WorldWideScience

Sample records for henipavirus entry characteristics

  1. A catalytically and genetically optimized β-lactamase-matrix based assay for sensitive, specific, and higher throughput analysis of native henipavirus entry characteristics

    Holbrook Michael R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV and Hendra virus (HeV are the only paramyxoviruses requiring Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4 containment. Thus, study of henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions necessitates the use of cell-cell fusion or pseudotyped reporter virus assays. Yet, these surrogate assays may not fully emulate the biological properties unique to the virus being studied. Thus, we developed a henipaviral entry assay based on a β-lactamase-Nipah Matrix (βla-M fusion protein. We first codon-optimized the bacterial βla and the NiV-M genes to ensure efficient expression in mammalian cells. The βla-M construct was able to bud and form virus-like particles (VLPs that morphologically resembled paramyxoviruses. βla-M efficiently incorporated both NiV and HeV fusion and attachment glycoproteins. Entry of these VLPs was detected by cytosolic delivery of βla-M, resulting in enzymatic and fluorescent conversion of the pre-loaded CCF2-AM substrate. Soluble henipavirus receptors (ephrinB2 or antibodies against the F and/or G proteins blocked VLP entry. Additionally, a Y105W mutation engineered into the catalytic site of βla increased the sensitivity of our βla-M based infection assays by 2-fold. In toto, these methods will provide a more biologically relevant assay for studying henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions.

  2. Henipavirus Mediated Membrane Fusion, Virus Entry and Targeted Therapeutics

    Dimitar B. Nikolov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paramyxoviridae genus Henipavirus is presently represented by the type species Hendra and Nipah viruses which are both recently emerged zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These enveloped viruses bind and enter host target cells through the coordinated activities of their attachment (G and class I fusion (F envelope glycoproteins. The henipavirus G glycoprotein interacts with host cellular B class ephrins, triggering conformational alterations in G that lead to the activation of the F glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion process. Using the recently published structures of HeV-G and NiV-G and other paramyxovirus glycoproteins, we review the features of the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins that appear essential for mediating the viral fusion process, including receptor binding, G-F interaction, F activation, with an emphasis on G and the mutations that disrupt viral infectivity. Finally, recent candidate therapeutics for henipavirus-mediated disease are summarized in light of their ability to inhibit HeV and NiV entry by targeting their G and F glycoproteins.

  3. Dual microRNA Screens Reveal That the Immune-Responsive miR-181 Promotes Henipavirus Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion.

    Chwan Hong Foo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection. miR-181 also promoted Nipah virus infection, but did not affect infection by paramyxoviruses from other genera, indicating specificity in the virus-host interaction. Infection promotion was primarily mediated via the ability of miR-181 to significantly enhance henipavirus-induced membrane fusion. Cell signalling receptors of ephrins, namely EphA5 and EphA7, were identified as novel negative regulators of henipavirus fusion. The expression of these receptors, as well as EphB4, were suppressed by miR-181 overexpression, suggesting that simultaneous inhibition of several Ephs by the miRNA contributes to enhanced infection and fusion. Immune-responsive miR-181 levels was also up-regulated in the biofluids of ferrets and horses infected with Hendra virus, suggesting that the host innate immune response may promote henipavirus spread and exacerbate disease severity. This study is the first genome-wide screen of miRNAs influencing infection by a clinically significant mononegavirus and nominates select miRNAs as targets for future anti-viral therapy development.

  4. Henipavirus Infections: Lessons from Animal Models

    Kévin P. Dhondt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Henipavirus genus contains two highly lethal viruses, the Hendra and Nipah viruses and one, recently discovered, apparently nonpathogenic member; Cedar virus. These three, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, are hosted by fruit bats and use EphrinB2 receptors for entry into cells. The Hendra and Nipah viruses are zoonotic pathogens that emerged in the middle of 90s and have caused severe, and often fatal, neurologic and/or respiratory diseases in both humans and different animals; including spillover into equine and porcine species. Development of relevant models is critical for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis, generating new diagnostic tools, and assessing anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines. This review summarizes available data on several animal models where natural and/or experimental infection has been demonstrated; including pteroid bats, horses, pigs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, ferrets, and nonhuman primates. It recapitulates the principal features of viral pathogenesis in these animals and current knowledge on anti-viral immune responses. Lastly it describes the recently characterized murine animal model, which provides the possibility to use numerous and powerful tools available for mice to further decipher henipaviruses immunopathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment. The utility of different models to analyze important aspects of henipaviruses-induced disease in humans, potential routes of transmission, and therapeutic approaches are equally discussed.

  5. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  6. Henipavirus RNA in African bats.

    Jan Felix Drexler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.

  7. Cedar virus: a novel Henipavirus isolated from Australian bats.

    Glenn A Marsh

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains two viruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV for which pteropid bats act as the main natural reservoir. Each virus also causes serious and commonly lethal infection of people as well as various species of domestic animals, however little is known about the associated mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new paramyxovirus from pteropid bats, Cedar virus (CedPV, which shares significant features with the known henipaviruses. The genome size (18,162 nt and organization of CedPV is very similar to that of HeV and NiV; its nucleocapsid protein displays antigenic cross-reactivity with henipaviruses; and it uses the same receptor molecule (ephrin-B2 for entry during infection. Preliminary challenge studies with CedPV in ferrets and guinea pigs, both susceptible to infection and disease with known henipaviruses, confirmed virus replication and production of neutralizing antibodies although clinical disease was not observed. In this context, it is interesting to note that the major genetic difference between CedPV and HeV or NiV lies within the coding strategy of the P gene, which is known to play an important role in evading the host innate immune system. Unlike HeV, NiV, and almost all known paramyxoviruses, the CedPV P gene lacks both RNA editing and also the coding capacity for the highly conserved V protein. Preliminary study indicated that CedPV infection of human cells induces a more robust IFN-β response than HeV.

  8. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection.

    Celine Deffrasnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections.

  9. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGED ENTRY AGREEMENTS IN AUSTRALIA.

    Robinson, Maxine F; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Merlin, Tracy; Roughead, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016. Data were extracted on Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC), type of MEA (financial, financial with outcomes, outcomes, and subcategories within each group), implementation and administration methods, source of MEA recommendation, and type of economic analysis. Of all medication indication pairs (MIPs) recommended for listing, one-third had MEAs implemented. Our study of eighty-seven MIPs had 170 MEAs in place. The Government's expert health technology assessment (HTA) committee recommended MEAs for 90 percent of the eighty-seven MIPs. A total of 81 percent of MEAs were simple financial agreements: the majority either discounts (32 percent) or reimbursement caps (43 percent). Outcome-based MEAs were least common (5 percent). Ninety-two percent of MEAs were implemented and operated through legal agreements. Approximately half of the MIPs were listed on the basis of accepted claims of cost-minimization. Forty-nine percent of medicines were in ATC L group. Advice from HTA evaluations strongly influences the implementation of ways to manage uncertainties while providing access to medicines. The government relied primarily on simple financial agreements for the managed entry of medicines for which there were perceived risks.

  10. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    A. S. Morozova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  11. Formation of high-order oligomers is required for functional bioactivity of an African bat henipavirus surface glycoprotein.

    Behner, Laura; Zimmermann, Louisa; Ringel, Marc; Weis, Michael; Maisner, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic henipaviruses originating from fruit bats in Australia and Asia that can cause severe infections in livestock and humans. In recent years, also African bat henipaviruses were identified at the nucleic acid level. To assess their potential to replicate in non-bat species, several studies were performed to characterize the two surface glycoproteins required for virus entry and spread by cell-cell fusion. It has been shown that surface expression and fusion-helper function of the receptor-binding G protein of Kumasi virus (KV), the prototypic Ghanaian bat henipavirus, is reduced compared to other non-African henipavirus G proteins. Immunostainings and pulse-chase analysis revealed a delayed export of KV G from the ER. As defects in oligomerization of viral glycoproteins can be responsible for limited surface transport thereby restricting the bioactivity, we analyzed the oligomerization pattern of KV G. In contrast to HeV and NiV whose G proteins are known to be expressed at a dimer-tetramer ratio of 1:1, KV G almost exclusively formed stable tetramers or higher oligomers. KV G also showed less stringent requirements for defined stalk cysteines to form dimers and tetramers. Interestingly, any changes in the oligomeric forms negatively affected the fusion-helper activity although surface expression and receptor binding was unchanged. This clearly indicates that the formation of mostly higher oligomeric KV G forms is not a deficiency responsible for ER retention, but is rather a basic structural feature essential for the bioactivity of this African bat henipavirus glycoprotein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibodies to henipavirus or henipa-like viruses in domestic pigs in Ghana, West Africa.

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97 tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es. Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.

  13. Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct henipavirus strains

    Leon, A.J. (Alberto J.); Borisevich, V. (Viktoriya); Boroumand, N. (Nahal); Seymour, R. (Robert); Nusbaum, R. (Rebecca); Escaffre, O. (Olivier); Xu, L. (Luoling); Kelvin, D.J. (David J.); B. Rockx (Barry)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHenipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and

  14. Interferon production and signaling pathways are antagonized during henipavirus infection of fruit bat cell lines.

    Elena R Virtue

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for a spectrum of infectious zoonotic diseases including the recently emerged henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses. Henipaviruses have been observed both naturally and experimentally to cause serious and often fatal disease in many different mammal species, including humans. Interestingly, infection of the flying fox with henipaviruses occurs in the absence of clinical disease. The extreme variation in the disease pattern between humans and bats has led to an investigation into the effects of henipavirus infection on the innate immune response in bat cell lines. We report that henipavirus infection does not result in the induction of interferon expression, and the viruses also inhibit interferon signaling. We also confirm that the interferon production and signaling block in bat cells is not due to differing viral protein expression levels between human and bat hosts. This information, in addition to the known lack of clinical signs in bats following henipavirus infection, suggests that bats control henipavirus infection by an as yet unidentified mechanism, not via the interferon response. This is the first report of henipavirus infection in bat cells specifically investigating aspects of the innate immune system.

  15. Qualitative release assessment to estimate the likelihood of henipavirus entering the United Kingdom.

    Emma L Snary

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK. To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.

  16. Graduates' personality characteristics and labor market entry an empirical study among dutch economics graduates

    Semeijn, J; Boone, C; van der Velden, R; van Witteloostuijn, A; van Velden, R.K.W.

    In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain

  17. Characterization of the interactions between the nucleoprotein and the phosphoprotein of Henipavirus.

    Habchi, Johnny; Blangy, Stéphanie; Mamelli, Laurent; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Darbon, Hervé; Oglesbee, Michael; Shu, Yaoling; Longhi, Sonia

    2011-04-15

    The Henipavirus genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). In a previous study, we reported that in henipaviruses, the N-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein and the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) are both intrinsically disordered. Here we show that Henipavirus N(TAIL) domains are also disordered in the context of full-length nucleoproteins. We also report the cloning, purification, and characterization of the C-terminal X domains (P(XD)) of Henipavirus phosphoproteins. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that N(TAIL) and P(XD) form a 1:1 stoichiometric complex that is stable under NaCl concentrations as high as 1 M and has a K(D) in the μM range. Using far-UV circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that P(XD) triggers an increase in the α-helical content of N(TAIL). Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that P(XD) has no impact on the chemical environment of a Trp residue introduced at position 527 of the Henipavirus N(TAIL) domain, thus arguing for the lack of stable contacts between the C termini of N(TAIL) and P(XD). Finally, we present a tentative structural model of the N(TAIL)-P(XD) interaction in which a short, order-prone region of N(TAIL) (α-MoRE; amino acids 473-493) adopts an α-helical conformation and is embedded between helices α2 and α3 of P(XD), leading to a relatively small interface dominated by hydrophobic contacts. The present results provide the first detailed experimental characterization of the N-P interaction in henipaviruses and designate the N(TAIL)-P(XD) interaction as a valuable target for rational antiviral approaches.

  18. CD4-specific designed ankyrin repeat proteins are novel potent HIV entry inhibitors with unique characteristics.

    Andreas Schweizer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the generation of a novel type of HIV entry inhibitor using the recently developed Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin technology. DARPin proteins specific for human CD4 were selected from a DARPin DNA library using ribosome display. Selected pool members interacted specifically with CD4 and competed with gp120 for binding to CD4. DARPin proteins derived in the initial selection series inhibited HIV in a dose-dependent manner, but showed a relatively high variability in their capacity to block replication of patient isolates on primary CD4 T cells. In consequence, a second series of CD4-specific DARPins with improved affinity for CD4 was generated. These 2nd series DARPins potently inhibit infection of genetically divergent (subtype B and C HIV isolates in the low nanomolar range, independent of coreceptor usage. Importantly, the actions of the CD4 binding DARPins were highly specific: no effect on cell viability or activation, CD4 memory cell function, or interference with CD4-independent virus entry was observed. These novel CD4 targeting molecules described here combine the unique characteristics of DARPins-high physical stability, specificity and low production costs-with the capacity to potently block HIV entry, rendering them promising candidates for microbicide development.

  19. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Yang, Jian; Li, Yongli; Feng, Jinfu; Hu, Junhua; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass). A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  20. Simulation and experimental research on trans-media vehicle water-entry motion characteristics at low speed.

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available The motion characteristics of trans-media vehicles during the water-entry process were explored in this study in an effort to obtain the optimal water-entry condition of the vehicle for developing a novel, single control strategy integrating underwater non-control and in-air control. A water-entry dynamics model is established by combining the water-entry motion characteristics of the vehicle in uncontrolled conditions at low speed with time-varying parameters (e.g. buoyancy, added mass. A water-entry experiment is designed to confirm the effectiveness of the established model. After that, by comparing the experimental results with the simulated results, the model is further modified to more accurately reflect water-entry motion. The change laws of the vehicle's attitude and position during the water-entry process are also obtained by analyzing the simulation of the modified model under different velocity, angle, and angle of attack conditions. The results presented here have guiding significance for the future realization of reaching the stable underwater navigation state of the vehicle after water-entry process.

  1. Henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of African fruit bats.

    Alison J Peel

    Full Text Available Isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence and Lagos bat virus (LBV; virus isolation and serological evidence in continental Africa. Here, we sampled from a remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island in the Gulf of Guinea to investigate whether antibodies to these viruses also exist in this isolated subspecies. Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. However, the presence of antibodies against henipaviruses was detected using the Luminex binding assay and confirmed using alternative assays. Neutralising antibodies to LBV were detected in one bat using both assays. We demonstrate clear evidence for exposure of multiple individuals to henipaviruses in this remote population of E. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on Annobón island. The situation is less clear for LBV. Seroprevalences to henipaviruses and LBV in Annobón are notably different to those in E. helvum in continental locations studied using the same sampling techniques and assays. Whilst cross-sectional serological studies in wildlife populations cannot provide details on viral dynamics within populations, valuable information on the

  2. The distribution of henipaviruses in Southeast Asia and Australasia: is Wallace's line a barrier to Nipah virus?

    Andrew C Breed

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV (Genus Henipavirus is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus Pteropus. Whilst NiV has not been detected in Australia, evidence for NiV-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of Australia's closest neighbours. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (Family Pteropodidae populations to the north of Australia. In particular we tested the hypothesis that Nipah virus is restricted to west of Wallace's Line. Fruit bats from Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia were tested for the presence of antibodies to Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus, and tested for the presence of HeV, NiV or henipavirus RNA by PCR. Evidence was found for the presence of Nipah virus in both Pteropus vampyrus and Rousettus amplexicaudatus populations from East Timor. Serology and PCR also suggested the presence of a henipavirus that was neither HeV nor NiV in Pteropus alecto and Acerodon celebensis. The results demonstrate the presence of NiV in the fruit bat populations on the eastern side of Wallace's Line and within 500 km of Australia. They indicate the presence of non-NiV, non-HeV henipaviruses in fruit bat populations of Sulawesi and Sumba and possibly in Papua New Guinea. It appears that NiV is present where P. vampyrus occurs, such as in the fruit bat populations of Timor, but where this bat species is absent other henipaviruses may be present, as on Sulawesi and Sumba. Evidence was obtained for the presence henipaviruses in the non-Pteropid species R. amplexicaudatus and in A. celebensis. The findings of this work fill some gaps in knowledge in geographical and species distribution of henipaviruses in Australasia which will contribute to planning of risk management and surveillance activities.

  3. Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response

    Megan L. Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah virus, which constitute the genus Henipavirus, are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe disease and mortality in humans since their emergence in the late 1990s. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, their ability to evade the host interferon (IFN response is conferred by the P gene. The henipavirus P gene encodes four proteins; the P, V, W and C proteins, which have all been described to inhibit the antiviral response. Further studies have revealed that these proteins have overlapping but unique properties which enable the virus to block multiple signaling pathways in the IFN response. The best characterized of these is the JAK-STAT signaling pathway which is targeted by the P, V and W proteins via an interaction with the transcription factor STAT1. In addition the V and W proteins can both limit virus-induced induction of IFN but they appear to do this via distinct mechanisms that rely on unique sequences in their C-terminal domains. The ability to generate recombinant Nipah viruses now gives us the opportunity to determine the precise role for each of these proteins and address their contribution to pathogenicity. Additionally, the question of whether these multiple anti-IFN strategies are all active in the different mammalian hosts for henipaviruses, particularly the fruit bat reservoir, warrants further exploration.

  4. Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct henipavirus strains.

    Alberto J Leon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur. The host gene expression profiles of the lung tissue showed early activation of interferon responses and subsequent expression of inflammation-related genes that coincided with the clinical deterioration. Additionally, the lung tissue showed unchanged levels of lymphocyte markers and progressive downregulation of cell cycle genes and extracellular matrix components. Infection in the brain resulted in a limited breadth of the host responses, which is in accordance with the immunoprivileged status of this organ. Finally, we propose a model of the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection that integrates multiple components of the host responses.

  5. The Characteristics of Personal Order Sets in a Computerized Physician Order Entry System at a Community Hospital

    Thomas, Sean M.; Davis, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Personal order sets (POS) have been touted as important for the success of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system1. However, POS may systematize practice variability and are difficult to centrally administer. Few studies have looked at the characteristics and use of POS in a community hospital. We examined how POS are used at the Queen’s Medical Center (QMC). POS are an important part of the success of the QMC CPOE, but have definite disadvantages.

  6. ANP32B is a nuclear target of henipavirus M proteins.

    Anja Bauer

    Full Text Available Membrane envelopment and budding of negative strand RNA viruses (NSVs is mainly driven by viral matrix proteins (M. In addition, several M proteins are also known to be involved in host cell manipulation. Knowledge about the cellular targets and detailed molecular mechanisms, however, is poor for many M proteins. For instance, Nipah Virus (NiV M protein trafficking through the nucleus is essential for virus release, but nuclear targets of NiV M remain unknown. To identify cellular interactors of henipavirus M proteins, tagged Hendra Virus (HeV M proteins were expressed and M-containing protein complexes were isolated and analysed. Presence of acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B in the complex suggested that this protein represents a direct or indirect interactor of the viral matrix protein. Over-expression of ANP32B led to specific nuclear accumulation of HeV M, providing a functional link between ANP32B and M protein. ANP32B-dependent nuclear accumulation was observed after plasmid-driven expression of HeV and NiV matrix proteins and also in NiV infected cells. The latter indicated that an interaction of henipavirus M protein with ANP32B also occurs in the context of virus replication. From these data we conclude that ANP32B is a nuclear target of henipavirus M that may contribute to virus replication. Potential effects of ANP32B on HeV nuclear shuttling and host cell manipulation by HeV M affecting ANP32B functions in host cell survival and gene expression regulation are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of the overflow pollution of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry.

    Yin, Hailong; Lu, Yi; Xu, Zuxin; Li, Huaizheng; Schwegler, Benedict R

    2017-02-01

    To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be focused.

  8. Which Tier? Effects of Linear Assessment and Student Characteristics on GCSE Entry Decisions

    Vitello, Sylvia; Crawford, Cara

    2018-01-01

    In England, students obtain General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications, typically at age 16. Certain GCSEs are tiered; students take either higher-level (higher tier) or lower-level (foundation tier) exams, which may have different educational, career and psychological consequences. In particular, foundation tier entry, if…

  9. Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: The entry layer

    Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sckopke, N.; Rosenbauer, H.; Hedgecock, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Heos 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements in the distant polar cusp region reveal the existence of a plasma layer on day side field lines just inside the magnetopause. Density and temperature in this layer are nearly the same as they are in the adjacent magnetosheath, but the flow lacks the order existing both in the magnetosheath and in the plasma mantle. Flow directions toward and away from the sun but, in general, parallel to the field lines have been found. The magnetopause (as defined by a sudden rotation of the magnetic field vector) mostly coincides with the transition to ordered magnetosheath flow. The inner boundary of the layer is located just within the outer boundary of the hot ring current plasma. In the region of overlap the hot electrons have the signature of trapped particles, though often at reduced intensity. The magnetic field is strongly fluctuating in magnitude, while its orientation is more stable, consistent with a connection to the earth, but is systematically distorted out of the meridian plane. The layer is thought to be a consequence of the entry of magnetosheath plasma, which does not appear to be unobstructed, as has been claimed in the concept of a magnetospheric cleft. The magnetopause has a cusplike indentation which is elongated in local time. The existence of field-aligned currents (total strength approx. =10 6 A) and their location of flow in the inner part of the entry layer (into the ionosphere before noon and out of it after noon) are inferred from the systematic bending of field lines. It is proposed that the dynamo of the related current system is provided by the transfer of perpendicular momentum resulting from the plasma entry into the layer. The essential features of the entry layer might be compatible with the model of plasma flow through the magnetopause of Levy et al. (1964) if a 'dam' effect caused by the cusp geometry were added

  10. Indirect ELISA based on Hendra and Nipah virus proteins for the detection of henipavirus specific antibodies in pigs.

    Kerstin Fischer

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990's causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans. Bats of the genus Pteropus have been identified as the reservoir hosts for henipaviruses. Molecular and serological indications for the presence of henipa-like viruses in African fruit bats, pigs and humans have been published recently. In our study, truncated forms of HeV and NiV attachment (G proteins as well as the full-length NiV nucleocapsid (N protein were expressed using different expression systems. Based on these recombinant proteins, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA were developed for the detection of HeV or NiV specific antibodies in porcine serum samples. We used the NiV N ELISA for initial serum screening considering the general reactivity against henipaviruses. The G protein based ELISAs enabled the differentiation between HeV and NiV infections, since as expected, the sera displayed higher reactivity with the respective homologous antigens. In the future, these assays will present valuable tools for serosurveillance of swine and possibly other livestock or wildlife species in affected areas. Such studies will help assessing the potential risk for human and animal health worldwide by elucidating the distribution of henipaviruses.

  11. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  12. Domesticated animals as hosts of henipaviruses and filoviruses: A systematic review.

    Glennon, Emma E; Restif, Olivier; Sbarbaro, Silke Riesle; Garnier, Romain; Cunningham, Andrew A; Suu-Ire, Richard D; Osei-Amponsah, Richard; Wood, James L N; Peel, Alison J

    2018-03-01

    Bat-borne viruses carry undeniable risks to the health of human beings and animals, and there is growing recognition of the need for a 'One Health' approach to understand their frequently complex spill-over routes. While domesticated animals can play central roles in major spill-over events of zoonotic bat-borne viruses, for example during the pig-amplified Malaysian Nipah virus outbreak of 1998-1999, the extent of their potential to act as bridging or amplifying species for these viruses has not been characterised systematically. This review aims to compile current knowledge on the role of domesticated animals as hosts of two types of bat-borne viruses, henipaviruses and filoviruses. A systematic literature search of these virus-host interactions in domesticated animals identified 72 relevant studies, which were categorised by year, location, design and type of evidence generated. The review then focusses on Africa as a case study, comparing research efforts in domesticated animals and bats with the distributions of documented human cases. Major gaps remain in our knowledge of the potential ability of domesticated animals to contract or spread these zoonoses. Closing these gaps will be necessary to fully evaluate and mitigate spill-over risks of these viruses, especially with global agricultural intensification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compaction and binding properties of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of Henipavirus nucleoprotein as unveiled by deletion studies.

    Blocquel, David; Habchi, Johnny; Gruet, Antoine; Blangy, Stéphanie; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Henipaviruses are recently emerged severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). We have previously shown that in Henipaviruses the N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL), which undergoes α-helical induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (P(XD)) of the P protein. Using computational approaches, we previously identified within N(TAIL) four putative molecular recognition elements (MoREs) with different structural propensities, and proposed a structural model for the N(TAIL)-P(XD) complex where the MoRE encompassing residues 473-493 adopt an α-helical conformation at the P(XD) surface. In this work, for each N(TAIL) protein, we designed four deletion constructs bearing different combinations of the predicted MoREs. Following purification of the N(TAIL) truncated proteins from the soluble fraction of E. coli, we characterized them in terms of their conformational, spectroscopic and binding properties. These studies provided direct experimental evidence for the structural state of the four predicted MoREs, and showed that two of them have clear α-helical propensities, with the one spanning residues 473-493 being strictly required for binding to P(XD). We also showed that Henipavirus N(TAIL) and P(XD) form heterologous complexes, indicating that the P(XD) binding regions are functionally interchangeable between the two viruses. By combining spectroscopic and conformational analyses, we showed that the content in regular secondary structure is not a major determinant of protein compaction.

  14. Pre-entry Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, Adjustment and Academic Achievement in First-Year Spanish University Students: A Path Model.

    Rodríguez, María Soledad; Tinajero, Carolina; Páramo, María Fernanda

    2017-11-17

    Transition to university is a multifactorial process to which scarce consideration has been given in Spain, despite this being one of the countries with the highest rates of academic failure and attrition within the European Union. The present study proposes an empirical model for predicting Spanish students' academic achievement at university by considering pre-entry characteristics, perceived social support and adaptation to university, in a sample of 300 traditional first-year university students. The findings of the path analysis showed that pre-university achievement and academic and personal-emotional adjustment were direct predictors of academic achievement. Furthermore, gender, parents' education and family support were indirect predictors of academic achievement, mediated by pre-university grades and adjustment to university. The current findings supporting evidence that academic achievement in first-year Spanish students is the cumulative effect of pre-entry characteristics and process variables, key factors that should be taken into account in designing intervention strategies involving families and that establish stronger links between research findings and university policies.

  15. New insights into the Hendra virus attachment and entry process from structures of the virus G glycoprotein and its complex with Ephrin-B2.

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available Hendra virus and Nipah virus, comprising the genus Henipavirus, are recently emerged, highly pathogenic and often lethal zoonotic agents against which there are no approved therapeutics. Two surface glycoproteins, the attachment (G and fusion (F, mediate host cell entry. The crystal structures of the Hendra G glycoprotein alone and in complex with the ephrin-B2 receptor reveal that henipavirus uses Tryptophan 122 on ephrin-B2/B3 as a "latch" to facilitate the G-receptor association. Structural-based mutagenesis of residues in the Hendra G glycoprotein at the receptor binding interface document their importance for viral attachments and entry, and suggest that the stability of the Hendra-G-ephrin attachment complex does not strongly correlate with the efficiency of viral entry. In addition, our data indicates that conformational rearrangements of the G glycoprotein head domain upon receptor binding may be the trigger leading to the activation of the viral F fusion glycoprotein during virus infection.

  16. Entry decisions in the generic pharmaceutical industry.

    Morton, F M

    1999-01-01

    Data on all generic drug entries in the period 1984-1994 are used to estimate which markets heterogeneous potential entrants will decide to enter. I find that organizational experience predicts entry. Firms tend to enter markets with supply and demand characteristics similar to the firm's existing drugs. Larger revenue markets, markets with more hospital sales, and products that treat chronic conditions attract more entry. The simultaneous nature of entry leads to an additional interpretation: specialization is profitable because of the severe risk to profits when a market is "overentered." However, I am unable to make any conclusions about the efficiency of entry decisions.

  17. US Ports of Entry

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  18. Analysis of English language learner performance on the biology Massachusetts comprehensive assessment system: The impact of english proficiency, first language characteristics, and late-entry ELL status

    Mitchell, Mary A.

    This study analyzed English language learner (ELL) performance on the June 2012 Biology MCAS, namely on item attributes of domain, cognitive skill, and linguistic complexity. It examined the impact of English proficiency, Latinate first language, first language orthography, and late-entry ELL status. The results indicated that English proficiency was a strong predictor of performance and that ELLs at higher levels of English proficiency overwhelmingly passed. The results further indicated that English proficiency introduced a construct-irrelevant variance on the Biology MCAS and raised validity issues for using this assessment at lower levels of English proficiency. This study also found that ELLs with a Latinate first language consistently had statistically significant lower performance. Late-entry ELL status did not predict Biology MCAS performance.

  19. Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem

    Juho Sankamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to contribute to the understanding of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem. The author studies the entry, which is found in all the Gospels, in its Jewish context. The author argues that Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem on an ass is to be understood as a prophetic sign which was primarily meant to convey a message to the Jews.

  20. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  1. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, ped...

  2. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  3. Entry and Exit.

    1987-03-01

    1. Introduction R Analyses of industrial competition have attained a new vigor with the application of game -theoretic methods. The process of... competition is represented in models that reflect genuine struggles for entry, market power, and continuing survival. Dynamics and informational effects are...presents a few of the models developed recently to study competitive processes that affect a firm’s entry into a market , and the decision to exit. The

  4. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  5. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  6. Models of radon entry: A review

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews existing models of radon entry into houses. The primary mechanism of radon entry in houses with high indoor concentrations is, in most cases, convective entry of radon bearing soil-gas from the surrounding soil. The driving force for this convective entry is the small indoor-outdoor pressure difference arising from the stack effect and other causes. Entry points for the soil-gas generally are the cracks or gaps in the building substructure, or though other parts of the building shell in direct contact with the soil, although entry may also occur by flow though permeable concrete or cinder block walls of the substructure. Models using analytical solutions to idealized geometrical configurations with simplified boundary conditions obtain analytical tractability of equations to be solved at the cost of severe approximations; their strength is in the insights they offer with their solutions. Models based on lumped parameters attempt to characterize the significant physical behavioral characteristics of the soil-gas and radon flow. When realistic approximations are desired for the boundary conditions and terms in the governing equations, numerical models must be used; these are usually based on finite difference or finite element solutions to the governing equations. Limited data are now available for experimental verification of model predictions. The models are briefly reviewed and their strengths and limitations are discussed

  7. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  8. Lobbying on entry

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  9. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  10. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  11. Border Crossing/Entry Data

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  12. Infectious Entry Pathway of Enterovirus B Species

    Varpu Marjomäki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus B species (EV-B are responsible for a vast number of mild and serious acute infections. They are also suspected of remaining in the body, where they cause persistent infections contributing to chronic diseases such as type I diabetes. Recent studies of the infectious entry pathway of these viruses revealed remarkable similarities, including non-clathrin entry of large endosomes originating from the plasma membrane invaginations. Many cellular factors regulating the efficient entry have recently been associated with macropinocytic uptake, such as Rac1, serine/threonine p21-activated kinase (Pak1, actin, Na/H exchanger, phospholipace C (PLC and protein kinase Cα (PKCα. Another characteristic feature is the entry of these viruses to neutral endosomes, independence of endosomal acidification and low association with acidic lysosomes. The biogenesis of neutral multivesicular bodies is crucial for their infection, at least for echovirus 1 (E1 and coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9. These pathways are triggered by the virus binding to their receptors on the plasma membrane, and they are not efficiently recycled like other cellular pathways used by circulating receptors. Therefore, the best “markers” of these pathways may be the viruses and often their receptors. A deeper understanding of this pathway and associated endosomes is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of enterovirus uncoating and genome release from the endosomes to start efficient replication.

  13. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  14. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    1978-09-01

    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  15. Franchising as a method of entry to the market

    Vargovčíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The subject of presented bachelor thesis is Franchising as a method of entry to the market. The first part of this thesis deals with characteristics of franchising such as the definition of franchising and its advantages and disadvantages for both parties involved. Then there is also provided the current situation of franchising in the Czech Republic. The second part deals with entry into the market by franchising. In this section franchise agreement is mainly mentioned, how to start a franch...

  16. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  17. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    Mo Xiao; Peter F. Orazem

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  18. The Significance of Barriers to Entry in the Construction Industry

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.

  19. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1986-05-01

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  20. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  1. Currency union entries and trade

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  2. An Entry Flight Controls Analysis for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Calhoun, Philip

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has been performing studies to address the feasibility of various single-stage to orbit concepts for use by NASA and the commercial launch industry to provide a lower cost access to space. Some work on the conceptual design of a typical lifting body concept vehicle, designated VentureStar(sup TM) has been conducted in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. This paper will address the results of a preliminary flight controls assessment of this vehicle concept during the atmospheric entry phase of flight. The work includes control analysis from hypersonic flight at the atmospheric entry through supersonic speeds to final approach and landing at subsonic conditions. The requirements of the flight control effectors are determined over the full range of entry vehicle Mach number conditions. The analysis was performed for a typical maximum crossrange entry trajectory utilizing angle of attack to limit entry heating and providing for energy management, and bank angle to modulation of the lift vector to provide downrange and crossrange capability to fly the vehicle to a specified landing site. Sensitivity of the vehicle open and closed loop characteristics to CG location, control surface mixing strategy and wind gusts are included in the results. An alternative control surface mixing strategy utilizing a reverse aileron technique demonstrated a significant reduction in RCS torque and fuel required to perform bank maneuvers during entry. The results of the control analysis revealed challenges for an early vehicle configuration in the areas of hypersonic pitch trim and subsonic longitudinal controllability.

  3. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  4. Ebola virus host cell entry.

    Sakurai, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is an enveloped virus with filamentous structure and causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. Host cell entry is the first essential step in the viral life cycle, which has been extensively studied as one of the therapeutic targets. A virus factor of cell entry is a surface glycoprotein (GP), which is an only essential viral protein in the step, as well as the unique particle structure. The virus also interacts with a lot of host factors to successfully enter host cells. Ebola virus at first binds to cell surface proteins and internalizes into cells, followed by trafficking through endosomal vesicles to intracellular acidic compartments. There, host proteases process GPs, which can interact with an intracellular receptor. Then, under an appropriate circumstance, viral and endosomal membranes are fused, which is enhanced by major structural changes of GPs, to complete host cell entry. Recently the basic research of Ebola virus infection mechanism has markedly progressed, largely contributed by identification of host factors and detailed structural analyses of GPs. This article highlights the mechanism of Ebola virus host cell entry, including recent findings.

  5. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  6. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  7. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  8. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  9. Characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients from the observational, multicentre, hypopituitary control and complications study (HypoCCS) according to tertiles of growth hormone peak concentration following stimulation testing at study entry.

    Losa, Marco; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Di Somma, Carolina; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Ferone, Diego; Giampietro, Antonella; Corsello, Salvatore M; Poggi, Maurizio; Scaroni, Carla; Jia, Nan; Mossetto, Gilberto; Cannavò, Salvatore; Rochira, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether characteristics and outcomes of Italian patients in the observational global Hypopituitary Control and Complication Study (HypoCCS) differed according to the degree of GH deficiency (GHD). Patients were grouped by tertiles of stimulated GH peak concentration at baseline (Group A lowest tertile, n = 342; Group B middle tertile, n = 345; Group C highest tertile, n = 338). Baseline demographics, lipid levels, body mass index categories and mean Framingham cardiovascular risk indexes were similar in the three groups and remained substantially unchanged over time, with no subsequent significant between-group differences (except mean levels of triglycerides increased in the highest tertile group). GHD was adult-onset for >75% of patients in all groups. The percentage of patients with multiple pituitary deficiencies was higher in Group A than in the other groups; isolated GHD was reported with highest frequency in Group C. Patients in Group A received the lowest mean starting dose of GH. Hyperlipidaemia at baseline was reported in 35·1%, 31·1% and 24·7% of patients in groups A, B and C, respectively (P = 0·029). Mean duration of GH treatment was 7·21, 5·45 and 4·96 years, respectively. The proportion of patients with adverse events did not differ significantly between groups, with a low prevalence over time of diabetes and cancer. In Italian patients from HypoCCS, the level of GH deficit did not influence changes over time in metabolic parameters or adverse event profile, despite differences in GHD severity at baseline and in the starting GH dose. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized. 2 refs., 7 figs

  11. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  12. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets

    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad

    2012-01-01

    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  13. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    Kort, Peter M.; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump shaped as a function of the entry time, whereas the corresponding entry cost, where the entrant is indifferent between entry and non-entry, is U-shaped. PMID:26435573

  14. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is a...

  15. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    1980-06-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. The entries in this revision include the corporate entries used in report bibliographic citations since 1973 and list approximately 28,000 corporate sources

  16. Cutting through - open entries require proper support

    Peng, S.S. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2000-06-01

    The paper explains the applications of open entries in mining and different roof techniques to relieve longwall abutment pressures. The primary support for the open (or cut-through) entries and recovery rooms are normally similar to other development entries in the same mines. The supplementary supports installed can be divided into the following three types: complete backfill of open entries, supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement only - no standing support and rows of standing support with or without supplemental roof and/or rib-bolt reinforcement. 3 figs.

  17. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  18. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  19. Best Entry Points for Structured Document Retrieval - Part I: Characteristics

    Reid, Jane; Lalmas, Mounia; Finesilver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Structured document retrieval makes use of document components as the basis of the retrieval process, rather than complete documents. The inherent relationships between these components make it vital to support users' natural browsing behaviour in order to offer effective and efficient access...

  20. Energy Data Base: corporate author entries

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1982-08-01

    Corporate author entries provide a means for consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records in the data bases of the DOE Technical Information Center. These entries serve as guides for users of the DOE/RECON computerized data bases who want to locate information originating in particular organizations

  1. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    D. A. Seliverstov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  2. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    2010-07-01

    ...-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants; and (2...-entry activity, the agricultural employer shall provide a decontamination site in accordance with § 170... running water for routine and emergency decontamination and mechanical devices that would reduce the...

  3. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  4. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information tec...

  5. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  6. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in evacuee risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process.

    Siebeneck, Laura K; Cova, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Developing effective evacuation and return-entry plans requires understanding the spatial and temporal dimensions of risk perception experienced by evacuees throughout a disaster event. Using data gathered from the 2008 Cedar Rapids, Iowa Flood, this article explores how risk perception and location influence evacuee behavior during the evacuation and return-entry process. Three themes are discussed: (1) the spatial and temporal characteristics of risk perception throughout the evacuation and return-entry process, (2) the relationship between risk perception and household compliance with return-entry orders, and (3) the role social influences have on the timing of the return by households. The results indicate that geographic location and spatial variation of risk influenced household risk perception and compliance with return-entry plans. In addition, sociodemographic characteristics influenced the timing and characteristics of the return groups. The findings of this study advance knowledge of evacuee behavior throughout a disaster and can inform strategies used by emergency managers throughout the evacuation and return-entry process. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Computerized provider order entry systems.

    2001-01-01

    Computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems are designed to replace a hospital's paper-based ordering system. They allow users to electronically write the full range of orders, maintain an online medication administration record, and review changes made to an order by successive personnel. They also offer safety alerts that are triggered when an unsafe order (such as for a duplicate drug therapy) is entered, as well as clinical decision support to guide caregivers to less expensive alternatives or to choices that better fit established hospital protocols. CPOE systems can, when correctly configured, markedly increase efficiency and improve patient safety and patient care. However, facilities need to recognize that currently available CPOE systems require a tremendous amount of time and effort to be spent in customization before their safety and clinical support features can be effectively implemented. What's more, even after they've been customized, the systems may still allow certain unsafe orders to be entered. Thus, CPOE systems are not currently a quick or easy remedy for medical errors. ECRI's Evaluation of CPOE systems--conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)--discusses these and other related issues. It also examines and compares CPOE systems from three suppliers: Eclipsys Corp., IDX Systems Corp., and Siemens Medical Solutions Health Services Corp. Our testing focuses primarily on the systems' interfacing capabilities, patient safeguards, and ease of use.

  9. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  10. Technical Area 55 Entry Control System (ECS)

    Beaumont, A.; Brundige, E.; DesJardin, R.; Rivera, R.

    1984-01-01

    The exchange badge system which was used at the Plutonium Facility located in Technical Area 55 was replaced on a trial basis with an automated Entry Control System. As a result of the success of the trial system, a new system incorporating expanded features and increased reliability is being implemented. The new Entry Control System incorporates several features not previously available in relatively inexpensive entry systems. The reliability of the system is enhanced by redundant microprocessors incorporating bubble memory for nonvolatile storage of the system data base. The badge readers incorporate dual communication lines to two different controllers to further increase the total system reliability

  11. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    Eaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  12. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  14. Re-entry Adjustment and Job Embeddedness: The Mediating Role of Professional Identity in Indonesian Returnees.

    Andrianto, Sonny; Jianhong, Ma; Hommey, Confidence; Damayanti, Devi; Wahyuni, Honey

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between difficulty in re-entry adjustment and job embeddedness, considering the mediating role of sense of professional identity. The online data on demographic characteristics, difficulty on re-entry adjustment, sense of professional identity, and job embeddedness were collected from 178 Indonesian returnees from multiple organizations. The results showed that difficulty in re-entry adjustment was a significant predictor of a sense of professional identity; a sense of professional identity was a significant predictor of job embeddedness. Furthermore, sense of professional identity is an effective mediating variable, bridging the relationship between post-return conditions to the home country and work atmosphere. Finally, the key finding of this study was that sense of professional identity mediated the effect of difficulty in re-entry adjustment on job embeddedness. The theoretical and practical implications, study limitations, and future research needs of our findings are noted.

  15. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  16. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  17. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... are analysed. The effective management of firms’ resources and capabilities is influenced by the perception of these internal factors when expanding into foreign markets. Our results confirmed that family firms build up longer lasting relationships in the host country by choosing high commitment entry modes...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  18. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    1980-03-01

    One of the controls for information entered into the data bases created and maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center is the standardized name for the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of Energy Information Data Base: Corporate Author Entries (TID-4585-R1) and this supplemental list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. In general, an entry in Corporate Author Entries consists of the seven-digit code number assigned to the particular corporate entity, the two-letter country code, the largest element of the corporate name, the location of the corporate entity, and the smallest element of the corporate name (if provided). This supplement [DOE/TIC-4585-R1(Suppl.5)] contains additions to the base document (TID-4585-R1) and is intended to be used with that publication

  19. Tactile Data Entry System, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  20. "Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...

  1. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  2. Medical student satisfaction, coping and burnout in direct-entry versus graduate-entry programmes.

    DeWitt, Dawn; Canny, Benedict J; Nitzberg, Michael; Choudri, Jennifer; Porter, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal length of medical training, with concern about the cost of prolonged training. Two simultaneous tracks currently exist in Australia: direct entry from high school and graduate entry for students with a bachelor degree. Medical schools are switching to graduate entry based on maturity, academic preparedness and career-choice surety. We tested the assumption that graduate entry is better by exploring student preferences, coping, burnout, empathy and alcohol use. From a potential pool of 2188 participants, enrolled at five Australian medical schools, a convenience sample of 688 (31%) first and second year students completed a survey in the middle of the academic year. Participants answered questions about demographics, satisfaction and coping and completed three validated instruments. Over 90% of students preferred their own entry-type, though more graduate-entry students were satisfied with their programme (82.4% versus 65.3%, p students in self-reported coping or in the proportion of students meeting criteria for burnout (50.7% versus 51.2%). Direct-entry students rated significantly higher for empathy (concern, p = 0.022; personal distress, p = 0.031). Graduate-entry students reported significantly more alcohol use and hazardous drinking (30.0% versus 22.8%; p = 0.017). Our multi-institution data confirm that students are generally satisfied with their choice of entry pathway and do not confirm significant psychosocial benefits of graduate entry. Overall, our data suggest that direct-entry students cope with the workload and psychosocial challenges of medical school, in the first 2 years, as well as graduate-entry students. Burnout and alcohol use should be addressed in both pathways. Despite studies showing similar academic outcomes, and higher total costs, more programmes in Australia are becoming graduate entry. Further research on non-cognitive issues and outcomes is needed so that universities, government

  3. 19 CFR 151.41 - Information on entry summary.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.41 Section 151... Products § 151.41 Information on entry summary. On the entry summary for petroleum or petroleum products in.... If the exact volumetric quantity cannot be determined in advance, the entry summary may be made for...

  4. Entry control system for large populations

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  5. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  6. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  7. Monographs, list entries, public statements.

    Chinou, Ioanna

    2014-12-02

    According to Directive 2004/24/EC which amended the basic legislation laid down in Directive 2001/83/EC a new European legislation on herbal medicinal products was developed, in order to harmonize the use of herbal medicinal products in Member States of the European Union. The objective of this legislation was to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics during the assessment of their quality, efficacy and safety, having defined two categories for herbal medicines: i) well-established use herbal medicinal products, which can be granted a marketing authorization; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products which can be granted a registration based on their longstanding safe and efficient use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of OLI+S Entry Decision Model for Construction Firms in International Markets

    Che Maznah Binti Mat Isa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a holistic approach to address how construction firms make decisions covering all three domains (location, timing and mode across country, market, firm and project factors within the Ownership, Locational and Internalisation plus Specialty (OLI+S paradigm. Questionnaires were administered to 62 project managers based on a sampling frame provided by the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia. The findings provide empirical and theoretical insights on how the OLI+S model addresses firms’ entry decisions to penetrate international markets. It suggests that the ownership-entry decision factors focus on firms’ internal transferable advantages. The locational-entry decision factors emphasise attractiveness of certain locations where firms decided to invest and operate. The internalisation– entry decision factors emphasise the extent to which firms were able to manipulate their internal competitive assets (firm’s resources and capabilities. Finally, the specialty-entry decision factors emphasise on firms’ competency in project management and specialist expertise to handle complex projects based on their previous project experience. An example of construction firms’ unique characteristics, namely, specialty advantages based on the original Dunning’s OLI eclectic paradigm has been adopted. The established OLI+S entry decision model could be investigated to further refine other related internationalisation theory.

  9. Performance of an Orifice Compensated Two-Lobe Hole-Entry Hybrid Journal Bearing

    J. Sharana Basavaraja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presented in this paper aims to study the performance of a two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system compensated by orifice restrictors. The Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space between the journal and bearing together with the equation of flow through an orifice restrictor has been solved using FEM and Galerkin's method. The bearing performance characteristics results have been simulated for an orifice compensated nonrecessed two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing symmetric configuration for the various values of offset factor (, restrictor design parameter (2, and the value of external load (0. Further, a comparative study of the performance of a two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system with a circular hole-entry symmetric hybrid journal bearing system has also been carried out so that a designer has a better flexibility in choosing a suitable bearing configuration. The simulated numerical results indicate that for the two-lobe symmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system with an offset factor ( greater than one provides 30 to 50 percent larger values of direct stiffness and direct damping coefficients as compared to a circular symmetric hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system.

  10. Modes and orders of market entry

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2012-01-01

    (first-mover or follower). Invention is understood as the conversion of human creativity, time and financial resources into new ideas. Innovation in turn reflects the practical and financial return on such investments. While there is little disagreement about what an innovator strategy is, imitative......This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...

  11. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  12. Automated Re-Entry System using FNPEG

    Johnson, Wyatt R.; Lu, Ping; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and simulated performance of the FNPEG (Fully Numerical Predictor-corrector Entry Guidance) algorithm into GNC FSW (Guidance, Navigation, and Control Flight Software) for use in an autonomous re-entry vehicle. A few modifications to FNPEG are discussed that result in computational savings -- a change to the state propagator, and a modification to cross-range lateral logic. Finally, some Monte Carlo results are presented using a representative vehicle in both a high-fidelity 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) sim as well as in a 3-DOF sim for independent validation.

  13. A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Entry variables as predictors of prognosis.

    Ginzler, E M; Diamond, H S; Weiner, M; Schlesinger, M; Fries, J F; Wasner, C; Medsger, T A; Ziegler, G; Klippel, J H; Hadler, N M; Albert, D A; Hess, E V; Spencer-Green, G; Grayzel, A; Worth, D; Hahn, B H; Barnett, E V

    1982-06-01

    A retrospective study of factors influencing survival in 1,103 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was carried out at 9 university centers diverse in geographic, socioeconomic, and racial characteristics. The mortality and disease characteristics of the patients at study entry varied widely among centers. The survival rates from the time patients with a diagnosis of SLE were first evaluated at the participating center was 90% at 1 year, 77% at 5 years, and 71% at 10 years. Patients with a serum creatinine greater than 3 mg/dl at study entry had the lowest survival rates: 48%, 29%, and 12% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Survival rate also correlated independently with the entry hematocrit, degree of proteinuria, number of preliminary American Rheumatism Association criteria for SLE satisfied, and source of funding of medical care. When data were corrected for socioeconomic status, race/ethnic origin did not significantly influence survival. Survival rates varied widely at different participating institutions, generally due to differences in disease severity. Place of treatment was independently associated with survival only in the second year after study entry. Disease duration before study entry did not account for the differences in disease severity.

  14. The current impact of entry-level associate and baccalaureate degree education on the diversity of respiratory therapists.

    Becker, Ellen A; Nguyen, Xuan T

    2014-12-01

    Transitioning from an associate degree to a baccalaureate degree for respiratory therapists has been suggested as a new entry-level educational standard. One potential risk for this change is that it may limit the diversity of potential applicants for entry-level education. A diverse workforce is important to achieve the goal of reducing healthcare disparities. This study evaluated characteristics of therapists who completed associate and baccalaureate degree entry-level education. A secondary analysis of data collected from the 2009 AARC Respiratory Therapist Human Resource Survey explored relationships between the choice of entry-level associate or baccalaureate education and variables of gender, race, salary, career advancement, and job satisfaction. There were no differences between therapists with entry-level associate and baccalaureate degrees in gender, race, number of additional healthcare credentials, numbers of life support credentials, wages, delivering respiratory care by protocol, and job satisfaction. There were significantly higher percentages of advanced academic degrees, desire to pursue a higher academic degree, registered respiratory therapist credentials, total National Board for Respiratory Care credentials, and leadership roles for therapists with baccalaureate entry-level degrees. Current entry-level associate and baccalaureate degree graduates have similar gender and race proportions. This finding challenges concerns that an entry-level baccalaureate degree would decrease the diversity of the respiratory therapist workforce. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Research notes and commentaries managing knowledge in foreign entry strategies: A resource-based analysis

    K.E. Meyer (Klaus); D.M. Wright (Mike); S. Pruthi (Sarika)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInternational strategies vary in their potential to exploit and augment a firm's resources, especially its knowledge base. Resource-based analysis suggests clustering the diverse entry modes in terms of their exploitation and augmentation characteristics. We thus introduce a new

  16. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  17. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  18. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  19. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  20. Women's Entry into Teaching: Myths and Realities.

    Russell, Dorothy S.

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the entry of women into the teaching profession in nineteenth-century America, noting that, while the primary motivation for encouraging women to teach was that they could be paid less than men, this economic justification was obscured by sentimental pronouncements about women's superior moral and nurturant power. (SJL)

  1. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  2. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  3. Energy Information Data Base: corporate author entries

    1978-06-01

    The DOE Energy Information Data Base has been created and is maintained by the DOE Technical Information Center. One of the controls for information entered into the base is the standardized name of the corporate entity or the corporate author. The purpose of this list of authorized or standardized corporate entries is to provide a means for the consistent citing of the names of organizations in bibliographic records. It also serves as a guide for users who retrieve information from a bibliographic data base and who want to locate information originating in particular organizations. This authority is a combination of entries established by the Technical Information Center and the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The format calls, in general, for the name of the organization represented by the literature being cataloged to be cited as follows: the largest element, the place, the smallest element, e.g., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah (USA), Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Code numbers are assigned to each entry to provide manipulation by computer. Cross references are used to reflect name changes and invalid entries

  4. Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry

    2008-11-17

    state which mainly determines its polarizability . ∆r2 = r2u− r2l is the difference between Radiation Database for Earth and Mars Entry RTO-EN-AVT...NO A← X (0,0) band in the presence of argon and nitrogen. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 47:375–390, 1992. Radiation

  5. 76 FR 15841 - Entry of Merchandise

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 141 Entry of Merchandise CFR Correction In Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 141 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 6, the second general authority citation for part...

  6. Anthropologists and Broadcasting: Roles and Entry Strategies

    Eiselein, E. B.; Topper, Martin

    1976-01-01

    The article describes some of the roles open to anthropologists in radio and television. Entry strategies for occupying these roles include taking the first step in approaching the broadcast station, learning about broadcasting, and communicating anthropology to the broadcasters. (Author/NQ)

  7. THE ROLE OF STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS IN PROBLEM BASED LEARNING

    Mia Damiyanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available To reach the effectiveness of study, it is recommended to work on active learning method. The learning activity must be done with emphasis on the students’ characteristics. The characteristic means internal factors (cognitive entry behavior and affective entry characteristics, which are considered important as solving problems. The previous studies have shown that there is a correlation between achievement test and students’ characteristic entry behavior. At the beginning of the academic year of 2003, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia started active learning with PBL curriculum for the BDS degree. From a study about the correlation between the achievement and students’ entry behavior (previous knowledge, self concept, attitude, and anxiety during attending the test the study showed that characteristic entry behavior contributes to the student’s achievement test. The results supported the previous study.

  8. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  9. An Analysis of the Feasible Entry Mode for Tottenham Hotspur’s Entry into China

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of European football clubs has developed global strategies with an emphasis on the Chinese market, which seems to be a shortcut to their global success. In order to achieve an effective expansion, the selection of appropriate entry modes should be conducted cautiously. This paper aims to select feasible entry modes for Tottenham Hotspur F.C., an emerging power in the Premier League, to enter into the Chinese market. A framework that combines different theories based ...

  10. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  11. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  12. Occupational mobility among individuals in entry-level healthcare jobs in the USA.

    Snyder, Cyndy R; Dahal, Arati; Frogner, Bianca K

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore career transitions among individuals in select entry-level healthcare occupations. Entry-level healthcare occupations are among the fastest growing occupations in the USA. Public perception is that the healthcare industry provides an opportunity for upward career mobility given the low education requirements to enter many healthcare occupations. The assumption that entry-level healthcare occupations, such as nursing assistant, lead to higher-skilled occupations, such as Registered Nurse, is under-explored. We analysed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, which is a nationally representative and publicly available longitudinal survey of US households. Using longitudinal survey data, we examined the job transitions and associated characteristics among individuals in five entry-level occupations at the aide/assistant level over 10 years timeline (2003-2013) to determine whether they stayed in health care and/or moved up in occupational level over time. This study found limited evidence of career progression in health care in that only a few of the individuals in entry-level healthcare occupations moved into occupations such as nursing that required higher education. While many individuals remained in their occupations throughout the study period, we found that 28% of our sample moved out of these entry-level occupations and into another occupation. The most common "other" occupation categories were "office/administrative" and "personal care/services occupations." Whether these moves helped individuals advance their careers remains unclear. Employers and educational institutions should consider efforts to help clarify pathways to advance the careers of individuals in entry-level healthcare occupations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A nontranscriptional role for Oct4 in the regulation of mitotic entry

    Zhao, Rui; Deibler, Richard W.; Lerou, Paul H.; Ballabeni, Andrea; Heffner, Garrett C.; Cahan, Patrick; Unternaehrer, Juli J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid progression through the cell cycle and a very short G1 phase are defining characteristics of embryonic stem cells. This distinct cell cycle is driven by a positive feedback loop involving Rb inactivation and reduced oscillations of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity. In this setting, we inquired how ES cells avoid the potentially deleterious consequences of premature mitotic entry. We found that the pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4) plays an unappreciated role in the ES cell cycle by forming a complex with cyclin–Cdk1 and inhibiting Cdk1 activation. Ectopic expression of Oct4 or a mutant lacking transcriptional activity recapitulated delayed mitotic entry in HeLa cells. Reduction of Oct4 levels in ES cells accelerated G2 progression, which led to increased chromosomal missegregation and apoptosis. Our data demonstrate an unexpected nontranscriptional function of Oct4 in the regulation of mitotic entry. PMID:25324523

  14. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  15. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    2010-01-01

    ... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND... present a certificate to the appropriate customs official at the date of entry of specialty sugars. Entry...

  16. Histopathological detection of entry and exit holes in human skin wounds caused by firearms.

    Baptista, Marcus Vinícius; d'Ávila, Solange C G P; d'Ávila, Antônio Miguel M P

    2014-07-01

    The judiciary needs forensic medicine to determine the difference between an entry hole and an exit hole in human skin caused by firearms for civilian use. This important information would be most useful if a practical and accurate method could be done with low-cost and minimal technological resources. Both macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on skin lesions caused by firearm projectiles, to establish histological features of 14 entry holes and 14 exit holes. Microscopically, in the abrasion area macroscopically observed, there were signs of burns (sub-epidermal cracks and keratinocyte necrosis) in the entrance holes in all cases. These signs were not found in three exit holes which showed an abrasion collar, nor in other exit holes. Some other microscopic features not found in every case were limited either to entry holes, such as cotton fibres, grease deposits, or tattooing in the dermis, or to exit holes, such as adipose tissue, bone or muscle tissue in the dermis. Coagulative necrosis of keratinocytes and sub-epidermal cracks are characteristic of entry holes. Despite the small sample size, it can be safely inferred that this is an important microscopic finding, among others less consistently found, to define an entry hole in questionable cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    Kokotti, H.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m -3 h -1 . (Author)

  18. Lunar Entry Downmode Options for Orion

    Smith, Kelly M.; Rea, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    For Exploration Missions 1 and 2, the Orion capsules will be entering the Earth's atmosphere with speeds in excess of 11 km/s. In the event of a degraded Guidance, Navigation, and Control system, attempting the nominal guided entry may be inadvisable due to the potential for failures that result in a loss of vehicle (or crew, when crew are aboard). In such a case, a method of assuring Earth capture, water landing, and observence of trajectory constraints (heating, loads) is desired. Such a method should also be robust to large state uncertainty and variations in entry interface states. This document will explore four approaches evaluated and their performance in ensuring a safe return of the Orion capsule in the event of onboard system degradation.

  19. Available hardware for automated entry control

    Holmes, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  20. Cell entry of hepatitis C virus

    Bartosch, Birke; Cosset, Francois-Loic

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important human pathogen, is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Cell attachment of flaviviruses generally leads to endocytosis of bound virions. Systems that support HCV replication and particle formation in vitro are emerging only now, 16 years after the discovery of the virus. Albeit this limitation, the route of HCV cell entry as well as 'capture' molecules involved in low-affinity interactions for the initial contact of HCV with target cells and potential high-affinity receptor candidates that may mediate HCV trafficking and fusion has been described. The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of different HCV model systems to our current knowledge about structure of the HCV GPs E1 and E2 and their roles in cell entry comprising cell attachment, interactions with cellular receptors, endocytosis, and fusion

  1. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods

    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti

    2018-01-01

    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  2. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  3. Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure

    Maican, Florin; Orth, ´Matilda

    2013-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability and market structure in retail. The model incorporates demand and store-level heterogeneity. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we find that the average entry costs for small and large stores are 10 and 18 percent lower, respectively, in markets with liberal compared with restrictive regulations. Counterfactual simulations show that lower entry costs in restrictive...

  4. Entry regulations, welfare and determinants of market structure

    Maican, Florin; Orth, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    We use a dynamic oligopoly model of entry and exit with store-type differentiation to evaluate how entry regulations affect profitability, market structure and welfare. Based on unique data for all retail food stores in Sweden, we estimate demand, recover variable profits, and estimate entry costs and fixed costs by store type. Counterfactual policy experiments show that welfare increases when competition is enhanced by lower entry costs. Protecting small stores by imposing licensing fees on ...

  5. Incumbent innovation and entry by spinoff

    Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a different perspective toward the escape entry incentive of incumbent firms to innovate. New entrants spawned from incumbents are not necessarily a threat; they can complement incumbents' production by commercializing knowledge incumbents are not willing or able to exploit. Accordingly, incumbent innovation determines exploitable knowledge externalities for spinoffs while, at the same time, spinoffs are expected to influence incumbent innovation. To overcome this problem of ...

  6. Advertising, Competition and Entry in Media Industries

    Crampes, Claude; Haritchabalet, Carole; Jullien, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of media competition with free entry when media operators are financed both from advertisers and customers. The relation between advertising receipts and sales receipts, which are both complementary and antagonist, is different if media operators impose a price or a quantity to advertisers. When consumers dislike advertising, media operators are better off setting an advertising price than an advertising quantity. We establish a relationship between the equilibrium...

  7. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    Kellogg, M.; Gallup, J.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.

    1977-10-01

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  8. Risk Factors of Entry in Out-of-Home Care

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Ejrnæs, Niels Morten; Frederiksen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    . The mother’s characteristics are more important risk factors than the corresponding risk factors of the father. The results, the applied method and the epidemiological inspired analysis make an opportunity to discuss the central concepts and methods of calculation of statistical association, risk, prediction......This paper presents the results of research on children’s risk of being placed in out-of-home care. The purpose is: firstly, to compare children placed in out-of-home care with non-placed children, secondly, to estimate the children’s risk of entry into care and finally, to compare the results...... of this study with the results from similar studies. The study is based on register data from the Statistics Denmark. The sample includes all children with Danish citizenship who were born 1981–2003. In order to estimate the risk of being placed in out-of-home care, we use information about the child...

  9. Filovirus tropism: Cellular molecules for viral entry

    Ayato eTakada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In human and nonhuman primates, filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses cause severe hemorrhagic fever.Recently, other animals such as pigs and some species of fruit bats have also been shown to be susceptible to these viruses. While having a preference for some cell types such as hepatocytes, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, filoviruses are known to be pantropic in infection of primates. The envelope glycoprotein (GP is responsible for both receptor binding and fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. It has been demonstrated that filovirus GP interacts with multiple molecules for entry into host cells, whereas none of the cellular molecules so far identified as a receptor/coreceptor fully explains filovirus tissue tropism and host range. Available data suggest that the mucin-like region (MLR on GP plays an important role in attachment to the preferred target cells, whose infection is likely involved in filovirus pathogenesis, whereas the MLR is not essential for the fundamental function of the GP in viral entry into cells in vitro. Further studies elucidating the mechanisms of cellular entry of filoviruses may shed light on the development of strategies for prophylaxis and treatment of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers.

  10. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  11. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be...

  12. 19 CFR 141.18 - Entry by nonresident corporation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry by nonresident corporation. 141.18 Section....18 Entry by nonresident corporation. A nonresident corporation (i.e., one which is not incorporated... entry is located who is authorized to accept service of process against that corporation or, in the case...

  13. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on entry summary. 151.63 Section 151.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean...

  14. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 deg Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Prabu, Dinesh K.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Spilker, Thomas R.; Hwang, Helen H.; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and capsule diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30 is explored with a 3DOF trajectory code, TRAJ. Assuming that the thermal protection material of choice is carbon phenolic of flight heritage, the entry flight path angle space is constrained a posteriori by the mechanical and thermal performance parameters of the material. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load and 10 bar is assumed as the limit for heritage carbon-phenolic material. It is shown that both constraints cannot be active simultaneously. For thermal performance, a heat flux 2.5 kW/sq cm is utilized as a threshold below which the heritage carbon phenolic is considered mass inefficient. Using these constraints, viable entry flight path angle corridors are determined. Analysis of the results also hints at the existence of a range of "critical" ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of 10 bar. The results are verified against known performance of the various probes used in the Pioneer Venus mission. It is anticipated that the results presented here will serve as a baseline in the development of a new class of ablative materials for future Venus missions.

  15. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pragmatic evaluation of the Toyota Production System (TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses

    Lukasz Maciej Mazur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors occurring in hospitals are a growing national concern. These medication errors and their related costs (or wastes are seen as major factors leading to increased patient safety risks and increased waste in the hospital setting.  This article presents a study in which sixteen entry-level nurses utilized a Toyota Production System (TPS analysis procedure to solve medication delivery problems at one community hospital. The objective of this research was to study and evaluate the TPS analysis procedure for problem solving with entry-level nurses. Personal journals, focus group discussions, and a survey study were used to collect data about entry-level nurses’ perceptions of using the TPS problem solving approach to study medication delivery. A regression analysis was used to identify characteristics that enhance problem solving efforts. In addition, propositions for effective problem solving by entry-level nurses to aid in the reduction of medication errors in healthcare delivery settings are offered.

  17. Predictors of functional status at service entry and discharge among young people with first episode psychosis.

    Cotton, S M; Lambert, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Filia, K; Rayner, V; Hides, L; Foley, D L; Ratheesh, A; Watson, A; Rodger, P; McGorry, P D; Conus, P

    2017-05-01

    Most patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) are neither studying nor employed (have a poor functional status) when first accessing care. Knowledge of the characteristics of patients with poor functioning and the features influencing functional status over time may pave the way to better treatment. A medical file audit was used to collect data on premorbid, entry, treatment and 18-month outcome characteristics on 661 FEP patients who consecutively attended the Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centre, Melbourne, Australia, between 1998 and 2000. Functional status was ascertained using the modified vocational status index and was rated at baseline (poor or good) and according to its evolution over the treatment period (stable good, stable poor, deteriorating or improved functional status). 52.0% of patients had a poor functional status at service entry. They were more likely to be male with a non-affective psychosis. They also had lower levels of premorbid global functioning and education, and were more likely to have self-reported histories of learning disability, forensic issues, traumatic experiences and substance use. At service entry, they had more severe symptoms and poorer global functioning. 37% of these patients maintained a poor functional status at discharge, and 18% of those with a good functional status at service entry experienced a decline. Although psychosocial interventions might assist a young person with FEP with working towards functional goals, for some, the impact of factors such as ongoing substance use and forensic issues on functional status needs to be addressed.

  18. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2018-03-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  19. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  20. Analysis and Optimization of Entry Stability in Underground Longwall Mining

    Yubing Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For sustainable utilization of limited coal resources, it is important to increase the coal recovery rate and reduce mine accidents, especially those occurring in the entry (gateroad. Entry stabilities are vital for ventilation, transportation and other essential services in underground coal mining. In the present study, a finite difference model was built to investigate stress evolutions around the entry, and true triaxial tests were carried out at the laboratory to explore entry wall stabilities under different mining conditions. The modeling and experimental results indicated that a wide coal pillar was favorable for entry stabilities, but oversize pillars caused a serious waste of coal resources. As the width of the entry wall decreased, the integrated vertical stress, induced by two adjacent mining panels, coupled with each other and experienced an increase on the entry wall, which inevitably weakened the stability of the entry. Therefore, mining with coal pillars always involves a tradeoff between economy and safety. To address this problem, an innovative non-pillar mining technique by optimizing the entry surrounding structures was proposed. Numerical simulation showed that the deformation of the entry roof decreased by approximately 66% after adopting the new approach, compared with that using the conventional mining method. Field monitoring indicated that the stress condition of the entry was significantly improved and the average roof pressure decreased by appropriately 60.33% after adopting the new technique. This work provides an economical and effective approach to achieve sustainable exploitation of underground coal resources.

  1. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    John W. UPSON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  2. Hepatitis C virus utilizes VLDLR as a novel entry pathway.

    Ujino, Saneyuki; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2016-01-05

    Various host factors are involved in the cellular entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition to the factors previously reported, we discovered that the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) mediates HCV entry independent of CD81. Culturing Huh7.5 cells under hypoxic conditions significantly increased HCV entry as a result of the expression of VLDLR, which was not expressed under normoxic conditions in this cell line. Ectopic VLDLR expression conferred susceptibility to HCV entry of CD81-deficient Huh7.5 cells. Additionally, VLDLR-mediated HCV entry was not affected by the knockdown of cellular factors known to act as HCV receptors or HCV entry factors. Because VLDLR is expressed in primary human hepatocytes, our results suggest that VLDLR functions in vivo as an HCV receptor independent of canonical CD81-mediated HCV entry.

  3. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D. [National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D., E-mail: rudra@nio.org [School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s{sup −1}) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s{sup −1} and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s{sup −1} the changes in MgO, SiO{sub 2}, and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s{sup −1}, most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  4. ABLATION AND CHEMICAL ALTERATION OF COSMIC DUST PARTICLES DURING ENTRY INTO THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Most dust-sized cosmic particles undergo ablation and chemical alteration during atmospheric entry, which alters their original properties. A comprehensive understanding of this process is essential in order to decipher their pre-entry characteristics. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the process of vaporization of different elements for various entry parameters. The numerical results for particles of various sizes and various zenith angles are treated in order to understand the changes in chemical composition that the particles undergo as they enter the atmosphere. Particles with large sizes (> few hundred μ m) and high entry velocities (>16 km s −1 ) experience less time at peak temperatures compared to those that have lower velocities. Model calculations suggest that particles can survive with an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and zenith angles (ZA) of 30°–90°, which accounts for ∼66% of the region where particles retain their identities. Our results suggest that the changes in chemical composition of MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are not significant for an entry velocity of 11 km s −1 and sizes <300 μ m, but the changes in these compositions become significant beyond this size, where FeO is lost to a major extent. However, at 16 km s −1 the changes in MgO, SiO 2 , and FeO are very intense, which is also reflected in Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, and Al/Si ratios, even for particles with a size of 100 μ m. Beyond 400 μ m particle sizes at 16 km s −1 , most of the major elements are vaporized, leaving the refractory elements, Al and Ca, suspended in the troposphere.

  5. Aerothermodynamics of blunt body entry vehicles

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  6. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries

    Laskowski, Roman A.; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image‐based and include protein secondary structure, protein‐ligand and protein‐DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password‐protected PDBsum analyses for e...

  7. The Timing of Entry into New Markets

    Debra J. Aron

    1991-01-01

    Under what circumstances will a successful incumbent in a related market be the first to enter a new market? We present a model in which the order of entry into new markets has long run effects on the firms' profits. We assume that a firm that is successfully producing in a related market has valuable information about the demand in the new market. By his choice of location in product space in the new market the incumbent reveals information about the demand to the potential entrant. Thus, th...

  8. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries.

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M

    2018-01-01

    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbsum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  9. Business entry and window of opportunity

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    with a positive influence, namely having an entrepreneurial role model and having attended seminars about starting a business. In our model, these factors support waiting longer before starting a business. In light of these results, we call for a more experimental approach in entrepreneurship education.......This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  10. Air pressure distribution and radon entry processes in east Tennessee schools

    Sinclair, L.D.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Saultz, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Many building characteristics have been found to influence radon entry, including building size and configuration, substructure, location of utility supply lines, and design and operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. One of the most significant factors is room depressurization resulting from the HVAC system exhausting more than it supplies. This paper represents a preliminary assessment of HVAC characteristics and how they may relate to radon entry. During the summer of 1989, a limited survey was made of air pressure and radon levels in four schools in eastern Tennessee. Short-term samples of radon and pressure were made in all rooms in contact with the soil using alpha scintillation cells and an electronic microanometer, respectively. The pressure difference and radon concentration changes induced by operation of the building ventilation system varied among sites within individual schools

  11. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  12. Energy Data Base corporate author entries

    Hendricks, P.L.

    1984-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is one of three agencies funding the major portion of government-supported research. One of the ways to locate the results of this research is to find reports in the Energy Data Base (EDB), the comprehensive data base of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Technical Information Center, and in publications derived therefrom by referring to the corporate organization performing the research. This information field has been established as an index point retrievable in on-line searching and is included as an index in printed publications. To provide consistent citing of names in bibliographic entries, this authority has been created and maintained as a means of entry of corporate names into the EDB. To locate such information, one can (1) use the seven-digit code number assigned to the corporate entity of interest (enter, for example, IC=9506086) or (2) use one word at a time from the corporate name given (enter, for example, CS=Dominion)

  13. 75 FR 82241 - Technical Correction: Completion of Entry and Entry Summary-Declaration of Value

    2010-12-30

    ... Entry Summary-- Declaration of Value AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... manner by which the declared transaction value on imported merchandise was determined. This requirement... whether the transaction value of imported merchandise is determined on the basis of the price paid by the...

  14. The Entrepreneur's Mode of Entry: Business Takeover or New Venture Start?

    Simon C. Parker; C. Mirjam van Praag

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the decision to become an entrepreneur by either taking over an established business or starting a new venture from scratch. A model is developed which predicts how several individual- and firm-specific characteristics influence entrepreneurs' entry mode. The new venture creation mode is associated with higher levels of schooling and wealth, whereas managerial experience, new venture start-up capital requirements and risk promote the takeover mode. Entrepreneurs whose parents run a...

  15. Analytic Development of a Reference Profile for the First Entry in a Skip Atmospheric Entry

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that a feasible reference drag profile for the first entry portion of a skip entry can be generated as a polynomial expression of the velocity. The coefficients of that polynomial are found through the resolution of a system composed of m + 1 equations, where m is the degree of the drag polynomial. It has been shown that a minimum of five equations (m = 4) are required to establish the range and the initial and final conditions on velocity and flight path angle. It has been shown that at least one constraint on the trajectory can be imposed through the addition of one extra equation in the system, which must be accompanied by the increase in the degree of the drag polynomial. In order to simplify the resolution of the system of equations, the drag was considered as being a probability density function of the velocity, with the velocity as a distribution function of the drag. Combining this notion with the introduction of empirically derived constants, it has been shown that the system of equations required to generate the drag profile can be successfully reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. For completeness, the resulting drag profiles have been flown using the feedback linearization method of differential geometric control as a guidance law with the error dynamics of a second order homogeneous equation in the form of a damped oscillator. Satisfactory results were achieved when the gains in the error dynamics were changed at a certain point along the trajectory that is dependent on the velocity and the curvature of the drag as a function of the velocity. Future work should study the capacity to update the drag profile in flight when dispersions are introduced. Also, future studies should attempt to link the first entry, as presented and controlled in this note, with a more standard control concept for the second entry, such as the Apollo entry guidance, to try to assess the overall skip entry performance. A guidance law that includes

  16. An automated entry control system for nuclear facilities

    Ream, W.K.; Espinoza, J.

    1985-01-01

    An entry control system to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. The design uses a centrally located console, integrated into the regular security system, to monitor the computer-controlled passage into and out of sensitive areas. Four types of entry control points are used: an unmanned enclosed portal with metal and SNM detectors for contraband detection with positive personnel identification, a bypass portal for contraband search after a contraband alarm in a regular portal also with positive personnel identification, a single door entry point with positive personnel identification, and a single door entry point with only a magnetic card-type identification. Security force action is required only as a response to an alarm. The integration of the entry control function into the security system computer is also described. The interface between the entry control system and the monitoring security personnel utilizing a color graphics display with touch screen input is emphasized

  17. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  18. Cardiac re-entry dynamics and self-termination in DT-MRI based model of Human Foetal Heart

    Biktasheva, Irina V.; Anderson, Richard A.; Holden, Arun V.; Pervolaraki, Eleftheria; Wen, Fen Cai

    2018-02-01

    The effect of human foetal heart geometry and anisotropy on anatomy induced drift and self-termination of cardiac re-entry is studied here in MRI based 2D slice and 3D whole heart computer simulations. Isotropic and anisotropic models of 20 weeks of gestational age human foetal heart obtained from 100μm voxel diffusion tensor MRI data sets were used in the computer simulations. The fiber orientation angles of the heart were obtained from the orientation of the DT-MRI primary eigenvectors. In a spatially homogeneous electrophysiological monodomain model with the DT-MRI based heart geometries, cardiac re-entry was initiated at a prescribed location in a 2D slice, and in the 3D whole heart anatomy models. Excitation was described by simplified FitzHugh-Nagumo kinetics. In a slice of the heart, with propagation velocity twice as fast along the fibres than across the fibers, DT-MRI based fiber anisotropy changes the re-entry dynamics from pinned to an anatomical re-entry. In the 3D whole heart models, the fiber anisotropy changes cardiac re-entry dynamics from a persistent re-entry to the re-entry self-termination. The self-termination time depends on the re-entry’s initial position. In all the simulations with the DT-MRI based cardiac geometry, the anisotropy of the myocardial tissue shortens the time to re-entry self-termination several folds. The numerical simulations depend on the validity of the DT-MRI data set used. The ventricular wall showed the characteristic transmural rotation of the helix angle of the developed mammalian heart, while the fiber orientation in the atria was irregular.

  19. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice

    Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  20. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  1. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition

    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  2. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...... depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...

  3. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  4. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  5. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on methodological experiences obtained in an anthropologically inspired qualitative study among students of carpentry in Denmark. On the one hand the article deals with methodological issues of doing anthropological research among students of carpentry, while on the other...... it deals with the research findings that such a research design produced. As well as the methodological issues of researcher access, entry and participant position in the field, this article reports on the following questions: What kinds of implicit expectations of the students are embedded in the way...... the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  6. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... membrane, and soil gas enters the cylinder through a changeable interface in the bottom. The depressurisation of the cylinder is controlled by a mass-flow controller, thereby limiting the influence of natural driving forces. Pressures, temperatures and radon concentrations are measured continuously...... in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect...

  7. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test

    Kellas, Sotiris

    2017-01-01

    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  8. Two Bistable Switches Govern M Phase Entry.

    Mochida, Satoru; Rata, Scott; Hino, Hirotsugu; Nagai, Takeharu; Novák, Béla

    2016-12-19

    The abrupt and irreversible transition from interphase to M phase is essential to separate DNA replication from chromosome segregation. This transition requires the switch-like phosphorylation of hundreds of proteins by the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1):cyclin B (CycB) complex. Previous studies have ascribed these switch-like phosphorylations to the auto-activation of Cdk1:CycB through the removal of inhibitory phosphorylations on Cdk1-Tyr15 [1, 2]. The positive feedback in Cdk1 activation creates a bistable switch that makes mitotic commitment irreversible [2-4]. Here, we surprisingly find that Cdk1 auto-activation is dispensable for irreversible, switch-like mitotic entry due to a second mechanism, whereby Cdk1:CycB inhibits its counteracting phosphatase (PP2A:B55). We show that the PP2A:B55-inhibiting Greatwall (Gwl)-endosulfine (ENSA) pathway is both necessary and sufficient for switch-like phosphorylations of mitotic substrates. Using purified components of the Gwl-ENSA pathway in a reconstituted system, we found a sharp Cdk1 threshold for phosphorylation of a luminescent mitotic substrate. The Cdk1 threshold to induce mitotic phosphorylation is distinctly higher than the Cdk1 threshold required to maintain these phosphorylations-evidence for bistability. A combination of mathematical modeling and biochemical reconstitution show that the bistable behavior of the Gwl-ENSA pathway emerges from its mutual antagonism with PP2A:B55. Our results demonstrate that two interlinked bistable mechanisms provide a robust solution for irreversible and switch-like mitotic entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the early events in dengue virus cell entry by biochemical assays and single-virus tracking

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Rust, Michael J.; Waarts, Barry-Lee; van der Ende-Metselaarl, Heidi; Kuhn, Richard J.; Wilschut, Jan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Smit, Jolanda M.

    In this study, we investigated the cell entry characteristics of dengue virus (DENV) type 2 strain SI on mosquito, BHK-15, and BS-C-1 cells. The concentration of virus particles measured by biochemical assays was found to be substantially higher than the number of infectious particles determined by

  10. Characterization of the early events in dengue virus cell entry by biochemical assays and single-virus tracking

    van der Schaar, Hilde M.; Rust, Michael J.; Waarts, Barry-Lee; van der Ende-Metselaarl, Heidi; Kuhn, Richard J.; Wilschut, Jan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cell entry characteristics of dengue virus (DENV) type 2 strain SI on mosquito, BHK-15, and BS-C-1 cells. The concentration of virus particles measured by biochemical assays was found to be substantially higher than the number of infectious particles determined by

  11. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Marvin O. Bates

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  12. THE BANDWAGON EFFECT OF LEADERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES ON FOLLOWERS' ENTRY STRATEGIES

    Kaplan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  13. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  14. 36 CFR 228.54 - Single entry sales or permits.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Single entry sales or permits... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.54 Single entry sales or permits. The... plan which describes operating procedures and reclamation measures, unless the requirement is waived by...

  15. 9 CFR 93.220 - Inspection at port of entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Mexico 8 § 93.220 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All poultry offered for entry from Mexico, including such poultry intended for movement through...

  16. 9 CFR 93.426 - Inspection at port of entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.426 Inspection at port of entry. (a) All ruminants offered for entry from Mexico, including such ruminants intended for movement...

  17. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  18. 19 CFR 12.99 - Procedures for permitted entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for permitted entry. 12.99 Section 12.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.99 Procedures for permitted entry...

  19. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  20. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  1. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  2. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length,

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Submission of repair entries.

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY GENERAL AGENT'S RESPONSIBILITY IN CONNECTION WITH FOREIGN REPAIR CUSTOM'S ENTRIES Sec. 2 Submission of repair entries. At the... with the District Director of Customs as defined in 19 CFR 1.1(d) an affidavit on Custom's Form 3417...

  4. Investigation on Motorcyclist Riding Behaviour at Curve Entry Using Instrumented Motorcycle

    Yuen, Choon Wah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Saifizul, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the study on the changes in riding behaviour, such as changes in speed as well as the brake force and throttle force applied, when motorcyclists ride over a curve section road using an instrumented motorcycle. In this study, an instrumented motorcycle equipped with various types of sensors, on-board cameras, and data loggers, was developed in order to collect the riding data on the study site. Results from the statistical analysis showed that riding characteristics, such as changes in speed, brake force, and throttle force applied, are influenced by the distance from the curve entry, riding experience, and travel mileage of the riders. A structural equation modeling was used to study the impact of these variables on the change of riding behaviour in curve entry section. Four regression equations are formed to study the relationship between four dependent variables, which are speed, throttle force, front brake force, and rear brake force applied with the independent variables. PMID:24523660

  5. Analytical design of sensors for measuring during terminal phase of atmospheric temperature planetary entry

    Millard, J. P.; Green, M. J.; Sommer, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to develop a sensor for measuring the temperature of a planetary atmosphere from an entry vehicle traveling at supersonic speeds and having a detached shock. Such a sensor has been used in the Planetary Atmosphere Experiments Test Probe (PAET) mission and is planned for the Viking-Mars mission. The study specifically considered butt-welded thermocouple sensors stretched between two support posts; however, the factors considered are sufficiently general to apply to other sensors as well. This study included: (1) an investigation of the relation between sensor-measured temperature and free-stream conditions; (2) an evaluation of the effects of extraneous sources of heat; (3) the development of a computer program for evaluating sensor response during entry; and (4) a parametric study of sensor design characteristics.

  6. Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein

    Gary R. Whittaker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes—A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses.

  7. The entry of free radicals into polystyrene latex particles

    Adams, M.E.; Trau, M.; Gilbert, R.C.; Napper, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the processes governing the kinetics of emulsion polymerization has both scientific and technical interest. One component of this process that is poorly understood at present is that of free radical entry into latex particles. Measurements were made of the entry rate coefficient as a function of temperature for free radicals entering polystyrene latex particles in seeded emulsion polymerizations initiated by γ-rays. The activation energy for entry was found to be less than 24 ± 3 kJ mol -1 , consistent with entry being controlled by a physical (e.g. diffusional) rather than a chemical process. Measurement of the entry rate coefficient as a function of the γ-ray dose rate suggested that the factors that determine the entry rate when the primary free radicals are uncharged are similar to those that determine the entry rate for charged free radicals derived from chemical initiation by peroxydisulfate. This result was consistent with measurements of the entry rate coefficient of charged free radicals derived from peroxydisulfate; these data were found to be virtually independent of both the extent of the latex surface coverage by the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the ionic strength of the continuous phase. The data refute several proposals given in the literature for the rate-determining step for entry, being inconsistent with control by collision of free radicals with the latex particles, surfactant desorption, and an electrostatic barrier arising from the colloidal nature of the entering free radical. The origin of the activation energy for entry remains obscure

  8. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF

    1996-01-01

    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  9. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Peter J. Hume

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  10. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  11. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  12. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (Araecs)

    2014-06-01

    characteristics as fingerprint recognition. Both palm and finger biometrics are represented by the information presented in a friction ridge...105  3.  Conclusion ........................................................................................106  B.  BIOMETRICS ...Readiness Assessment Overview ......................109  2.  Biometric Modalities

  13. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  14. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Landing and Population Hazard Analysis for Stardust Entry in Operations and Entry Planning

    Tooley, Jeffrey; Desai, Prasun N.; Lynos, Daniel T.; Hirst, Edward A.; Wahl, Tom E.; Wawrzyniak, Georffery G.

    2006-01-01

    Stardust is a comet sample return mission that successfully returned to Earth on January 15, 2006. Stardust's targeted landing area was the Utah Test and Training Range in the Northwest corner of Utah. Requirements for the risks associated with landing were levied on Stardust by the Utah Test and Training Range and NASA. This paper describes the analysis to verify that these requirements were met and and includes calculation of debris survivability, generation of landing site selection plots, and identification of keep-out zones, as well as appropriate selection of the landing site. Operationally the risk requirements were all met for both of the GOMO-GO polls, so entry was authorized.

  16. Planetary entry, descent, and landing technologies

    Pichkhadze, K.; Vorontsov, V.; Polyakov, A.; Ivankov, A.; Taalas, P.; Pellinen, R.; Harri, A.-M.; Linkin, V.

    2003-04-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is intended for landing on the Martian surface in order to monitor the atmosphere at landing point for one Martian year. MMLs shall become the basic elements of a global network of meteorological mini-landers, observing the dynamics of changes of the atmospheric parameters on the Red Planet. The MML main scientific tasks are as follows: (1) Study of vertical structure of the Martian atmosphere throughout the MML descent; (2) On-surface meteorological observations for one Martian year. One of the essential factors influencing the lander's design is its entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequence. During Phase A of the MML development, five different options for the lander's design were carefully analyzed. All of these options ensure the accomplishment of the above-mentioned scientific tasks with high effectiveness. CONCEPT A (conventional approach): Two lander options (with a parachute system + airbag and an inflatable airbrake + airbag) were analyzed. They are similar in terms of fulfilling braking phases and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. CONCEPT B (innovative approach): Three lander options were analyzed. The distinguishing feature is the presence of inflatable braking units (IBU) in their configurations. SELECTED OPTION (innovative approach): Incorporating a unique design approach and modern technologies, the selected option of the lander represents a combination of the options analyzed in the framework of Concept B study. Currently, the selected lander option undergoes systems testing (Phase D1). Several MMLs can be delivered to Mars in frameworks of various missions as primary or piggybacking payload: (1) USA-led "Mars Scout" (2007); (2) France-led "NetLander" (2007/2009); (3) Russia-led "Mars-Deimos-Phobos sample return" (2007); (4) Independent mission (currently under preliminary study); etc.

  17. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  18. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  19. Development of the alternate entry port for the ATF

    Parsa, Z.

    1993-05-01

    We discussed a second entry port for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) injection system at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which consists of a photocathode rf gun and a straight - ahead beamline directly into the 50 MeV linac. The proposed second entry port should improve the beam quality and lower the emittance needed for FEL (Free Electron Laser), and laser - acceleration experiments. A discussion on the laser driven high brightness photoelectrons through the primary entry port (a low energy 180 degrees achromatic double bend transport line) now in operation, and a beam analysis for the proposed secondary port is also given

  20. Predictive Modeling for NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Missions

    Wright, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Modeling and Simulation (MS) is an enabling capability for complex NASA entry missions such as MSL and Orion. MS is used in every mission phase to define mission concepts, select appropriate architectures, design EDL systems, quantify margin and risk, ensure correct system operation, and analyze data returned from the entry. In an environment where it is impossible to fully test EDL concepts on the ground prior to use, accurate MS capability is required to extrapolate ground test results to expected flight performance.

  1. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  2. Formation Mechanisms for Entry and Exit Defects in Bobbin Friction Stir Welding

    Abbas Tamadon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bobbin friction stir welding (BFSW is an innovative variant for the solid state welding process whereby a rotating symmetrical tool causes a fully penetrated bond. Despite the process development, there are still unknown variables in the characterization of the process parameters which can cause uncontrolled weld defects. The entry zone and the exit zone consist of two discontinuity-defects and removing them is one of the current challenges for improving the weld quality. In the present research, the characteristic features of the entry and exit defects in the weld structure and formation mechanism of them during the BFSW processing was investigated. Using stacked layers of multi-colour plasticine the material flow, analogous to metal flow, can be visualised. By using different colours as the path markers of the analogue model, the streamline flow can be easily delineated in the discontinuity defects compared with the metal welds. AA6082-T6 aluminium plates and multi-layered plasticine slabs were employed to replicate the entry-exit defects in the metal weld and analogue samples. The fixed-bobbin tool utilized for this research was optimized by adding a thread feature and tri-flat geometry to the pin and closed-end spiral scrolls on both shoulder surfaces. Samples were processed at different rotating and longitudinal speeds to show the degree of dependency on the welding parameters for the defects. The analogue models showed that the entry zone and the exit zone of the BFSW are affected by the inhomogeneity of the material flow regime which causes the ejection or disruption of the plastic flow in the gap between the bobbin shoulders. The trial aluminium welds showed that the elimination of entry-exit defects in the weld body is not completely possible but the size of the defects can be minimized by modification of the welding parameters. For the entry zone, the flow pattern evolution suggested formation mechanisms for a sprayed tail, island zone

  3. Universal School Readiness Screening at Kindergarten Entry

    Quirk, Matthew; Dowdy, Erin; Dever, Bridget; Carnazzo, Katherine; Bolton, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    Researchers examined the concurrent and predictive validity of a brief (12-item) teacher-rated school readiness screener, the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to examine associations between (N = 78) children's social-emotional (SE) and cognitive (COG) readiness with…

  4. Predicting functional communication ability in children with cerebral palsy at school entry.

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn

    2015-03-01

    To explore the value of demographic, environmental, and early clinical characteristics in predicting functional communication in children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school entry. Data are from an Australian prospective longitudinal study of children with CP. Children assessed at 18 to 24 and 48 to 60 months corrected age were included in the study. Functional communication was classified at 48 to 60 months using the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS). Predictive variables included communication skills at 18 to 24 months, evaluated using the Communication and Symbolic Behavioural Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Early Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type and distribution were evaluated by two physiotherapists. Demographic and comorbid variables were obtained through parent interview with a paediatrician or rehabilitation specialist. A total of 114 children (76 males, 38 females) were included in the study. At 18 to 24 months the mean CSBS-DP was 84.9 (SD 19.0). The CFCS distribution at 48 to 60 months was I=36(32%), II=25(22%), III=20(18%), IV=19(17%), and V=14(12%). In multivariable regression analysis, only CSBS-DP (pcommunication at school entry. Body structure and function and not environmental factors impact functional communication at school entry in children with CP. This provides valuable guidance for early screening, parent education, and future planning of intervention programs to improve functional communication. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Labour market entries and exits of women from different origin countries in the UK.

    Khoudja, Yassine; Platt, Lucinda

    2018-01-01

    Labour force participation rates of women differ strongly by ethnic origin. Even though existing research using cross-sectional studies has demonstrated that part of these differences can be attributed to compositional differences in human capital, household conditions and gender attitudes, residual 'ethnic effects' typically remain. To further our understanding of women's labour market behaviour across ethnic groups, we use a large-scale longitudinal study and apply a dynamic perspective to examine how far relevant life-course events in addition to individual characteristics, gender attitudes and religiosity contribute to the explanation of ethnic differences in women's labour force entries and exits in the UK. Our findings show that, adjusting for all these factors, Indian and Caribbean women do not differ from White majority women in their labour force entry and exit probabilities but that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are less likely to enter and more likely to exit the labour market, whereas Black African women have higher entry rates. We also find that relations between life-course events and labour market transitions differ by ethnic group. Most notably, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women's labour market transitions are less sensitive to child-bearing and Caribbean women's transitions less sensitive to partnership changes than other women's. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  7. Overview of the Mars Sample Return Earth Entry Vehicle

    Dillman, Robert; Corliss, James

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Mars Sample Return (MSR) project will bring Mars surface and atmosphere samples back to Earth for detailed examination. Langley Research Center's MSR Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is a core part of the mission, protecting the sample container during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing. Planetary protection requirements demand a higher reliability from the EEV than for any previous planetary entry vehicle. An overview of the EEV design and preliminary analysis is presented, with a follow-on discussion of recommended future design trade studies to be performed over the next several years in support of an MSR launch in 2018 or 2020. Planned topics include vehicle size for impact protection of a range of sample container sizes, outer mold line changes to achieve surface sterilization during re-entry, micrometeoroid protection, aerodynamic stability, thermal protection, and structural materials selection.

  8. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone...

  9. Ordering the Senses in a Monolingual Dictionary Entry.

    Gold, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews issues to be considered in determining the order of meanings for a lexeme in a dictionary entry and compares techniques for deciding order. Types of ordering include importance, frequency, logical ordering, dominant meaning, syntactic, and historical. (MSE)

  10. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation

    Sklarin, Nancy T.; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of computerized provider order entry for complex chemotherapy regimens supported Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center's strategic plan to successfully establish a distributive, networked health care delivery system.

  11. 9 CFR 590.430 - Limitation on entry of material.

    2010-01-01

    ... conditions as he may prescribe to assure that allowing the entry of such articles will be consistent with the... inventory controls are maintained at all times. Inedible egg products may be processed in official plants...

  12. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  13. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  14. 19 CFR 141.19 - Declaration of entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... of consignee—(1) Authorized agent with knowledge of the facts. When entry is made in a consignee's name by an agent who has knowledge of the facts and who is authorized under a proper power of attorney...

  15. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  16. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  17. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ASTRODYNAMICS AND RE-ENTRY MECHANICS,

    A selected list of references in the fields of astronautics and re-entry mechanics is classified and discussed, and a comprehensive subject and author index is included for ease in locating the references. (Author)

  18. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  19. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program

    2012-02-06

    ...) of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), 118 Stat. 3638, as amended... major airport authority printed its own signs for Global Entry and strategically placed them throughout...

  20. Simulation of the ATV Re-Entry Obsrvations

    Bastida Virgili, B.; Krag, H.; Lips, T.; De Pasquale, E.

    2010-09-01

    The first ATV was launched on 9th March 2008 and, after a successful mission, the last phase was a controlled destructive re-entry on 29th September 2008, shortly after 13:30 UTC, in which the remains of the ATV and its load fell into the South Pacific Ocean. In order to better understand the re-entry processes, an insitu optical observation campaign was launched to record and analyze the ATV controlled re-entry with several instruments on board of two airplanes and also from the ISS. This observation campaign was successful and triggered several different still-ongoing studies on the extraction and analysis of data to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the re-entry break-up and explosion models used for the safety analysis of the ATV re-entry. This paper addresses the validation process for ESA’s model for re-entry survivability and on-ground risk assessment for explosive re-entry events using the observation data. The underlying rationale is to improve the models for the benefit of planning and execution of future controlled re-entries and in risk calculation in case of uncontrolled ones. The re-entry trajectory of the ATV, the explosive event and the trajectories of the fragments are simulated with the existing ESA tools and the EVOLVE explosion model. Additional software has been developed to simulate airborne sensor field of view(FOV) crossings based on the aircraft trajectories, attitude profile, sensor mounts and FOVs. Sensor performance and object radiation are modeled in order to generate synthetic images for the different sensors in the ISS and the two airplanes. These synthetic images and synthetic videos are compared with the available reentry observations of the ATV. This paper will present the software and techniques to generate synthetic imagery. It will give results of the comparison between the simulated and the real trajectories and fragmentation and explain the subsequent validation process of the ESA re-entry tools and the potential

  1. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  2. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    Ferri, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; Mäkinen, T.; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; Patel, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations.\\ud \\ud We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  3. Double Entry Bookkeeping and Kitab-us Siyakat

    Örten, Remzi; Kurt, Ganite; Torun, Salih

    2011-01-01

    It is known that accounting is applied since the existence of human being. When historical development of accounting is examined, recording methods may be summarized as single sided and double sided. The first method used in accounting is the single entry bookkeeping. According to this entry, not all of information related to financial events but important part of them are recorded in a single way. We can specify follow-up of receivable, payable, incomes and expenses as single sided recording...

  4. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  5. Multinationals’ mode of entry with presence of vertical spillovers

    Balsvik, Ragnhild

    2004-01-01

    Multinationals’ mode of foreign expansion may depend on whether or not they expect technological externalities or spillovers to generate new competition. Existing models where ex-post spillovers affect the ex-ante entry choice usually study the choice between exporting and FDI with horizontal spillovers. I consider a monopoly firm with a vertical production structure that has four possible modes of entry, one of which includes outsourcing of intermediate input production to a h...

  6. Response to Competitive Entry: A Rationale for Delayed Defensive Reaction

    Ajay Kalra; Surendra Rajiv; Kannan Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    Empirical studies examining responses to new product entries come to the puzzling conclusion that, in general, an incumbent reacts to a new entrant after a significant delay. Even easy-to-implement price cuts are observed after significant lag following entry. These findings seem to contradict the existing literature that either implicitly assumes or strongly advocates immediate defensive responses to limit competitive encroachment. When a competing firm enters the market, consumers may be un...

  7. Design features of an automated entry control system

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  8. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages

    Astrid KUNZE

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  9. Entry-Item-Quantity-ABC Analysis-Based Multitype Cigarette Fast Sorting System

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous items, small order, and frequent delivery are the characteristics of many distribution centers. Such characteristics generally increase the operating costs of the distribution center. To remedy this problem, this study employs the Entry-Item-Quantity (EIQ method to identify the characteristic of the cigarette distribution center and further analyzes the importance degree of customers and the frequently ordered products by means of EQ/EN/IQ-B/IK statistic charts. Based on these analyses as well as the total replenishment cost optimization model, multipicking strategies and combined multitype picking equipment allocation is then formulated accordingly. With such design scheme, the cigarette picking costs of the distribution center are expected to reduce. Finally, the specific number of equipment is figured out in order to meet the capability demand of the case cigarette distribution center.

  10. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Jessica Camara Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  11. Three-stage entry game: The strategic effects of advertising

    Kuzmanović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.

  12. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  13. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  14. Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) Science Mission

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Sokol, D.

    2016-12-01

    Northrop Grumman has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the lower atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Saturn's ocean moon, Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in-situ instruments to the surface of Titan. T-LEAF is a highly maneuverable sky rover and its aerodynamic shape (i.e., a flying wing) does not restrict it to following prevailing wind patterns on Titan, but allows mission operators to chart its course. This freedom of mobility allows T-LEAF to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations. We will present a straw man concept of T-LEAF, including size, mass, power, on-board science payloads and measurement, and surface science dropsonde deployment CONOPS. We will discuss the various science instruments and their vehicle level impacts, such as meteorological and electric field sensors, acoustic sensors for measuring shallow depths, multi-spectral imagers, high definition cameras and surface science dropsondes. The stability of T-LEAF and its long residence time on Titan will provide for time to perform a large aerial survey of select prime surface targets deployment of dropsondes at selected locations surface measurements that are coordinated with on-board remote measurements communication relay capabilities to orbiter (or Earth). In this context, we will specifically focus upon key factors impacting the design and performance of T-LEAF science: science payload accommodation, constraints and opportunities characteristics of flight, payload deployment and measurement CONOPS in the Titan atmosphere. This presentation will show how these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of Titan's surface.

  15. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  16. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma.

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks

    2013-01-01

    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  17. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  18. An analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training using supply chain and operations management

    Alfonso, Steven; Oh, Dingjin; Younger, Larry M.

    2010-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Enlisted Entry-Level Training (EELT) pipeline is a complex network that is of vital importance to the U.S. Marine Corps' ability to maintain a balanced force and serve as the nation's force in readiness. This report provides an all-inclusive description of the EELT pipeline by identifying the fundamental steps in the supply chain, analyzing the supply chain's critical characteristics, and providing in...

  19. Advanced entry guidance algorithm with landing footprint computation

    Leavitt, James Aaron

    The design and performance evaluation of an entry guidance algorithm for future space transportation vehicles is presented. The algorithm performs two functions: on-board trajectory planning and trajectory tracking. The planned longitudinal path is followed by tracking drag acceleration, as is done by the Space Shuttle entry guidance. Unlike the Shuttle entry guidance, lateral path curvature is also planned and followed. A new trajectory planning function for the guidance algorithm is developed that is suitable for suborbital entry and that significantly enhances the overall performance of the algorithm for both orbital and suborbital entry. In comparison with the previous trajectory planner, the new planner produces trajectories that are easier to track, especially near the upper and lower drag boundaries and for suborbital entry. The new planner accomplishes this by matching the vehicle's initial flight path angle and bank angle, and by enforcing the full three-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with control derivative limits. Insights gained from trajectory optimization results contribute to the design of the new planner, giving it near-optimal downrange and crossrange capabilities. Planned trajectories and guidance simulation results are presented that demonstrate the improved performance. Based on the new planner, a method is developed for approximating the landing footprint for entry vehicles in near real-time, as would be needed for an on-board flight management system. The boundary of the footprint is constructed from the endpoints of extreme downrange and crossrange trajectories generated by the new trajectory planner. The footprint algorithm inherently possesses many of the qualities of the new planner, including quick execution, the ability to accurately approximate the vehicle's glide capabilities, and applicability to a wide range of entry conditions. Footprints can be generated for orbital and suborbital entry conditions using a pre

  20. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  1. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  2. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  3. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  4. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry.

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent

    2010-12-01

    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  5. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  6. Recording animal vocalizations from a UAV: bat echolocation during roost re-entry.

    Kloepper, Laura N; Kinniry, Morgan

    2018-05-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are rising in popularity for wildlife monitoring, but direct recordings of animal vocalizations have not yet been accomplished, likely due to the noise generated by the UAV. Echolocating bats, especially Tadarida brasiliensis, are good candidates for UAV recording due to their high-speed, high-altitude flight. Here, we use a UAV to record the signals of bats during morning roost re-entry. We designed a UAV to block the noise of the propellers from the receiving microphone, and report on the characteristics of bioacoustic recordings from a UAV. We report the first published characteristics of echolocation signals from bats during group flight and cave re-entry. We found changes in inter-individual time-frequency shape, suggesting that bats may use differences in call design when sensing in complex groups. Furthermore, our first documented successful recordings of animals in their natural habitat demonstrate that UAVs can be important tools for bioacoustic monitoring, and we discuss the ethical considerations for such monitoring.

  7. Method for the determination of the radon entry rate inside buildings; Methodik zur Bestimmung der Radonquellstaerke in Gebaeuden

    Neugebauer, T.; Hingmann, H.; Buermeyer, J.; Grimm, V.; Spruck, K.; Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS)

    2016-07-01

    The radon entry rate describes the radon characteristics of a building, which are defined by its constructional condition (tightness of building envelope) and the geological realities (radon soil gas concentration). All possible radon sources of a building are considered. The determination of the radon entry rate is based on the measurement of the radon concentration inside a building and the determination of the air change rate. The air change rate can be calculated via several approaches, VDI 4300-7 provides the most common methods. The main approaches are based on the use of a tracer gas, which concentration is measured over the time. In a first attempt, a one-time and punctual injection of a tracer gas was used. A disadvantage was that the air change rate could be determined only for short periods. In the follow-up, the constant injection of a tracer gas at multiple spots was executed. With this method, it is possible to calculate the air change rate over several weeks on a continuous base; the data can be used to determine the radon entry rate. Based on those series of measurements a first analysis of possible dependencies of the radon entry rate was performed.

  8. Analysis of Ventilation Regimes of the Oblique Wedge-Shaped Surface Piercing Hydrofoil During Initial Water Entry Process

    Ghadimi Parviz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The suction side of a surface piercing hydrofoil, as a section of a Surface Piercing Propeller (SPP, is usually exposed to three phases of flow consisting air, water, and vapour. Hence, ventilation and cavitation pattern of such section during the initial phase of water entry plays an essential role for the propeller’s operational curves. Accordingly, in the current paper a numerical simulation of a simple surface piercing hydrofoil in the form of an oblique wedge is conducted in three-phase environment by using the coupled URANS and VOF equations. The obtained results are validated against water entry experiments and super-cavitation tunnel test data. The resulting pressure curves and free surface profiles of the wedge water entry are presented for different velocity ratios ranging from 0.12 to 0.64. Non-dimensional forces and efficiency relations are defined in order to present the wedge water entry characteristics. Congruent patterns are observed between the performance curves of the propeller and the wedge in different fully ventilated or partially cavitated operation modes. The transition trend from fully ventilated to partially cavitated operation of the surface piercing section of a SPP is studied and analyzed through wedge’s performance during the transitional period.

  9. Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes.

    Mohammad F Saeed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV, a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus, poses serious public health, ecological and potential bioterrorism threats. Currently no specific therapy or vaccine is available. Virus entry is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, current knowledge of the ZEBOV entry mechanism is limited. While it is known that ZEBOV enters cells through endocytosis, which of the cellular endocytic mechanisms used remains unclear. Previous studies have produced differing outcomes, indicating potential involvement of multiple routes but many of these studies were performed using noninfectious surrogate systems such as pseudotyped retroviral particles, which may not accurately recapitulate the entry characteristics of the morphologically distinct wild type virus. Here we used replication-competent infectious ZEBOV as well as morphologically similar virus-like particles in specific infection and entry assays to demonstrate that in HEK293T and Vero cells internalization of ZEBOV is independent of clathrin, caveolae, and dynamin. Instead the uptake mechanism has features of macropinocytosis. The binding of virus to cells appears to directly stimulate fluid phase uptake as well as localized actin polymerization. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis including Pak1 and CtBP/BARS as well as treatment with the drug EIPA, which affects macropinosome formation, resulted in significant reduction in ZEBOV entry and infection. It is also shown that following internalization, the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane fusion and nucleocapsid penetration in the cytoplasm remains unclear. This study identifies the route for ZEBOV entry and identifies the key cellular factors required for the uptake of this filamentous virus. The findings greatly expand our understanding of the ZEBOV entry mechanism that can be applied to development of new

  10. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    Takashima, Ryuta [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: takashima@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Goto, Makoto [Department of Industrial and Management Systems Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1188 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown.

  11. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    Takashima, Ryuta; Goto, Makoto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  12. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  13. Soil and gas and radon entry potentials for substructure surfaces

    Harrison, J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurement techniques and parameters that describe the potential for areas of a building substructure to have high soil gas and radon entry rates which have been developed. Flows and pressures measured at test holes in substructure surfaces while the substructure was intentionally depressurized were used in a highly simplified electrical circuit to model the substructure/soil network. Data from four New Jersey houses indicate that the soil was a factor of two to six times more resistant to soil gas flow than substructure surfaces, concrete slab floors, including perimeter gaps, cracks, and other penetrations, were approximately five times more resistant to soil gas movement than hollow block walls, and radon entry potentials were highest for slab floors. These indices of entry potential may be useful for characterizing the relative leakiness of below-grade substructure surfaces and for determining the selection and placement of radon control systems

  14. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  15. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Tai-shan Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  16. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    results suggest that different exit modes can be predicted by business owners’ entry route. Furthermore, different exit modes exhibit different duration dependence patterns according to the entry mode. Additionally, the paper shows that businesses started after a displacement episode are not necessarily......This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...

  17. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  18. Newcomer innovation during entry in a changing organization

    Revsbæk, Line

    ” of the organizational culture. Although acknowledging that organizational socialization is about continuity and change in the employing organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1979), and realizing that the entry of newcomers holds the potential for innovation to the employing organization (Feldman, 2012), the discourse...... values and beliefs” (Feldman, 2012:215). Thus, the “workgroup”, “work processes”, “patterns of social interaction” and “core values” are considered stable units of analysis, which entries of organizational newcomers might affect. This gives rise to a dichotomy of newcomer assimilation versus...... organizational accommodation to organize much of the research on organizational socialization and innovation. The case study presented in this paper investigates organizational entry in a changing organization raising the question of how to understand organizational socialization and newcomer innovation when...

  19. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014.

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  20. Entry of soil gas and radon into houses

    Andersen, C.E.

    1992-04-01

    Entry of soil gas and radon into houses has been investigated by experiments conducted at radon test structures and numerical or analytical modelling. The numerical model solves the steady-state equations for Darcy flow of soil-gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. Model calculations were compared with results from field experiments conducted at Risoe National Laboratory, and it was found that there was good agreement between measured and modelled pressure coupling and radon concentration profiles. Discrepancies regarding absolute values of soil-gas entry rates and radon concentrations were observed. The numerical model has been used to study the importance of soil and building related factors on radon entry rates into slab-on-grade houses. It was found that, for a house with a 3 mm perimeter crack along the floor-wall joint, the entry was mainly determined by the soil permeability and building related factors such as house depressurization and presence of a capillary breaking layer of gravel below the slab. In a house with a bare soil floor, the diffusivity of the soil was found to be of principal importance for the entry rate even for moderate permeabilities. An analytical model was developed for the purpose of studying soil-gas entry rates into houses in response to non-static driving forces. It is based on the analogy between a 'buried drain' and a basement house with a perimeter crack. The structure was depressurized sinusoidally in time and the frequency dependent pressure couplings were measured. There was fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. (LN) (26 tabs., 30 ills., 66 refs.)

  1. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring.

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M

    2016-12-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  2. Technology Investments in the NASA Entry Systems Modeling Project

    Barnhardt, Michael; Wright, Michael; Hughes, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) technology development project, initiated in 2012 under NASAs Game Changing Development (GCD) Program, is engaged in maturation of fundamental research developing aerosciences, materials, and integrated systems products for entry, descent, and landing(EDL)technologies [1]. To date, the ESM project has published over 200 papers in these areas, comprising the bulk of NASAs research program for EDL modeling. This presentation will provide an overview of the projects successes and challenges, and an assessment of future investments in EDL modeling and simulation relevant to NASAs mission

  3. Electronic Chemotherapy Order Entry: A Major Cancer Center's Implementation.

    Sklarin, Nancy T; Granovsky, Svetlana; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2011-07-01

    Implementation of a computerized provider order entry system for complex chemotherapy regimens at a large cancer center required intense effort from a multidisciplinary team of clinical and systems experts with experience in all facets of the chemotherapy process. The online tools had to resemble the paper forms used at the time and parallel the successful established process as well as add new functionality. Close collaboration between the institution and the vendor was necessary. This article summarizes the institutional efforts, challenges, and collaborative processes that facilitated universal chemotherapy computerized electronic order entry across multiple sites during a period of several years.

  4. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 1 Report

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Komar, David R.; Munk, Michelle M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Kinney, David J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to make in order to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. This paper summarizes the motivation, approach and top-level results from Year 1 of the study, which focused on landing 10-50 mt on Mars, but also included a trade study of the best advanced parachute design for increasing the landed payloads within the EDL architecture of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission

  5. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  6. The Secret of Guided Missile Re-Entry,

    1986-06-25

    I RD-PAI169 598 THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY(U) FOREIGN / I TECHNOLOGY DIV NRIGHT-PATTERSON RFB OH J CHEN ET AL. I 25 JUN 96 FTD-ID(RS)T...TECHNOLOGY DIVISION THE SECRET OF GUIDED MISSILE RE-ENTRY by Chen Jingzhong, An Sehua J L 0 7 ’:;85’ ’ 0 *Approved for public release; Distribution...unlimite t d. :. 86 7 034.. FTD- ID(RS)T-0459-86 HUMAN TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-0459-86 25 June 1986 MICROFICHE NR: F - - 0Q 9? THE SECRET OF GUIDED

  7. A Systematic Assessment of Empirical Research on Foreign Entry Mode

    Wulff, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of dimensions. Findings Findings question the frequent use of commonly used measures (e.g. advertising intensity) and control variables (e.g. firm size) and suggest that statements about the importance of mode choice for subsidiary performance may be premature. Methodologically, this study identifies critical...... issues with regard to interpretation of interactions and the entry mode choice set. Research limitations/implications This study limits itself to study the direction of relationships and does not analyze effect sizes. Further, future research may benefit from broadening the entry mode choice by extending...

  8. Predicting Performance in Art College: How Useful Are the Entry Portfolio and Other Variables in Explaining Variance in First Year Marks?

    O'Donoghue, Donal

    2009-01-01

    This article examines if and to what extent a set of pre-enrolment variables and background characteristics predict first year performance in art college. The article comes from a four-year longitudinal study that followed a cohort of tertiary art entrants in Ireland from their time of entry in 2002 to their time of exit in 2006 (or before, for…

  9. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    Munro Don

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM to a shortened (4-year course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether this could be beneficial. Methods We studied: a 217 and 96 applicants to the Nottingham 5- and 4-year courses respectively, applying in the 2002-3 UCAS cycle, and, b 246 school leavers starting the 5-year course and 39 graduate entrants to the 4-year course in October 2003. The psychological profiles of the two groups of applicants and two groups of entrants were compared using their performance in the Goldberg 'Big 5' Personality test, the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA; measuring interpersonal traits and interpersonal values, and the Lovibond and Lovibond measure of depression, anxiety and stress. For the comparison of the Entrants we excluded the 33 school leavers and seven graduates who took the tests as Applicants. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results Graduate applicants compared to school leaver applicants were significantly more conscientious, more confident, more self controlled, more communitarian in moral orientation and less anxious. Only one of these differences was preserved in the entrants with graduates being less anxious. However, the graduate entrants were significantly less empathetic and conscientious than the school leavers. Conclusion This study has shown that school leaver and graduate entrants to medical school differ in some psychological characteristics. However, if confirmed in other studies and if they were manifest in the extreme, not all the traits brought by graduates would be

  10. Essays on empirical industrial organization : Entry and innovation

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  11. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  12. 7 CFR 319.8-26 - Material refused entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714 and 7731). Neither the Department of Agriculture nor the inspector... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material refused entry. 319.8-26 Section 319.8-26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  13. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  14. Predictors of Student Success in Entry-Level Science Courses

    Singh, Mamta K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and…

  15. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    Cho, In-Koo; Kim, Hyunsook

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  16. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    George Maksimovich Noseevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  17. On Double-Entry Bookkeeping: The Mathematical Treatment

    Ellerman, David

    2014-01-01

    Double-entry bookkeeping (DEB) implicitly uses a specific mathematical construction, the group of differences using pairs of unsigned numbers ("T-accounts"). That construction was only formulated abstractly in mathematics in the nineteenth century, even though DEB had been used in the business world for over five centuries. Yet the…

  18. 30 CFR 840.12 - Right of entry.

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... of entry. (a) Within its jurisdiction, the State regulatory authority shall have authority that... mining and reclamation operation without advance notice upon presentation of appropriate credentials. No...

  19. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  20. Recent Health Care Use and Medicaid Entry of Medicare Beneficiaries.

    Keohane, Laura M; Trivedi, Amal N; Mor, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between Medicaid entry and recent health care use among Medicare beneficiaries. We identified Medicare beneficiaries without full Medicaid or use of hospital or nursing home services in 2008 (N = 2,163,387). A discrete survival analysis estimated beneficiaries' monthly likelihood of entry into the full Medicaid program between January 2009 and June 2010. During the 18-month study period, Medicaid entry occurred for 1.1% and 3.7% of beneficiaries who aged into Medicare or originally qualified for Medicare due to disability, respectively. Among beneficiaries who aged into Medicare, 49% of new Medicaid participants had no use of inpatient, skilled nursing facility, or nursing home services during the study period. Individuals who recently used inpatient, skilled nursing facility or nursing home services had monthly rates of 1.9, 14.0, and 38.1 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries, respectively, compared with 0.4 new Medicaid participants per 1,000 beneficiaries with no recent use of these services. Although recent health care use predicted greater likelihood of Medicaid entry, half of new Medicaid participants used no hospital or nursing home care during the study period. These patterns should be considered when designing and evaluating interventions to reform health care delivery for dual-eligible beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  2. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Competition and entry in banking: implications for capital regulation

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2006-01-01

    We assess how capital regulation interacts with the degree of competitiveness of the banking industry. We particularly ask two questions: i) how does capital regulation affect (endogenous) entry; and ii) how do (exogenous) changes in the competitive environment affect bank monitoring choices and the

  4. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    Mol, J.; Chiu, M.M.; Wijnberg, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215

  5. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... negotiations are subject to significant stakeholder interference. (For more information, please contact: Kristian Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark: kj.int@cbs.dk)...

  6. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  7. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  8. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  9. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.0 Book-entry systems. (a) Treasury... securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or... securities are held directly by the Department of the Treasury in accounts maintained in the investor's name...

  10. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.

    2016-01-01

    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  11. 45 CFR 670.34 - Entry and exit ports.

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Import Into and Export From the United States § 670.34 Entry and exit ports. (a) Any native mammal, native bird, or native plants taken within Antarctica that are imported into or... Orleans, Louisiana. (7) New York, New York. (8) Seattle, Washington. (9) Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. (10...

  12. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  13. Infectious Entry and Neutralization of Pathogenic JC Polyomaviruses

    Eileen M. Geoghegan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a lethal brain disease caused by uncontrolled replication of JC polyomavirus (JCV. JCV strains recovered from the brains of PML patients carry mutations that prevent the engagement of sialylated glycans, which are thought to serve as receptors for the infectious entry of wild-type JCV. In this report, we show that non-sialylated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs can serve as alternative attachment receptors for the infectious entry of both wild-type and PML mutant JCV strains. After GAG-mediated attachment, PML mutant strains engage non-sialylated non-GAG co-receptor glycans, such as asialo-GM1. JCV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients who recovered from PML appear to block infection by preventing the docking of post-attachment co-receptor glycans in an apical pocket of the JCV major capsid protein. Identification of the GAG-dependent/sialylated glycan-independent alternative entry pathway should facilitate the development of infection inhibitors, including recombinant neutralizing antibodies. : Geoghegan et al. show that JC polyomavirus strains that cause brain disease infect cells via a pathway involving a heparin-like attachment receptor and a non-sialylated co-receptor. Candidate therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies neutralize by blocking co-receptor engagement. Keywords: polyomavirus, JC, BK, SV40, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, monoclonal antibody, mAb, virus entry, receptor

  14. Studies on endogenous circulating calcium entry blocker and stimulator

    Pang, P.K.T.; Yang, M.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several synthetic compounds have been studied extensively for their calcium entry blockade and stimulation in smooth muscles. It is hypothesized that there should be endogenous substances which control calcium entry into cells. We recently investigated the effect of some vasoactive hormones on calcium entry. Our studies on rat tail artery helical strip showed that the in vitro vasoconstriction produced by arginine vasopressin (AVP) decreased stepwise with decreasing concentration of both calcium. After exposure of the tail artery to calcium-free Ringer's solution for 1 minute or longer, the tissue lost its ability to respond to AVP. Subsequent addition of calcium to the medium produced immediate contraction. Measurements of low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium with 45 Ca showed that AVP increased calcium uptake by tail artery in a dose-dependent manner. In another study rat tail artery helical strip indicated that the vasorelaxing action of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was related to an inhibition of calcium uptake. AVP or 60 mM potassium chloride increased the low affinity lanthanum resistant pool of calcium in rate tail artery and PTH inhibited the increase. In conclusion, AVP and PTH may behave like endogenous calcium entry stimulator and inhibitor respectively in vascular tissues

  15. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  16. Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process

    Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…

  17. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  18. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  19. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  20. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  1. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  2. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Scolan Yves-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  3. Crown sealing and buckling instability during water entry of spheres

    Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Speirs, N. B.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2016-01-01

    . Furthermore, a comparison between the entry of room-temperature spheres, where the contact line pins around the equator, and Leidenfrost spheres (i.e. an immersed superheated sphere encompassed by a vapour layer), where there is no contact line, indicates

  4. Instrument Formatting with Computer Data Entry in Mind.

    Boser, Judith A.; And Others

    Different formats for four types of research items were studied for ease of computer data entry. The types were: (1) numeric response items; (2) individual multiple choice items; (3) multiple choice items with the same response items; and (4) card column indicator placement. Each of the 13 experienced staff members of a major university's Data…

  5. Rapid screening for entry inhibitors of highly pathogenic viruses under low-level biocontainment.

    Aparna Talekar

    Full Text Available Emerging viruses including Nipah, Hendra, Lujo, and Junin viruses have enormous potential to spread rapidly. Nipah virus, after emerging as a zoonosis, has also evolved the capacity for human-to-human transmission. Most of the diseases caused by these pathogens are untreatable and require high biocontainment conditions. Universal methods for rapidly identifying and screening candidate antivirals are urgently needed. We have developed a modular antiviral platform strategy that relies on simple bioinformatic and genetic information about each pathogen. Central to this platform is the use of envelope glycoprotein cDNAs to establish multi-cycle replication systems under BSL2 conditions for viral pathogens that normally require BSL3 and BSL4 facilities. We generated monoclonal antibodies against Nipah G by cDNA immunization in rats, and we showed that these antibodies neutralize both Nipah and Hendra live viruses. We then used these effective Henipavirus inhibitors to validate our screening strategy. Our proposed strategy should contribute to the response capability for emerging infectious diseases, providing a way to initiate antiviral development immediately upon identifying novel viruses.

  6. Numerical study of water entry supercavitating flow around a vertical circular cylinder influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    Jiang, C X; Cheng, J P; Li, F C

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a numerical simulation procedure to simulate water-entry problems influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives in a viscous incompressible medium. Firstly we performed a numerical investigation on water-entry supercavities in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at the impact velocity of 28.4 m/s to confirm the accuracy of the numerical method. Based on the verification, projectile entering water and turbulent drag-reducing solution at relatively high velocity of 142.7 m/s (phase transition is considered) is simulated. The cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the shear-thinning characteristic of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The configuration and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavity, flow resistance were discussed respectively. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical results show that the supercavity length in drag-reducing solution is larger than one in water and the velocity attenuates faster at high velocity than at low velocity; the influence of drag-reducing solution is more obvious at high impact velocity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the great potential for enhancement of supercavity

  7. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.

  8. MOTIVATING FACTORS AND THE MODES OF ENTRY IN OTHER MARKETS

    Jusuf ZEKIRI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  9. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.208... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and....208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist--Revised Manual [and] Helpful Entry Level Skill Checklist--Revised Edition.

    Child Development Centers of the Bluegrass, Lexington, KY.

    The Helpful Entry Level Skills Checklist was designed to assist preschool teachers in selecting functional skills that children (including children with disabilities) may need to make a successful transition into the public schools. These skills, for the most part, deal with attending, compliance, ability to follow directions, turn taking, ability…

  11. Analysis of a conserved RGE/RGD motif in HCV E2 in mediating entry

    Rong Lijun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV encodes two transmembrane glycoproteins E1 and E2 which form a heterodimer. E1 is believed to mediate fusion while E2 has been shown to bind cellular receptors. It is clear that HCV uses a multi-receptor complex to gain entry into susceptible cells, however key elements of this complex remain elusive. In this study, the role of a highly conserved RGE/RGD motif of HCV E2 glycoprotein in viral entry was examined. The effect of each substitution mutation in this motif was tested by challenging susceptible cell lines with mutant HCV E1E2 pseudotyped viruses generated using a lentiviral system (HCVpp. In addition to assaying infectivity, producer cell expression and HCVpp incorporation of HCV E2 proteins, CD81 binding profiles, and conformation of mutants were examined. Results Based on these characteristics, mutants either displayed wt characteristics (high infectivity [≥ 90% of wt HCVpp], CD81 binding, E1E2 expression, and incorporation into viral particles and proper conformation or very low infectivity (≤ 20% of wt HCVpp. Only amino acid substitutions of the 3rd position (D or E resulted in wt characteristics as long as the negative charge was maintained or a neutral alanine was introduced. A change in charge to a positive lysine, disrupted HCVpp infectivity at this position. Conclusion Although most amino acid substitutions within this conserved motif displayed greatly reduced HCVpp infectivity, they retained soluble CD81 binding, proper E2 conformation, and incorporation into HCVpp. Our results suggest that although RGE/D is a well-defined integrin binding motif, in this case the role of these three hyperconserved amino acids does not appear to be integrin binding. As the extent of conservation of this region extends well beyond these three amino acids, we speculate that this region may play an important role in the structure of HCV E2 or in mediating the interaction with other factor(s during

  12. Is graduate entry education a solution to increasing numbers of men in nursing?

    McKenna, Lisa; Vanderheide, Rebecca; Brooks, Ingrid

    2016-03-01

    Males have traditionally constituted a very small proportion of the nursing workforce in many countries, including Australia. Together with a need to address the gender imbalance, nursing workforce shortages require strategies for recruiting new nurses, including males. This study examined characteristics of males entering one accelerated graduate entry masters pre-registration nursing program in Victoria, Australia. A quantitative survey gathered a variety of demographic data and factors relating to participants' decisions to undertake nursing. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics including frequencies and distributions. Forty-three male nursing students from four cohorts of the Master of Nursing Practice (MNP) course from 2009 to 2011 completed the survey. The proportion of males (30%) was considerably greater than traditional nursing courses and the profession generally. Participants demonstrated wide distributions in age ranges, professional backgrounds and previous years in the workforce. Graduate entry appears attractive to males of varying ages, personal and professional backgrounds. More research is needed to examine this phenomenon on a larger scale. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Demographic attributes and knowledge acquisition among graduate-entry medical students.

    Finucane, Paul; Flannery, Denise; McGrath, Deirdre; Saunders, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes to undergraduate (basic) medical education in Ireland have linked an expansion of student numbers with wide-ranging reforms. Medical schools have broadened access by admitting more mature students from diverse backgrounds and have increased their international student numbers. This has resulted in major changes to the demographic profile of students at Irish medical schools. To determine whether the demographic characteristics of students impact on their academic performance and specifically on their rate of knowledge acquisition. As a formative assessment exercise, we administered a progress test to all students twice each year during a 4 year graduate-entry medical programme. We compared scores over time between students from different age cohorts, of different gender, of different nationalities and from different academic backgrounds. In the 1143 tests taken by 285 students to date, there were no significant differences in the rate of knowledge acquisition between the various groups. Early in the course, students from a non-biological science background performed less well than others but outperformed their peers by the time of graduation. Neither age, gender, nationality nor academic background impacts on the rate of knowledge acquisition among graduate-entry medical students.

  14. Motivations for entry into sex work and HIV risk among mobile female sex workers in India.

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Verma, Ravi K; Halli, Shiva S; Swain, Suvakanta N; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Ramarao, Saumya; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Jain, Anrudh K

    2011-09-01

    This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007-2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Entry Supercavity Influenced by Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Chen-Xing Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The configurational and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were studied through supercavitating projectile approach, experimentally and numerically. The projectile was projected vertically into water and aqueous solution of CTAC with weight concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, respectively, using a pneumatic nail gun. The trajectories of the projectile and the supercavity configuration were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Besides, water entry supercavities in water and CTAC solution were numerically simulated based on unsteady RANS scheme, together with application of VOF multiphase model. The Cross viscosity model was adopted to represent the fluid property of CTAC solution. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical and experimental results all show that the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient is smaller than that in water; the maintaining time of supercavity is longer in solution as well. The surface tension plays an important role in maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation and drag reduction.

  16. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  17. Financial Inclusion, Entry Barriers, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China

    Zhaobin Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the relationship between financial inclusion and the formation of entrepreneurs, both theoretically and empirically. We first construct a theoretical model to examine how the development of financial inclusion affects the formation of entrepreneurs. The model suggests that the development of financial inclusion can mitigate credit constraints on entrepreneurial activities by reducing information asymmetry in financial transactions, and in addition this effect is greater in industries with lower barriers to entry. Then, using data from 31 provinces and 19 industries in China during the period 2005–2014, we test the impact of financial inclusion on the formation of entrepreneurs. The estimation results confirm the positive effect of financial inclusion development on the formation of entrepreneurs, and indicate that this effect is heterogeneous across industries. Moreover, the development of financial inclusion is often beneficial to the formations of entrepreneurs in sectors with lower entry barriers.

  18. Radio/FADS/IMU integrated navigation for Mars entry

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Huang, Xiangyu

    2018-03-01

    Supposing future orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission as the potential project background, this paper addresses the issue of Mars entry integrated navigation using radio beacon, flush air data sensing system (FADS), and inertial measurement unit (IMU). The range and Doppler information sensed from an orbiting radio beacon, the dynamic pressure and heating data sensed from flush air data sensing system, and acceleration and attitude angular rate outputs from an inertial measurement unit are integrated in an unscented Kalman filter to perform state estimation and suppress the system and measurement noise. Computer simulations show that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can enhance the navigation accuracy, which enables precise entry guidance for the given Mars orbiting and landing collaborative exploration mission.

  19. Targeted steam injection using horizontal wells with limited entry perforations

    Boone, T. J.; Youck, D. G.; Sun, S. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    An experimental horizontal well using limited-entry perforations as a method for distributing steam to different zones was used to replace ten vertical injection wells. The well was located between rows of vertical wells in a reservoir that has been subjected to more than ten years of operation under cyclic steam stimulation. The limited-entry perforations enabled steam to be targeted at the cold regions of the reservoir. This paper presents an assessment of the well based on theoretical calculations, measured injection pressures and rates and 3-D seismic imaging. All the data collected during the experiment support the conclusion that effective steam distribution along the well has been achieved. It was also concluded that this technology has significant potential for SAGD applications as a mechanism for achieving improved steam distribution at a much reduced cost. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Data entry system for INIS input using a personal computer

    Ishikawa, Masashi

    1990-01-01

    Input preparation for the INIS (International Nuclear Information System) has been performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1970. Instead of the input data preparation done by worksheets make out with the typewriters, new method with which data can be directly inputted into a diskette using personal computers is introduced. According to the popularization of personal computers and word processors, this system is easily applied to other system, so the outline and the future development on it are described. A shortcoming of this system is that spell-checking and data entry using authority files are hardly performed because of the limitation of hardware resources, and that data code conversion is needed because applied code systems between personal computer and main frame computer are quite different from each other. On the other hand, improving the timelyness of data entry is expected without duplication of keying. (author)

  1. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  2. HIV/AIDS testing at ports of entry in China.

    Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer

    2011-05-01

    In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world.

  3. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption. PMID:21886891

  4. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Jason M Baron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

  5. Mexican immigration and the port-of-entry school.

    Baca, R; Bryan, D; Mclean-bardwell, C; Gomez, F

    1989-01-01

    The results of an immigrant student census in a California port-of-entry school district are used to describe the educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students and to distinguish types of Mexican immigrant students by school entry patterns. Interviews with recently arrived Mexican immigrant parents reveal the educational and occupational expectations they hold for their children in the US. The study findings are used as a basis for raising policy questions and generating research issues. The most notable observation from the study is that the children of Mexican immigrants in La Entrada do not migrate once they are in school. Parents may be migrating back and forth between the US and Mexico, but children once in La Entrada do not leave the school to return to school in Mexico. The study suggests that the parents of immigrant students do not know how the US educational system works but they are interested in helping teachers educate their children.

  6. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical innovation?

    Grossmann, Volker

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and the regulation of entry into the pharmaceutical sector for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure and drug prices. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to higher R&D spending of pharmaceutical companies. The relationship between R&D spending per firm and the number of firms may be hump-shaped. In this case, the number of rivals which maximizes R&D expenditure per firm is decreasing in the coinsurance rate and increasing in labor productivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  8. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  9. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  10. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    Čepera, Vít

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  12. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    Těšínská, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  13. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dictionary of christian words: setting up the list of entries

    Dobrushina Ekaterina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issues of compiling the entry list for the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Russian Christian Words. It presents a fragment of the classifi cation of the terminology in the domain and suggests to use the frequency of a lexical item in relevant texts as a criterion of its terminologization. The paper also considers whether proper names should be included in the Dictionary.

  15. Foreign market entry mode choice of hotel companies: Determining factors

    Andreu, Rosario; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Decisions regarding firm internationalisation, especially when it comes to choosing which market entry mode to use, have been one of the most frequently discussed topics in academic literature in the last few decades. Many studies have been conducted from different perspectives, either focusing on one or several sectors or analysing companies from a specific country. Nevertheless, there are few studies dealing with the Chinese hotel industry. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationsh...

  16. Optimal Entry Timing in Markets with Social Influence

    Yogesh V. Joshi; David J. Reibstein; Z. John Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Firms routinely face the challenging decision of whether to enter a new market where a firm's strong presence in an existing market has a positive influence (the leverage effect) on product adoption in the new market, but the reciprocal social influence on the existing market is negative (the backlash effect). In this paper, we show that a firm's optimal entry strategy in this situation cannot be characterized by the familiar "now or never" or "now or at maturity" strategies proposed in the l...

  17. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry

    2017-03-31

    ML, Hessell AJ, Oswald WB, Burton DR, Saphire EO. Structure of the 405 Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to an antibody from a human survivor. Nature...virus cell-entry inhibitors 21 17. Gallaher WR. Similar structural models of the transmembrane proteins of Ebola and 408 avian sarcoma viruses. Cell...85(4), 477-478 (1996). 409 18. Weissenhorn W, Carfí A, Lee K-H, Skehel JJ, Wiley DC. Crystal structure of the Ebola 410 virus membrane fusion

  18. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Luppe, Marcos Roberto; Nascimento, Paulo Tromboni de Souza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by B...

  19. Event detection for car park entries by video-surveillance

    Coquin, Didier; Tailland, Johan; Cintract, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Intelligent surveillance has become an important research issue due to the high cost and low efficiency of human supervisors, and machine intelligence is required to provide a solution for automated event detection. In this paper we describe a real-time system that has been used for detecting car park entries, using an adaptive background learning algorithm and two indicators representing activity and identity to overcome the difficulty of tracking objects.

  20. Positive identity entry control system with geographically distributed portals and enrollment stations

    McIntire, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A positive identity entry control system using distributed processing to allow reliable geographically separated portals and enrollment stations has been installed and is fully operational at a large area DOE site. Identity verification requires a credential, a memorized number and measurement of a physical characteristic of the user. Additionally, all portal activity is monitored by guards. The portal system is dual redundant such that no single point failure will shut down operations. Each portal site maintains its own subset of the master data base so off-site failure of the central data base manager or its communication links will not significantly affect local portal activity. The system is suitable for installations with large populations requiring access control at several remote sites scattered over a large area

  1. Recent Advances in Hepatitis C Virus Cell Entry

    Jean Dubuisson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 170 million patients worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Northern European countries to 28% in some areas of Egypt. HCV is hepatotropic, and in many countries chronic hepatitis C is a leading cause of liver disease including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV persists in 50–85% of infected patients, and once chronic infection is established, spontaneous clearance is rare. HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae family, in which it forms its own genus. Many lines of evidence suggest that the HCV life cycle displays many differences to that of other Flaviviridae family members. Some of these differences may be due to the close interaction of HCV with its host’s lipid and particular triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which may explain why the virus can be found in association with lipoproteins in serum of infected patients. This review focuses on the molecular events underlying the HCV cell entry process and the respective roles of cellular co-factors that have been implied in these events. These include, among others, the lipoprotein receptors low density lipoprotein receptor and scavenger receptor BI, the tight junction factors occludin and claudin-1 as well as the tetraspanin CD81. We discuss the roles of these cellular factors in HCV cell entry and how association of HCV with lipoproteins may modulate the cell entry process.

  2. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Chloe Tuck

    2013-07-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  3. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch.

    Tuck, Chloe; Zhang, Tongli; Potapova, Tamara; Malumbres, Marcos; Novák, Béla

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011). Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  4. High performance modeling of atmospheric re-entry vehicles

    Martin, Alexandre; Scalabrin, Leonardo C; Boyd, Iain D

    2012-01-01

    Re-entry vehicles designed for space exploration are usually equipped with thermal protection systems made of ablative material. In order to properly model and predict the aerothermal environment of the vehicle, it is imperative to account for the gases produced by ablation processes. In the case of charring ablators, where an inner resin is pyrolyzed at a relatively low temperature, the composition of the gas expelled into the boundary layer is complex and may lead to thermal chemical reactions that cannot be captured with simple flow chemistry models. In order to obtain better predictions, an appropriate gas flow chemistry model needs to be included in the CFD calculations. Using a recently developed chemistry model for ablating carbon-phenolic-in-air species, a CFD calculation of the Stardust re-entry at 71 km is presented. The code used for that purpose has been designed to take advantage of the nature of the problem and therefore remains very efficient when a high number of chemical species are involved. The CFD result demonstrates the need for such chemistry model when modeling the flow field around an ablative material. Modeling of the nonequilibrium radiation spectra is also presented, and compared to the experimental data obtained during Stardust re-entry by the Echelle instrument. The predicted emission from the CN lines compares quite well with the experimental results, demonstrating the validity of the current approach.

  5. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  6. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  7. Physics-based Entry, Descent and Landing Risk Model

    Gee, Ken; Huynh, Loc C.; Manning, Ted

    2014-01-01

    A physics-based risk model was developed to assess the risk associated with thermal protection system failures during the entry, descent and landing phase of a manned spacecraft mission. In the model, entry trajectories were computed using a three-degree-of-freedom trajectory tool, the aerothermodynamic heating environment was computed using an engineering-level computational tool and the thermal response of the TPS material was modeled using a one-dimensional thermal response tool. The model was capable of modeling the effect of micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact damage on the TPS thermal response. A Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the effects of uncertainties in the vehicle state at Entry Interface, aerothermodynamic heating and material properties on the performance of the TPS design. The failure criterion was set as a temperature limit at the bondline between the TPS and the underlying structure. Both direct computation and response surface approaches were used to compute the risk. The model was applied to a generic manned space capsule design. The effect of material property uncertainty and MMOD damage on risk of failure were analyzed. A comparison of the direct computation and response surface approach was undertaken.

  8. Rotavirus RRV associates with lipid membrane microdomains during cell entry

    Isa, Pavel; Realpe, Mauricio; Romero, Pedro; Lopez, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.

    2004-01-01

    Rotavirus cell entry is a multistep process, not completely understood, which requires at least four interactions between the virus and cell surface molecules. In this work, we investigated the role of the sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains (rafts) in the entry of rotavirus strain RRV to MA104 cells. We found that ganglioside GM1, integrin subunits α2 and β3, and the heat shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70), all of which have been implicated as rotavirus receptors, are associated with TX-100 and Lubrol WX detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). Integrin subunits α2 and β3 were found to be particularly enriched in DRMs resistant to lysis by Lubrol WX. When purified RRV particles were incubated with cells at 4 deg. C, about 10% of the total infectious virus was found associated with DRMs, and the DRM-associated virus increased to 37% in Lubrol-resistant membrane domains after 60-min incubation at 37 deg. C. The virus was excluded from DRMs if the cells were treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Immunoblot analysis of the viral proteins showed that the virus surface proteins became enriched in DRMs upon incubation at 37 deg. C, being almost exclusively localized in Lubrol-resistant DRMs after 60 min. These data suggest that detergent-resistant membrane domains play an important role in the cell entry of rotaviruses, which could provide a platform to facilitate the efficient interaction of the rotavirus receptors with the virus particle

  9. 19 CFR 10.49 - Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... Works of Art § 10.49 Articles for exhibition; requirements on entry. (a) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of works of art and other articles claimed to be free of duty under Chapter 98... proof demanded by the port director in connection with the entry. (c) Articles entered under subheading...

  10. 19 CFR 176.22 - Deletion of protest or entry number.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deletion of protest or entry number. 176.22... Facts § 176.22 Deletion of protest or entry number. If any protest number or entry number is to be... authorized official making and approving the deletion. [T.D. 70-181, 35 FR 13433, Aug. 22, 1970] ...

  11. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    2012-12-26

    ... Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles...

  12. Development Output Program Data Entry System For RSG-GAS Application

    Sihombing, Edison; Sitorus, Jupiter; Imron, M.; Azriani

    2000-01-01

    Data Entry System is a data acquisition software of failure data of system and component. The acquisition data was calculated to get the failure rate, upper bound value. Since the calculated is big enough the development on Data Entry System program was introduced. Now, the data Entry System can be run to calculate big enough data

  13. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  14. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to Financing...

  15. 12 CFR 615.5451 - Book-entry and definitive securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry and definitive securities. 615.5451... AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Book-Entry Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5451 Book-entry and definitive securities. Subject to subpart C of this part: (a) Farm...

  16. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens. 234.4 Section 234.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for entry...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-22 - Ports of entry or export.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry or export. 319.8-22 Section 319.8-22... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Miscellaneous Provisions § 319.8-22 Ports of entry or export. When ports of entry or export are not specifically designated...

  18. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption. 144.42 Section 144.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Rewarehouse Entries § 144.42 Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (a) Applicability... rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (b) Procedure for entry. The procedures set forth in § 144.41 are...

  19. 50 CFR 660.24 - Limited entry and open access fisheries.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.24 Limited entry and open access fisheries. (a) General. All commercial fishing for groundfish must be conducted in accordance with the regulations governing limited entry and open...

  20. 50 CFR 660.331 - Limited entry and open access fisheries-general.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry and open access fisheries... West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.331 Limited entry and open access fisheries—general. All... entry and open access fisheries, except such fishing by treaty Indian tribes as may be separately...

  1. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    2013-12-16

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and..., mechanical, or other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and...

  2. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    2010-10-01

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and... techniques or other forms of information. Title: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP...

  3. Modeling radon entry into Florida slab-on-grade houses

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Sextro, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Radon entry into a Florida house whose concrete slab is supported by a permeable concrete-block stem wall and a concrete footer is modeled. The slab rests on backfill material; the same material is used to fill the footer trench. A region of undisturbed soil is assumed to extend 10 m beyond and below the footer. The soil is assumed homogeneous and isotropic except for certain simulations in which soil layers of high permeability or radium content are introduced. Depressurization of the house induces a pressure field in the soil and backfill. The Laplace equation, resulting from Darcy's law and the continuity equation, is solved using a steady-state finite-difference model to determine this field. The mass-transport equation is then solved to obtain the diffusive and advective radon entry rates through the slab; the permeable stem wall; gaps at the intersections of the slab, stem wall, and footer; and gaps in the slab. These rates are determined for variable soil, backfill, and stem-wall permeability and radium content, slab-opening width and position, slab and stem-wall diffusivity, and water table depth. The variations in soil permeability and radium content include cases of horizontally stratified soil. We also consider the effect of a gap between the edge of the slab and the stem wall that restricts the passage of soil gas from the stem wall into the house. Calculations indicate that the total radon entry rate is relatively low unless the soil or backfill permeability or radium content is high. Variations in most of the factors, other than the soil permeability and radium content, have only a small effect on the total radon entry rate. However, for a fixed soil permeability, the total radon entry rate may be reduced by a factor of 2 or more by decreasing the backfill permeability, by making the stem wall impermeable and gap-free, (possibly by constructing a one-piece slab/stem-wall/footer), or by increasing the pressure in the interior of the stem wall

  4. ELECTRA © Launch and Re-Entry Safety Analysis Tool

    Lazare, B.; Arnal, M. H.; Aussilhou, C.; Blazquez, A.; Chemama, F.

    2010-09-01

    French Space Operation Act gives as prime objective to National Technical Regulations to protect people, properties, public health and environment. In this frame, an independent technical assessment of French space operation is delegated to CNES. To perform this task and also for his owns operations CNES needs efficient state-of-the-art tools for evaluating risks. The development of the ELECTRA© tool, undertaken in 2007, meets the requirement for precise quantification of the risks involved in launching and re-entry of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© project draws on the proven expertise of CNES technical centers in the field of flight analysis and safety, spaceflight dynamics and the design of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© tool was specifically designed to evaluate the risks involved in the re-entry and return to Earth of all or part of a spacecraft. It will also be used for locating and visualizing nominal or accidental re-entry zones while comparing them with suitable geographic data such as population density, urban areas, and shipping lines, among others. The method chosen for ELECTRA© consists of two main steps: calculating the possible reentry trajectories for each fragment after the spacecraft breaks up; calculating the risks while taking into account the energy of the fragments, the population density and protection afforded by buildings. For launch operations and active re-entry, the risk calculation will be weighted by the probability of instantaneous failure of the spacecraft and integrated for the whole trajectory. ELECTRA©’s development is today at the end of the validation phase, last step before delivery to users. Validation process has been performed in different ways: numerical application way for the risk formulation; benchmarking process for casualty area, level of energy of the fragments entries and level of protection housing module; best practices in space transportation industries concerning dependability evaluation; benchmarking process for

  5. Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Nauwynck, H J; Duan, X; Favoreel, H W; Van Oostveldt, P; Pensaert, M B

    1999-02-01

    Porcine alveolar macrophages (AMphi) are the dominant cell type that supports the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo and in vitro. In order to determine the characteristics of the virus-receptor interaction, the attachment of PRRSV to cells was examined by using biotinylated virus in a series of flow cytometric assays. PRRSV bound specifically to AMphi in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of PRRSV to AMphi increased gradually and reached a maximum within 60 min at 4 degrees C. By confocal microscopy, it was shown that different degrees of PRRSV binding exist and that entry is by endocytosis. Virus uptake in vesicles is a clathrin-dependent process, as it was blocked by the addition of cytochalasin D and co-localization of PRRSV and clathrin was found. Furthermore, by the use of two weak bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, it was demonstrated that PRRSV uses a low pH-dependent entry pathway. In the presence of these reagents, input virions accumulated in large vacuoles, indicating that uncoating was prevented. These results indicate that PRRSV entry into AMphi involves attachment to a specific virus receptor(s) followed by a process of endocytosis, by which virions are taken into the cell within vesicles by a clathrin-dependent pathway. A subsequent drop in pH is required for proper virus replication.

  6. Optimizing TLB entries for mixed page size storage in contiguous memory

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kriegel, Jon K.; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2013-04-30

    A system and method for accessing memory are provided. The system comprises a lookup buffer for storing one or more page table entries, wherein each of the one or more page table entries comprises at least a virtual page number and a physical page number; a logic circuit for receiving a virtual address from said processor, said logic circuit for matching the virtual address to the virtual page number in one of the page table entries to select the physical page number in the same page table entry, said page table entry having one or more bits set to exclude a memory range from a page.

  7. Hendra and Nipah virus infection in cultured human olfactory epithelial cells

    Borisevich, V. (Viktoriya); Ozdener, M.H. (Mehmet Hakan); Malik, B. (Bilal); B. Rockx (Barry)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHenipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We

  8. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  9. Order Entry Protocols Are an Amenable Target for Workflow Automation.

    Tudor, James; Klochko, Chad; Patel, Milind; Siegal, Daniel

    2018-04-21

    Order entry protocol selection of advanced imaging studies is labor-intensive, can disrupt workflow, and may displace staff from more valuable tasks. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the behaviors of radiologic technologists and radiologists when determining protocol to identify opportunities for workflow automation. A data set of over 273,000 cross-sectional examination orders from four hospitals within our health system was created. From this data set, we isolated the 12 most frequently requested examinations, which represent almost 50% of the entirety of advanced imaging volume. Intergroup comparisons were made between behavior of radiologic technologists and radiologists or residents when determining protocol. Frequencies of changes were calculated. Common parameters of changed examinations were identified. The overall change rate for both radiologists and residents (4%) is very low and comparable to the overall change rate of radiologic technologists (1%). The change rates for the 12 most ordered examinations were calculated and compared individually. Most examinations that underwent change involved a patient with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate, a patient with a contrast allergy, or a provider ordering a general examination but in fact wanting an organ-specific protocol or an angiographic study. Order entry protocol selection of the most frequently ordered advanced imaging examinations was rarely a value-added activity because these examinations are rarely changed. Changes follow predictable patterns that make order entry protocol selection of most radiology orders for advanced imaging amenable to workflow automation. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  11. Lowering Entry Barriers for Multidisciplinary Cyber(e)-Infrastructures

    Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    Multidisciplinarity is more and more important to study the Earth System and address Global Changes. To achieve that, multidisciplinary cyber(e)-infrastructures are an important instrument. In the last years, several European, US and international initiatives have been started to carry out multidisciplinary infrastructures, including: the Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE), the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), the Data Observation Network for Earth (DataOne), and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The majority of these initiatives are developing service-based digital infrastructures asking scientific Communities (i.e. disciplinary Users and data Producers) to implement a set of standards for information interoperability. For scientific Communities, this has represented an entry barrier which has proved to be high, in several cases. In fact, both data Producers and Users do not seem to be willing to invest precious resources to become expert on interoperability solutions -on the contrary, they are focused on developing disciplinary and thematic capacities. Therefore, an important research topic is lowering entry barriers for joining multidisciplinary cyber(e)-Infrastructures. This presentation will introduce a new approach to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability underpinning multidisciplinary infrastructures and lowering the present entry barriers for both Users and data Producers. This is called the Brokering approach: it extends the service-based paradigm by introducing a new a Brokering layer or cloud which is in charge of managing all the interoperability complexity (e.g. data discovery, access, and use) thus easing Users' and Producers' burden. This approach was successfully experimented in the framework of several European FP7 Projects and in GEOSS.

  12. Nuclear power plant personnel entry level qualifications and training

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Haas, P.M.; Selby, D.L.; Lowry, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the early results and current status of a research program at ORNL which is intended to provide the methods and technical basis for NRC to initiate the use of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) in the evaluation of training programs and entry level qualifications for NPP control room personnel. The program is an outgrowth of previous studies of simulator hardware and simulator training requirements under the Safety Related Operator Actions Program which recommended adaptation of a systems methodology to development and evaluation of NPP training programs

  13. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  14. Port entry of nuclear ships differences, procedures and conditions

    McMichael, D.; Bianchi, H.

    1978-01-01

    There are about 250 nuclear propelled ships, only 2 of them are merchant ships: the US freighter Savannah and the bulk carrier Otto Hahn of the Federal Republic of Germany. This paper is restricted to the experience with both of these ships, showing partly similar and partly different procedures for port entry. They have called at 107 ports in 40 countries. The Savannah was operated in the periods from 1962 - 1971 and the Otto Hahn is still in operation. The endeavours of the OECD and IMCO to review and to harmonize international rules for nuclear merchant ships should be supported and continued

  15. Kinetics of 210Pb entry into the endoneurium

    Windebank, A.J.; Dyck, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Alteration in the blood-nerve barrier may be of primary importance in the development of experimental lead neuropathy. Using quantitative track autoradiography, the authors have directly demonstrated that there is a 15-fold increase in the rate of 210 Pb accumulation in the endoneurium 70 days after the onset of chronic intoxication. This change in rate coincides with the appearance of edema but occurs later than the previously demonstrated total endoneurial lead accumulation and later than the onset of segmental demyelination suggesting that, in addition to rate of entry, binding within and exit from this compartment are important determinants of endoneurial lead concentration. (Auth.)

  16. Safer laparoscopic trocar entry: it's all about pressure.

    Tsaltas, Jim; Pearce, Scott; Lawrence, Anthony; Meads, Alan; Mezzatesta, Joseph; Nicolson, Scott

    2004-08-01

    This prospective observational study aimed to assess the feasibility of adapting peritoneal hyperdistention to 25 mmHg during laparoscopy in an Australian hospital environment. A total of 1150 consecutive diagnostic or operative laparoscopies were performed. All cases were monitored for early detection of untoward physiological changes. All patients had Veress needle insufflation with distension to 25 mmHg prior to insertion of the primary trocar. No patients experienced any surgical entry complications or adverse clinical effects noted during anaesthetic. The aim of the current study is to assess the feasibility and safety of increasing the peritoneal insufflation pressure to 25 mmHg for primary trocar insertion.

  17. Overview of Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET)

    Driver, David M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Mahzari, Milad; Milos, Frank S.; Nishioka, Owen S.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion W.; Gage, Peter J.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) projects objective is to mature a 3-D Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) to Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6 to support future NASA missions to destinations such as Venus and Saturn. The scope of the project, status of which will be discussed, encompasses development of manufacturing and integration processes, fabrication of a prototype 1m diameter engineering test unit (ETU) that will undergo a series of structural tests, characterizing material aerothermal performance including development of a material response model, and structural testing and analysis to develop tools to support design and establish system capability.

  18. Inflatable Re-Entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) Design Overview

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.; Starr, Brett R.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Lindell, Michael C.; Player, Charles J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Inflatable aeroshells offer several advantages over traditional rigid aeroshells for atmospheric entry. Inflatables offer increased payload volume fraction of the launch vehicle shroud and the possibility to deliver more payload mass to the surface for equivalent trajectory constraints. An inflatable s diameter is not constrained by the launch vehicle shroud. The resultant larger drag area can provide deceleration equivalent to a rigid system at higher atmospheric altitudes, thus offering access to higher landing sites. When stowed for launch and cruise, inflatable aeroshells allow access to the payload after the vehicle is integrated for launch and offer direct access to vehicle structure for structural attachment with the launch vehicle. They also offer an opportunity to eliminate system duplication between the cruise stage and entry vehicle. There are however several potential technical challenges for inflatable aeroshells. First and foremost is the fact that they are flexible structures. That flexibility could lead to unpredictable drag performance or an aerostructural dynamic instability. In addition, durability of large inflatable structures may limit their application. They are susceptible to puncture, a potentially catastrophic insult, from many possible sources. Finally, aerothermal heating during planetary entry poses a significant challenge to a thin membrane. NASA Langley Research Center and NASA's Wallops Flight Facility are jointly developing inflatable aeroshell technology for use on future NASA missions. The technology will be demonstrated in the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE). This paper will detail the development of the initial IRVE inflatable system to be launched on a Terrier/Orion sounding rocket in the fourth quarter of CY2005. The experiment will demonstrate achievable packaging efficiency of the inflatable aeroshell for launch, inflation, leak performance of the inflatable system throughout the flight regime, structural

  19. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  20. Hayabusa Re-Entry: Trajectory Analysis and Observation Mission Design

    Cassell, Alan M.; Winter, Michael W.; Allen, Gary A.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Antimisiaris, Manny E.; Albers, James; Jenniskens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    On June 13th, 2010, the Hayabusa sample return capsule successfully re-entered Earth s atmosphere over the Woomera Prohibited Area in southern Australia in its quest to return fragments from the asteroid 1998 SF36 Itokawa . The sample return capsule entered at a super-orbital velocity of 12.04 km/sec (inertial), making it the second fastest human-made object to traverse the atmosphere. The NASA DC-8 airborne observatory was utilized as an instrument platform to record the luminous portion of the sample return capsule re-entry (60 sec) with a variety of on-board spectroscopic imaging instruments. The predicted sample return capsule s entry state information at 200 km altitude was propagated through the atmosphere to generate aerothermodynamic and trajectory data used for initial observation flight path design and planning. The DC- 8 flight path was designed by considering safety, optimal sample return capsule viewing geometry and aircraft capabilities in concert with key aerothermodynamic events along the predicted trajectory. Subsequent entry state vector updates provided by the Deep Space Network team at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory were analyzed after the planned trajectory correction maneuvers to further refine the DC-8 observation flight path. Primary and alternate observation flight paths were generated during the mission planning phase which required coordination with Australian authorities for pre-mission approval. The final observation flight path was chosen based upon trade-offs between optimal viewing requirements, ground based observer locations (to facilitate post-flight trajectory reconstruction), predicted weather in the Woomera Prohibited Area and constraints imposed by flight path filing deadlines. To facilitate sample return capsule tracking by the instrument operators, a series of two racetrack flight path patterns were performed prior to the observation leg so the instruments could be pointed towards the region in the star background where

  1. How Helpful is Colour-Cueing of PIN Entry?

    Renaud, Karen; Ramsay, Judith

    2014-01-01

    21st Century citizens are faced with the need to remember numbers of PINs (Personal Identification Numbers) in order to do their daily business, and they often have difficulties due to human memory limitations. One way of helping them could be by providing cues during the PIN entry process. The provision of cues that would only be helpful to the PIN owner is challenging because the cue should only make sense to the legitimate user, and not to a random observer. In this paper we report on an e...

  2. Flexible robotic entry device for a nuclear materials production reactor

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory has developed and is implementing a flexible robotic entry device (FRED) for the nuclear materials production reactors now operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). FRED is designed for rapid deployment into confinement areas of operating reactors to assess unknown conditions. A unique smart tether method has been incorporated into FRED for simultaneous bidirectional transmission of multiple video/audio/control/power signals over a single coaxial cable. This system makes it possible to use FRED under all operating and standby conditions, including those where radio/microwave transmissions are not possible or permitted, and increases the quantity of data available

  3. Automation of Command and Data Entry in a Glovebox Work Volume: An Evaluation of Data Entry Devices

    Steele, Marianne K.; Nakamura, Gail; Havens, Cindy; LeMay, Moira

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the human-computer interface for data entry while performing experimental procedures within a glovebox work volume in order to make a recommendation to the Space Station Biological Research Project for a data entry system to be used within the Life Sciences Glovebox. Test subjects entered data using either a manual keypad, similar to a standard computer numerical keypad located within the glovebox work volume, or a voice input system using a speech recognition program with a microphone headset. Numerical input and commands were programmed in an identical manner between the two systems. With both electronic systems, a small trackball was available within the work volume for cursor control. Data, such as sample vial identification numbers, sample tissue weights, and health check parameters of the specimen, were entered directly into procedures that were electronically displayed on a video monitor within the glovebox. A pen and paper system with a 'flip-chart' format for procedure display, similar to that currently in use on the Space Shuttle, was used as a baseline data entry condition. Procedures were performed by a single operator; eight test subjects were used in the study. The electronic systems were tested under both a 'nominal' or 'anomalous' condition. The anomalous condition was introduced into the experimental procedure to increase the probability of finding limitations or problems with human interactions with the electronic systems. Each subject performed five test runs during a test day: two procedures each with voice and keypad, one with and one without anomalies, and one pen and paper procedure. The data collected were both quantitative (times, errors) and qualitative (subjective ratings of the subjects).

  4. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of the target children, and the third block refers to children's pre-school attendance prior to school entry. Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale, school teachers reported on firstgraders' social adjustment. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences was employed to assess personality when the target children were 3, 4, 5, and 6 years old, while at ages 3 and 6 their parents filled-in the Family Environment Questionnaire to provide self-reports on parenting. The blocks of predictors jointly explain a relatively large portion of variance in firstgraders' social adjustment both contemporaneously and longitudinally. Personality characteristics significantly predict all of the criteria measures, while family environment and pre-school attendance explain additional variance in internalizing behaviour (depressive, anxious, isolated, and dependent behaviour, over and above the contribution of personality. Perceptions of children's conscientiousness-openness at the beginning of the school year as well as through early childhood and of their agreeableness in preschool predict teacher ratings of the firstgraders' social competence. Externalizing behaviour (angry, aggressive, egotistical and oppositional behaviour was consistently predicted by low conscientiousness-openness, extraversion-emotional stability, and low agreeableness. Finally, low conscientiousness-openness in school, low extraversion-emotional stability in preschool, maternal inefficient

  5. Family and Community Predictors of Comorbid Language, Socioemotional and Behavior Problems at School Entry.

    Nathan Hughes

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence and family and community-level predictors of comorbid speech-language difficulties and socioemotional and behavioral (SEB difficulties across a population of children at school entry.The School Entry Health Questionnaire is a parent survey of children's health and wellbeing, completed by all children starting school in Victoria, Australia (N = 53256. It includes parental report of speech-language difficulties, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (behavior, and numerous family and community variables. Following univariate analysis, family and community risk characteristics were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify the associated relative risk of comorbid speech/language and SEB needs. The influence of experiencing multiple risk factors was also examined.20.4% (n = 10,868 began school with either speech-language or SEB difficulties, with 3.1% (n = 1670 experiencing comorbid needs. Five factors predicted comorbidity: the child having witnessed violence; a history of parent mental illness; living in more deprived communities; and the educational attainment of each parent (independently. The relative risk of comorbidity was 6.1 (95% Confidence Interval: 3.9, 9.7 when a child experienced four or more risk factors, compared to those with no risk factors.The risk of comorbidity in early childhood is associated with a range of family and community factors, and elevated by the presence of multiple factors. Children growing up in families experiencing multiple, complex needs are therefore at heightened risk of the early development of difficulties likely to impact upon schooling. Early identification of these children offers opportunities for appropriate and timely health and education intervention.

  6. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  7. NASA Ames Arc Jets and Range, Capabilities for Planetary Entry

    Fretter, Ernest F.

    2005-01-01

    NASA is pursuing innovative technologies and concepts as part of America's Vision for Space Exploration. The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has led to new concepts for multipurpose shields to prevent catastrophic loss of vehicles and crew against the triple threats of aeroheating during atmospheric entry, radiation (Solar and galactic cosmic rays) and Micrometorid/Orbital Debris (MMOD) strikes. One proposed concept is the Thermal Radiation Impact Protection System (TRIPS) using carbon nanotubes, hydrogenated carbon nanotubes, and ceramic coatings as a multi-use TPS. The Thermophysics Facilities Branch of the Space Technology Division at NASA Ames Research Center provides testing services for the development and validation of the present and future concepts being developed by NASA and national and International research firms. The Branch operates two key facilities - the Range Complex and the Arc Jets. The Ranges include both the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) and the Hypervelocity Free Flight (HFF) gas guns best suited for MMOD investigations. Test coupons can be installed in the AVGR or HFF and subjected to particle impacts from glass or metal particles from micron to _ inch (6.35-mm) diameters and at velocities from 5 to 8 kilometers per second. The facility can record high-speed data on film and provide damage assessment for analysis by the Principle Investigator or Ames personnel. Damaged articles can be installed in the Arc Jet facility for further testing to quantify the effects of damage on the heat shield s performance upon entry into atmospheric environments.

  8. The Islamic Entries in Three Major English Dictionaries

    Abdurrosyid Abdurrosyid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to analyze Islamic entries in three major English dictionaries; Oxford Dictionary of English (ODE, Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learners’Dictionary (MWALED, and Macquarie Australian National Dictionary (MAND. The three dictionaries are used the object of this study because they represent the major varieties of English besides the existence of a great number of new Englishness emerges around the globe. The selected entries are in accordance to Islamic sciences such as theology, Islamic  Jurisprudence,  Quranic  exegesis,  hadith  Science,  Islamic  mysticism  and  Islamic  History. Inappropriate and inaccurate or misleading definitions given by the dictionaries are identified and analyzed, then they will be examined according to definitions from each Islamic science so that accurate and appropriate definitions can be delivered as the alternatives and in turn more acceptable definitions and understandings of Islam will be given to not only the Muslim communities but also the greater readers.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6588

  9. Experimental measurements of the cavitating flow after horizontal water entry

    Nguyen, Thang Tat; Thai, Nguyen Quang; Phuong, Truong Thi [Institute of Mechanics (IMECH), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 264—Doi Can, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hai, Duong Ngoc, E-mail: ntthang@imech.vast.vn, E-mail: dnhai@vast.vn, E-mail: nqthai@imech.vast.vn, E-mail: ttphuong@imech.vast.vn [Graduate University of Science and Technology (GUST), VAST, 18—Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2017-10-15

    Water-entry cavitating flow is of considerable importance in underwater high-speed applications. That is because of the drag-reduction effect that concerns the presence of a cavity around moving objects. Though the study of the flow has long been carried out, little data are documented in literature so far. Besides, currently, in the case of unsteady flow, experimental measurements of some flow parameters such as the cavity pressure still encounter difficulties. Hence continuing research efforts are of important significance. The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the unsteady cavitating flow after the horizontal water entry of projectiles. An experimental apparatus has been developed. Qualitative and quantitative optical visualizations of the flow have been carried out by using high-speed videography. Digital image processing has been applied to analyzing the recorded flow images. Based on the known correlations between the ellipsoidal super-cavity’s size and the corresponding cavitation number, the cavity pressure has been measured by utilizing the data of image processing. A comparison between the partial- and super-cavitating flow regimes is reported. The received results can be useful for the design of high-speed underwater projectiles. (paper)

  10. Identifying missing dictionary entries with frequency-conserving context models

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-10-01

    In an effort to better understand meaning from natural language texts, we explore methods aimed at organizing lexical objects into contexts. A number of these methods for organization fall into a family defined by word ordering. Unlike demographic or spatial partitions of data, these collocation models are of special importance for their universal applicability. While we are interested here in text and have framed our treatment appropriately, our work is potentially applicable to other areas of research (e.g., speech, genomics, and mobility patterns) where one has ordered categorical data (e.g., sounds, genes, and locations). Our approach focuses on the phrase (whether word or larger) as the primary meaning-bearing lexical unit and object of study. To do so, we employ our previously developed framework for generating word-conserving phrase-frequency data. Upon training our model with the Wiktionary, an extensive, online, collaborative, and open-source dictionary that contains over 100 000 phrasal definitions, we develop highly effective filters for the identification of meaningful, missing phrase entries. With our predictions we then engage the editorial community of the Wiktionary and propose short lists of potential missing entries for definition, developing a breakthrough, lexical extraction technique and expanding our knowledge of the defined English lexicon of phrases.

  11. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Ido Erev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games (http://sites.google.com/site/gpredcomp/ and http://www.mdpi.com/si/games/predict-behavior/. The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  12. Recent Observations on Australian Bat Lyssavirus Tropism and Viral Entry

    Dawn L. Weir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus. Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G. Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  13. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  14. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    Helder de Souza Aguiar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by Brazilian franchisors, which prefer the strategy of direct franchises. For data collection, 47 directors or managers of the international expansion of Brazilian companies and the expansion directors of the international companies which operates in Brazil were interviewed. Although more expensive, the subsidiary in the target country offers greater control over the expansion of business reducing the problems caused by the distance of the country of origin. For the management of franchisors, this paper points out that the subsidiary is a natural evolution of entry and operation mode when it is desired or it is needed to control the expansion of networks in other countries. Thus, managers of franchisors in emerging countries should carefully examine the subsidiary option in the target country when their company considers accelerating international growth.

  15. Verification of SAMG entry condition for APR1400

    Yun, Junghyun; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the wake of the Fukushima accident, severe accident management has become important more than ever. While Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) focuses on cooling down the core during a design basis accident, the prime objective of severe accident management guideline (SAMG) is to prevent the release of radioactive material into the environment during a severe accident. Only one fixed value of core exit temperature (CET) has been applied for several decades to different types of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea. Although the different types of NPPs have different cladding materials and system designs, the identical CET, i. e., 650 .deg. C, is applied as the entry condition to the SAMG of all the NPPs (except CANDU plants), i. e., Westinghouse type, OPR1000, and APR1400. In this paper, the transition point is re-evaluated for dominant severe accident sequences; station black-out (SBO), small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA), and me dium break loss of coolant accident (MBLOCA). In cases of SBO and SBLOCA, the current SAMG entry condition seems proper, while it needs to be reconsidered for MBLOCA case.

  16. Diving, Jumping and Drinking: instabilities during water entry and exit

    Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    All organisms interact with fluids in one way or another, and some have presumably adapted their behaviors or features in response to fluid-mechanical forces. Particularly, fluid forces are of great importance when organisms or their body parts move in and out of water. In this talk, I will discuss three problems in which fluid mechanics principles affect form and function of animals. The first problem is how several seabirds (e.g. Gannets and Boobies) dive into water at up to 24 m/s without any injuries. This study examines the effects of their beak shape and dense feathers during water entry to reduce or spread the impact force on the body. The second problem is how animals jump out of water, from plankton to whales. Some aquatic animals generate enough force to exit the water surface as an effective method of capturing prey or escaping from predators. Finally, I will discuss about lapping animals (e.g. dog and cat) as a combined water entry and exit. During the tongue-lapping, associated fluid forces and pinch-off instability will be discussed.

  17. Physician Order Entry Clerical Support Improves Physician Satisfaction and Productivity.

    Contratto, Erin; Romp, Katherine; Estrada, Carlos A; Agne, April; Willett, Lisa L

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impact of clerical support personnel for physician order entry on physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with electronic health record (EHR) documentation, and physician attitudes. All seven part-time physicians at an academic general internal medicine practice were included in this quasi-experimental (single group, pre- and postintervention) mixed-methods study. One full-time clerical support staff member was trained and hired to enter physician orders in the EHR and conduct previsit planning. Physician satisfaction, productivity, timeliness with EHR documentation, and physician attitudes toward the intervention were measured. Four months after the intervention, physicians reported improvements in overall quality of life (good quality, 71%-100%), personal balance (43%-71%), and burnout (weekly, 43%-14%; callousness, 14%-0%). Matched for quarter, productivity increased: work relative value unit (wRVU) per session increased by 20.5% (before, April-June 2014; after, April-June 2015; range -9.2% to 27.5%). Physicians reported feeling more supported, more focused on patient care, and less stressed and fatigued after the intervention. This study supports the use of physician order entry clerical personnel as a simple, cost-effective intervention to improve the work lives of primary care physicians.

  18. Recent observations on Australian bat lyssavirus tropism and viral entry.

    Weir, Dawn L; Annand, Edward J; Reid, Peter A; Broder, Christopher C

    2014-02-19

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus) and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus). Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection have been reported, the most recent in 2013, and each manifested as acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013, the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. Similar to other rhabdoviruses, ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G). Recent studies have revealed that proposed rabies virus (RABV) receptors are not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into host cells and that the unknown receptor is broadly conserved among mammalian species. However, despite clear tropism differences between ABLV and RABV, the two viruses appear to utilize similar endocytic entry pathways. The recent human and horse infections highlight the importance of continued Australian public health awareness of this emerging pathogen.

  19. Experimental Economics on Firm’s Behavior: Entry Game Approach

    I Wayan Sukadana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes subject’s behavior in evolutionary process of entry game. The experiment is designed to analyze the behavior of the subject. The experiment is set in sequential entry games. Process of the game was conducted under asymmetric information, uncertainty, payoff perturbation and random matching. The subjects of the experiment were students of the Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Subjects who play as new-entrance firms tend to choose “stay-out” strategy when the uncertainty and the amount of loss increase. Meanwhile, the subjects who play as an incumbent firm, which set to have more information about the game (market rather than the new-entrances, most of the time abuse their position by choose “threat” strategy, which not a credible strategy for some of them. Experimental studies shows that New-entrance tend to weight more on lost when the risk increase (from risk averse setting to risk seeking setting, and tend to choose sure value over a lotteries although the expected value from lotteries is higher or the same. These findings support the reason that Indonesian youngsters tend to choose a job as a PNS or employee of existing firms. The results also support the reason that Indonesian businessman is more willing to open a new business if they have a guarantee for their losses.

  20. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  1. Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations & Analysis (AMELIA) by ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli Entry Descent Module

    Ferri, F.; Karatekin, O.; Aboudan, A.; VanHove, B.; Colombatti, C.; Bettanini, C.; Debei, S.; Lewis, S.; Forget, F.

    2017-09-01

    On the 19th October 2016, Schiaparelli, the Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ESA ExoMars Program entered into the martian atmosphere. Although it did not complete a safe landing on Mars, it transmitted data throughout its descent to the surface, until the loss of signal at 1 minute before the expected touch-down on Mars' surface. From the flight data, we reconstruct the actual dynamics of the vehicle during its descent towards Mars's surface and retrieve the atmospheric profile, in terms of density, pressure and temperature, along its trajectory for atmospheric investigations.

  2. Dissecting virus entry: Replication-independent analysis of virus binding, internalization, and penetration using minimal complementation of β-galactosidase

    Burkard, Christine; Bloyet, Louis Marie; Wicht, Oliver; Van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Rottier, Peter J M; De Haan, Cornelis A M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-01-01

    Studies of viral entry into host cells often rely on the detection of post-entry parameters, such as viral replication or the expression of a reporter gene, rather than on measuring entry per se. The lack of assays to easily detect the different steps of entry severely hampers the analysis of this

  3. 31 CFR 351.60 - How are book-entry Series EE savings bonds purchased and held?

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are book-entry Series EE savings... OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Book-Entry Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.60 How are book-entry Series EE savings bonds purchased and held? Book-entry bonds must be purchased and held online...

  4. 31 CFR 370.6 - What requirements apply to a financial institution that handles a credit entry?

    2010-07-01

    ... financial institution that handles a credit entry? 370.6 Section 370.6 Money and Finance: Treasury... Entries § 370.6 What requirements apply to a financial institution that handles a credit entry? A financial institution that accepts and handles a credit entry initiated by us agrees to the provisions of...

  5. Two essays on electricity markets: Entry into hydroelectric generation industry and the political cycle of regulated prices

    Moita, Rodrigo Menon Simoes

    This dissertation is about the electricity industry and the problems that arise with the liberalization and de-regulation of the industry. Characteristics intrinsic to the electricity market create problems that can compromise an efficient functioning of this market. Each of the two chapters of this dissertation focus on a specific aspect of this industry. The first chapter analyzes entry in the hydroelectric generation industry. The operation of a generator upstream regularizes the river flow for generators located downstream on the same river, increasing the production capacity of the latter. This positive externality increases the attractiveness of the locations downstream whenever a generator decides to enter upstream. Therefore, the entry decision of a generator in a given location may affect all entry decisions in potential locations for plants located downstream. I first model the problem of generators located in cascade on the same river and show the positive effect of the externality. Second, I use a panel of data on investment decisions of hydro-generation firms to estimate an entry model that takes into account the effect of the externality generated by entry upriver. The results show a positive incentive to locate downstream from existing plants and from locations where entry is likely to occur. Location characteristics also play an important role on the entrants' decisions. The model provides estimates of the average expected market price across the different years covered by the sample and shows that it rose one year before the energy crisis of 2001, evidencing that the market anticipated the crisis. This result has important implications on the evaluation of the Brazilian market design. It shows that entry responded to a rise in expectations about excess demand in the future, contradicting the argument that the crisis was a consequence of mis-designed market institutions. The second chapter deals with the problem of the political cycle in regulated

  6. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  7. Stabilization of Gob-Side Entry with an Artificial Side for Sustaining Mining Work

    Hong-sheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A concrete artificial side (AS is introduced to stabilize a gob-side entry (GSE. To evaluate the stability of the AS, a uniaxial compression failure experiment was conducted with large and small-scale specimens. The distribution characteristics of the shear stress were obtained from a numerical simulation. Based on the failure characteristics and the variation of the shear stress, a failure criterion was determined and implemented in the strengthening method for the artificial side. In an experimental test, the distribution pattern of the maximum shear stress showed an X shape, which contributed to the failure shape of the specimen. The shear stress distribution and failure shape are induced by a combination of two sets of shear stresses, which implies that failure of the AS follows the twin shear strength theory. The use of anchor bolts, bolts, and anchor bars enhances the shear strength of the artificial side. When this side is stable, the components can constrain the lateral deformation as well as improve the internal friction angle and cohesion. When the AS is damaged, the components prevent the sliding of broken blocks along the shear failure plane and improve the residual strength of the artificial side. When reinforced with an anchor bar, the AS is still stable even after mining operations for three years.

  8. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  9. Simulation of Electron Energy Spectra of a Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflection Analyzer as a Function of Entry Bias: Effects of Misalignments

    O. Sise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA, including fringing fields and their effect on focusing and energy resolution, is investigated using numerical methods. Electron energy spectra are calculated for three entry positions R0=84 mm, 100 mm, and 112 mm and compared with the recent experimental measurements. In both experiment and calculation, the two different paracentric entry positions R0=84 mm and R0=112 mm, on either side of the mean radius of 100 mm, are found to have a base energy resolution of about two times better than the conventional centric entry position R0=100 mm. In order to explain the discrepancies (6–30% between the simulated and the experimental resolutions the focusing characteristics are further investigated for different displacements of the input lens (ΔR0 with respect to the entry position R0 and the tilted input beam axis by αshift in the dispersive direction. We have found that the blame does not in fact lie with the theory and we have shown that the input lens may have been misaligned in the experiment. Slight misalignments affect both the true energy resolution measurement and the transmission of the beam.

  10. Timing of entry to care by newly diagnosed HIV cases before and after the 2010 New York State HIV testing law.

    Gordon, Daniel E; Bian, Fuqin; Anderson, Bridget J; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    Prompt entry to care after HIV diagnosis benefits the infected individual and reduces the likelihood of further transmission of the virus. The New York State HIV Testing Law of 2010 requires diagnosing providers to refer persons newly diagnosed with HIV to follow-up medical care. This study used routinely collected HIV-related laboratory data from the New York State HIV surveillance system to assess whether the fraction of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days of diagnosis increased after the implementation of the law. Laboratory data on 23,302 newly diagnosed cases showed that entry to care within 90 days rose steadily from 72.0% in 2007 to 85.4% in 2012. The rise was observed across all race/ethnic groups, ages, transmission risk groups, sexes, and regions of residence. Logistic regression analyses of entry to care pre-law and post-law, controlling for demographic characteristics, transmission risk, and geographic area, indicate that percentage of newly diagnosed cases entering care within 90 days grew more rapidly in the post-law period. This is consistent with a positive effect of the law on entry to care.

  11. Mechanism of H. pylori intracellular entry: an in vitro study

    Hui eLiu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of H. pylori reside on gastric epithelial cell surfaces and in the overlying mucus, but a small fraction of H. pylori enter host epithelial and immune cells. To explore the role of the nudA invasin in host cell entry, a ΔnudA deletion derivative of strain J99 was constructed and transformants were verified by PCR and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. AGS cells were inoculated with either wild type (WT strain J99 or its ΔnudA mutant to determine the fraction of bacteria that were bound to the cells and inside these cells using the gentamicin protection assay. We observed no significant difference between either the density of H. pylori bound to AGS cell membranes or the density of intracellular H. pylori. To further explore this finding, separate chambers of each culture were fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy (TEM and immunogold TEM. This addition to the classical gentamicin assay demonstrated that there were significantly more intracellular, and fewer membrane-bound, H. pylori in WT-infected AGS cells than in ΔnudA allele infected cells. Thus, the sum of intracellular and membrane-bound H. pylori was similar in the two groups. Since no other similar TEM study has been performed, it is at present unknown whether our observations can be reproduced by others Taken together however, our observations suggest that the classical gentamicin protection assay is not sufficiently sensitive to analyze H. pylori cell entry and that the addition of TEM to the test demonstrate that nudA plays a role in H. pylori entry into AGS cells in vitro. In addition, deletion of the invasin gene appears to limit H. pylori to the AGS cell surface, where it may be partly protected against gentamicin. In contrast, this specific environment may render H. pylori more vulnerable to host defense and therapeutic intervention, and less prone to trigger normal immune, carcinogenic, and other developmental response pathways.

  12. Entry knowledge and situational feedback of MBBS students.

    Sharma, S C; Maharjan, S

    2005-01-01

    A need has been felt to acquire knowledge of students at Kathmandu Medical College (KMC) who have decided to take up a medical career and have enrolled at KMC after completing two years of basic sciences. The intent was to (i) find out the entering status with regard to general knowledge, (ii) get feedback from the students about the facilities provided by the management both at basic sciences complex at Duwakot and clinical sciences at Sinamangal and (iii) get feedback regarding the teaching learning activities provided by various departments in KMC. This attempt at getting their point of view was for trying to improve upon the facilities by taking up their suggestions and doing away with the weaknesses. Preference was given to hostel students as they would be able to comment on living conditions. A total of 150 students from three consecutive batches from basic and clinical sciences were included in the study. Survey questionnaires were distributed and all the forms were returned. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS 11.5 version for Windows. It was found that the entry knowledge on general issue was better in 6th batch of students (87.08+/-17.41) than 5th batch (82.19+/-17.43) and 7th batch (78.93+/-20.60), but not significant (p=0.164>0.05). The students in different batches differed in their rating of various facilities provided by KMCTH. The most liked departments in terms of teaching learning activities were departments of Anatomy and Pathology. Entry knowledge of the students of three batches was found to differ but not significant, correlating with the amount of teaching and learning received at KMC. The facilities provided by KMC were perceived as more satisfactory by the students who enrolled at KMC in later years. The earlier students had to cope with more difficulties as KMC was trying to improve on various facilities it provided to its students. Level of entry knowledge got better as the students attained more and more years of teaching and

  13. Visualization of house-entry behaviour of malaria mosquitoes.

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Teun; Mukabana, W Richard; Takken, Willem

    2016-04-25

    Malaria mosquitoes often blood feed indoors on human hosts. The mosquitoes predominantly enter houses via open eaves. Host-seeking is odour-driven, and finding a host depends on the quality of the odour plume and whether the route towards the host is free of obstructions. Little is known about in-flight behaviour of mosquitoes during house entry. This semi-field study visualizes mosquito house entry in three dimensions (3D) and offers new insights for optimizing vector control interventions. The approach and house entry of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was studied in a semi-field set-up using video-recorded flight tracks and 3D analysis. Behavioural parameters of host-seeking female mosquitoes were visualized with respect to their position relative to the eave as well as whether a mosquito would enter or not. Host odour was standardized using an attractive synthetic blend in addition to CO2. The study was conducted in western Kenya at the Thomas Odhiambo Campus of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Mbita. The majority of host-seeking An. gambiae approached a house with a flight altitude at eave level, arriving within a horizontal arc of 180°. Fifty-five per cent of mosquitoes approaching a house did not enter or made multiple attempts before passing through the eave. During approach, mosquitoes greatly reduced their speed and the flight paths became more convoluted. As a result, mosquitoes that passed through the eave spent more than 80 % of the observed time within 30 cm of the eave. Mosquitoes that exited the eave departed at eave level and followed the edge of the roof (12.5 %) or quickly re-entered after exiting (9.6 %). The study shows that host-seeking mosquitoes, when entering a house, approach the eave in a wide angle to the house at eave level. Less than 25 % of approaching mosquitoes entered the house without interruption, whereas 12.5 % of mosquitoes that had entered left the house again within the time of observation

  14. Transaction cost determinants and ownership-based entry mode choice: a meta-analytical review

    Hongxin Zhao; Yadong Luo; Taewon Suh

    2004-01-01

    Entry mode choice is a critical ingredient of international entry strategies, and has been voluminously examined in the field. The findings, however, are very mixed, especially with respect to transaction-cost-related factors in determining the ownership-based entry mode choice. This study conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the literature and empirically generalize more conclusive findings. Based on the 106 effect sizes of 38 empirical studies, the meta-analysis shows that ...

  15. Phytosanitary inspection of woody plants for planting at european union entry points: A practical enquiry

    Eschen, René; Rigaux, Ludovic; Sukovata, Lidia; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Marzano, Mariella; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Phytosanitary import inspections are important to avoid entry of harmful pests on live plants. In the European Union (EU), all consignments of live plants must be inspected at the first point of entry, and plants allowed entry can be moved without further inspection among the 28 Member States and Switzerland. It is important that inspections in EU countries adhere to the same standard to avoid introduction of harmful organisms through countries with weaker methods. We tested whether sampling ...

  16. The strategic marketing reaction of conventional nonprofit hospitals to the market entry of alternative care provider organizations.

    Schul, P L; Remington, S J; Planchon, J M

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted examining the competitive reaction of incumbent firms to the market entry of new form competition in the health care services industry. Specifically, the study addressed the relative impact of both objective and perceptual characteristics of the threat potential posed by the entrance of alternative care facilities (ACF's) into markets previously dominated by nonprofit hospital organizations. The results showed that incumbent hospitals tend to rely most extensively on limited, low-risk market differentiation when responding to the threat posed by ACF entrants. Objective characteristics reflective of the structural complexity of the threat were found to be less important in influencing incumbent reaction than were administrators' perceptions of new entrant threat.

  17. Trends in Determinants of Entry into the Academic Career: The Case of South Korea, 1980-2010.

    Kim, Keuntae; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2015-01-01

    Substantial research documents the determinants of entry into the academic career, yet little is known about how these determinants have evolved over time. Using data from a large sample of Korean scholars who received their doctoral degrees between 1980 and 2010, we estimate discrete-time event history models of transitioning to an academic position in any academic field. Results indicate that universalistic characteristics, such as publication record, strongly affect subsequent career success, but so do particularistic factors, including doctoral institution prestige. Since the 1980s, the influence of doctoral degree prestige increased substantially more than the influence of one's publication record on higher education employment, implying that the rising importance of particularistic factors has outpaced growing consideration of universalistic characteristics in Korean academia. However, the importance of gender on academic employment has declined since the early 2000s, suggesting that the implementation of employment quotas for female professors may have stymied gender discrimination.

  18. Trends in Determinants of Entry into the Academic Career: The Case of South Korea, 1980-2010.

    Keuntae Kim

    Full Text Available Substantial research documents the determinants of entry into the academic career, yet little is known about how these determinants have evolved over time. Using data from a large sample of Korean scholars who received their doctoral degrees between 1980 and 2010, we estimate discrete-time event history models of transitioning to an academic position in any academic field. Results indicate that universalistic characteristics, such as publication record, strongly affect subsequent career success, but so do particularistic factors, including doctoral institution prestige. Since the 1980s, the influence of doctoral degree prestige increased substantially more than the influence of one's publication record on higher education employment, implying that the rising importance of particularistic factors has outpaced growing consideration of universalistic characteristics in Korean academia. However, the importance of gender on academic employment has declined since the early 2000s, suggesting that the implementation of employment quotas for female professors may have stymied gender discrimination.

  19. Quick look report, entry 4: Three Mile Island Unit 2, November 13, 1980

    Eidam, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during entry 4 at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on November 13, 1980, additional beta and gamma surveys were conducted to supplement data acquired on previous entries. A decontamination test was completed on Elevation 305. Power receptables tested on Elevation 305 were deenergized, but receptacles on Elevation 347 were energized. Still photography was acquired of Elevations 305 and 347. During the entry, 86 still photographs were taken. Videotaping (color and black and white) was done on Elevations 305 and 347, but lighting on both elevations was insufficient for high-quality video

  20. 76 FR 43263 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    2011-07-20

    ... (polyethylene, epoxies) under different loadings such as compression, fatigue, creep, impact, scratch and... sophisticated approach to analyzing the relationship of subcellular elements. Justification for Duty-Free Entry...

  1. Quick look report, Entry 3: Three Mile Island Unit 2, October 16, 1980

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes tasks performed during the third entry at Three Mile Island Unit 2. During the entry into containment, which was made on October 16, 1980, additional beta, gamma, and neutron surveys were performed to supplement data obtained on previous entries. In addition, several maintenance tasks were completed including testing the operation of both equipment hatch doors, replacing a loose parts monitor system pre-amplifier, and removing a source range monitor. The five-man entry team accomplished these tasks in about 1-1/2 hours

  2. Characterization of the receptor-binding domain of Ebola glycoprotein in viral entry.

    Wang, Jizhen; Manicassamy, Balaji; Caffrey, Michael; Rong, Lijun

    2011-06-01

    Ebola virus infection causes severe hemorrhagic fever in human and non-human primates with high mortality. Viral entry/infection is initiated by binding of glycoprotein GP protein on Ebola virion to host cells, followed by fusion of virus-cell membrane also mediated by GP. Using an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based pseudotyping system, the roles of 41 Ebola GP1 residues in the receptor-binding domain in viral entry were studied by alanine scanning substitutions. We identified that four residues appear to be involved in protein folding/structure and four residues are important for viral entry. An improved entry interference assay was developed and used to study the role of these residues that are important for viral entry. It was found that R64 and K95 are involved in receptor binding. In contrast, some residues such as I170 are important for viral entry, but do not play a major role in receptor binding as indicated by entry interference assay and/or protein binding data, suggesting that these residues are involved in post-binding steps of viral entry. Furthermore, our results also suggested that Ebola and Marburg viruses share a common cellular molecule for entry.

  3. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  4. Sunk costs equal sunk boats? The effect of entry costs in a transboundary sequential fishery

    Punt, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    that for other fisheries substantial sunk investments are needed. In this paper I investigate the effect of such sunk entry costs in a sequential fisheries. I model the uncertainty as a shock to the stock dependent fishing costs, in a two player game, where one of the players faces sunk entry costs. I find that......, depending on parameters, sunk costs can i) increase the competitive pressure on the fish stock compared to a game where entry is free ii) act as a deterrence mechanism and iii) act as a commitment device. I conclude that entry costs can play a crucial role because they can change the outcome of the game...

  5. Nordisk Wavin A/S: a story of successful entry in Poland

    Vestergaard, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Succesful entry in the Polish market by Nordisk Wavin A/S. An analysis of the entry process, its main steps and the managerial handling of the problems in each step.The firm,the market evaluation and potential,risk,information and the political imperative,handling the Polish market and the experi......Succesful entry in the Polish market by Nordisk Wavin A/S. An analysis of the entry process, its main steps and the managerial handling of the problems in each step.The firm,the market evaluation and potential,risk,information and the political imperative,handling the Polish market...

  6. Market entry, power, pharmacokinetics: what makes a successful drug innovation?

    Alt, Susanne; Helmstädter, Axel

    2018-02-01

    Depending on the timing of market entry, radical innovations can be distinguished from incremental innovations. Whereas a radical innovation typically is the first available derivative of a drug class, incremental innovations are launched later and show a certain benefit compared with the radical innovation. Here, we use historical market data relating to pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and other drug-related properties to investigate which derivatives within certain drug classes have been most successful on the market. Based on our investigations, we suggest naming the most successful drugs 'overtaking innovation', because they often exceed the market share of all the other derivatives. Seven drug classes showed that the overtaking innovation is never a radical innovation, but rather an early incremental innovation, with advantages in manageability and/or tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  8. Olympic athletes’ job market entry strategies. A typology

    Anna Vilanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a typology of job market entry strategies among Olympic athletes. Guided by rational choice theory and social reproduction theory, we conducted a telephone survey among 94 athletes (68 men and 26 women. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct groups, which we called parallel life strategists, freelance strategists, lifetime athletes, and non-strategists: it’s a job. The results show that athletes from families with greater economic and cultural capital implement career transition strategies further in advance and achieve greater career success and satisfaction. These findings can be used to develop support programs tailored to the needs of athletes according to their profile.

  9. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  10. Macropinocytosis is the Entry Mechanism of Amphotropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    of infection. Understanding how pathogens and toxins exploit or divert endocytosis pathways has advanced our understanding of membrane trafficking pathways, which benefits development of new therapeutical schemes and methods of drug delivery. We show here that Murine Leukemia Virus (A-MLV) pseudotyped......, or NIH-3T3 cells knocked-down for caveolin expression, was unaffected. Conversely, A-MLV infection of NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells was sensitive to amiloride analogues and actin-depolymerizing drugs that interfere with macropinocytosis. Further manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton through conditional...... with the amphotropic (expands the host range to many mammalian cells) envelope protein gains entry into host cells by macropinocytosis. Macropinosomes form as large, fluid-filled vacuoles (up to 10 μm) following collapse of cell surface protrusions and membrane scission. We use drugs or introduction of mutant proteins...

  11. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  12. Presenilin-mediated modulation of capacitative calcium entry.

    Yoo, A S; Cheng, I; Chung, S; Grenfell, T Z; Lee, H; Pack-Chung, E; Handler, M; Shen, J; Xia, W; Tesco, G; Saunders, A J; Ding, K; Frosch, M P; Tanzi, R E; Kim, T W

    2000-09-01

    We studied a novel function of the presenilins (PS1 and PS2) in governing capacitative calcium entry (CCE), a refilling mechanism for depleted intracellular calcium stores. Abrogation of functional PS1, by either knocking out PS1 or expressing inactive PS1, markedly potentiated CCE, suggesting a role for PS1 in the modulation of CCE. In contrast, familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked mutant PS1 or PS2 significantly attenuated CCE and store depletion-activated currents. While inhibition of CCE selectively increased the amyloidogenic amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42), increased accumulation of the peptide had no effect on CCE. Thus, reduced CCE is most likely an early cellular event leading to increased Abeta42 generation associated with FAD mutant presenilins. Our data indicate that the CCE pathway is a novel therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia....... The main research question is why it is so difficult for new entrepreneurs to enter markets, or in other words, why are the barriers to entry seemingly higher in developing countries? Development writers such as Hernando de Soto and Daron Acemoglu suggest that this question is closely related...... with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...

  14. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  15. Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing Architecture Study Overview

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Polsgrove, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Architecture Study is a multi-NASA center activity to analyze candidate EDL systems as they apply to human Mars landing in the context of the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The study, led by the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), is performed in conjunction with the NASA's Science Mission Directorate and the Human Architecture Team, sponsored by NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The primary objective is to prioritize future STMD EDL technology investments by (1) generating Phase A-level designs for selected concepts to deliver 20 t human class payloads, (2) developing a parameterized mass model for each concept capable of examining payloads between 5 and 40 t, and (3) evaluating integrated system performance using trajectory simulations. This paper summarizes the initial study results.

  16. What principles should govern the use of managed entry agreements?

    Klemp, Marianne; Frønsdal, Katrine; Facey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure rapid access to new potentially beneficial health technologies, obtain best value for money, and ensure affordability, healthcare payers are adopting a range of innovative reimbursement approaches that may be called Managed Entry Agreements (MEAs). METHODS: The Health...... Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum sought to identify why MEAs might be used, issues associated with implementation and develop principles for their use. A 2-day deliberative workshop discussed key papers, members' experiences, and collectively addressed four policy questions...... that resulted in this study. RESULTS: MEAs are used to give access to new technologies where traditional reimbursement is deemed inappropriate. Three different forms of MEAs have been identified: management of budget impact, management of uncertainty relating to clinical and/or cost...

  17. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: jimtong@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  18. Passivity analysis for a winged re-entry vehicle

    Mooij, E. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-10

    Application of simple adaptive control (SAC) theory to the design of guidance and control systems for winged re-entry vehicles has been proven successful. To apply SAC to these non-linear and non-stationary systems, it needs to be Almost Strictly Passive (ASP), which is an extension of the Almost Strictly Positive Real (ASPR) condition for linear, time-invariant systems. To fulfill the ASP condition, the controlled, non-linear system has to be minimum-phase (i.e., the zero dynamics is stable), and there is a specific condition for the product of output and input matrix. Earlier studies indicate that even the linearised system is not ASPR. The two problems at hand are: 1) the system is non-minimum phase when flying with zero bank angle, and 2) whenever there is hybrid control, e.g., yaw control is established by combined reaction and aerodynamic control for the major part of flight, the second ASPR condition cannot be met. In this paper we look at both issues, the former related to the guidance system and the latter to the attitude-control system. It is concluded that whenever the nominal bank angle is zero, the passivity conditions can never be met, and guidance should be based on nominal commands and a redefinition of those whenever the error becomes too large. For the remaining part of the trajectory, the passivity conditions are marginally met, but it is proposed to add feedforward compensators to alleviate these conditions. The issue of hybrid control is avoided by redefining the controls with total control moments and adding a so-called control allocator. Deriving the passivity conditions for rotational motion, and evaluating these conditions along the trajectory shows that the (non-linear) winged entry vehicle is ASP. The sufficient conditions to apply SAC for attitude control are thus met.

  19. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan; Horng, Jim-Tong; Lau, Kean Seng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. ► XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. ► The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A pro , but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A pro protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  20. On international fisheries agreements, entry deterrence, and ecological uncertainty.

    Ellefsen, Hans; Grønbæk, Lone; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    2017-05-15

    A prerequisite for an international fisheries agreement (IFA) to be stable is that parties expect the benefits from joining the agreement to exceed the benefits from free riding on the agreement, and parties only comply with the agreement as long as this is true. The agreement, therefore, implicitly builds on an expectation of the ecological condition of the natural resource. Game theoretical models often assume that all parties have the same (often perfect) information about the resource and that the exploitation is an equilibrium use of the stock. As stated by experts in natural science, the fish ecology still has many open questions, for example how to predict population dynamics, migration patterns, food availability, etc. In some cases, parties disagree about the state, abundance, and migration of a stock, which can reduce the possibilities of reaching an agreement for exploitation of the stock. This paper develops a model and applies it to the North-East Atlantic mackerel fishery, in order to analyze an IFA under different ecological scenarios, and also combines the model with the economic theory of entry deterrence. The model is used empirically to determine whether the parties with original access to the resource have an advantage when forming an agreement with a new party in having the ability to fish the stock down to a smaller size and thereby prevent another party from entering into the fishery. With a basis in entry deterrence, combined with lack of information, the paper illustrates the obstacles that have made an agreement for the North-East Atlantic mackerel so difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preterm birth, age at school entry and educational performance.

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if the lack of gestational age correction may explain some of the school failure seen in ex-preterm infants. A cohort study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The primary outcome was a low Key Stage 1 score (KS1) score at age 7 or having special educational needs (SEN). Exposure groups were defined as preterm (birth (DOB), expected date of delivery (EDD) or expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing covariate data. When matching for DOB, infants born preterm had an increased odds of a low KS1 score (OR 1.73 (1.45-2.06)) and this association persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.57 (1.25-1.97)). The association persisted in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.53 (1.21-1.94)) but attenuated substantially after additionally restricting to those infants who entered school at the same time as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.25 (0.98-1.60)). A compatible reduction in the population attributable risk fraction was seen from 4.60% to 2.12%, and year of school entry appeared to modify the association between gestational age and the risk of a poor KS1 score (p = 0.029). This study provides evidence that the school year placement and assessment of ex-preterm infants based on their actual birthday (rather than their EDD) may increase their risk of learning difficulties with corresponding school failure.

  2. Entry, Descent, and Landing for Human Mars Missions

    Munk, Michelle M.; DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of a human mission to Mars is landing safely on the Martian surface. Mars has such low atmospheric density that decelerating large masses (tens of metric tons) requires methods that have not yet been demonstrated, and are not yet planned in future Mars missions. To identify the most promising options for Mars entry, descent, and landing, and to plan development of the needed technologies, NASA's Human Architecture Team (HAT) has refined candidate methods for emplacing needed elements of the human Mars exploration architecture (such as ascent vehicles and habitats) on the Mars surface. This paper explains the detailed, optimized simulations that have been developed to define the mass needed at Mars arrival to accomplish the entry, descent, and landing functions. Based on previous work, technology options for hypersonic deceleration include rigid, mid-L/D (lift-to-drag ratio) aeroshells, and inflatable aerodynamic decelerators (IADs). The hypersonic IADs, or HIADs, are about 20% less massive than the rigid vehicles, but both have their technology development challenges. For the supersonic regime, supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) is an attractive option, since a propulsive stage must be carried for terminal descent and can be ignited at higher speeds. The use of SRP eliminates the need for an additional deceleration system, but SRP is at a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) in that the interacting plumes are not well-characterized, and their effect on vehicle stability has not been studied, to date. These architecture-level assessments have been used to define the key performance parameters and a technology development strategy for achieving the challenging mission of landing large payloads on Mars.

  3. Chemotherapy Order Entry by a Clinical Support Pharmacy Technician in an Outpatient Medical Day Unit.

    Neville, Heather; Broadfield, Larry; Harding, Claudia; Heukshorst, Shelley; Sweetapple, Jennifer; Rolle, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacy technicians are expanding their scope of practice, often in partnership with pharmacists. In oncology, such a shift in responsibilities may lead to workflow efficiencies, but may also cause concerns about patient risk and medication errors. The primary objective was to compare the time spent on order entry and order-entry checking before and after training of a clinical support pharmacy technician (CSPT) to perform chemotherapy order entry. The secondary objectives were to document workflow interruptions and to assess medication errors. This before-and-after observational study investigated chemotherapy order entry for ambulatory oncology patients. Order entry was performed by pharmacists before the process change (phase 1) and by 1 CSPT after the change (phase 2); order-entry checking was performed by a pharmacist during both phases. The tasks were timed by an independent observer using a personal digital assistant. A convenience sample of 125 orders was targeted for each phase. Data were exported to Microsoft Excel software, and timing differences for each task were tested with an unpaired t test. Totals of 143 and 128 individual orders were timed for order entry during phase 1 (pharmacist) and phase 2 (CSPT), respectively. The mean total time to perform order entry was greater during phase 1 (1:37 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.044). Totals of 144 and 122 individual orders were timed for order-entry checking (by a pharmacist) in phases 1 and 2, respectively, and there was no difference in mean total time for order-entry checking (1:21 min versus 1:20 min; p = 0.69). There were 33 interruptions not related to order entry (totalling 39:38 min) during phase 1 and 25 interruptions (totalling 30:08 min) during phase 2. Three errors were observed during order entry in phase 1 and one error during order-entry checking in phase 2; the errors were rated as having no effect on patient care. Chemotherapy order entry by a trained CSPT appeared to be just as safe and

  4. Host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus after two-step, furin-mediated activation of the spike protein

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly identified betacoronavirus causing high morbidity and mortality in humans. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is the main determinant of viral entry, and although it was previously shown that MERS-CoV S can be activated by various proteases, the details of the mechanisms of proteolytic activation of fusion are still incompletely characterized. Here, we have uncovered distinctive characteristics of MERS-CoV S. We identify, by bioinformatics and peptide cleavage assays, two cleavage sites for furin, a ubiquitously expressed protease, which are located at the S1/S2 interface and at the S2′ position of the S protein. We show that although the S1/S2 site is proteolytically processed by furin during protein biosynthesis, the S2′ site is cleaved upon viral entry. MERS-CoV pseudovirion infection was shown to be enhanced by elevated levels of furin expression, and entry could be decreased by furin siRNA silencing. Enhanced furin activity appeared to partially override the low pH-dependent nature of MERS-CoV entry. Inhibition of furin activity was shown to decrease MERS-CoV S-mediated entry, as well as infection by the virus. Overall, we show that MERS-CoV has evolved an unusual two-step furin activation for fusion, suggestive of a role during the process of emergence into the human population. The ability of MERS-CoV to use furin in this manner, along with other proteases, may explain the polytropic nature of the virus. PMID:25288733

  5. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may be...

  6. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  7. 32 CFR 552.25 - Entry regulations for certain Army training areas in Hawaii.

    2010-07-01

    ... in Hawaii. 552.25 Section 552.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... Regulations for Certain Army Training Areas in Hawaii § 552.25 Entry regulations for certain Army training areas in Hawaii. (a) Purpose. (1) This regulation establishes procedures governing the entry onto...

  8. A retrospective on : Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance

    Brouthers, K.D.

    For several decades researchers have focused on the entry mode decision because it is critically important for firms expanding abroad. Despite this attention we still lack clear tools to help managers make effective entry decisions. In this paper I review past research exploring transaction cost and

  9. Communist Cadres and Market Opportunities: Entry into Self-employment in China, 1978-1996

    Wu, Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of entry into self-employment in urban and rural China and across different reform stages, focusing on how communist cadres have responded to new market opportunities. Analysis of data from a national representative survey shows that both education and cadre status deter people from entry into self-employment in…

  10. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel; Olmos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  11. Contextualizing Territories in Gvc Supplier Nodes to Understand Chain Entry Barriers

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper deals with entry barriers for developing country suppliers to global value chains (GVCs). It is based on a study of food processing firms in Kenya undertaken between 2012 and 2014. The paper focuses on how entry barriers to GVCs are sometimes constructed within supplier countries, and ...

  12. Students' Understanding of Dictionary Entries: A Study with Respect to Four Learners' Dictionaries.

    Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…

  13. Ecologies of ideologies : Explaining party entry and exit in European parliaments, 1945-2013

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  14. Ecologies of Ideologies : Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  15. Prestige-Oriented Market Entry Strategy: The Case of Australian Universities

    Tayar, Mark; Jack, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Through an exploratory case study of four Australian universities this article finds that foreign market entry strategies are shaped by prestige-seeking motivations and a culture of risk aversion. From the market selection, entry mode and higher education literature, a conceptual model, embedded with four propositions, is presented. The model sees…

  16. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  17. SME international entry mode choice and performance : A transaction cost perspective

    Brouthers, K.D.; Nakos, G.

    2004-01-01

    Although small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a significant portion of international trade, little is know about how they make international entry mode decisions. Transaction cost theory has been widely used to study entry mode selection for large firms. Here we apply the theory to

  18. notebooks, looking for a very specific di- ary entry that he had made ...

    notebooks, looking for a very specific di- ary entry that he had made some years before. As he searches, the audience (or in this case, the reader) is shown glimpses from Fugard's actual diary entries since there is a significant overlap between dramatist and character. As Fugard (and. Fourie) confirms in the foreword to the.

  19. 12 CFR 615.5570 - Book-entry procedures for Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Securities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedures for Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Securities. 615.5570 Section 615.5570 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Securities § 615.5570 Book-entry procedures for Federal...

  20. 19 CFR 163.6 - Production and examination of entry and other records and witnesses; penalties.

    2010-04-01

    ... written, oral, or electronic notice, any Customs officer may require the production of entry records by... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and examination of entry and other..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RECORDKEEPING § 163.6 Production and...

  1. 19 CFR 18.6 - Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT General Provisions § 18.6 Short shipments; shortages; entry and allowance. (a) When there has been a short shipment and the short-shipped...

  2. Investigation of water entry impact forces on airborne-launched AUVs

    Duo Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne-launched AUVs withstand great fluid impact force at the early stage when entering the water, which may cause damage to their structure and inner components in severe cases. Due to their large volume and mass, the major challenge involved in conducting experiments to measure the water entry impacts on real-life AUVs is the high demand for the experimental devices, finding a suitable site, and the cost of the experiments. Using a gas gun as launching device, water entry experiments using a full-size AUV model are conducted under various conditions. The axial and radial force changes that occur during the water entry process are obtained, and some accompanied phenomena such as cavitation and turnover under different water entry conditions are observed. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is used to simulate the water entry process of airborne-launched AUVs. The simulation results fit well with the experimental data, the latter of which show that both the water entry velocity and entry angle have a great influence on the impact load during the water entry process. These data can provide valuable reference information for AUV structure design and launch condition selection.

  3. Guidelines for Preparing Psychological Specialists: An Entry-Level Course on Intellectual Assessment

    Oakland, Thomas; Wechsler, Solange Muglia

    2016-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for an entry-level course that prepares psychology students and practitioners to acquire entry-level skills, abilities, knowledge, and attitudes important to the individual assessment of intellectual abilities of children and youth. The article reviews prominent international, regional, and national policies,…

  4. 27 CFR 555.31 - Inspection of site accidents or fires; right of entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... accidents or fires; right of entry. 555.31 Section 555.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.31 Inspection of site accidents or fires; right of entry. Any ATF officer may inspect the site of any accident or fire in which there is reason to believe that...

  5. 42 CFR 35.13 - Entry for negotiation of release or settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entry for negotiation of release or settlement. 35.13 Section 35.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.13 Entry for negotiation of release...

  6. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in purity...

  7. The Benefit-Cost Relationship in Entry Job Training in Water Distribution.

    Reames, J. P. (Jim)

    The benefit-cost relationship analysis concerns the cost effectiveness of employment and training in the Water Distribution Division of the Dallas Water Utilities Department and deals specifically with 104 entry workers hired to become pipe fitters. Half of the entry workers were enrolled in the Public Service Careers (PSC) training program and…

  8. The Influence of China's Entry into the WTO on Its Education System

    Ding, Xiaohao; Yue, Changjun; Sun, Yuze

    2009-01-01

    The entry of China in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 holds a number of promises for educational services. The purpose of this article is to explore both the direct and the indirect influence of China's entry into WTO on its education system. The direct influence mainly refers to the increase in the demand for education overseas and in…

  9. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode Option for Danish SME's

    Hollensen, Svend; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relevance of an alternative entry mode, the incubator concept. Such an alternative entry mode like the so-called incubator is increasingly being used as a shortcut or bridge to a distant market. In-depth qualitative research on a selected case (Kelsen...

  10. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  11. 27 CFR 28.27 - Entry of wine into customs bonded warehouses.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of wine into customs... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.27 Entry of wine into customs bonded warehouses. Upon filing of the application or...

  12. Entry-Year Administrator Induction: A State and Local School District Model.

    Drury, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The Dayton (Ohio) City School District initiated a very successful pilot induction program for entry-year administrators in January 1987. Nine special workshops were planned to train both volunteer mentors and entry-year administrators in such areas as personal development, conflict management, problem identification and solution, time management,…

  13. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  14. RITD — Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-06-01

    The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  15. The Impact of the Syrian Refugee Crisis on Firm Entry and Performance in Turkey

    Akgunduz, Yusuf Emre; van den Berg, M.R.; Hassink, W.H.J.

    We analyze how the Syrian refugee inflows into Turkey affected firm entry and performance. To estimate the causal effects, we use instrumental variables, difference-in-differences, and synthetic control methodologies. The results suggest that hosting refugees is favorable for firms. Total firm entry

  16. Corporate Author Entry Records Retrieved by Use of Derived Truncated Search Keys

    Alan L. Landgraf

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to design a corporate author index to a large bibliographic file. The nature of corporate entries necessitates a different search key construction from that of personal names or titles. Derivation of a search key to select distinct corporate entry records is discussed.

  17. 75 FR 43997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    2010-07-27

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Transportation...

  18. 78 FR 57405 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    2013-09-18

    ... Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S... agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Transportation...

  19. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  20. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS CIVIL AVIATION United States Aircraft Accidents Abroad § 102.9 Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline...