement in the secondary prevention of variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amorós

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: la hemorragia digestiva es una complicación frecuente en pacientes con cirrosis hepática. La tasa de recidiva tras un primer episodio oscila en torno al 60%, motivo por el cual la profilaxis está recomendada. Esta puede realizarse mediante fármacos (betabloqueantes y nitratos combinados o no con ligadura endoscópica con bandas. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar el coste-efectividad de la medición del gradiente de presión venosa hepática (GPVH previo a la elección de la profilaxis secundaria. Métodos: creamos un árbol de decisión para calcular el coste-efectividad de dos estrategias: grupo 1: pacientes a los que se les determinó el GPVH; cuando tras la administración de propranolol hubo una disminución del gradiente ≥ al 20% respecto al inicial o disminuyó por debajo de 12 mmHg, los pacientes fueron tratados con propranolol. Si no hubo tal variación del GPVH, se realizó ligadura endoscópica de las varices. Grupo 2: en este grupo no se monitorizó el GPVH. Los pacientes con varices grado I recibieron tratamiento con betabloqueantes más nitratos y los que presentaban varices grandes (II, III, IV fueron tratados con betabloqueantes y LEB. Resultados: en el grupo del estudio hemodinámico respondió un 36%, estos recibieron tratamiento betabloqueante, la tasa de resangrado fue del 0%. En los no respondedores la tasa de resangrado fue de un 17%. En el grupo sin estudio se trató con propranolol más nitratos al 28,42% y resangraron un 25%; la tasa de resangrado en el grupo que recibió tratamiento con betabloqueantes más ligadura endoscópica fue de un 13%. El coste total en el grupo al que se realizó el estudio hemodinámico fue de 14.100,49 euros y de 14.677,16 euros para el grupo sin estudio hemodinámico. Conclusiones: la realización del estudio hemodinámico es una herramienta coste-efectiva en la profilaxis de la hemorragia digestiva varicosa en pacientes cirróticos y mantiene una relación coste efectiva

  5. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  6. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  7. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  9. A rifaximina no tratamento da encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sérgio David Soares

    2010-01-01

    A encefalopatia hepática é uma síndrome neuropsiquiátrica associada à falência hepática aguda ou crónica, que tem apresentações clínicas muito variáveis, mas que afecta de uma forma limitativa e grave o dia-a-dia dos doentes, a sua vida relacional e a família globalmente. A sua patogénese é multifactorial e não completamente esclarecida, mas a amónia desempenhará um papel fulcral na sua etiopatogenia. Ao longo dos anos têm sido testadas várias opções terapêuticas, mas com resul...

  10. Impacto biopsicossocial da encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mariana Rebordão, 1992-

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho Final do Curso de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 2016 A encefalopatia hepática (EH) é uma síndrome neuropsiquiátrica potencialmente reversível que ocorre na doença hepática, sendo caracterizada por um grande espectro de alterações: desde a EH mínima até ao coma. A EH mínima afecta cerca de 34% dos doentes cirróticos portugueses e é caracterizada por ausência de alterações neurológicas grosseiras, com défices cognitivos que podem ser ...

  11. The HepHIV 2017 Conference in Malta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Hoekstra, M; Sperle, I

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the results of the HepHIV 2017 Conference organized by the HIV in Europe initiative under the Maltese EU Presidency in January 2017. METHODS: A thourough review of all conference presentations (oral and poster presentations......) was performed to retrieve the key outcomes of the conference. RESULTS: The key result from the conference was a call to action summarising key priorities in HIV and viral hepatitis testing and linkage to care. This included improving monitoring of viral hepatitis and HIV, mixing testing strategies and ensuring...... policy support. The important contribution and outcomes of EU funded projects OptTEST and EuroHIVEdat was highlighted. CONCLUSION: An integrated approach to earlier testing and linkage to care across diseases is needed in Europe and the HepHIV conferences create an important forum to reach this aim....

  12. A DAQ system for pixel detectors R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Contarato, D.; Giubilato, P.; Pantano, D.; Tessaro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pixel detector R and D for HEP and imaging applications require an easily configurable and highly versatile DAQ system able to drive and read out many different chip designs in a transparent way, with different control logics and/or clock signals. An integrated, real-time data collection and analysis environment is essential to achieve fast and reliable detector characterization. We present a DAQ system developed to fulfill these specific needs, able to handle multiple devices at the same time while providing a convenient, ROOT based data display and online analysis environment.

  13. Future plans for HEP computing in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballam, J.

    1985-06-01

    The computing requirements of the US HEP Community are set forth. These will be dominated in the next five years by the pantip (TEV I) and e + e - (SLC and CESR) experiments. The ensuing period will be almost completely driven by the data generated by the superconducting super collider (SSC). Plans for near term computing are presented along with speculations for the SSC. Brief descriptions of accelerator and theoretical physics plans are also presented

  14. Aspects of scientific visualization for HEP analysis at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach, Jeff; Lebrun, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Based on the workshop on scientific visualization held on Aug 7-9, 1995 at Fermilab, and practical experience with IRIS Explorer, we comment on the use of Open GL based for Event Displays and related HEP data analysis. WE wish to compare the pros and cons of such systems on technical grounds, case of use, and most of all, application interfaces, as the programmer and the user are often the same person. Costs and educational considerations will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  15. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  16. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgland, Anders [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Elmer, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kirby, Michael [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patton, Simon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potekhin, Maxim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Viren, Brett [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The High-Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) was formed by the Department of Energy as a follow-up to a recent report from the Topical Panel on Computing[1] and the associated P5 recommendation[2]. It is a pilot project distributed across the DOE Labs. During this initial incubation period the Forum is to develop a plan for a robust, long-term organization structure and a functioning web presence for forum activities and outreach, and a study of hardware and software needs across the HEP program. In the following sections we give this working group’s “vision” for aspects and qualities we wish to see in a future HEP-FCE. We then give a prioritized list of technical activities with suggested scoping and deliverables that can be expected to provide cross-experiment benefits. The remaining bulk of the report gives a technical survey of some specific “areas of opportunity” for cross-experiment benefit in the realm of software libs/tools. This survey serves as support for the vision and prioritized list. For each area we describe the ways that cross-experiment benefit is achieved today, as well as describe known failings or pitfalls where such benefit has failed to be achieved and which should be avoided in the future. For both cases, we try to give concrete examples. Each area then ends with an examination of what opportunities exist for improvements in that particular area.

  17. INSPIRE: a new scientific information system for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Ivanov, R

    2009-01-01

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...

  18. HEP Computing Tools, Grid and Supercomputers for Genome Sequencing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Novikov, A.; Poyda, A.; Tertychnyy, I.; Wenaus, T.

    2017-10-01

    PanDA - Production and Distributed Analysis Workload Management System has been developed to address ATLAS experiment at LHC data processing and analysis challenges. Recently PanDA has been extended to run HEP scientific applications on Leadership Class Facilities and supercomputers. The success of the projects to use PanDA beyond HEP and Grid has drawn attention from other compute intensive sciences such as bioinformatics. Recent advances of Next Generation Genome Sequencing (NGS) technology led to increasing streams of sequencing data that need to be processed, analysed and made available for bioinformaticians worldwide. Analysis of genomes sequencing data using popular software pipeline PALEOMIX can take a month even running it on the powerful computer resource. In this paper we will describe the adaptation the PALEOMIX pipeline to run it on a distributed computing environment powered by PanDA. To run pipeline we split input files into chunks which are run separately on different nodes as separate inputs for PALEOMIX and finally merge output file, it is very similar to what it done by ATLAS to process and to simulate data. We dramatically decreased the total walltime because of jobs (re)submission automation and brokering within PanDA. Using software tools developed initially for HEP and Grid can reduce payload execution time for Mammoths DNA samples from weeks to days.

  19. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  20. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  1. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  2. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  3. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetti, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed

  4. Radiation Hard Silicon Photonics Mach-Zehnder Modulator for HEP applications: all-Synopsys SentaurusTM Pre-Irradiation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cammarata, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Photonics may well provide the opportunity for new levels of integration between detectors and their readout electronics. This technology is thus being evaluated at CERN in order to assess its suitability for use in particle physics experiments. In order to check the agreement with measurements and the validity of previous device simulations, a pure Synopsys SentaurusTM simulation of an un-irradiated Mach-Zehnder silicon modulator has been carried out during the Summer Student project. Index Terms—Silicon Photonics, Mach-Zehnder modulator, electro-optic simulation, Synopsys SentaurusTM, electro-optic measurement, HEP.

  5. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  6. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Results of the HepZero study comparing heparin-grafted membrane and standard care show that heparin-grafted dialyzer is safe and easy to use for heparin-free dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laville, Maurice; Dorval, Marc; Ros, Joan Fort; Fay, Renaud; Cridlig, Joelle; Nortier, Joelle L.; Juillard, Laurent; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Lorente, Loreto Fernandez; Thibaudin, Damien; Franssen, Casper; Schulz, Michael; Moureau, Frederique; Loughraieb, Nathalie; Rossignol, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Heparin is used to prevent clotting during hemodialysis, but heparin-free hemodialysis is sometimes needed to decrease the risk of bleeding. The HepZero study is a randomized, multicenter international controlled open-label trial comparing no-heparin hemodialysis strategies designed to assess

  10. The HEP.TrkX Project: deep neural networks for HL-LHC online and offline tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Steven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle track reconstruction in dense environments such as the detectors of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC is a challenging pattern recognition problem. Traditional tracking algorithms such as the combinatorial Kalman Filter have been used with great success in LHC experiments for years. However, these state-of-the-art techniques are inherently sequential and scale poorly with the expected increases in detector occupancy in the HL-LHC conditions. The HEP.TrkX project is a pilot project with the aim to identify and develop cross-experiment solutions based on machine learning algorithms for track reconstruction. Machine learning algorithms bring a lot of potential to this problem thanks to their capability to model complex non-linear data dependencies, to learn effective representations of high-dimensional data through training, and to parallelize easily on high-throughput architectures such as GPUs. This contribution will describe our initial explorations into this relatively unexplored idea space. We will discuss the use of recurrent (LSTM and convolutional neural networks to find and fit tracks in toy detector data.

  11. The HEP.TrkX Project: deep neural networks for HL-LHC online and offline tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Steven; Anderson, Dustin; Calafiura, Paolo; Cerati, Giuseppe; Gray, Lindsey; Kowalkowski, Jim; Mudigonda, Mayur; Prabhat; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Spiropoulou, Maria; Tsaris, Aristeidis; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Zheng, Stephan

    2017-08-01

    Particle track reconstruction in dense environments such as the detectors of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) is a challenging pattern recognition problem. Traditional tracking algorithms such as the combinatorial Kalman Filter have been used with great success in LHC experiments for years. However, these state-of-the-art techniques are inherently sequential and scale poorly with the expected increases in detector occupancy in the HL-LHC conditions. The HEP.TrkX project is a pilot project with the aim to identify and develop cross-experiment solutions based on machine learning algorithms for track reconstruction. Machine learning algorithms bring a lot of potential to this problem thanks to their capability to model complex non-linear data dependencies, to learn effective representations of high-dimensional data through training, and to parallelize easily on high-throughput architectures such as GPUs. This contribution will describe our initial explorations into this relatively unexplored idea space. We will discuss the use of recurrent (LSTM) and convolutional neural networks to find and fit tracks in toy detector data.

  12. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  13. INSPIRE-HEP Ergys Dona Summer Student Report 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dona, Ergys

    2015-01-01

    INSPIRE-HEP consists of millions of bibliographic records, while new records are continuously being submitted all the time. For indexing and organising reasons, it is very important that these records contain correct and accurate metadata. The maintenance of such a large number of records is error prone, time consuming and generally difficult if performed manually. This document describes the work carried out while developing parts of the Invenio-Checker module, a piece of software that tries to automate the tasks mentioned above, as well as the abilities obtained during the development.

  14. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has setup a volunteer computing project called ATLAS@home. Volunteers running Monte-Carlo simulation on their personal computer provide significant computing resources, but also belong to a community potentially interested in HEP. Four types of contributors have been identified, whose questions range from advanced technical details to the reason why simulation is needed, how Computing is organized and how it relates to society. The creation of relevant outreach material for simulation, event visualization and distributed production will be described, as well as lessons learned while interacting with the BOINC volunteers community.

  15. A review of the possible future HEP Accelerator Projects

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The review, as already invited for presentation at the recent International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP2010), covers all accelerator projects presently envisaged for HEP in the near and mid-term future. After a brief description of the major motivation, issues and necessary R&D of each project, it specially emphasizes the synergies between the different projects and their R&D issues, pointing out their complementarities and the efficient collaborative approach to address them. It finally summarizes the relative schedule of the various projects in their different phases, pointing out their global interdependence.

  16. HEP graphics: Standards and portability versus performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    After mentioning the range of applications for which computer graphics is used in high energy physics, some of the characteristics required of graphics hardware are presented, along with a discussion of how well these requirements are likely to be met by the computer industry. Moving on to the topic of software, the status of the more important graphics standards is covered briefly, as well as their evolution in the medium term. The point will be made that HEP, perhaps even more than other areas, has conflicting requirements for graphics systems. The subject is manpower-intensive, and the physics community has to made a trade-off. (orig.)

  17. Towards an HTTP Ecosystem for HEP Data Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Hellmich, Martin; Ayllón, Alejandro Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we present a vision for the use of the HTTP protocol for data access and data management in the context of HEP. The evolution of the DPM/LFC software stacks towards a modern framework that can be plugged into Apache servers triggered various initiatives that successfully demonstrated the use of HTTP-based protocols for data access, federation and transfer. This includes the evolution of the FTS3 system towards being able to manage third-party transfers using HTTP. Given the flexibility of the methods, the feature set may also include a subset of the SRM functionality that is relevant to disk systems. The application domain for such an ecosystem of services goes from large scale, Gridlike computing to the data access from laptops, profiting from tools that are shared with the Web community, like browsers, clients libraries and others. Particular focus was put into emphasizing the flexibility of the frameworks, which can interface with a very broad range of components, data stores, catalogues and metadata stores, including the possibility of building high performance dynamic federations of endpoints that build on the fly the feeling of a unique, seamless very efficient system. The overall goal is to leverage standards and standard practices, and use them to provide the higher level functionalities that are needed to fulfil the complex problem of Data Access in HEP. Other points of interest are about harmonizing the possibilities given by the HTTP/WebDAV protocols with existing frameworks like ROOT and already existing Storage Federations based on the XROOTD framework. We also provide quantitative evaluations of the performance that is achievable using HTTP for remote transfer and remote I/O in the context of HEP data. The idea is to contribute the parts that can make possible an ecosystem of services and applications, where the HEP-related features are covered, and the door is open to standard solutions and tools provided by third parties, in the

  18. Physics detector simulation facility system software description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Estep, P.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Marquez, M.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Traversat, B.

    1991-12-01

    Large and costly detectors will be constructed during the next few years to study the interactions produced by the SSC. Efficient, cost-effective designs for these detectors will require careful thought and planning. Because it is not possible to test fully a proposed design in a scaled-down version, the adequacy of a proposed design will be determined by a detailed computer model of the detectors. Physics and detector simulations will be performed on the computer model using high-powered computing system at the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF). The SSCL has particular computing requirements for high-energy physics (HEP) Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of SSCL physics and detectors. The numerical calculations to be performed in each simulation are lengthy and detailed; they could require many more months per run on a VAX 11/780 computer and may produce several gigabytes of data per run. Consequently, a distributed computing environment of several networked high-speed computing engines is envisioned to meet these needs. These networked computers will form the basis of a centralized facility for SSCL physics and detector simulation work. Our computer planning groups have determined that the most efficient, cost-effective way to provide these high-performance computing resources at this time is with RISC-based UNIX workstations. The modeling and simulation application software that will run on the computing system is usually written by physicists in FORTRAN language and may need thousands of hours of supercomputing time. The system software is the ''glue'' which integrates the distributed workstations and allows them to be managed as a single entity. This report will address the computing strategy for the SSC

  19. Springer Autopsy of measurements with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2017-01-01

    A lot of attention has been devoted to the study of discoveries in high energy physics (HEP), but less on measurements aiming at improving an existing theory like the standard model of particle physics, getting more precise values for the parameters of the theory or establishing relationships between them. This paper provides a detailed and critical study of how measurements are performed in recent HEP experiments, taking examples from differential cross section measurements with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. This study will be used to provide an elucidation of the concept of event used in HEP, in order to determine what constitutes an observation and what does not. It will highlight the essential place taken by theory-ladenness in order to produce observational facts, and will show how uncertainty and sensitivity estimates constitute an operational approach to robustness, inside the practice of science, avoiding potential circularity problem traditionally implied by theory-ladenness. This is in contrast to ...

  20. High irradiation and ageing properties of resistive Micromegas detectors at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Andreou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Resistive Micromegas have been developed in recent years with the aim of making this technology usable in HEP experiments where the high sparking rate of classical Micromegas is not tolerable. A resistive Micromegas with four layers and an active surface of 0.5 m2 each, has been designed and built at CERN as prototype of the detectors to be used for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment. The detector has been exposed to an intense gamma source of 16 TBq in order to study the effects of ageing and evaluate the detector behavior under high irradiation.

  1. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  2. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  3. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  4. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  5. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  6. A validation system for data preservation in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Yves; Strutz, Marco; Hessling, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Preserving data from past experiments and preserving the ability to perform analysis with old data is of growing importance in many domains of science, including High Energy Physics (HEP). A study group on this issue, DPHEP, has been established in this field to provide guidelines and a structure for international collaboration on data preservation projects in HEP. This contribution presents a framework that allows experimentalists to validate their software against a previously defined set of tests in an automated way. The framework has been designed with a special focus for longevity, as it makes use of open protocols, has a modular design and is based on simple communication mechanisms. On the fabrics side, tests are carried out in a virtual environment using a cloud infrastructure. Within the framework, it is easy to run validation tests on different hardware platforms, or different major or minor versions of operating systems. Experts from IT or the experiments can automatically detect failures in the test procedure by the help of reporting tools. Hence, appropriate actions can be taken in a timely manner. The design and important implementation aspects of the framework are shown and first experiences from early-bird users will be presented.

  7. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzini, S; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Ciampa, A; Mazzoni, E; Coscetti, S; Sarkar, S; Taneja, S

    2012-01-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  8. Applying deep neural networks to HEP job classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Shi, J; Yan, X

    2015-01-01

    The cluster of IHEP computing center is a middle-sized computing system which provides 10 thousands CPU cores, 5 PB disk storage, and 40 GB/s IO throughput. Its 1000+ users come from a variety of HEP experiments. In such a system, job classification is an indispensable task. Although experienced administrator can classify a HEP job by its IO pattern, it is unpractical to classify millions of jobs manually. We present how to solve this problem with deep neural networks in a supervised learning way. Firstly, we built a training data set of 320K samples by an IO pattern collection agent and a semi-automatic process of sample labelling. Then we implemented and trained DNNs models with Torch. During the process of model training, several meta-parameters was tuned with cross-validations. Test results show that a 5- hidden-layer DNNs model achieves 96% precision on the classification task. By comparison, it outperforms a linear model by 8% precision. (paper)

  9. Feature Importance for Human Epithelial (HEp-2 Cell Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Gupta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF microscopy imaging of human epithelial (HEp-2 cells is a popular method for diagnosing autoimmune diseases. Considering large data volumes, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD systems, based on image-based classification, can help in terms of time, effort, and reliability of diagnosis. Such approaches are based on extracting some representative features from the images. This work explores the selection of the most distinctive features for HEp-2 cell images using various feature selection (FS methods. Considering that there is no single universally optimal feature selection technique, we also propose hybridization of one class of FS methods (filter methods. Furthermore, the notion of variable importance for ranking features, provided by another type of approaches (embedded methods such as Random forest, Random uniform forest is exploited to select a good subset of features from a large set, such that addition of new features does not increase classification accuracy. In this work, we have also, with great consideration, designed class-specific features to capture morphological visual traits of the cell patterns. We perform various experiments and discussions to demonstrate the effectiveness of FS methods along with proposed and a standard feature set. We achieve state-of-the-art performance even with small number of features, obtained after the feature selection.

  10. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in Hep-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding mollicutes is challenging due to their variety and relationship with host cells. Invasion has explained issues related to their opportunistic role. Few studies have been done on the Ureaplasma diversum mollicute, which is detected in healthy or diseased bovine. The invasion in Hep-2 cells of four clinical isolates and two reference strains of their ureaplasma was studied by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and gentamicin invasion assay. Results The isolates and strains used were detected inside the cells after infection of one minute without difference in the arrangement for adhesion and invasion. The adhesion was scattered throughout the cells, and after three hours, the invasion of the ureaplasmas surrounded the nuclear region but were not observed inside the nuclei. The gentamicin invasion assay detected that 1% of the ATCC strains were inside the infected Hep-2 cells in contrast to 10% to the clinical isolates. A high level of phospholipase C activity was also detected in all studied ureaplasma. Conclusions The results presented herein will help better understand U. diversum infections, aswell as cellular attachment and virulence.

  11. Coakial gamma ray detector and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harchol, M.

    1977-01-01

    A coaxial gamma ray detector is fabricated using intrinsic Ge semiconductor material in a geometry whereby full depletion of electrical carriers is prevented within a small region proximate the point of electrical contact thereby allowing greater biasing potentials across the detector and, consequently, providing reduced electronic noise and increased energy resolution

  12. Experimental HEP supercomputing at F.S.U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinthal, D.; Goldman, H.; Hodous, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a track reconstruction algorithm that will work with any 2-dimensional detector as long as the 2-dimensional projections of that detector are ''true'' projections. The program is implemented on a 2-pipe CDC CYBER-205 with 4 million words of memory. (orig./HSI)

  13. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-κB nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedowitz, Jamie C.; Blaho, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5 hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNFα plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-κB translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1

  14. Participants to the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit, 6-7 May 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    Fermilab, Photo Service

    2009-01-01

    The broad theme of the 3rd HEP Information Resources Summit was "Collaboration between Information Services." As HEP increasingly borders fields such as instrumentation and astrophysics, it was discussed what potential interrelationships and communication this group have to serve this broader research community seamlessly.

  15. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by ...

  16. Free radical generation from an aniline derivative in HepG2 cells: a possible captodative effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinouchi, Yuya; Summers, Fiona A; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    Xenobiotic metabolism can induce the generation of protein radicals, which are believed to play an important role in the toxicity of chemicals and drugs. It is therefore important to identify chemical structures capable of inducing macromolecular free radical formation in living cells. In this study, we evaluated the ability of four structurally related environmental chemicals, aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline, and N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (DMNA), to induce free radicals and cellular damage in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase assays, and morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Protein free radicals were detected by immuno-spin trapping using in-cell western experiments and confocal microscopy to determine the subcellular locale of free radical generation. DMNA induced free radical generation, lactate dehydrogenase release, and morphological changes in HepG2 cells, whereas aniline, nitrosobenzene, N,N-dimethylaniline did not. Confocal microscopy showed that DMNA induced free radical generation mainly in the cytosol. Preincubation of HepG2 cells with N-acetylcysteine and 2,2'-dipyridyl significantly prevented free radical generation on subsequent incubation with DMNA, whereas preincubation with apocynin and dimethyl sulfoxide had no effect. These results suggest that DMNA is metabolized to reactive free radicals capable of generating protein radicals which may play a critical role in DMNA toxicity. We propose that the captodative effect, the combined action of the electron-releasing dimethylamine substituent, and the electron-withdrawing nitroso substituent, leads to a thermodynamically stabilized radical, facilitating enhanced protein radical formation by DMNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased glucose metabolism and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in Cordyceps militaris water extract-treated HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Kon; Kim, Tae Woo; Park, Jae Bong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent living condition improvements, changes in dietary habits, and reductions in physical activity are contributing to an increase in metabolic syndrome symptoms including diabetes and obesity. Through such societal developments, humankind is continuously exposed to metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and the number of the victims is increasing. This study investigated Cordyceps militaris water extract (CMW)-induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and the effect of CMW treatment on glucose metabolism. MATERIALS/METHODS Colorimetric assay kits were used to determine the glucokinase (GK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities, glucose uptake, and glycogen content. Either RT-PCR or western blot analysis was performed for quantitation of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF-1α), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase B (Akt), phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, GK, PDH, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression levels. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of acarbose and CMW were evaluated by absorbance measurement. RESULTS CMW induced glucose uptake in HepG2 cells by increasing GLUT2 through HNF-1α expression stimulation. Glucose in the cells increased the CMW-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In turn, glycolysis was stimulated, and glyconeogenesis was inhibited. Furthermore, by studying the mechanism of action of PI3k, Akt, and GSK-3β, and measuring glycogen content, the study confirmed that the glucose was stored in the liver as glycogen. Finally, CMW resulted in a higher level of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than that from acarbose. CONCLUSION CMW induced the uptake of glucose into HepG2 cells, as well, it induced metabolism of the absorbed glucose. It is concluded that CMW is a candidate or potential use in diabetes prevention and treatment. PMID:28584574

  18. HEP specific benchmarks of virtual machines on multi-core CPU architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alef, M; Gable, I

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization technologies such as Xen can be used in order to satisfy the disparate and often incompatible system requirements of different user groups in shared-use computing facilities. This capability is particularly important for HEP applications, which often have restrictive requirements. The use of virtualization adds flexibility, however, it is essential that the virtualization technology place little overhead on the HEP application. We present an evaluation of the practicality of running HEP applications in multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single multi-core Linux system. We use the benchmark suite used by the HEPiX CPU Benchmarking Working Group to give a quantitative evaluation relevant to the HEP community. Benchmarks are packaged inside VMs and then the VMs are booted onto a single multi-core system. Benchmarks are then simultaneously executed on each VM to simulate highly loaded VMs running HEP applications. These techniques are applied to a variety of multi-core CPU architectures and VM configurations.

  19. Shielding and grounding in large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    1998-09-01

    Prevention of electromagnetic interference (EMI), or ''noise pickup,'' is an important design aspect in large detectors in accelerator environments. Shielding effectiveness as a function of shield thickness and conductivity vs the type and frequency of the interference field is described. Noise induced in transmission lines by ground loop driven currents in the shield is evaluated and the importance of low shield resistance is emphasized. Some measures for prevention of ground loops and isolation of detector-readout systems are discussed

  20. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  1. Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grybos, P

    2010-01-01

    Front-end electronics for multichannel semiconductor detektor systems Volume 08, EuCARD Editorial Series on Accelerator Science and Technology The monograph is devoted to many different aspects related to front-end electronics for semiconductor detector systems, namely: − designing and testing silicon position sensitive detectors for HEP experiments and X-ray imaging applications, − designing and testing of multichannel readout electronics for semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications, especially for noise minimization, fast signal processing, crosstalk reduction and good matching performance, − optimization of semiconductor detection systems in respect to the effects of radiation damage. The monograph is the result mainly of the author's experience in the above-mentioned areas and it is an attempt of a comprehensive presentation of issues related to the position sensitive detection system working in a single photon counting mode and intended to X-ray imaging applications. The structure...

  2. The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1990-01-01

    Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP

  3. How a huge HEP experiment is designed course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-FAS

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty years after the idea of building the LHC machine was discussed in a workshop in Lausanne in 1984 for the first time, it is instructive to look back on the historical process which has led the community to where we are today with four huge detectors being commissioned and eagerly awaiting first beam collisions in 2008. The main design principles, detector features and performance characteristics of the ATLAS and CMS detectors will be briefly covered in these two lectures with, as an interlude, a wonderful DVD from ATLAS outreach depicting how particles interact and are detected in the various components of the experiments.

  4. HEP Outreach, Inreach, and Web 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-01-01

    I report on current usage of multimedia and social networking 'Web 2.0' tools for Education and Outreach in high-energy physics, and discuss their potential for internal communication within large worldwide collaborations, such as those of the LHC. Following a brief description of the history of Web 2.0 development, I present a survey of the most popular sites and describe their usage in HEP to disseminate information to students and the general public. I then discuss the potential of certain specific tools, such as document and multimedia sharing sites, for boosting the speed and effectiveness of information exchange within the collaborations. I conclude with a brief discussion of the successes and failures of these tools, and make suggestions for improved usage in the future.

  5. Offering Global Collaboration Services beyond CERN and HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, J; Baron, T

    2015-01-01

    The CERN IT department has built over the years a performant and integrated ecosystem of collaboration tools, from videoconference and webcast services to event management software. These services have been designed and evolved in very close collaboration with the various communities surrounding the laboratory and have been massively adopted by CERN users. To cope with this very heavy usage, global infrastructures have been deployed which take full advantage of CERN's international and global nature. If these services and tools are instrumental in enabling the worldwide collaboration which generates major HEP breakthroughs, they would certainly also benefit other sectors of science in which globalization has already taken place. Some of these services are driven by commercial software (Vidyo or Wowza for example), some others have been developed internally and have already been made available to the world as Open Source Software in line with CERN's spirit and mission. Indico for example is now installed in 10...

  6. Accessing HEP Collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Ritchie, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    WAIS stands for Wide Area Information Server. It is a distributed information retrieval system. A WAIS system has a client-server architecture which consists of clients talking to a server via a TCP/IP network using the ANSI standard Z39-50 VI protocol. A freely available version (FreeWAIS) is supported by the Clearinghouse for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval, also known as CNIDR. FreeWAIS-sf, which is the software the authors are using at Fermilab, is an extension of FreeWAIS. FreeWAIS-sf supports all the functionalities which FreeWAIS offers as well as additional indexing and searching capabilities for structured fields. World Wide Web (WWW) was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and is now the backbone for serving information on Internet. Here, the authors describe a system for accessing HEP collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS.

  7. Accessing HEP Collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Ritchie, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    WAIS stands for Wide Area Information Server. It is a distributed information retrieval system. A WAIS system has a client-server architecture which consists of clients talking to a server via a TCP/IP network using the ANSI standard Z39-50 VI protocol. A freely available version (FreeWAIS) is supported by the Clearinghouse for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval, also known as CNIDR. FreeWAIS-sf, which is the software the authors are using at Fermilab, is an extension of FreeWAIS. FreeWAIS-sf supports all the functionalities which FreeWAIS offers as well as additional indexing and searching capabilities for structured fields. World Wide Web (WWW) was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and is now the backbone for serving information on Internet. Here, the authors describe a system for accessing HEP collaboration documents using WWW and WAIS

  8. HEP Outreach, Inreach, and Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Steven

    2011-12-01

    I report on current usage of multimedia and social networking "Web 2.0" tools for Education and Outreach in high-energy physics, and discuss their potential for internal communication within large worldwide collaborations, such as those of the LHC. Following a brief description of the history of Web 2.0 development, I present a survey of the most popular sites and describe their usage in HEP to disseminate information to students and the general public. I then discuss the potential of certain specific tools, such as document and multimedia sharing sites, for boosting the speed and effectiveness of information exchange within the collaborations. I conclude with a brief discussion of the successes and failures of these tools, and make suggestions for improved usage in the future.

  9. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  10. Sagunja-Tang Improves Lipid Related Disease in a Postmenopausal Rat Model and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Go

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Sagunja-tang on the lipid related disease in a rat model of menopausal hyperlipidemia and lipid accumulation in methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced HepG2 cells. In in vivo study using menopausal hyperlipidemia rats, Sagunja-tang reduced retroperitoneal and perirenal fat, serum lipids, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor, media thickness, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis score, when compared to menopausal hyperlipidemia control rats. In HepG2 cells, Sagunja-tang significantly decreased the lipid accumulation, total cholesterol levels, and low-density/very-low-density lipoprotein levels. Moreover, Sagunja-tang reversed the methyl-β-cyclodextrin-induced decrease in the protein levels of critical molecule involved in cholesterol synthesis, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2, and low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibited protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase as well as activity. Phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase was stimulated by Sagunja-tang. These results suggest that Sagunja-tang has effect on inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation through regulation of cholesterol synthesis and AMPK activity in vitro. These observations support the idea that Sagunja-tang is bioavailable both in vivo and in vitro and could be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent of hyperlipidemia in postmenopausal females.

  11. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Vranicar; John Weicher

    2006-04-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist’s computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that "Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications.” There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the

  12. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranicar, Matthew; Weicher, John

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist's computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that 'Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications'. There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the secure

  13. Automatic control of movable detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassel, W.W.; Remley, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described, relating to a microprocessor based control system for a plurality of movable detectors, e.g. a nuclear reactor flux mapping system, with new system architecture which increases system availability by preventing faults on any of the detection channels from disabling the remaining channels. The system has, say, four drive trains for a number of detectors. Functional separation is realized by having two channels control their associated two drive trains. Redundancy is provided by having dual channels for operator interface. Communications between the functionally separate channels is accomplished by employing two-ported memories in conjunction with multiple microprocessors. (author)

  14. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  15. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  17. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  18. Study of apoptotic mechanisms induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its 13-cis isomer on cellular lines of human hepato carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2; Estudio de los mecanismos apoptoticos inducidos por el acido retinoico todo-trans y su isomero 13-cis en las lineas celulares de hepatocarcinoma humano Hep3B y HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce Vargas, Frederick [Costa Rica

    2006-07-01

    Two cellular lines of liver cancer (Hep3B and HepG2) were incubated during different periods of time with some concentrations of two retinoic acid isomers (ATRA and 13-cis AR) and with 5-fu chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and paclitaxel. It was determined if these substances leaded cytotoxicity, apoptosis and if they modified the expression of different genes related to cellular death by apoptosis, in order to explain the hepatocellular carcinoma resistance to these drugs. HepG2 cells showed more resistance than Hep3B cells to 72 hours of treatment, as much ATRA as the 13-cis AR were toxic and produced apoptosis in two cellular lines. This type of cellular death seems to be mediated by a decrease in Bcl-xL concentration in Hep3B cells treated with both retinoids an increase in bax concentration in HepG2 cells treated with 13-cis AR. It were observed 3 and 8 proteolysis of procaspase in Hep3B cells, suggesting extrinsic via activation of the apoptosis, while cellular death in HepG2 cells seems to be independent of caspases. Cisplatin and paclitaxel leaded cytotoxicity to 48 hours of treatment, with significant differences between two cellular lines only in case of paclitaxel. Hep3B cells treated with cisplatin and HepG2 cells treated with paclytaxel suffered apoptosis. 5-FU produced toxicity only when it was used to high concentrations and the mechanism of cellular death induced by this agent seems to be primarily necrosis in Hep3B cells and apoptosis in HepG2. There was decrease in the Bcl-xL concentration in two cellular lines when it was treated with cisplatin and in HepG2 cells treated with 5-FU. Bax concentration there no was modified with no treatment. Activation of the 3 caspases seems to happen only in HepG2 cells with 5-FU and paclytaxel. These two agents, also, decreased the survivin concentration of HepG2 cells. Treatments of the three drugs produced an increase in the expression of this gen in Hep3B cells, which might explain partially the resistance

  19. Evaluating the scalability of HEP software and multi-core hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A

    2011-01-01

    As researchers have reached the practical limits of processor performance improvements by frequency scaling, it is clear that the future of computing lies in the effective utilization of parallel and multi-core architectures. Since this significant change in computing is well underway, it is vital for HEP programmers to understand the scalability of their software on modern hardware and the opportunities for potential improvements. This work aims to quantify the benefit of new mainstream architectures to the HEP community through practical benchmarking on recent hardware solutions, including the usage of parallelized HEP applications.

  20. HEp-2 Cell Classification Using Shape Index Histograms With Donut-Shaped Spatial Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for automatic classification of indirect immunoflourescence images of HEp-2 cells into different staining pattern classes. Our method is based on a new texture measure called shape index histograms that captures second-order image structure at multiple scales. Moreover, we...... datasets. Our results show that shape index histograms are superior to other popular texture descriptors for HEp-2 cell classification. Moreover, when comparing to other automated systems for HEp-2 cell classification we show that shape index histograms are very competitive; especially considering...

  1. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  2. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  3. An analysis of reproducibility and non-determinism in HEP software and ROOT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Peter; Zheng, Charles; Lannon, Kevin; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Reproducibility is an essential component of the scientific method. In order to validate the correctness or facilitate the extension of a computational result, it should be possible to re-run a published result and verify that the same results are produced. However, reproducing a computational result is surprisingly difficult: non-determinism and other factors may make it impossible to get the same result, even when running the same code on the same machine on the same day. We explore this problem in the context of HEP codes and data, showing three high level methods for dealing with non-determinism in general: 1) Domain specific methods; 2) Domain specific comparisons; and 3) Virtualization adjustments. Using a CMS workflow with output data stored in ROOT files, we use these methods to prevent, detect, and eliminate some sources of non-determinism. We observe improved determinism using pre-determined random seeds, a predictable progression of system timestamps, and fixed process identifiers. Unfortunately, sources of non-determinism continue to exist despite the combination of all three methods. Hierarchical data comparisons also allow us to appropriately ignore some non-determinism when it is unavoidable. We conclude that there is still room for improvement, and identify directions that can be taken in each method to make an experiment more reproducible.

  4. Signal generation in highly irradiated silicon microstrip detectors for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    Silicon detectors are the most diffused tracking devices in High Energy Physics (HEP). The reason of such success can be found in the characteristics of the material together with the existing advanced technology for the fabrication of these devices. Nevertheless in many modem HEP experiments the observation of vary rare events require data taking at high luminosity with a consequent extremely intense hadron radiation field that damages the silicon and degrades the performance of these devices. In this thesis work a detailed study of the signal generation in microstrip detectors has been produced with a special care for the ATLAS semiconductor tracker geometry. This has required a development of an appropriate setup to perform measurements with Transient Current/ Charge Technique. This has allowed studying the evolution of the signal in several microstrips detector samples irradiated at fluences covering the range expected in the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. For a better understanding of these measurements a powerful software package that simulates the signal generation in these devices has been developed. Moreover in this thesis it has been also shown that the degradation due to radiation in silicon detectors can be strongly reduced if the data taking is done with detectors operated at 130 K. This makes low temperature operation that benefits of the recovery of the charge collection efficiency in highly irradiated silicon detectors (also known as Lazarus effect) an optimal option for future high luminosity experiments. (author)

  5. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  6. Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Lin, Doung-Liang; Huang, Shan-Ney; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-11-25

    Physalis species is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis and other diseases. Studies have shown that the ethanol extract of Physalis peruviana (EEPP) inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of human Hep G2 cells in culture, whereas proliferation of the mouse BALB/C normal liver cells was not affected. In this study, we performed detailed studies to define the molecular mechanism of EEPP-induced apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. The results further confirmed that EEPP inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At 50 microg/ml, EEPP significantly increased the accumulation of the sub-G1 peak (hypoploid) and the portion of apoptotic annexin V positive cells. EEPP was found to trigger apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol and consequently resulted in caspase-3 activation. Pre-treatment with a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) prevented cytochrome c release. After 48 h of EEPP treatment, the apoptosis of Hep G2 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53, and CD95 and CD95L proteins expression. Furthermore, a marked down-regulation of the expression of the Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and XIAP, and up-regulation of the Bax and Bad proteins were noted. Taken together, the present results suggest that EEPP-induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis was possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

  7. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  8. Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Elvira, V.

    2017-06-01

    Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.

  9. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  11. Front-end electronics for H.E.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrisoho, A.

    1990-07-01

    A simplified description of the front-end electronics used for High Energy Physics Detectors is given. A brief analysis of the speed limitation due to the time necessary for the detector charge transfer is given, which depends as well of the detector behaviour as of the preamplifier configuration. A description of the sample electronic circuits like differentiation, integration, pole zero circuit and preamplifier are given. Noise analysis is carried out to derive the relations for the equivalent noise signal for the measuring device with some description of practical noise measuring. The shaping of the signals to obtain an optimization for the noise is considered and some hints for shaping amplifier design, with a description of the noise weightling function for normal and time variant shaping are given

  12. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  13. Detector problems at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.G.

    1985-02-01

    During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4π detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs

  14. Management of disused smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Smoke detectors containing radioisotopes with long half-life (such as 241 Am and 239 Pu), are widely used all over the world. Very small activities are required for this application but in each country, the smoke detectors are present by thousands. The volume of the radioactive sources being so small compared to the overall volume of the device, the volume reduction is the only responsible option for their management and storage. These sources, collected as such, require deep geological repository that so far are not operational anywhere. The conditioning and the packaging should try to meet the requirement for future repository. The National Institute for Radioelements, in Belgium, (IRE) has acquired a wide experience in the field of handling, conditioning and storage of disused smoke detectors and lightning preventers mainly based on 241 Am sources. Up to now, more than forty different types of smoke detectors were dismantled in the IRE facilities representing a total amount of more than 30,000 items. This report presents a practical management option for disused smoke detectors sources and provides an example of specific technical procedure for 241 Am sources handling and conditioning for long term storage. This management option does not request heavy infrastructure. For this reason this practical approach can be implemented in every waste treatment facility including those in the developing countries. (author)

  15. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Methodology: Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Results: Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Conclusion: Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver. (author)

  16. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui, E-mail: thiamtsu@yahoo.com [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheah, Yew-Hoong [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Center, Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Meenakshii, Nallappan [Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X{sub L} expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  17. Xanthorrhizol induced DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cells involving Bcl-2 family proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tee, Thiam-Tsui; Cheah, Yew-Hoong; Meenakshii, Nallappan; Mohd Sharom, Mohd Yusof; Azimahtol Hawariah, Lope Pihie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated xanthorrhizol, a sesquiterpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. ► Xanthorrhizol induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells as observed using SEM. ► Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells involved Bcl-2 family proteins. ► DNA fragmentation was observed in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells. ► DNA fragmentation maybe due to cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins. -- Abstract: Xanthorrhizol is a plant-derived pharmacologically active sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza. Previously, we have reported that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 human hepatoma cells by inducing apoptotic cell death via caspase activation. Here, we attempt to further elucidate the mode of action of xanthorrhizol. Apoptosis in xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy was accompanied by truncation of BID; reduction of both anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L expression; cleavage of PARP and DFF45/ICAD proteins and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest xanthorrhizol as a potent antiproliferative agent on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via Bcl-2 family members. Hence we proposed that xanthorrhizol could be used as an anti-liver cancer drug for future studies.

  18. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Wei; Mu, Xia; Qu, Rongmei; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. ► Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. ► Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ► VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.

  19. An electronic logbook for the HEP control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roediger, G.; Pomatto, P.; Kyriakopulos, J.; Panacek, S.; Canal, P.; Kubarovsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. The author explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries and saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of logbook

  20. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary Roediger

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook

  1. silver nanoparticles on liver cancer cells (HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. El-Batal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs against human liver cancer cell line (HepG2 using prodigiosin pigment isolated from Serratia marcescens. It further investigates the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature, silver nitrate (AgNO 3 concentration, and prodigiosin concentration on stability and optical properties of synthesized prodigiosin AgNPs. Highly stable, spherical prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs were synthesized with a mean diameter of 9.98 nm using a rapid one-step method. The cytotoxic activity investigated in the present study indicated that prodigiosin and prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs possessed a strong cytotoxic potency against human liver cancer. The In silico molecular docking results of prodigiosin and prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs are congruent with the In vitro studies and these AgNPs can be considered as good inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK kinases. The study opened the possibility of using prodigiosin-conjugated AgNPs to increase the efficiency of liver cancer treatment.

  2. Campus Grids: Bringing Additional Computational Resources to HEP Researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2012-01-01

    It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.

  3. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-11-23

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system.

  4. Involving the public into HEP through IT challenges and projects

    CERN Document Server

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has recently setup three outreach projects and global challenges which have a strong IT component and could not have been envisaged without the growth of general public computing resources and network connectivity. HEP has exciting and difficult problems like the extraction of the Higgs boson signal, and at the same time data scientists have advanced algorithms. The goal of the Higgs Machine Learning (HiggsML) project was to bring the two together by a “challenge”: machine learning experts could compete online to obtain the best Higgs→ττ signal significance on a set of ATLAS fully simulated Monte Carlo signal and background events. The first challenge of this kind ran from May to September 2014, drawing considerable attention, and new projects followed in the context of the CERN open data initiative. Higgs Hunters is the only physics-related project hosted on a web-based citizen science platform called Zooniverse. Volunteers usually contributing to space, natural world and huma...

  5. CUBESIM, Hypercube and Denelcor Hep Parallel Computer Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CUBESIM is a set of subroutine libraries and programs for the simulation of message-passing parallel computers and shared-memory parallel computers. Subroutines are supplied to simulate the Intel hypercube and the Denelcor HEP parallel computers. The system permits a user to develop and test parallel programs written in C or FORTRAN on a single processor. The user may alter such hypercube parameters as message startup times, packet size, and the computation-to-communication ratio. The simulation generates a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 2 - Method of solution: The CUBESIM simulator is linked with the user's parallel application routines to run as a single UNIX process. The simulator library provides a small operating system to perform process and message management. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Up to 128 processors can be simulated with a virtual memory limit of 6 million bytes. Up to 1000 processes can be simulated

  6. Study of a Docker Use-Case for HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lyon, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Paterno, Marc [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, container technology has become increasingly promising as a means to seamlessly make our software available across a wider range of platforms. In December 2015, we decided to put together a set of docker images that serve as a demonstration of this container technology for managing a run-time environment for art-related software projects, and also serve as a set of test cases for evaluation of performance. Docker[1] containers provide a way to “wrap up a piece of software in a complete filesystem that contains everything it needs to run”. In combination with Shifter[2], such containers provide a way to run software developed and deployed on “typical” HEP platforms (such as SLF 6, in common use at Fermilab and on OSG platforms) on HPC facilities at NERSC. Docker containers provide a means of delivering software that can be run on a variety of hosts without needing to be compiled specially for each OS to be supported. This could substantially reduce the effort required to create and validate a new release, since one build could be suitable for use on both grid machines (both FermiGrid and OSG) as well as any machine capable of running the Docker container. In addition, docker containers may provide for a quick and easy way for users to install and use a software release in a standardized environment. This report contains the results and status of this demonstration and evaluation.

  7. Wide area network monitoring system for HEP experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Fermilab; Cottrell, Les; Logg, Connie; SLAC

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  8. Wide Area Network Monitoring System for HEP Experiments at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Large, distributed High Energy Physics (HEP) collaborations, such as D0, CDF and US-CMS, depend on stable and robust network paths between major world research centres. The evolving emphasis on data and compute Grids increases the reliance on network performance. Fermilab's experimental groups and network support personnel identified a critical need for WAN monitoring to ensure the quality and efficient utilization of such network paths. This has led to the development of the Network Monitoring system we will present in this paper. The system evolved from the IEPM-BW project, started at SLAC three years ago. At Fermilab this system has developed into a fully functional infrastructure with bi-directional active network probes and path characterizations. It is based on the Iperf achievable throughput tool, Ping and Synack to test ICMP/TCP connectivity. It uses Pipechar and Traceroute to test, compare and report hop-by-hop network path characterization. It also measures real file transfer performance by BBFTP and GridFTP. The Monitoring system has an extensive web-interface and all the data is available through standalone SOAP web services or by a MonaLISA client. Also in this paper we will present a case study of network path asymmetry and abnormal performance between FNAL and SDSC, which was discovered and resolved by utilizing the Network Monitoring system

  9. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  10. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  11. Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)

  12. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  13. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  14. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  15. The upgraded Pixel detector and the commissioning of the Inner Detector tracking of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00019188; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will provide new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with the high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130~nm technology. In addition, the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during Run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. Complementing detector improvements, many improvements to Inner Detector track and vertex reconstr...

  16. UFMulti: A new parallel processing software system for HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Paul; White, Andrew

    1989-12-01

    UFMulti is a multiprocessing software package designed for general purpose high energy physics applications, including physics and detector simulation, data reduction and DST physics analysis. The system is particularly well suited for installations where several workstation or computers are connected through a local area network (LAN). The initial configuration of the software is currently running on VAX/VMS machines with a planned extension to ULTRIX, using the new RISC CPUs from Digital, in the near future.

  17. UFMULTI: A new parallel processing software system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, P.; White, A.

    1989-01-01

    UFMulti is a multiprocessing software package designed for general purpose high energy physics applications, including physics and detector simulation, data reduction and DST physics analysis. The system is particularly well suited for installations where several workstations or computers are connected through a local area network (LAN). The initial configuration of the software is currently running on VAX/VMS machines with a planned extension to ULTRIX, using the new RISC CPUs from Digital, in the near future. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of gigabit links for use in HEP trigger processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1999-05-01

    The next generation of colliders will take experimental particle physics into energy regimes where the potential for fundamental new discoveries is overshadowed by the immense technological challenges that have to be met in building the necessary detectors. One major technological challenge is to build detectors with fine granularity that can withstand the very high levels of radiation around the interaction region. The final challenge is to build and operate the high speed electronics that can readout and process the huge volumes of data that will be generated. In particular, a key demand is that efficient triggers be built that will filter out as much of the background as possible at as early a stage as possible, without losing or biasing the tiny physics signal. These triggers must be fast and affordable. This thesis is concerned with one aspect of this scenario: how to provide a low cost but very fast switching system that can direct the streams of data coming from the detector into the computers that run the trigger algorithms. In this thesis the design and evaluation of a novel new switching chip, the RCUBE, developed in collaboration with European industry, is presented. It will be shown that such a chip could offer a solution to the data switching problems likely to be encountered in a typical future collider experiment such as the ATLAS experiment at CERN. To help with planning the use of such a chip, a simulation package is also developed based on the commercial OPNET package

  19. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits overexpression of P-glycoprotein induced by doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Yuki; Arisawa, Sakiko; Takai, Miho; Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Honda, Minako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Ueyama, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2014-02-05

    The hepatoprotective action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was previously suggested to be partially dependent on its antioxidative effect. Doxorubicin (DOX) and reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene and causes antitumor multidrug resistance. In the present study, we assessed the effects of UDCA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA, P-gp, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in DOX-treated HepG2 cells and compared them to those of other bile acids. DOX-induced increases in reactive oxygen species levels and the expression of MDR1 mRNA were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and the DOX-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and DOX-induced overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp were inhibited by UDCA. Cells treated with UDCA showed improved rhodamine 123 uptake, which was decreased in cells treated with DOX alone. Moreover, cells exposed to DOX for 24h combined with UDCA accumulated more DOX than that of cells treated with DOX alone. Thus, UDCA may have inhibited the overexpression of P-gp by suppressing DOX-induced reactive oxygen species production. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) also exhibited these effects, whereas deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid were ineffective. In conclusion, UDCA and CDCA had an inhibitory effect on the induction of P-gp expression and reactive oxygen species by DOX in HepG2 cells. The administration of UDCA may be beneficial due to its ability to prevent the overexpression of reactive oxygen species and acquisition of multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres and HepG2-cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Cui, Long; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Xu-Bo; Han, Bao-San; Dong, Ya-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan-gelatin B microspheres with an open, interconnected, highly macroporous (100-200 µm) structure were prepared via a three-step protocol combining freeze-drying with an electrostatic and ionic cross-linking method. Saturated tripolyphosphate ethanol solution (85% ethanol) was chosen as the crosslinking agent to prevent destruction of the porous structure and to improve the biostability of the chitosan-gelatin B microspheres, with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide as a second crosslinking agent to react with gelatin A and fixed chitosan-gelatin B microspheres to attain improved biocompatibility. Water absorption of the three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres (3D-P-CGMs) was 12.84, with a porosity of 85.45%. In vitro lysozyme degradation after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days showed improved biodegradation in the 3D-P-CGMs. The morphology of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) cultured on the 3D-P-CGMs was spherical, unlike that of cells cultured under traditional two-dimensional conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and paraffin sections were used to confirm the porous structure of the 3D-P-CGMs. HepG2 cells were able to migrate inside through the pore. Cell proliferation and levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase suggested that the 3D-P-CGMs could provide a larger specific surface area and an appropriate microenvironment for cell growth and survival. Hence, the 3D-P-CGMs are eminently suitable as macroporous scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering and cell carrier studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A study of B(s)0 to J/psi phi in the D0 experiment and an example of HEP technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Daniela Ursula; Imperial Coll., London

    2002-01-01

    After years of preparation, data taking with the upgraded D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider has begun. The large amount of data produced in a p(bar p)-collider requires sophisticated triggers to filter out the interesting events. Described in this thesis is the development of trigger software for the newly implemented Silicon Microstrip Tracker. D0 is a multi-purpose detector with a broad physics program. One area being studied at D0 is B mesons. An algorithm for reconstructing the B s 0 and B d 0 mesons and for measuring their lifetimes has been developed and is described in this thesis. The results suggest that an improvement of the current lifetime measurements can be achieved within the next two years. The reconstruction of a J/ψ meson forms the basis for a wide range of b-physics. Data taken with the muon system during the commissioning period of the detector has been analyzed and a signal for the J/ψ meson has been found. Systematic transfer of HEP technologies into other areas and their commercial exploitation will play an important role in the future of particle physics. An area of particular interest is DNA sequencing as shown by the recent completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The final part of this thesis details the development of a simulation for a high throughput sequencing device which is currently being developed at Imperial College

  3. A study of B$0\\atop{s}$ → J/ΨΦ in the D0 experiment and an example of HEP technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Daniela Ursula [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    After years of preparation, data taking with the upgraded D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider has begun. The large amount of data produced in a p$\\bar{p}$-collider requires sophisticated triggers to filter out the interesting events. Described in this thesis is the development of trigger software for the newly implemented Silicon Microstrip Tracker. D0 is a multi-purpose detector with a broad physics program. one area being studied at D0 is B mesons. An algorithm for reconstructing the B$0\\atop{s}$ and B$0\\atop{d}$ mesons and for measuring their lifetimes has been developed and is described in this thesis. The results suggest that an improvement of the current lifetime measurements can be achieved within the next two years. The reconstruction of a J/Ψ meson forms the basis for a wide range of b-physics. Data taken with the muon system during the commissioning period of the detector has been analyzed and a signal for the J/Ψ meson has been found. Systematic transfer of HEP technologies into other areas and their commercial exploitation plays an important role in the future of particle physics. An area of particular interest is DNA sequencing as shown by the recent completion of the sequencing of the human genome. The final part of this thesis details the development of a simulation for a high throughput sequencing device which is currently being developed at Imperial College.

  4. Aggregative adherent strains of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum enter and survive within HEp-2 epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a well-known human pathogen that mainly causes respiratory disease and is associated with high mortality in compromised hosts. Little is known about the virulence factors and pathogenesis of C. pseudodiphtheriticum. In this study, cultured human epithelial (HEp-2 cells were used to analyse the adherence pattern, internalisation and intracellular survival of the ATCC 10700 type strain and two additional clinical isolates. These microorganisms exhibited an aggregative adherence-like pattern to HEp-2 cells characterised by clumps of bacteria with a "stacked-brick" appearance. The differences in the ability of these microorganisms to invade and survive within HEp-2 cells and replicate in the extracellular environment up to 24 h post infection were evaluated. The fluorescent actin staining test demonstrated that actin polymerisation is involved in the internalisation of the C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains. The depolymerisation of microfilaments by cytochalasin E significantly reduced the internalisation of C. pseudodiphtheriticum by HEp-2 cells. Bacterial internalisation and cytoskeletal rearrangement seemed to be partially triggered by the activation of tyrosine kinase activity. Although C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains did not demonstrate an ability to replicate intracellularly, HEp-2 cells were unable to fully clear the pathogen within 24 h. These characteristics may explain how some C. pseudodiphtheriticum strains cause severe infection in human patients.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  7. Radiation induced bystander effect on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianghong; Jin Yizun; Shao Chunlin; Prise KM

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation induced bystander effect and its mechanism on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition. Methods: Non-irradiated bystander hepatoma cells were co-cultured with irradiated cells or treated with the conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated cells, then micronuclei (MN) were measured for both irradiated cells and bystander cells. Results: The MN yield of irradiated HepG2 cells under hypoxic condition was significantly lower than that under normoxia, the oxygen enhancement ratio of HepG2 cells of MN was 1.6. For both hypoxic and normoxic condition, the MN yield of bystander cells were obviously enhanced to a similar high level after co-culturing with irradiated cells or with CM treatment, and it also correlated with the irradiation dose. When the hypoxic HepG2 cells were treated with either DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, the yield of bystander MN was partly diminished, and the reducing rate of DMSO was 42.2%-46.7%, the reducing rate of aminoguanidine was 42% . Conclusion: ROS, NO and their downstream signal factors are involved in the radiation induced bystander effect of hypoxic HepG2 cells. (authors)

  8. Determination of Greenhouse Gases Base Year for Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) in Accordance with Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelavic, V.; Sestic, M.; Juric, Z.; Stanic, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol obliges the Republic of Croatia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5 percent till the year 2010, taking a base year from the period between 1985 and 1990. Thermal power plants of Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) represent significant source of the most important greenhouse gas - CO 2 - and consequently HEP is expected to make a significant contribution to the national activities aiming to meet the Kyoto Protocol requirements. This issue is of particular importance, as Croatia has not submitted its base year to the Conference of the Parties in form of The National Communication on Climate Change, which is one of the requirements of UN Climate Change Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Related to this, it is interesting to include emissions from the thermal power plants located in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia (650 MWe) that had supplied electricity to the Croatian power supply system in the base year period and on which HEP claims legal ownership. This article presents HEP greenhouse gas emissions from the period of 1985 to 1990, as well as its contribution in total greenhouse gas emissions of Croatia. Furthermore, future HEP greenhouse gas emissions, according to its business development scenario till the year 2010, will be estimated. (author)

  9. Oxidative stress induced lipid accumulation via SREBP1c activation in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, Mika; Hiraishi, Ako; Touyama, Maiko; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2008-01-01

    SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) is a metabolic-syndrome-associated transcription factor that controls fatty acid biosynthesis under glucose/insulin stimulation. Oxidative stress increases lipid accumulation, which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, we know little about the role of oxidative stress in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the action of oxidative stress in lipid accumulation via SREBP1c, we examined SREBP1c activity in H 2 O 2 -treated mammalian cells. We introduced a luciferase reporter plasmid carrying the SREBP1c-binding site into HepG2 or COS-7 cells. With increasing H 2 O 2 dose, SREBP1c transcriptional activity increased in HepG2 cells but declined in COS-7 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SREBP1c gene or of SREBP1c-regulated genes rose H 2 O 2 dose-dependently in HepG2 cells but dropped in COS-7 cells. Lipid accumulation and levels of the nuclear form of SREBP1c increased in H 2 O 2 -stimulated HepG2 cells. ROS may stimulate lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells via SREBP1c activation

  10. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  11. Implementation of a Large Scale Control System for a High-Energy Physics Detector: The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Masetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Control systems for modern High-Energy Physics (HEP) detectors are large distributed software systems managing a significant data volume and implementing complex operational procedures. The control software for the LHC experiments at CERN is built on top of a commercial software used in industrial automation. However, HEP specific requirements call for extended functionalities. This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of the control system for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker but presents some general strategies that have been applied in other contexts. Specific design solutions are developed to ensure acceptable response times and to provide the operator with an effective summary of the status of the devices. Detector safety is guaranteed by proper configuration of independent hardware systems. A software protection mechanism is used to avoid the widespread intervention of the hardware safety and to inhibit dangerous commands. A wizard approach allows non expert operators to recover error situations...

  12. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  13. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  14. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  15. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  16. Offering Global Collaboration Services beyond CERN and HEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J.; Ferreira, P.; Baron, T.

    2015-12-01

    The CERN IT department has built over the years a performant and integrated ecosystem of collaboration tools, from videoconference and webcast services to event management software. These services have been designed and evolved in very close collaboration with the various communities surrounding the laboratory and have been massively adopted by CERN users. To cope with this very heavy usage, global infrastructures have been deployed which take full advantage of CERN's international and global nature. If these services and tools are instrumental in enabling the worldwide collaboration which generates major HEP breakthroughs, they would certainly also benefit other sectors of science in which globalization has already taken place. Some of these services are driven by commercial software (Vidyo or Wowza for example), some others have been developed internally and have already been made available to the world as Open Source Software in line with CERN's spirit and mission. Indico for example is now installed in 100+ institutes worldwide. But providing the software is often not enough and institutes, collaborations and project teams do not always possess the expertise, or human or material resources that are needed to set up and maintain such services. Regional and national institutions have to answer needs, which are growingly global and often contradict their operational capabilities or organizational mandate and so are looking at existing worldwide service offers such as CERN's. We believe that the accumulated experience obtained through the operation of a large scale worldwide collaboration service combined with CERN's global network and its recently- deployed Agile Infrastructure would allow the Organization to set up and operate collaborative services, such as Indico and Vidyo, at a much larger scale and on behalf of worldwide research and education institutions and thus answer these pressing demands while optimizing resources at a global level. Such services would

  17. Measurement of the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} cross section in proton-proton collisions at ATLAS and development of the HepMCAnalysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2012-04-15

    The goal of modern particle physics experiments is the most precise measurement of known phenomena and the discovery of new physics. The complexity of these experiments requires dedicated tools to ensure the correct functionality of every part of the experiment and the analyses. One of these tools is the HepMCAnalysis Tool, a software framework for Monte Carlo (MC) generator validation and comparisons, using the generator independent HepMC event record. In this thesis, the development of the HepMCAnalysis Tool is presented. Its wide range of applications extends from validation and regression tests at the ATLAS experiment, over generator level studies and preparations of analyses, up to histogram based validation in the Generator Services Project. Examples of its applications are given. In November 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started operation and the ATLAS detector, the largest of the four LHC experiments, began taking data. Many Standard Model (SM) processes can already be rediscovered and are used to optimise the detector performance. Amongst those SM processes, processes involving particles from the third generation, like {tau} leptons, play an important role e.g. in the decay of the Higgs boson. Also in models of new physics like supersymmetry (SUSY), third generation particles, especially {tau} leptons, can be found in the final state. An accurate understanding of underlying SM processes with {tau} leptons is therefore one of the keys for the search of new physics. Among these, one of the most important processes is the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay. In the second part of this thesis, the cross section measurement of W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment is presented. This was measured to be {sigma}{sup tot}{sub W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}}=(11.1{+-}0.3 (stat.){+-}1.7 (syst.){+-}0.4 (lumi.)) nb. This result is in agreement with the NNLO

  18. Detectors for MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Jack; Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, it was thought that the proton radius was known with an uncertainty of 1%. However, experiments carried-out at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) involving muonic hydrogen yielded a radius 4% smaller with an uncertainty of .1%, a 7.9 σ inconsistency. This problem of properly measuring the radius now requires new and different measurements. The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will thus be the first to utilize elastic muon scattering with sufficient precision to address the proton radius measurement. MUSE will run in PSI's PiM1 beamline, using a stack of GEM chambers and thin scintillation detectors to identify and track the beam particle species in this mixed e, pi, mu beam. Scattered particles will be measured in two arms with ten layers of Straw Tube Tracking (STT) detectors and a double plastic scintillator wall for timing of and triggering on scattered particles. The STT chambers will employ the anti-Proton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) design. Each straw consists of a thin wire with high voltage surrounded by an aluminized Mylar tube inflated with a mix of Argon and Carbon Dioxide, the ratio of which is important for optimal operation. The Argon gas, ionized by incoming charged particles, releases electrons which attract to the central wire. The CO2 acts as a quencher, taking-up electrons to prevent an unstable avalanche effect. This project will investigate the effects of altering the gas mixture in the STTs on signal size and timing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OISE-1358175, PHY-1614850, and PHY-1614938. Thank you to the teams at HUJI and PSI, in particular, Dr. G. Ron, Dr. T. Rostomyan, Dr. K. Dieters, and D. Cohen.

  19. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  20. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  1. [Pseudolaric acid B induces G2/M arrest and inhibits invasion and migration in HepG2 hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Guo, Lianyi

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanisms of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) blocks cell cycle and inhibits invasion and migration in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Methods The proliferation effect of PAB on HepG2 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of PAB on the cell cycle of HepG2 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunofluorescence cytochemical staining was applied to observe the effect of PAB on the α-tubulin polymerization and expression in HepG2 cells. Transwell TM chamber invasion assay and wound healing assay were performed to detect the influence of PAB on the migration and invasion ability of HepG2 cells. Western blotting was used to determine the expressions of α-tubulin, E-cadherin and MMP-9 in HepG2 cells after treated with PAB. Results PAB inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase. PAB significantly changed the polymerization and decreased the expression of α-tubulin. The capacities of invasion and migration of HepG2 cells treated by PAB were significantly depressed. The protein levels of α-tubulin and MMP-9 decreased while the E-cadherin protein level increased. Conclusion PAB can inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 cells by down-regulating the expression of α-tubulin and influencing its polymerization, arresting HepG2 cells in G2/M phase. Meanwhile, PAB also can inhibit the invasion and migration of HepG2 cells by lowering cytoskeleton α-tubulin and MMP-9, and increasing E-cadherin.

  2. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  3. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  4. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  5. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, C.S.; Ramachandra Rao, M.N.; Ingale, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of self powered neutron detectors used for in-core flux measurements are described. The characteristics of the various detectors, with emitters Rh, V, Co, Py are presented. Details about the fabrication of these detectors are given. (A.K.)

  6. The JADE muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-01-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

  7. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  8. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson; Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young; Kwon, Oh Hyeong; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL)

  11. Targeting and molecular imaging of HepG2 cells using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinaraj, Pierson [Auckland University of Technology, Institute of Biomedical Technologies (New Zealand); Lee, Kyubae; Choi, Yuri; Park, Soo-Young [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu, E-mail: ikkang@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Graduate School (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Mercaptosuccinic acid (M)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GM) were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering. M was used to improve the monodispersity and non-specific intracellular uptake of nanoparticles. Lactobionic acid (L) was subsequently conjugated to the GM to target preferentially HepG2 cells (liver cancer cells) that express asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) on their membrane surfaces and facilitate the transit of nanoparticles across the cell membrane. The mean size of lactobionic acid-conjugated gold nanoparticle (GL) was approximately 10 ± 0.2 nm. Finally, the Atto 680 dye (A6) was coupled to the nanoparticles to visualize their internalization into HepG2 cells. The interaction of surface-modified gold nanoparticles with HepG2 cells was studied after culturing cells in media containing the GM or L-conjugated GM (GL)

  12. The HepMC C++ Monte Carlo Event Record for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, M

    2000-01-01

    HepMC is an Object Oriented event record written in C++ for High Energy Physics Monte Carlo Event Generators. Many extensions from HEPEVT, the Fortran HEP standard, are supported: the number of entries is unlimited, spin density matrices can be stored with each vertex, flow patterns (such as colour) can be stored and traced, random number generator states can be stored, and an arbitrary number of event weights can be included. Particles and vertices are stored separately in a graph structure, reflecting the evolution of a physics event. The added information supports the modularisation of event generators. The event record has been kept as simple as possible with minimal internal/external dependencies. Event information is accessed by means of iterators supplied with HepMC.

  13. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  14. Simulator For The Linear Collider (SLIC): A Tool For ILC Detector Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman; McCormick, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user

  15. Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC): a Tool for ILC Detector Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, N.; McCormick, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Simulator for the Linear Collider (SLIC) is a detector simulation program based on the GEANT4 toolkit. It is intended to enable end users to easily model detector concepts by providing the ability to fully describe detectors using plain text files read in by a common executable at runtime. The detector geometry, typically the most complex part of a detector simulation, is described at runtime using the Linear Collider Detector Description (LCDD). This system allows end users to create complex detector geometries in a standard XML format rather than procedural code such as C++. The LCDD system is based on the Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) from the LHC Applications Group (LCG). The geometry system facilitates the study of different full detector design and their variations. SLIC uses the StdHep format to read input created by event generators and outputs events in the Linear Collider IO (LCIO) format. The SLIC package provides a binding to GEANT4 and many additional commands and features for the end user

  16. Radiation hard silicon microstrip detectors for use in ATLAS at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars Gimmestad

    2005-06-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will accelerate protons in colliding beams to a center of mass energy of 14 TeV at very high luminosities. The ATLAS detector is being built to explore the physics in this unprecedented energy range. Tracking of charged particles in high-energy physics (HEP) experiments requires a high spatial resolution and fast signal readout, all with as little material as possible. Silicon microstrip detectors meet these requirements well and have been chosen for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) which is part of the inner tracking system of ATLAS and has a total area of 61 m2. During the 10 years of operation at LHC, the total fluence received by the detectors is sufficiently large that they will suffer a severe degradation from radiation induced damage. The damage affects both the physics performance of the detectors as well as their operability and a great challenge has been to develop radiation hard detectors for this environment. An extensive irradiation programme has been carried out where detectors of various designs, including defect engineering by oxygen enriched silicon, have been irradiated to the expected fluence. A subsequent thermal annealing period is included to account for a realistic annual maintenance schedule at room temperature, during which the radiation induced defects alter the detector properties significantly. This thesis presents work that has been carried out in the Bergen ATLAS group with results both from the irradiation programme and from detector testing during the module production. (Author)

  17. Trauma hepático: análise do tratamento com balão intra-hepático em um hospital universitário de Curitiba

    OpenAIRE

    Smaniotto,Benjamin; Bahten,Luiz Carlos Von; Nogueira Filho,Dorivam Celso; Tano,Agajanian Lumi; Thomaz Junior,Laertes; Fayad,Omar

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Discutir a estratégia cirúrgica para tratamento de lesões hepáticas penetrantes graves através de tamponamento com balão intra-hepático. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes com trauma hepático penetrante, tratados com balão, atendidos em um hospital de referência em trauma no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados: idade, sexo, grau da lesão hepática, segmentos acometidos, quantidade de solução salina infundida no balão intra-hepático e seu tempo de permanência, lesões associadas...

  18. HepSim: A repository with predictions for high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A file repository for calculations of cross sections and kinematic distributions using Monte Carlo generators for high-energy collisions is discussed. The repository is used to facilitate effective preservation and archiving of data from theoretical calculations and for comparisons with experimental data. The HepSim data library is publicly accessible and includes a number of Monte Carlo event samples with Standard Model predictions for current and future experiments. The HepSim project includes a software package to automate the process of downloading and viewing online Monte Carlo event samples. Data streaming over a network for end-user analysis is discussed

  19. Benefits of diverse and interdisciplinary co-creation for HEP - a showcase

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Cristina Bahamonde; Dopke, Jens; Kagan, Michael; Kaufmann, Sylvain; Knaepper, Ines; Kurikka, Joona; Milano, Leonardo; Muranaka, Tomoko; Pascu, Iulia; Potamianos, Karolos; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Utriainen, Tuuli; Perez Codina, Estel; Dobos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    THE Port association organises interdisciplinary co-creational humanitarian hackathons at CERN. Combining physicists and engineers working on HEP related topics in their day job with entrepreneurs, artists, researchers, designers, humanitarian workers and other creative minds helps identifying similar material and engineering solutions for humanitarian challenges. It allow cross collaboration between many different disciplines. Concentrating on humanitarian and social benefitting topics the technology opportunities identify new methods, materials and processes, that can be feed back into HEP. The methodology of humanitarian hackathons is described and some examples of challenge outcomes are showcased.

  20. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la Encefalopatía Hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Juan Carlos; Castro Kenia Vanesa; Castellón Jimenez Jaime

    2013-01-01

    La encefalopatía hepática es un síndrome neuropsiquiátrico complejo que se observa con gran frecuencia en el paciente con cirrosis hepática crónica. El aspecto fundamental en su fisiopatología es el acceso de sangre delterritorio portal a la circulación sistémica. Esto causa la exposición del cerebro a concentraciones elevadas de sustancias tóxicas, principalmente el amonio, que provocan alteraciones en los astrocitos y defectos en la neurotransmisión.El diagnóstico se establece al demostrar ...

  1. Multi-particle phase space integration with arbitrary set of singularities in CompHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, D.N.; Pukhov, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe an algorithm of multi-particle phase space integration for collision and decay processes realized in CompHEP package version 3.2. In the framework of this algorithm it is possible to regularize an arbitrary set of singularities caused by virtual particle propagators. The algorithm is based on the method of the recursive representation of kinematics and on the multichannel Monte Carlo approach. CompHEP package is available by WWW: http://theory.npi.msu.su/pukhov/comphep. html (orig.)

  2. ATLAS experience with HEP software at the Argonne leadership computing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, Thomas D; LeCompte, Thomas J; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  3. ATLAS Experience with HEP Software at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    CERN Document Server

    LeCompte, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Benjamin, D

    2014-01-01

    A number of HEP software packages used by the ATLAS experiment, including GEANT4, ROOT and ALPGEN, have been adapted to run on the IBM Blue Gene supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. These computers use a non-x86 architecture and have a considerably less rich operating environment than in common use in HEP, but also represent a computing capacity an order of magnitude beyond what ATLAS is presently using via the LCG. The status and potential for making use of leadership-class computing, including the status of integration with the ATLAS production system, is discussed.

  4. Atresia das vias biliares extra-hepáticas: conhecimentos atuais e perspectivas futuras

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Elisa de; Ivantes,Cláudia Alexandra Pontes; Bezerra,Jorge A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre atresia das vias biliares extra-hepáticas, com ênfase em etiopatogenia, abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas e prognóstico. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foram selecionadas pelos sites de busca médica (MEDLINE e PubMed) pesquisas relacionadas à atresia biliar, utilizando as seguintes palavras-chave: biliary atresia,etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, children. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS A atresia das vias biliares extra-hepáticas é a principal in...

  5. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  6. Cellular adhesion responses to the heparin-binding (HepII) domain of fibronectin require heparan sulfate with specific properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahalingam, Yashithra; Gallagher, John T; Couchman, John R

    2006-01-01

    of fibronectin (HepII domain) through its HS chains. The fine structure of HS is critical to growth factor responses, and whether this extends to matrix ligands is unknown but is suggested from in vitro experiments. Cell attachment to HepII showed that heparin oligosaccharides of >or=14 sugar residues were...

  7. Differential genomic effects of six different TiO2 nanomaterials on human liver HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanoparticles are reported to cause liver toxicity in vivo. To better assess the mechanism of the in vivo liver toxicity, we used the human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) as a model system. Human HepG2 cells were exposed to 6 TiO2 nanomaterials (with dry primary partic...

  8. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  9. UHPLC-ESI-MS Analysis of Purified Flavonoids Fraction from Stem of Dendrobium denneaum Paxt. and Its Preliminary Study in Inducing Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium denneaum paxt., which has been widely used for health prevention in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, is one of the most popular tonic herbs in China. In order to analyze its flavonoids, characterization and antitumor activity of crude extract and flavonoids rich fractions from D. denneaum paxt. were investigated. Flavonoids extracted from D. denneaum paxt. were clearly enriched in fraction II after determining the total flavonoids content; there were 15 characteristic peaks which have been detected; ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was applied for structural elucidation of compounds. 13 characteristic peaks including flavonoid-O-glycosides and flavonoid-C-glycosides were determined or preliminarily characterized through comparing retention times and UV and MS spectra with standard compounds or documented literature. The antitumor activity of fraction II on human liver cancer cells HepG2 was investigated. MTT assay method was used to test the antiproliferation activity and to confirm the appropriate treatment concentration as well as inducing time. The morphological changes of the apoptosis cells after being induced by fraction II were observed by a Hoechst reagent and the apoptosis rate was tested by flow cytometry. The results showed that fraction II can inhibit HepG2 cells from proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The apoptosis experiments indicated that fraction II can significantly induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a concentration over 50 μg/mL for 48 h and the most effective level was 150 μg/mL for 48 h.

  10. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  11. Dismantling the silicon microstrip detector on L3

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The silicon microstrip detector is located at the heart of the detector and must be kept cool to prevent thermal noise. The work shown here is the removal of the cooling system. L3 was dismantled as part of the closure of the entire LEP accelerator in 2000 to make way for the new LHC.

  12. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  13. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    In the past months, the DT electronics has run in a stable and reliable way, demonstrated again through the CRAFT exercise. Operation when the CMS magnetic field was on has been satisfactory. The detector safety control and monitoring is improving constantly as the DT group accumulates running experience. The DT DAQ and DCS systems proved very stable during the intensive CRAFT period. The few issues that were identified by the DCS and on-line monitoring did not prevent the run to continue, so that the record of the DT in the data taking efficiency was very good. The long running period was also used to continue the transition from a system run by experts to one run by shifters, which was in the large part successful. Improvements, mostly in consolidation of error reporting, were identified and will be addressed in the coming shut-down. During the CRAFT data taking, DT triggered about 300 million cosmics with the magnet at 3.8T and the silicon strip tracker in the readout. Although a dedicated configuratio...

  14. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  15. West Foster Creek 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    A follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the West Foster Creek (Smith acquisition) wildlife mitigation site in May 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance and maintain the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The West Foster Creek 2007 follow-up HEP survey generated 2,981.96 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for a 34% increase (+751.34 HUs) above baseline HU credit (the 1999 baseline HEP survey generated 2,230.62 habitat units or 1.13 HUs per acre). The 2007 follow-up HEP analysis yielded 1,380.26 sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) habitat units, 879.40 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) HUs, and 722.29 western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) habitat units. Mule deer and sharp-tailed grouse habitat units increased by 346.42 HUs and 470.62 HUs respectively over baseline (1999) survey results due largely to cessation of livestock grazing and subsequent passive restoration. In contrast, the western meadowlark generated slightly fewer habitat units in 2007 (-67.31) than in 1999, because of increased shrub cover, which lowers habitat suitability for that species.

  16. Characterization and reproducibility of HepG2 hanging drop spheroids toxicology in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Tracey; Ellero, Andrea Antonio; Masso, Zelie Flavienne; Cromarty, Allan Duncan

    2018-02-21

    Hepatotoxicity remains a major challenge in drug development despite preclinical toxicity screening using hepatocytes of human origin. To overcome some limitations of reproducing the hepatic phenotype, more structurally and functionally authentic cultures in vitro can be introduced by growing cells in 3D spheroid cultures. Characterisation and reproducibility of HepG2 spheroid cultures using a high-throughput hanging drop technique was performed and features contributing to potential phenotypic variation highlighted. Cultured HepG2 cells were seeded into Perfecta 3D® 96-well hanging drop plates and assessed over time for morphology, viability, cell cycle distribution, protein content and protein-mass profiles. Divergent aspects which were assessed included cell stocks, seeding density, volume of culture medium and use of extracellular matrix additives. Hanging drops are advantageous due to no complex culture matrix being present, enabling background free extractions for downstream experimentation. Varying characteristics were observed across cell stocks and batches, seeding density, culture medium volume and extracellular matrix when using immortalized HepG2 cells. These factors contribute to wide-ranging cellular responses and highlights concerns with respect to generating a reproducible phenotype in HepG2 hanging drop spheroids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumores hepáticos incomuns: ensaio iconográfico - Parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cheregati Pedrassa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A maioria dos tumores hepáticos primários malignos é representada pelo carcinoma hepatocelular e pelo colangiocarcinoma, entretanto, uma variedade de outras lesões hepáticas incomuns pode ser encontrada. Lesões comuns como o hemangioma, a hiperplasia nodular focal e as metástases são bem conhecidas e já foram extensamente documentadas na literatura. O diagnóstico das lesões hepáticas típicas pode ser feito com alguma segurança utilizando-se os diversos métodos de imagem; por outro lado, as lesões incomuns são geralmente um desafio diagnóstico para o radiologista. Nesta primeira parte do estudo abordaremos cinco tumores hepáticos incomuns - o angiossarcoma, o angiomiolipoma, o cistoadenoma/carcinoma biliar, o hemangioendotelioma epitelioide e o carcinoma hepatocelular fibrolamelar -, suas principais características e achados de imagem, com foco na tomografia computadorizada e na ressonância magnética.

  18. Exogenous regucalcin suppresses the growth of human liver cancer HepG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2018-04-05

    Regucalcin, which its gene is localized on the X chromosome, plays a pivotal role as a suppressor protein in signal transduction in various types of cells and tissues. Regucalcin gene expression has been demonstrated to be suppressed in various tumor tissues of animal and human subjects, suggesting a potential role of regucalcin in carcinogenesis. Regucalcin, which is produced from the tissues including liver, is found to be present in the serum of human subjects and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of exogenous regucalcin on the proliferation in cloned human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro. Proliferation of HepG2 cells was suppressed after culture with addition of regucalcin (0.01 – 10 nM) into culture medium. Exogenous regucalcin did not reveal apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells in vitro. Suppressive effects of regucalcin on cell proliferation were not enhanced in the presence of various signaling inhibitors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Bay K 8644, PD98059, staurosporine, worthomannin, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) or gemcitabine, which were found to suppress the proliferation. In addition, exogenous regucalcin suppressed the formation of colonies of cultured hepatoma cells in vitro. These findings demonstrated that exogenous regucalcin exhibits a suppressive effect on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells, proposing a strategy with the gene therapy for cancer treatment.

  19. Hyperglycemia and anthocyanin inhibit quercetin metabolism in HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high glucose (Glu) milieu promotes generation of reactive oxygen species, which may not only cause cellular damage, but also modulate phase II enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of flavonoids. Thus, we examined the effect of a high Glu milieu on quercetin (Q) metabolism in HepG2 cells...

  20. Selection of scFvs specific for the HepG2 cell line using ribosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    the important advantage of requiring no prior knowledge of ... were amplified separately by RT-PCR, and an anti-HepG2 VH/k chain ribosome display library was constructed ..... Engert A, Hudson P R and Power B E 2007 Selection of human.

  1. Hardware realization of a fast neural network algorithm for real-time tracking in HEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leimgruber, F.R.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Steinacher, M.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Wendler, H.

    1995-01-01

    A fast pattern recognition system for HEP experiments, based on artificial neural network algorithms (ANN), has been realized with standard electronics. The multiplicity and location of tracks in an event are determined in less than 75 ns. Hardware modules of this first level trigger were extensively tested for performance and reliability with data from the CPLEAR experiment. (orig.)

  2. Biomarcadores para fibrosis hepática, avances, ventajas y desventajas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cequera

    2014-07-01

    En este trabajo se describen los biomarcadores empleados actualmente para el estudio de la fibrosis hepática en humanos, incluyendo sus ventajas y desventajas y la implementación de tecnologías de nueva generación, y la evaluación de las posibilidades de su empleo para el diagnóstico.

  3. Extracting HEPs from Event Reports of Domestic Nuclear Power Plants-Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    it is very important to soundly estimate the human error probability (HEP) of required tasks that could degrade the operational safety of systems. To this end, it is necessary to provide the HRA practitioners with the reliable catalog of HEPs. Unfortunately, one of the common issues raised by HRA practitioners is a lack of HRA data including HEPs. Therefore, many researchers are trying to provide reliable HRA data from diverse sources, such as (1) event reports reflecting the operational experience of domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs), and (2) human performance data observed from full- and/or partial-scope simulator exercises. It is evident that the contribution of human errors to the safety of socio-technical systems is very critical. For this reason, it is important for HRA practitioners to provide reliable HRA data including HEPs. Although a full-scope simulator can be used to collect valuable HRA data, it is still necessary to extract HRA data from the review of operational experience data. If so, it is possible to expect several benefits, such as the use of HRA data gathered from the operational experience of domestic NPPs as reference information to clarify the appropriateness of those collected from full-scope simulators.

  4. Cultivation of HepG2.2.15 on Cytodex-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupberger, Joachim; Mund, Andreas; Kock, Josef

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several novel systems are available to study human hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in cell culture demanding for efficient cell culture based systems for HBV production. The aim was to enhance HBV production of the HBV stably producing cell line HepG2.2.15 by cultivation on s...

  5. NiMax: a new approach to develop hadronic event generators in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.; Komogorov, M.

    2000-01-01

    The NiMax framework is a new approach to develop, assemble and use hadronic event generators in HEP. There are several important concepts of the NiMax architecture: the components, the data file, the application domain module, the control system and the project. Here we describe these concepts stressing their functionality

  6. ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following continuous low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Quelin; Du Duanming; Chen Zaizhong; Liu Pengcheng; Yang Jianyong; Li Yanhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following a continuous low dose-rate irradiation. Methods: Cells were persistently exposed to low dose-rate (8.28 cGy/h) irradiation. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the expression of ATM phosphorylated proteins. Colony forming assay was used to observe the effect of a low dose-rate irradiation on HepG2 cell survival. Results: After 30 min of low dose-rate irradiation, the phosphorylation of ATM occurred. After 6 h persistent irradiation, the expression of ATM phosphorylated protein reached the peak value, then gradually decreased. After ATM phosphorylation was inhibited with Wortmannin, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells was lower than that of the irradiation alone group at each time point (P<0.05). Conclusions: Continuous low dose-rate irradiation attenuated ATM phosphorylation, suggesting that continuous low dose-rate irradiation has a potential effect for increasing the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells. (authors)

  7. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of resveratrol nanoethosomes against human HepG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res) has been widely investigated with its strong anti-tumor activity. However, its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this study, we prepared resveratrol nanoethosomes (ResN) via ethanol injection method. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of ResN relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 cells. ResN were spherical vesicles and its particle diameter, zeta potential were (115.8 +/- 1.3) nm and (-12.8 +/- 1.9) mV, respectively. ResN exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 cells by MTT assay, and the IC50 value was 49.2 μg/ml (105.4 μg/ml of Res bulk solution). By flow cytometry assay, there was an increase in G2/M phase cells treated with ResN. The results demonstrated ResN could effectively block the G2/M phase of HepG2 cells, which can also enhance the inhibitory effect of Res against HepG2 cells.

  8. Biopsia hepática por aspiración con la aguja de Menghini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Albornoz Plata

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una descripción de la técnica para obtener la biopsia hepática por aspiración utilizando la aguja de menghini y se explica qué es la aguja de menghini. Se presentan 10 casos en que se hizo la biopsia, casos comprendidos entre 4 y 63 años; 4 M. y 6 F.; se encontró en esos casos: hígado normal, 2 casos; cirrosis portal, 1 caso; cirrosis biliar, 2 casos; Tb. hepática, 1 caso; Hepatitis, 2 casos; Sífilis hepática, 1 caso; Ictericia extrahepática, 1 caso. Consideremos la punción biopsia hepática por aspiración por medio de la aguja menghini como el método más sencillo, inofensivo y práctico; en nuestra opinión la aguja de meghini es muy superior a la de Vim-Silverman, y en el futuro el método de menghini desplazará el método de Vim-Silverman, como ha ocurrido en el Hospital Mount Sinai de New York.

  9. Study of apoptotic mechanisms induced by all-trans retinoic acid and its 13-cis isomer on cellular lines of human hepato carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Vargas, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Two cellular lines of liver cancer (Hep3B and HepG2) were incubated during different periods of time with some concentrations of two retinoic acid isomers (ATRA and 13-cis AR) and with 5-fu chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin and paclitaxel. It was determined if these substances leaded cytotoxicity, apoptosis and if they modified the expression of different genes related to cellular death by apoptosis, in order to explain the hepatocellular carcinoma resistance to these drugs. HepG2 cells showed more resistance than Hep3B cells to 72 hours of treatment, as much ATRA as the 13-cis AR were toxic and produced apoptosis in two cellular lines. This type of cellular death seems to be mediated by a decrease in Bcl-xL concentration in Hep3B cells treated with both retinoids an increase in bax concentration in HepG2 cells treated with 13-cis AR. It were observed 3 and 8 proteolysis of procaspase in Hep3B cells, suggesting extrinsic via activation of the apoptosis, while cellular death in HepG2 cells seems to be independent of caspases. Cisplatin and paclitaxel leaded cytotoxicity to 48 hours of treatment, with significant differences between two cellular lines only in case of paclitaxel. Hep3B cells treated with cisplatin and HepG2 cells treated with paclytaxel suffered apoptosis. 5-FU produced toxicity only when it was used to high concentrations and the mechanism of cellular death induced by this agent seems to be primarily necrosis in Hep3B cells and apoptosis in HepG2. There was decrease in the Bcl-xL concentration in two cellular lines when it was treated with cisplatin and in HepG2 cells treated with 5-FU. Bax concentration there no was modified with no treatment. Activation of the 3 caspases seems to happen only in HepG2 cells with 5-FU and paclytaxel. These two agents, also, decreased the survivin concentration of HepG2 cells. Treatments of the three drugs produced an increase in the expression of this gen in Hep3B cells, which might explain partially the resistance

  10. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  11. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  12. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  13. Strawberry (cv. Romina Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  14. Black rice extract protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death via ERK1/2 and Akt activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaemin; Ham, Hyeonmi; Sung, Jeehye; Kim, Younghwa; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Lee, Junsoo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of black rice extract (BRE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Methanolic extract from black rice was evaluated for the protective effect on TBHP-induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells. Several biomarkers that modulate cell survival and death including reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3 activity, and related cellular kinases were determined. RESULTS TBHP induced cell death and apoptosis by a rapid increase in ROS generation and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, TBHP-induced oxidative stress resulted in a transient ERK1/2 activation and a sustained increase of JNK1/2 activation. While, BRE pretreatment protects the cells against oxidative stress by reducing cell death, caspase-3 activity, and ROS generation and also by preventing ERKs deactivation and the prolonged JNKs activation. Moreover, pretreatment of BRE increased the activation of ERKs and Akt which are pro-survival signal proteins. However, this effect was blunted in the presence of ERKs and Akt inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that activation of ERKs and Akt pathway might be involved in the cytoprotective effect of BRE against oxidative stress. Our findings provide new insights into the cytoprotective effects and its possible mechanism of black rice against oxidative stress. PMID:24741394

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  19. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  1. Variability in the recognition of distinctive immunofluorescence patterns in different brands of HEp-2 cell slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dellavance

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard for the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens. However, the culture conditions, cell fixation and permeabilization processes interfere directly in the preservation and spatial distribution of antigens. Therefore, one can assume that certain peculiarities in the processing of cellular substrate may affect the recognition of indirect immunofluorescence patterns associated with several autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of serum samples representing nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic, mitotic apparatus, and chromosome plate patterns on HEp-2 cell substrates from different suppliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven blinded observers, independent from the three selected reference centers, evaluated 17 samples yielding different nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic and mitotic apparatus patterns on HEp-2 cell slides from eight different brands. The slides were coded to maintain confidentiality of both brands and participating centers. RESULTS: The 17 HEp-2 cell patterns were identified on most substrates. Nonetheless, some slides showed deficit in the expression of several patterns: nuclear coarse speckled/U1-ribonucleoprotein associated with antibodies against RNP (U1RNP, centromeric protein F (CENP-F, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cytoplasmic fine speckled associated with anti-Jo-1 antibodies (histidyl synthetase, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA-1 and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 2 (NuMA-2. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall good quality of the assessed HEp-2 substrates, there was considerable inconsistency in results among different commercial substrates. The variations may be due to the evaluated batches, hence generalizations cannot be made as to the respective brands. It is recommended that each new batch or new brand be tested with a panel of reference sera representing the various patterns.

  2. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  3. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  4. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  5. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  6. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  7. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2 at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00084948; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130 nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented using collision data.

  8. The Upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, Didier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  9. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Giordani, MarioPaolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and expected occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector, in particular the IBL, will be presented, using collision data.

  10. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  11. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  12. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  13. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  14. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  15. Distributed analysis environment for HEP and interdisciplinary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Huge data volumes of Larger Hadron Collider experiment require parallel end-user analysis on clusters of hundreds of machines. While the focus of end-user High-Energy Physics analysis is on ntuples, the master-worker model of parallel processing may be also used in other contexts such as detector simulation. The aim of DIANE R and D project (http://cern.ch/it-proj-diane) currently held by CERN IT/API group is to create a generic, component-based framework for distributed, parallel data processing in master-worker model. Pre-compiled user analysis code is loaded dynamically at runtime in component libraries and called back when appropriate. Such application-oriented framework must be flexible enough to integrate with the emerging GRID technologies as they become available in the time to come. Therefore, common services such as environment reconstruction, code distribution, load balancing and authentication are designed and implemented as pluggable modules. This approach allows to easily replace them with modules implemented with newer technology as necessary. The paper gives an overview of DIANE architecture and explains the main design choices. Selected examples of diverse applications from a variety of domains applicable to DIANE are presented. As well as preliminary benchmarking results

  16. Distributed analysis environment for HEP and interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, J T

    2003-01-01

    Huge data volumes of Large Hadron Collider experiments require parallel end-user analysis on clusters of hundreds of machines. While the focus of end-user High-Energy Physics analysis is on ntuples, the master-worker model of parallel processing may be also used in other contexts such as detector simulation. The aim of DIANE R&D project (http://cern.ch/it-proj-diane) currently held by CERN IT/API group is to create a generic, component-based framework for distributed, parallel data processing in master-worker model. Pre-compiled user analysis code is loaded dynamically at runtime in component libraries and called back when appropriate. Such application-oriented framework must be flexible enough to integrate with the emerging GRID technologies as they become available in the time to come. Therefore, common services such as environment reconstruction, code distribution, load balancing and authentication are designed and implemented as pluggable modules. This approach allows to easily replace them with modul...

  17. In HepG2 cells, coexisting carnitine deficiency masks important indicators of marginal biotin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Boysen, Gunnar; Mock, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    A large number of birth defects are related to nutrient deficiencies; concern that biotin deficiency is teratogenic in humans is reasonable. Surprisingly, studies indicate that increased urinary 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (3HIAc), a previously validated marker of biotin deficiency, is not a valid biomarker in pregnancy. In this study we hypothesized that coexisting carnitine deficiency can prevent the increase in 3HIAc due to biotin deficiency. We used a 2-factor nutrient depletion design to induce isolated and combined biotin and carnitine deficiency in HepG2 cells and then repleted cells with carnitine. To elucidate the metabolic pathogenesis, we quantitated intracellular and extracellular free carnitine, acylcarnitines, and acylcarnitine ratios using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to biotin-sufficient, carnitine-sufficient cells, intracellular acetylcarnitine increased by 90%, propionylcarnitine more than doubled, and 3HIAc increased by >10-fold in biotin-deficient, carnitine-sufficient (BDCS) cells, consistent with a defensive mechanism in which biotin-deficient cells transesterify the acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) substrates of the biotin-dependent carboxylases to the related acylcarnitines. Likewise, in BDCS cells, the ratio of acetylcarnitine to malonylcarnitine and the ratio of propionylcarnitine to methylmalonylcarnitine both more than tripled, and the ratio of 3HIAc to 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (MGc) increased by >10-fold. In biotin-deficient, carnitine-deficient (BDCD) cells, the 3 substrate-derived acylcarnitines changed little, but the substrate:product ratios were masked to a lesser extent. Moreover, carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency in BDCD cells as shown by increases in acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 3HIAc (each increased by >50-fold). Likewise, ratios of acetylcarnitine:malonylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine:methylmalonylcarnitine, and 3HIAc:MGc all increased by >8-fold. Our findings provide strong

  18. Application of indirect immunofluorescent test with an improved HEp-2 substrate tranfected with human Ro60/SSA autoantigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Liangjing; Chen Shunle; Gu Yueying; Shen Nan; Bao Chunde; Wang Yuan; Xue Feng; Ye Peng; Yu Chongzhao

    2006-01-01

    To develop an improved substrate for indirect immunofluorescent test (IIF) to detect anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies, the human 60-kDa Ro/SSA autoantigens (Ro60) cDNAs were obtained from placental cDNA library using PCR and were cloned into the mammalian expression vectorpEGFP-C1. Then the recombinant plasmids were transfected into HEp-2 cells. We con- firmed the overexpression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins in transfected cells by means of fluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and IIF. HEp-2 and HEp-Ro60 was analyzed by IIF using a panel of 10 precipitinpositive anti-Ro human sera simultaneously. Stable expression of Ro60-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion proteins maintained ten more generations. And Ro60-GFP kept the antigenicity of Ro and had its own characteristic immunofluorescent pattern in HEp-Ro60 cells. The transfectants dramatically increased the sensitivity of IIF testing (a mean increase of 6.7-fold in endpoint titer, P<0.01). Eight (8/10) positive an- ti-Ro sera showed characteristic immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-Ro60, including two sera which were antinuclear antibodies (ANA) negative on untransfected HEp-2. IIF-ANA in all healthy sera were negative on HEp-Ro60. As a kind of new substrate of IIF, the Ro60 transfectants can be used to detect anti-Ro antibodies. In addition, transfected HEp-2 cells kept the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in IIF-ANA tests and could be employed as substrate for the routine IIF-ANA detection. The method improved the sensitivity of IIF-ANA. (authors)

  19. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  20. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  1. Data in support of fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du-Qiang Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice” in the Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology [1]. Fumosorinone (FU is a new inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1B inhibitor, which was isolated from insect pathogenic fungi Isaria fumosorosea. FU was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study [2]. PTP1B is the physiological antagonist of the insulin signalling pathway. Inhibition of PTP 1B may increase insulin sensitivity [3]. PTP1B has been considered promising as an insulin-sensitive drug target for the prevention and the treatment of insulin-based diseases [4]. We determined the effect of FU on the glucose consumption of IR HepG2 cells. FU caused significant enhancement in glucose consumption by insulin-resistant HepG2 cells compared with control cells.

  2. Metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid features and Hep Par 1 antibody positive mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, Authur; Lyman, William B; Jacobs, W Carl; Livasy, Chad A; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2018-05-09

    The hepatocyte paraffin 1 antibody (Hep Par 1) has a high positive predictive value for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. 1 We report a case of metastatic breast cancer to the liver with hepatoid histology and strong positive staining for Hep Par 1 mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. To our knowledge, primary breast carcinoma staining Hep Par 1 positive has not been reported in the setting of hepatic metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Alteraciones del ritmo del sueño en modelos animales de encefalopatia hepática

    OpenAIRE

    Peñaranda Sarmiento, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: La encefalopatía hepática (EH) es un síndrome neuropsiquiátrico presente en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas que conduce a diferentes alteraciones neurológicas que pueden llevar al coma y la muerte. Dentro de las manifestaciones neurológicas precoces de la enfermedad, están las alteraciones del sueño con una prevalencia casi del 50% en pacientes con cirrosis hepática sin evidencia clínica. En la actualidad, varios grupos de investigación han demostrado que el ...

  4. Lipidosis hepática asociada con malnutrición y preñez en dos perras

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Andrea; Arias, Daniel Osvaldo; Araus, S.; Cohen, M.; Gobello, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    En algunos países latinoamericanos se observó que la ascites ocurre en diferentes momentos post parto en perras alimentadas con dietas hipoproteicas. El objetivo de este articulo fue describir 2 casos de perras con ascitis asociada a lipidosis hepática desarrollada después del parto. Las muestras de sangre evidenciaron anormarmalidades compatibles con enfermedad hepática. La paracentesis abdominal reveló un trasudado aséptico y la ultrasonografía hiperecogenicidad hepática. Se arribó al diagn...

  5. Galangin suppresses HepG2 cell proliferation by activating the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yajun; Wu, Jun; Lin, Biyun; Li, Xv; Zhang, Haitao; Ding, Hang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lan, Liubo; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Galangin can suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by activating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor/Smad pathway and increased TGF-β receptor I (RI), TGF-βRII, Smad1, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 levels but decreased Smad6 and Smad7 levels. Autophagy induced by galangin appears to depend on the TGF-β receptor/Smad signalling pathway because the down-regulation of Smad4 by siRNA or inhibition of TGF-β receptor activation by LY2109761 blocked galangin-induced autophagy. The down-regulation of Beclin1, autophagy-related gene (ATG) 16L, ATG12 and ATG3 restored HepG2 cell proliferation and prevented galangin-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate a novel mechanism for galangin-induced autophagy via activation of the TGF-β receptor/Smad pathway. The induction of autophagy thus reflects the anti-proliferation effect of galangin on HCC cells

  6. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  7. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  8. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  9. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  10. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  11. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  12. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  13. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  14. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  15. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  16. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  17. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  18. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  19. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  20. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  1. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway

  2. The GDH-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, K; Fausten, M; Menze, D; Michel, T; Nagel, A; Ryckbosch, D; Speckner, T; Vyver, R V D; Zeitler, G

    2002-01-01

    For the GDH-Experiment at ELSA, the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross-section is to be determined. These measurements will be performed with the newly developed GDH-Detector which is presented here. The concept of the GDH-Detector is to detect at least one reaction product from all possible hadronic processes with almost complete acceptance concerning solid angle and efficiency. This is realized by an arrangement of scintillators and lead. The overall acceptance for hadronic processes is better than 99%. The electromagnetic background is suppressed by about five orders of magnitude by means of a threshold Cherenkov detector. In dedicated tests, it has been demonstrated that all individual components of the GDH-Detector fulfill the design goals. Measurements of unpolarized total photoabsorption cross-sections were performed to ensure that the complete GDH-Detector is operational.

  3. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  4. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  5. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  6. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  7. Enfermedad tromboembólica venosa y cirrosis hepática Venous thromboembolism and liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. García-Fuster

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETV es poco frecuente en la cirrosis hepática, no estando su tratamiento contemplado en las guías del American College of Chest Physicians. El objetivo del presente trabajo es aportar la experiencia de pacientes cirróticos con ETV hospitalizados en nuestro centro en los últimos 15 años. Material y método: de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 2007 fueron hospitalizados en nuestro centro 2.074 pacientes con cirrosis hepática. Presentaron una ETV no esplácnica 17, siendo ellos la población a estudio. Se recogen datos epidemiológicos y analíticos: hemograma, VSG, química hemática, coagulación, trombofilia congénita, anticuerpos antifosfolípidos (AAFL y homocisteinemia. Se valoran factores de riesgo adquiridos, características de la trombosis, el tratamiento y las complicaciones. Resultados y conclusiones: la ETV no esplácnica se observa en el 0,8% de pacientes cirróticos. En ellos es frecuente observar hipoalbuminemia, disminución de factores anticoagulantes (ATIII, PC, y PS, presencia de AAFL e hiperhomocisteinemia, así como la presencia de factores de riesgo adquiridos: intervenciones quirúrgicas, insuficiencia venosa, inmovilización e infecciones. Tras la anticoagulación, se observan complicaciones hemorrágicas mayores en el 35% de los pacientes.Objective: despite the endogenous coagulopathy of cirrhosis, some patients do experience thrombophilic states. The American College of Chest Physicians failed to address the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE occurring among these patients. This study aims to describe the characteristics of cirrhotics patients hospitalized in the last 15 years, and to use the experience gained. Material and method: we retrospectively reviewed all admissions for cirrhosis in our hospital from 1992 to 2007. A total of 17 patients had non-portal venous thromboembolic disease. We recorded risk factors, epidemiological and laboratory data

  8. SSC detector solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, R.W.; Grimson, J.H.; Kephart, R.D.; Krebs, H.J.; Stone, M.E.; Theriot, E.D.; Wands, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A detector utilizing a superconducting solenoid is being discussed for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A useful field volume of 8 m diameter x 16 m length at 1.5-2 T (--1 GJ at 2T) is required. It has been decided that all of the particle physics calorimetry will be inside the bore of the solenoid and that there is no need for the coil and cryostat to be ''thin'' in radiation lengths. An iron yoke will reduce the excitation required and will provide muon identification and a redundant momentum measurement of the muons. The authors have developed a conceptual design to meet these requirements. The magnet will use a copper-stabilized Nb-Ti conductor sized for a cryostable pool boiling heat flux --0.025 W/cm/sup 2/. A thermosiphon from a storage vessel above the cryostat will be used to prevent bubble stagnation in the liquid helium bath. The operating current, current density, coil subdivision and dump resistor have been chosen to guarantee that the coil will be undamaged should a quench occur. The axial electromagnetic force will be reacted by metallic support links; the stainless steel coil case will support the radial force. The 5000 metric tons of calorimetry will be supported from the iron yoke through a trussed cylindrical shell structure separate from the cryostat. The coil and case, radiation shield and stainless vacuum vessel would be fabricated and cryogenically tested as two 8-m sections. These would be lowered into the underground experimental hall and installed into the iron flux return yoke to provide the required 16-m length

  9. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  10. CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Microprocessors in detectors and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing need in high energy physics experiments for computation power for both online and offline applications, coupled with the current microprocessor revolution, has led to the examination of the use of microprocessors in various aspects of HEP computing. A brief (and admittedly somewhat biased) review is given of current hardware products, the costs of developing and producing hardware systems, and the costs of providing appropriate software support tools which allow one to make effective use of physicists' time, and the applicability of certain systems to the various needs of HEP computing

  12. Microprocessors in detectors and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing need in high energy physics experiments for computation power for both online and offline applications, coupled with the current microprocessor revolution, has led us to examine the use of microprocessors in various aspects of HEP computing. The following article is a brief (and admittedly somewhat biased) review of current hardware products, the costs of developing and producing hardware systems, and the costs of providing appropriate software support tools which allow one to make effective use of physicists' time, and the applicability of certain systems to the various needs of HEP computing

  13. Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differential genomic effects on signaling pathways by two different CeO2 nanoparticles in HepG2 cells. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  14. Linoleic acid-menthyl ester reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nao; Yamano, Naomi; Sakata, Kotaro; Arao, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nagao, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yuji; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of linoleic acid-menthyl ester (LAME) on lipid metabolism were assessed in HepG2 cells. It is well known that high level of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 in the serum is risk for atherosclerosis. Although linoleic acid (LA) treatment and LA plus L-mentol treatment increased apo B100 secretion, LAME treatment significantly decreased apo B100 secretion in HepG2 cells compared with control medium. The hypolipidemic effect of LAME was attributable to the suppression of triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. It is also known that the risk of coronary heart disease is negatively related to the concentration of serum apo A-1. In the present study, LAME treatment increased apo A-1 secretion as compared with LA treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that mentyl-esterification of fatty acids may be beneficial in anti-atherogenic dietary therapy.

  15. Specific binding of tubeimoside-2 with proteins in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells: investigation by molecular spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun; Shi-Sheng, Sun; Ying-Yong, Zhao; Jun, Fan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we compared different binding interactions of TBMS2 with proteins both in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells and in normal embryo hepatic L02 cells by using fluorescence, absorption, and CD spectroscopy. The fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence intensity of proteins in the HepG2 and L02 cells decreased in the presence of TBMS2 by 30.79% and 12.01%, respectively. Binding constants and thermodynamic parameters were obtained for systems of TBMS2 with the two kinds of cell proteins. The results indicated that HepG2 cell proteins had a higher TBMS2 binding activity than those in the L02 cells. Analysis of the TBMS2 cytotoxic activities showed that TBMS2 could selectively induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells by binding to them, while its apoptotic effect on L02 cells was relatively weaker.

  16. New technologies for UV detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Several technologies are currently being developed, leading to substantial improvements in the performance of UV detectors or significant reductions in power or weight. Four technologies discussed are (1) thin-film coatings to enhance the UV sensitivity of CCD's, (2) highly innovative magnet assemblies that dramatically reduce weight and result in virtually no external flux, (3) new techniques for curving microchannel plates (MCP's) so that single plates can be used to prevent ion feedback and present highly localized charge clouds to an anode structure, and (4) high-performance alternatives to glass-based MCP's. In item (2), for example, very robust magnets are made out of rare earth materials such as samarium cobalt, and cladding magnets are employed to prevent flux from escaping from the detector into the external environment. These new ultralight magnet assemblies are able to create strong, exceptionally uniform magnetic fields for image intensification and focusing of photoelectrons. The principle advantage of such detectors is the quantum efficiencies of 70-80 percent obtained throughout ultraviolet wavelengths (900-2000 A), the highest of any device. Despite the improvements achieved under item (3), high-performance alternatives to conventional glass-based MCP's potentially offer three distinct new advantages that include (1) a 30-100-fold improvement in dynamic range resulting in correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratios, (2) the use of pure dielectric and semiconductor materials that will not outgas contaminants that eventually destroy photocathodes, and (3) channels that have constant spacing providing long-ranged order since the plates are made using photolithography techniques from the semiconductor industry. The manufacturers of these advanced-technology MCP's, however, are a couple of years away from actually producing a functioning image intensifier. In contrast to the use of CCD's for optical, ground based observations, there is no single

  17. Beyond core count: a look at new mainstream computing platforms for HEP workloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szostek, P; Nowak, A; Bitzes, G; Valsan, L; Jarp, S; Dotti, A

    2014-01-01

    As Moore's Law continues to deliver more and more transistors, the mainstream processor industry is preparing to expand its investments in areas other than simple core count. These new interests include deep integration of on-chip components, advanced vector units, memory, cache and interconnect technologies. We examine these moving trends with parallelized and vectorized High Energy Physics workloads in mind. In particular, we report on practical experience resulting from experiments with scalable HEP benchmarks on the Intel 'Ivy Bridge-EP' and 'Haswell' processor families. In addition, we examine the benefits of the new 'Haswell' microarchitecture and its impact on multiple facets of HEP software. Finally, we report on the power efficiency of new systems.

  18. The future of commodity computing and many-core versus the interests of HEP software

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    As the mainstream computing world has shifted from multi-core to many-core platforms, the situation for software developers has changed as well. With the numerous hardware and software options available, choices balancing programmability and performance are becoming a significant challenge. The expanding multiplicative dimensions of performance offer a growing number of possibilities that need to be assessed and addressed on several levels of abstraction. This paper reviews the major tradeoffs forced upon the software domain by the changing landscape of parallel technologies – hardware and software alike. Recent developments, paradigms and techniques are considered with respect to their impact on the rather traditional HEP programming models. Other considerations addressed include aspects of efficiency and reasonably achievable targets for the parallelization of large scale HEP workloads.

  19. Enantioselective apoptosis induced by individual isomers of bifenthrin in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huigang; Li, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Bifenthrin (BF) has been used in racemate for agricultural purposes against soil insects, leading to increased inputs into soil environments. However, most of the studies about the toxicology research on BF were performed in its racemic form. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enantiomer-specific cis-BF-induced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on human hepatocarcinoma cells (Hep G2). The results of cell viability assay and cytoflow assay indicated an obvious enantioselective hepatocyte toxicity of 1S-cis-BF in Hep G2 cells. 1S-cis-BF also induced ROS production, up-regulated Bax protein expression and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression levels. The present study suggested that enantioselective toxicity should be evaluated on currently used chiral pesticides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  1. Software R&D for Next Generation of HEP Experiments, Inspired by Theano

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In the next decade, the frontiers of High Energy Physics (HEP) will be explored by three machines: the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) in Europe, the Long Base Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US, and the International Linear Collider (ILC) in Japan. These next generation experiments must address two fundamental problems in the current generation of HEP experimental software: the inability to take advantage and adapt to the rapidly evolving processor landscape, and the difficulty in developing and maintaining increasingly complex software systems by physicists. I will propose a strategy, inspired by the automatic optimization and code generation in Theano, to simultaneously address both problems. I will describe three R&D projects with short-term physics deliverables aimed at developing this strategy. The first project is to develop maximally sensitive General Search for New Physics at the LHC by applying the Matrix Element Method running GPUs of HPCs. The second is to classify and reconstru...

  2. The role of scientific middleware in the future of HEP computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In the 18 months since the CHEP03 meeting in San Diego, the HEP community deployed the current generation of grid technologies in a veracity of settings. Legacy software as well as recently developed applications was interfaced with middleware tools to deliver end-to-end capabilities to HEP experiments in different stages of their life cycles. In a series of data challenges, reprocessing efforts and data distribution activities the community demonstrated the benefits distributed computing can offer and the power a range of middleware tools can deliver. After running millions of jobs, moving tera-bytes of data, creating millions of files and resolving hundreds of bug reports, the community also exposed the limitations of these middleware tools. As we move to the next level of challenges, requirements and expectations, we must also examine the methods and procedures we employ to develop, implement and maintain our common suite of middleware tools. The talk will focus on the role common middleware ...

  3. HEP - A semaphore-synchronized multiprocessor with central control. [Heterogeneous Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M. C.; Smith, B. J.; Calvert, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the design concept of the Heterogeneous Element Processor (HEP), a system tailored to the special needs of scientific simulation. In order to achieve high-speed computation required by simulation, HEP features a hierarchy of processes executing in parallel on a number of processors, with synchronization being largely accomplished by hardware. A full-empty-reserve scheme of synchronization is realized by zero-one-valued hardware semaphores. A typical system has, besides the control computer and the scheduler, an algebraic module, a memory module, a first-in first-out (FIFO) module, an integrator module, and an I/O module. The architecture of the scheduler and the algebraic module is examined in detail.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  5. CERN Library | Book presentation and discussion round: "HEP - Still an unfeminine profession" | 19 May | Council Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2016-01-01

    Book presentation and discussion round: "HEP - Still an unfeminine profession" with Mary K. Gaillard.   “HEP – still an unfeminine profession?” Book presentation by Mary K Gaillard, followed by a discussion round with the author and Valerie Gibson (LHCb) Thursday, 19 May 2016 from 4 p.m. (coffee will be served at 3:30 p.m.) CERN Council Chamber Find more information and registration here. We hope to see many of you there! There will also be a Theory seminar by Mary K. Gaillard on "Supergravity at one loop, anomalies and applications to string phenomenology" - Wednesday, 18 May at 2 p.m. in the TH conference room.

  6. Tratamento não-operatório do trauma hepático

    OpenAIRE

    Rasslan,Samir; Monteiro,Ricardo Portieri

    1999-01-01

    O fígado é o órgão mais comumente lesado nos traumatismos abdominais; no entanto, com freqüência a laparotomia revela ausência de sangramento ativo, limitando-se a intervenção à limpeza e drenagem da cavidade. Em função deste aspecto e do fato de que a maioria das lesões hepáticas é de menor gravidade, surgiu a opção do tratamento não-operatório. Esta conduta representa hoje a terapêutica de escolha nas lesões hepáticas em doentes conscientes e estáveis do ponto de vista circulatório. A exper...

  7. Two years of real progress in European HEP networking: A CERN perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.E.; Fluckiger, F.; Gerard, J.M.; Lord, D.; Segal, B.

    1987-01-01

    The last two years have been marked by real progress in networking in HEP. Home-made developments, studies and plans have given way to the use of real networks involving hundreds of HEP and other computers and based on externally produced software and hardware. Within the last year, the first generation of industrial software products following some of the international standards for networking have become available. Related developments are taking place in networking for on-line systems and indeed the LEP experiments are distinguished by their heavy and crucial reliance on both local and wide-area networks. This paper describes the progress made at CERN since the last two years and looks at perspectives for the future. (orig.)

  8. Surface Grafted Glycopolymer Brushes to Enhance Selective Adhesion of HepG2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Jensen, Bettina Elisabeth Brøgger; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    on the polymerization kinetics of 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate) (LAMA) monomer on thermally oxidized silicon wafer. Both monolayer and multilayered aminosilane precursor layers have been prepared followed by reaction with 2-bromoisobutyrylbromide to form the ATRP initiator layer. It is inferred from the kinetic...... studies that the rate of termination is low on a multilayered initiator layer compared to a disordered monolayer structure. However both initiator types results in similar graft densities. Furthermore, it is shown that thick comb-like poly(LAMA) brushes can be constructed by initiating a second ATRP...... process on a previously formed poly(LAMA) brushes. The morphology of human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells (HepG2) on the comb-like poly(LAMA) brush layer has been studied. The fluorescent images of the HepG2 cells on the glycopolymer brush surface display distinct protrusions that extend outside...

  9. Effects of heavy water on ultrastructural and functional status of Hep 2 and CHO cells lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Caloianu, Maria; Zarnescu, Otilia; Cimpean, Anisoara; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2002-01-01

    The heavy water effects on the ultrastructure and function of Hep 2 and CHO lysosomal cell compartment were investigated using electron microscopy and enzymatic studies. The cell viability, measured by neutral red uptake assay, and the total protein content determination, have shown a dose dependent decrease in cell growth for both studied cell types. The electron microscopy study has revealed a progressive increase in number and size of lysosomes and autophagosomes after 96 h exposure to different deuterium concentration media in a dose dependent manner. The enzymatic determination in the lysosomal pellet revealed an increased acid phosphatase activity in both cell types (15% and 33% for Hep 2 and 24% and 52% for CHO, respectively) exposed to media with high (65%, 90%) D 2 O content. (authors)

  10. Manejo terapéutico de lipidosis hepática felina por Mycoplasma haemofelis

    OpenAIRE

    Molina¹, Víctor Manuel; Pacheco, César

    2016-01-01

    Describir el manejo terapéutico de la lipidosis hepática en un felino infectado por Mycoplasma haemofelis y la evaluación de su efectividad terapéutica en Colombia. Un felino hembra, de 1 año de edad, raza Balinés, presentó un cuadro febril, con ictericia, apatía, anorexia, linfopenia y anemia normocítica hipocrómica. El felino a la ecografía mostró hepatomegalia y cambios de ecotextura del hígado, además los valores de enzimas hepáticas aumentados. Fue diagnosticada con presencia de Mycoplas...

  11. Summary of the Control System Cyber-Security (CS)2/HEP Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, S

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years modern accelerator and experiment control systems have increasingly been based on commercial-off-the-shelf products (VME crates, PLCs, SCADA systems, etc.), on Windows or Linux PCs, and on communication infrastructures using Ethernet and TCP/IP. Despite the benefits coming with this (r)evolution, new vulnerabilities are inherited, too: Worms and viruses spread within seconds via the Ethernet cable, and attackers are becoming interested in control systems. Unfortunately, control PCs cannot be patched as fast as office PCs. Even worse, vulnerability scans at CERN using standard IT tools have shown that commercial automation systems lack fundamental security precautions: Some systems crashed during the scan, others could easily be stopped or their process data be altered. The (CS)2/HEP workshop held the weekend before ICALEPCS2007 was intended to present, share, and discuss countermeasures deployed in HEP laboratories in order to secure control systems. This presentation will give a summa...

  12. Mapping modern software process engineering techniques onto an HEP development environment

    CERN Document Server

    Wellisch, J P

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues faced in HEP in recent years is the question of how to capitalise on software development and maintenance experience in a continuous manner. To capitalise means in our context to evaluate and apply new process technologies as they arise, and to further evolve technologies already widely in use. It also implies the definition and adoption of standards. The CMS off- line software improvement effort aims at continual software quality improvement, and continual improvement in the efficiency of the working environment with the goal to facilitate doing great new physics. To achieve this, we followed a process improvement program based on ISO-15504, and Rational Unified Process. This experiment in software process improvement in HEP has been progressing now for a period of 3 years. Taking previous experience from ATLAS and SPIDER into account, we used a soft approach of continuous change within the limits of current culture to create of de facto software process standards within th...

  13. arXiv HEP Software Foundation Community White Paper Working Group - Software Development, Deployment and Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Benjamin; Grasland, Hadrien; Hegner, Benedikt; Jouvin, Michel; Kane, Meghan; Katz, Daniel S.; Kuhr, Thomas; Lange, David; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Ritter, Martin; Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Valassi, Andrea

    The High Energy Phyiscs community has developed and needs to maintain many tens of millions of lines of code and to integrate effectively the work of thousands of developers across large collaborations. Software needs to be built, validated, and deployed across hundreds of sites. Software also has a lifetime of many years, frequently beyond that of the original developer, it must be developed with sustainability in mind. Adequate recognition of software development as a critical task in the HEP community needs to be fostered and an appropriate publication and citation strategy needs to be developed. As part of the HEP Softare Foundation's Community White Paper process a working group on Software Development, Deployment and Validation was formed to examine all of these issues, identify best practice and to formulare recommendations for the next decade. Its report is presented here.

  14. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  15. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  16. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  17. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  18. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  19. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  20. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  1. The Human Escort Protein Hep Binds to the ATPase Domain of Mitochondrial Hsp70 and Regulates ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8 ± 0.2 × 10-4 s-1) at 25 °C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain. PMID:18632665

  2. The human escort protein Hep binds to the ATPase domain of mitochondrial hsp70 and regulates ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Stanworth, Crystal; Liu, Shirley; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-09-19

    Hsp70 escort proteins (Hep) have been implicated as essential for maintaining the function of yeast mitochondrial hsp70 molecular chaperones (mtHsp70), but the role that escort proteins play in regulating mammalian chaperone folding and function has not been established. We present evidence that human mtHsp70 exhibits limited solubility due to aggregation mediated by its ATPase domain and show that human Hep directly enhances chaperone solubility through interactions with this domain. In the absence of Hep, mtHsp70 was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, as was its isolated ATPase domain and a chimera having this domain fused to the peptide-binding domain of HscA, a soluble monomeric chaperone. In contrast, these proteins all exhibited increased solubility when expressed in the presence of Hep. In vitro studies further revealed that purified Hep regulates the interaction of mtHsp70 with nucleotides. Full-length mtHsp70 exhibited slow intrinsic ATP hydrolysis activity (6.8+/-0.2 x 10(-4) s(-1)) at 25 degrees C, which was stimulated up to 49-fold by Hep. Hep also stimulated the activity of the isolated ATPase domain, albeit to a lower maximal extent (11.5-fold). In addition, gel-filtration studies showed that formation of chaperone-escort protein complexes inhibited mtHsp70 self-association, and they revealed that Hep binding to full-length mtHsp70 and its isolated ATPase domain is strongest in the absence of nucleotides. These findings provide evidence that metazoan escort proteins regulate the catalytic activity and solubility of their cognate chaperones, and they indicate that both forms of regulation arise from interactions with the mtHsp70 ATPase domain.

  3. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hillemanns, H

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout 7.3.2.1 Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics 7.3.2.2 NINO,...

  4. Synergistic cytotoxicity and mechanism of caffeine and lysozyme on hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongchao; Li, Jingjuan; Cui, Lin; Ren, Yanqing; Niu, Liying; Wang, Xinguo; Huang, Yun; Cui, Lijian

    2018-03-01

    The influences of caffeine, lysozyme and the joint application of them on the hepatoma cell line HepG2 proliferation inhibition and cell apoptosis were observed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342, which showed the proliferation inhibition rate of the joint application on HepG2 cells was 47.21%, significantly higher than caffeine or lysozyme, and the joint application promoted the apoptosis of HepG2 cells obviously. Van't Hoff classical thermodynamics formula, the Föster theory of non-radiation energy transfer and fluorescence phase diagram were used to manifest that the process of lysozyme binding to caffeine followed a two-state model, which was spontaneous at low temperature driven by enthalpy change, and the predominant intermolecular force was hydrogen bonding or Van der Waals force to stabilize caffeine-lysozyme complex with the distance 5.86 nm. The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that caffeine decreased the relative contents of α-helix and β-turn, which inferred the structure of lysozyme tended to be "loose". Synchronous fluorescence spectra and ultraviolet spectra supported the above conclusion. The amino acid residues in the cleft of lysozyme were exposed and electropositivity was increased attributing to the loose structure, which were conducive to increasing caffeine concentration on the HepG2 cell surface by electrostatic interaction to show synergistic effect. The great quantities of microvilli on the liver cancer cell membrane surface, is beneficial for the lysozyme-caffeine compound to aggregate on cell surface to increase the concentration of caffeine to play stronger physiological role by electrostatic effect.

  5. Aglycemia keeps mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation under hypoxic conditions in HepG2 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie; Ježek, Jan; Ježek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2015), s. 467-476 ISSN 0145-479X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0346; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02033S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11055 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cancer mitochondria * non-canonical response to hypoxia * hypoxia-inducible factor * glutaminolysis * HepG2 cell s Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.080, year: 2015

  6. Effect of Toxicants on Fatty Acid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Grünig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of hepatic fatty acid metabolism can lead to liver steatosis and injury. Testing drugs for interference with hepatic fatty acid metabolism is therefore important. To find out whether HepG2 cells are suitable for this purpose, we investigated the effect of three established fatty acid metabolism inhibitors and of three test compounds on triglyceride accumulation, palmitate metabolism, the acylcarnitine pool and dicarboxylic acid accumulation in the cell supernatant and on ApoB-100 excretion in HepG2 cells. The three established inhibitors [etomoxir, methylenecyclopropylacetic acid (MCPA, and 4-bromocrotonic acid (4-BCA] depleted mitochondrial ATP at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred, suggesting mitochondrial toxicity. They inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or lower concentrations than ATP depletion, and 4-BCA was associated with cellular fat accumulation. They caused specific changes in the acylcarnitine pattern and etomoxir an increase of thapsic (C18 dicarboxylic acid in the cell supernatant, and did not interfere with ApoB-100 excretion (marker of VLDL export. The three test compounds (amiodarone, tamoxifen, and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 depleted the cellular ATP content at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred. They all caused cellular fat accumulation and inhibited palmitate metabolism at similar or higher concentrations than ATP depletion. They suppressed medium-chain acylcarnitines in the cell supernatant and amiodarone and tamoxifen impaired thapsic acid production. Tamoxifen and WIN 55,212-2 decreased cellular ApoB-100 excretion. In conclusion, the established inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism caused the expected effects in HepG2 cells. HepG cells proved to be useful for the detection of drug-associated toxicities on hepatocellular fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Susceptibility of Hep3B cells in different phases of cell cycle to tBid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-Hong; Chen, George G; Ye, Caiguo; Leung, Billy C S; Ho, Rocky L K; Lai, Paul B S

    2011-01-01

    tBid is a pro-apoptotic molecule. Apoptosis inducers usually act in a cell cycle-specific fashion. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether effect of tBid on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells was cell cycle phase specific. We synchronized Hep3B cells at G0/G1, S or G2/M phases by chemicals or flow sorting and tested the susceptibility of the cells to recombinant tBid. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by TUNEL. The results revealed that tBid primarily targeted the cells at G0/G1 phase of cell cycle, and it also increased the cells at the G2/M phase. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), on the other hand, arrested Hep3B cells at the G0/G1 phase, but significantly reduced cells at G2/M phase. The levels of cell cycle-related proteins and caspases were altered in line with the change in the cell cycle. The combination of tBid with 5-FU caused more cells to be apoptotic than either agent alone. Therefore, the complementary effect of tBid and 5-FU on different phases of the cell cycle may explain their synergistric effect on Hep3B cells. The elucidation of the phase-specific effect of tBid points to a possible therapeutic option that combines different phase specific agents to overcome resistance of HCC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  9. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  10. The AGILE anticoincidence detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, F.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Mattaini, E.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.

    2006-01-01

    AGILE is a γ-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10 -4 . In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

  11. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  12. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  13. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  14. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  15. The HOTWAXS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  16. The HOTWAXS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D.M.; Fairclough, J.P.A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I.; Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source

  17. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  18. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  19. HEp-2 cell image classification method based on very deep convolutional networks with small datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengchi; Gao, Long; Guo, Xifeng; Liu, Qiang; Yin, Jianping

    2017-07-01

    Human Epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cell images staining patterns classification have been widely used to identify autoimmune diseases by the anti-Nuclear antibodies (ANA) test in the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) protocol. Because manual test is time consuming, subjective and labor intensive, image-based Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for HEp-2 cell classification are developing. However, methods proposed recently are mostly manual features extraction with low accuracy. Besides, the scale of available benchmark datasets is small, which does not exactly suitable for using deep learning methods. This issue will influence the accuracy of cell classification directly even after data augmentation. To address these issues, this paper presents a high accuracy automatic HEp-2 cell classification method with small datasets, by utilizing very deep convolutional networks (VGGNet). Specifically, the proposed method consists of three main phases, namely image preprocessing, feature extraction and classification. Moreover, an improved VGGNet is presented to address the challenges of small-scale datasets. Experimental results over two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves superior performance in terms of accuracy compared with existing methods.

  20. Mapping modern software process engineering techniques onto an HEP development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues faced in HEP in recent years is the question of how to capitalise on software development and maintenance experience in a continuous manner. To capitalise means in our context to evaluate and apply new process technologies as they arise, and to further evolve technologies already widely in use. It also implies the definition and adoption of standards. The CMS off-line software improvement effort aims at continual software quality improvement, and continual improvement in the efficiency of the working environment with the goal to facilitate doing great new physics. To achieve this, we followed a process improvement program based on ISO-15504, and Rational Unified Process. This experiment in software process improvement in HEP has been progressing now for a period of 3 years. Taking previous experience from ATLAS and SPIDER into account, we used a soft approach of continuous change within the limits of current culture to create of de facto software process standards within the CMS off line community as the only viable route to a successful software process improvement program in HEP. We will present the CMS approach to software process improvement in this process R and D, describe lessons learned, and mistakes made. We will demonstrate the benefits gained, and the current status of the software processes established in CMS off-line software

  1. Mapping modern software process engineering techniques onto an HEP development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues faced in HEP in recent years is the question of how to capitalise on software development and maintenance experience in a continuous manner. To capitalise means in our context to evaluate and apply new process technologies as they arise, and to further evolve technologies already widely in use. It also implies the definition and adoption of standards. The CMS off-line software improvement effort aims at continual software quality improvement, and continual improvement in the efficiency of the working environment with the goal to facilitate doing great new physics. To achieve this, we followed a process improvement program based on ISO-15504, and Rational Unified Process. This experiment in software process improvement in HEP has been progressing now for a period of 3 years. Taking previous experience from ATLAS and SPIDER into account, we used a soft approach of continuous change within the limits of current culture to create of de facto software process standards within the CMS off line community as the only viable route to a successful software process improvement program in HEP. We will present the CMS approach to software process improvement in this process R&D, describe lessons learned, and mistakes made. We will demonstrate the benefits gained, and the current status of the software processes established in CMS off-line software.

  2. Servicing HEP experiments with a complete set of ready integreated and configured common software components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiser, Stefan; Gaspar, Ana; Perrin, Yves; Kruzelecki, Karol

    2010-01-01

    The LCG Applications Area at CERN provides basic software components for the LHC experiments such as ROOT, POOL, COOL which are developed in house and also a set of 'external' software packages (70) which are needed in addition such as Python, Boost, Qt, CLHEP, etc. These packages target many different areas of HEP computing such as data persistency, math, simulation, grid computing, databases, graphics, etc. Other packages provide tools for documentation, debugging, scripting languages and compilers. All these packages are provided in a consistent manner on different compilers, architectures and operating systems. The Software Process and Infrastructure project (SPI) [1] is responsible for the continous testing, coordination, release and deployment of these software packages. The main driving force for the actions carried out by SPI are the needs of the LHC experiments, but also other HEP experiments could profit from the set of consistent libraries provided and receive a stable and well tested foundation to build their experiment software frameworks. This presentation will first provide a brief description of the tools and services provided for the coordination, testing, release, deployment and presentation of LCG/AA software packages and then focus on a second set of tools provided for outside LHC experiments to deploy a stable set of HEP related software packages both as binary distribution or from source.

  3. Glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid regulate a common hepatoprotective pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Lin, Li-Jen; Kao, Shung-Te; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Shun-Ting; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2015-07-15

    Glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid are widely used hepatoprotectants for the treatment of liver disorders, such as hepatitis C virus infection, primary biliary cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells responsive to glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid were analyzed in this study. HepG2 cells were treated with 25 µM hepatoprotectants for 24 h. Gene expression profiles of hepatoprotectants-treated cells were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray in triplicates. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities were assessed by luciferase assay. Among a total of 30,968 genes, 252 genes were commonly regulated by glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid. These compounds affected the expression of genes relevant various biological pathways, such as neurotransmission, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Genes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, and anti-oxidative pathways were differentially regulated by all compounds. Moreover, interaction networks showed that NF-κB might play a central role in the regulation of gene expression. Further analysis revealed that these hepatoprotectants inhibited NF-κB activities in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggested that glycyrrhizin, silymarin, and ursodeoxycholic acid regulated the expression of genes relevant to apoptosis and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the regulation by these hepatoprotectants might be relevant to the suppression of NF-κB activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The CMSSW benchmarking suite: Using HEP code to measure CPU performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benelli, G

    2010-01-01

    The demanding computing needs of the CMS experiment require thoughtful planning and management of its computing infrastructure. A key factor in this process is the use of realistic benchmarks when assessing the computing power of the different architectures available. In recent years a discrepancy has been observed between the CPU performance estimates given by the reference benchmark for HEP computing (SPECint) and actual performances of HEP code. Making use of the CPU performance tools from the CMSSW performance suite, comparative CPU performance studies have been carried out on several architectures. A benchmarking suite has been developed and integrated in the CMSSW framework, to allow computing centers and interested third parties to benchmark architectures directly with CMSSW. The CMSSW benchmarking suite can be used out of the box, to test and compare several machines in terms of CPU performance and report with the wanted level of detail the different benchmarking scores (e.g. by processing step) and results. In this talk we describe briefly the CMSSW software performance suite, and in detail the CMSSW benchmarking suite client/server design, the performance data analysis and the available CMSSW benchmark scores. The experience in the use of HEP code for benchmarking will be discussed and CMSSW benchmark results presented.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Burlington Bottoms, Technical Report 1993-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, Susan

    1993-08-01

    Burlington Bottoms, consisting of approximately 417 acres of riparian and wetland habitat, was purchased by the Bonneville Power Administration in November 1991. The site is located approximately 1/2 mile north of the Sauvie Island Bridge (T2N R1W Sections 20, 21), and is bound on the east side by Multnomah Channel and on the west side by the Burlington Northern Railroad right-of-way and U.S. Highway 30 (Figures 1 and 2). Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Columbia and Willamette River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program and Amendments. Under this Program, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. In 1993, an interdisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement quantitative Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) to document the value of various habitats at Burlington Bottoms. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area. HEP participants included; Charlie Craig, BPA; Pat Wright, Larry Rasmussen, and Ron Garst, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; John Christy, The Nature Conservancy; and Doug Cottam, Sue Beilke, and Brad Rawls, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  6. Parameter-free effective field theory calculation for the solar proton-fusion and hep processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.S. Park; L.E. Marcucci; R. Schiavilla; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; K. Kubodera; D.P. Min; M. Rho

    2002-01-01

    Spurred by the recent complete determination of the weak currents in two-nucleon systems up to Ο(Q 3 ) in heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the threshold S-factors for the solar pp (proton-fusion) and hep processes in an effective field theory that combines the merits of the standard nuclear physics method and systematic chiral expansion. The power of the EFT adopted here is that one can correlate in a unified formalism the weak-current matrix elements of two-, three- and four-nucleon systems. Using the tritium β-decay rate as an input to fix the only unknown parameter in the theory, we can evaluate the threshold S factors with drastically improved precision; the results are S pp (0) = 3.94 x (1 ± 0.004) x 10 -25 MeV-b and S hep (0) = (8.6 ± 1.3) x 10 -20 keV-b. The dependence of the calculated S-factors on the momentum cutoff parameter Λ has been examined for a physically reasonable range of Λ. This dependence is found to be extremely small for the pp process, and to be within acceptable levels for the hep process, substantiating the consistency of our calculational scheme

  7. Protective effects of quercetin on nicotine induced oxidative stress in 'HepG2 cells'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Amir; Zal, Fatemeh; Bolouki, Ayeh

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nicotine has been recognized to result in oxidative stress by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this work was to estimate the hepatotoxicity effect of nicotine on viability and on antioxidant defense system in cultures of HepG2 cell line and the other hand, ameliorative effect of quercetin (Q) as an antioxidant was analyzed. Nicotine induced concentration dependent loss in HepG2 cell line viability. The results indicated that nicotine decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) and increased activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) content in the HepG2 cells. Q significantly increased activity of SOD, GR and GSH content and decreased activity of GPX in nicotine + Q groups. Our data demonstrate that Q plays a protective role against the imbalance elicited by nicotine between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense systems, and suggest that administration of this antioxidant may find clinical application where cellular damage is a consequence of ROS.

  8. MicroRNA-122 mimic transfection contributes to apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yueyong; Li, Shaoyang

    2015-11-01

    There is currently a requirement for effective treatment strategies for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a repressor of the endogenous apoptosis regulator Bcl‑w, is frequently downregulated in HCC. Thus, it is hypothesized that the activation of miR‑122 may induce selective hepatocellular apoptosis via caspase activation in a model of HCC. In the present study, an miR‑122 mimic transfection was performed in HepG2 cells, and used to investigate the role and therapeutic potential of miR‑122 in the regulation of HCC‑derived cell lines. The apoptotic rates of HepG2 cells were significantly increased following miR‑122 mimic transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Bcl‑w mRNA was significantly reduced, while the mRNA levels of caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were markedly increased. The immunocytochemistry results supported the mRNA trends. Collectively, the present results suggest that endogenous miR‑122 contributes to HepG2 apoptosis and that transfection of mimic miR‑122 normalizes apoptotic levels in a model of HCC.

  9. Tratamento não-operatório do trauma hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rasslan

    Full Text Available O fígado é o órgão mais comumente lesado nos traumatismos abdominais; no entanto, com freqüência a laparotomia revela ausência de sangramento ativo, limitando-se a intervenção à limpeza e drenagem da cavidade. Em função deste aspecto e do fato de que a maioria das lesões hepáticas é de menor gravidade, surgiu a opção do tratamento não-operatório. Esta conduta representa hoje a terapêutica de escolha nas lesões hepáticas em doentes conscientes e estáveis do ponto de vista circulatório. A experiência mostra que é um método seguro, efetivo e com excelentes resultados. Neste artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão e análise crítica do assunto, discutindo os critérios de seleção dos doentes, a avaliação e os riscos e complicações do tratamento não-operatório do trauma hepático.

  10. Servicing HEP experiments with a complete set of ready integreated and configured common software components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roiser, Stefan; Gaspar, Ana; Perrin, Yves [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, PH Department, SFT Group (Switzerland); Kruzelecki, Karol, E-mail: stefan.roiser@cern.c, E-mail: ana.gaspar@cern.c, E-mail: yves.perrin@cern.c, E-mail: karol.kruzelecki@cern.c [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, PH Department, LBC Group (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    The LCG Applications Area at CERN provides basic software components for the LHC experiments such as ROOT, POOL, COOL which are developed in house and also a set of 'external' software packages (70) which are needed in addition such as Python, Boost, Qt, CLHEP, etc. These packages target many different areas of HEP computing such as data persistency, math, simulation, grid computing, databases, graphics, etc. Other packages provide tools for documentation, debugging, scripting languages and compilers. All these packages are provided in a consistent manner on different compilers, architectures and operating systems. The Software Process and Infrastructure project (SPI) [1] is responsible for the continous testing, coordination, release and deployment of these software packages. The main driving force for the actions carried out by SPI are the needs of the LHC experiments, but also other HEP experiments could profit from the set of consistent libraries provided and receive a stable and well tested foundation to build their experiment software frameworks. This presentation will first provide a brief description of the tools and services provided for the coordination, testing, release, deployment and presentation of LCG/AA software packages and then focus on a second set of tools provided for outside LHC experiments to deploy a stable set of HEP related software packages both as binary distribution or from source.

  11. HepG2 human hepatocarcinomas cells sensitization by endogenous porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; de Brito, Leonor X.; Morlet, Laurent; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    We assessed the ability of the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 to synthesize PpIX in vitro from exogenous ALA and analyzed ALA-induced toxicity and phototoxicity on this cell line. ALA induced a slight dose-dependent dark toxicity, with 79 and 66% cell survival respectively for ALA 50 and 100 mg/ml after 3-h incubation. Whereas the same treatment followed by laser irradiation (l equals 632 nm, 25 J/sq cm) induced dose-dependent phototoxicity, with 54 and 19% cell survival 24 h after PDT. Whatever the incubation time with ALA, a 3-h delay before light exposure was found optimal to reach a maximal phototoxicity. Photoproducts induced by porphyrin light irradiation absorbed light in the red spectral region at longer wavelengths than did the original porphyrins. The possible enhancement of PDT effects after ALA HepG2 cell incubation was investigated by irradiating cells successively with red light (l equals 632 nm) and light (l equals 650 nm). Total fluence was kept constant at 25 J/sq cm. Phototoxicity was lower when cells were irradiated for increased periods of l equals 650 nm light than with l equals 632 nm light alone. Any photoproducts involved had either a short life or were poorly photoreactive. HepG2 cells, synthesizing enzymes and precursors of endogenous porphyrin synthesis, represent a good in vitro model for experiments using ALA-PpIX-PDT.

  12. Substâncias vasoativas e a modulação do sistema microvascular hepático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loureiro-Silva M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Revisão da filogênese e ontogênese hepáticas, do sistema microvascular hepático e da modulação do tônus deste sistema vascular por diferentes substâncias vasoativas. MÉTODO. Levantamento de artigos por meio do sistema MEDLINE e consulta a livros-texto. RESULTADO. Foram selecionados 52 trabalhos publicados entre 1949 e 1997, dos quais retiramos as informações a respeito de filogênese e ontogênese hepáticas, sistema microvascular hepático e mecanismos de controle do tônus vascular hepático. CONCLUSÃO. O fígado possui sistema vascular altamente especializado na promoção de mecanismos de troca entre hepatócitos e sangue. Diferentes fatores atuam continuamente sobre estruturas contrácteis deste sistema vascular adequando a perfusão do tecido hepático às necessidades homeostáticas de cada momento. O fígado é órgão eminentemente mantenedor do meio interno.

  13. Production of coagulation factor VII in human cell lines Sk-Hep-1 and HKB-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela Cristina; Bomfim, Aline de Sousa; Mizukami, Amanda; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2017-09-01

    Recombinant factor VII (rFVII) is the main therapeutic choice for hemophilia patients who have developed inhibitory antibodies against conventional treatments (FVIII and FIX). Because of the post-translational modifications, rFVII needs to be produced in mammalian cell lines. In this study, for the first time, we have shown efficient rFVII production in HepG2, Sk-Hep-1, and HKB-11 cell lines. Experiments in static conditions for a period of 96 h showed that HepG2-FVII produced the highest amounts of rhFVII, with an average of 1843 ng/mL. Sk-hep-1-FVII cells reached a maximum protein production of 1432 ng/mL and HKB-11-FVII cells reached 1468 ng/mL. Sk-Hep-1-rFVII and HKB-11-rFVII were selected for the first step of scale-up. Over 10 days of spinner flask culture, HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells showed a cumulative production of rFVII of 152 μg and 202.6 μg in 50 mL, respectively. Thus, these human cell lines can be used for an efficient production of recombinant FVII. With more investment in basic research, human cell lines can be optimized for the commercial production of different bio therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seed and its sulfated derivatives impair metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha de Padua, Monique Meyenberg; Suter Correia Cadena, Silvia Maria; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rodrigues Noleto, Guilhermina

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of native galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seeds and its sulfated forms on certain metabolic parameters of HepG2 cells. Aqueous extraction from S. amazonicum seeds furnished galactomannan with 3.2:1 Man:Gal ratio (SAGM) and molar mass of 4.34×10 5 g/mol. The SAGM fraction was subjected to sulfation using chlorosulfonic acid to obtain SAGMS1 and SAGMS2 with DS of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Cytotoxicity of SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 was evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). After 72h, SAGM decreased the viability of HepG2 cells by 50% at 250μg/mL, while SAGMS1 reduced it by 30% at the same concentration. SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 promoted a reduction in oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in non-permeabilized HepG2 cells after 72h of treatment. These results suggest that SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 could be recognized by HepG2 cells and might trigger alterations that impair its survival. These effects could be implicated in the modification of the oxidative phosphorylation process in HepG2 cells and activation of the glycolytic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  16. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  17. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  19. Sensitive detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

  20. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  1. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  2. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  3. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  4. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  5. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  6. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  7. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  8. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  9. Microsonic detector (MSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, J.T.; Haridas, P.; Oh, S.H.; Pless, I.A.; Stoughton, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

  10. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  11. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  12. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  13. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  14. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2003-01-01

    photodiode array allows building the LSO-APD detector for tests in the PET arrangement for hadron therapy in medicine. The Department undersigned two important scientific contracts. The first one with the IKF Juelich is aimed to assemble and characterize a large quirl microstrip detector for COSY accelerator. The other one with Photonis, France is addressed to contribute in developing of new fast photomultipliers. During 2002 preparation for new HEP LHCb experiment in CERN was continued. Contribution of our department to LHCb is designing, fabricating and testing of three kinds of hardware modules - TFC Switch (THOR), Throttle Switch (MUNIN) and Readout Supervisor (ODIN). These modules are basic elements of Data Acquisition System of the experiment. In 2002 the final version of THOR module was designed, the second prototype of MUNIN was prepared and full simulation model of the most complicated module (ODIN) was provided. Also the works for LHCb Outertracker detector were conducted. The work concerning semiconductor detectors concentrated on improvements of silicon devices parameters - in particular of those cooled by liquid nitrogen. The investigations of method for surface stabilization of roentgen radiation detectors were started. The technical support for the Institute covers a lot of different types of activities, as supervising the institute computer network, maintaining internal data base and so on. (author)

  15. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  16. Frontier detectors for frontier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, F.; Scribano, A.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  17. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  18. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  19. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  20. Liver disease associated with intestinal failure in the small bowel syndrome Doença hepática associada à falência intestinal na síndrome do intestino curto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN has given rise to a new hope in the treatment of intestinal failure (LF associated with the Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS. However, together with the TPN and the increase of survival of these patients, new problems and questions have emerged, as well as new therapeutical procedures. Taking into consideration this emerging reality, this paper has the purpose to undertake a review of current concepts and available treatments for patients with IF associated-liver disease. Although TPN provides an increase of survival of patients with intestinal failure, it is a potential source of complication such as: septicemia, hyperglycemia, venous thrombosis and liver disease. There are several hypothesis conceived to explain the liver disease associated to intestinal failure, however the only definite treatment as a potential to reverse the non-cirrhotic liver disease is the small intestine transplantation. Despite indications for intestine transplantation are not entirely defined in literature, the trend is its early indication in high-risk patients, preserving the liver integrity and preventing the eventual need of both liver and intestine transplantations altogether.A introdução da Nutrição Parenteral Total (NPT despertou uma nova esperança para o tratamento da falência intestina (FI associada a Síndrome do Intestino Curto (SIC. No entanto, junto com a NPT e o aumento da sobrevida destes pacientes, novos problemas e perguntas emergiram, assim como novas terapêuticas. Tendo em vista esta realidade emergente, o intuito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão dos conceitos atuais e dos tratamentos disponíveis para pacientes com doença hepática associada a FI. A NPT apesar de proporcionar aumento da sobrevida nos pacientes com falência intestinal é fonte potencial de complicações, como: septicemia, hiperglicemia, trombose venosa e doença hepática. Diversas são as hipóteses aventadas para