WorldWideScience

Sample records for henblik pae planlaegning

  1. Strategy for research development and demonstration regarding hydrogen technology in Denmark. Hydrogen production. An account of production technologies against planning of a optimal danish effort within hydrogen; Strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration vedroerende brintteknologi i Danmark. Brintproduktion - Gennemgang af produktionsteknologier med henblik pae planlaegning af en optimal dansk indsats pae brintomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Danish Energy Authorities' formulation of a Danish strategy for hydrogen as an energy carrier, especially within production of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing fuels. The working-group has defined hydrogen production as the chain of processes necessary to convert a specific energy into enough clean hydrogen or hydrogen-containing fuels. The work has focused on energy sources that can be converted to hydrogen directly, i.e. biomass, solar energy, electricity, and fossil sources. (BA)

  2. Report on the future planning of on-shore sites for wind power plants. [Denmark]; Rapport om fremtidens planlaegning for vindmoeller pae land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    A working group appointed by the Minister for the Environment has looked at a number of challenges with municipal planning for new onshore wind turbines. The reason was a desire to review the existing planning basis in order to assess the opportunities and constraints found in the current regulations, on which the wind turbine planning is based. The intention has been to look at whether municipalities have the right planning tools to help to ensure the government's objectives for the continued expansion of wind turbines onshore, and whether new planning tools can be identified. In addition, there has been a desire to bring attention to a good planning process with a positive citizen participation and a fact-based information effort, because there often in the context of local and municipal planning emerges local discussions about the proper placement of new wind turbines. With this report the working group make a number of recommendations to the Minister for the Environment. The recommendations deal with proposals for clarification of the rules (the wind turbine directive and the instructions to the directive), proposals for new planning tools, and proposals for new forms of cooperation and information efforts. The review of the current regulations shows that municipalities generally have the tools they need for planning for siting wind turbines, but there is a need for some adjustments and clarifications of the wind turbine directive. No proposed extensive changes in the laws are proposed, but the working group propose a change of the rural zone regulations. (LN)

  3. 24 CFR 401.201 - How does HUD select PAEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA.... After the priority period expires, HUD will consider other eligible entities as PAEs for jurisdictions...

  4. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational optimisation; Simple modeller for fjernvarmesystemer med henblik pae belastningsudjaevning og driftsoptimering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Larsen, H.V. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this research project has been to further develop and test simple (aggregated) models of district heating (DH) systems for simulation and operational optimization, and to investigate the influence of Load Management and Demand Side Management (DMS) on the total operational costs. The work is based on physical-mathematical modelling and simulation of DH systems, and is a continuation of previous EFP-96 work. In the present EFP-2001 project the goals have been to improve the Danish method of aggregation by addressing the problem of aggregation of pressure losses, and to test the methods on a much larger data set than in the EFP-1996 project. In order to verify the models it is crucial to have good data at disposal. Full information on the heat loads and temperatures not only at the DH plant but also at every consumer (building) is needed, and therefore only a few DH systems in Denmark can supply such data. (BA)

  5. Merko Ehitus ostavit tshast karjera Pae netronutoi / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Pae karjääri arendaja Merko Ehitus peab pargi osaliselt võssa jätma, et kindlustada alal pesitsevate linnuliikide allesjäämine. Detailplaneeringu eskiisi koostab arhitektuuribüroo Ruum ja Maastik

  6. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis...

  7. 24 CFR 401.200 - Who may be a PAE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may be a PAE? 401.200 Section...

  8. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407...

  9. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  10. [Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yue, Bi-Song; Ning, Ji-Zu; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yan-Shu; Mi, Jun; Zuo, Lin; Xiong, Yuan-Qing

    2010-02-01

    A monthly 5-day periodic observation at 06:00-18:00 from March to November 2007 was conducted to record the behavioral processes, contents, and results, and the surrounding habitats of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Donglie, Chonger, and Reer villages of Tiebu Natural Reserve of Sichuan Province. The behavioral ethogram, vigilance behaviors ethogram and its PAE (posture, act, and environment) coding system of the Sichuan sika deer were established, which filled the gap of the PAE coding of ungulates vigilance behaviors. A total of 11 kinds of postures, 83 acts, and 136 behaviors were recorded and distinguished, with the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender, age, and season described. Compared with other ungulates, the behavioral repertoire of Sichuan sika deer was mostly similar to that of other cervid animals.

  11. Inimesed linnas = People in the city / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2006-01-01

    Eesti näitus "Joint Space" Veneetsia 10. arhitektuuribiennaalil. AB Urban Mark: Ülar Mark, Indrek Tiigi, Kaja Pae, Yoko Alender, Raul Kalvo, Tartu Ülikooli Geograafiainstituut: Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm, Positium ICT: Margus Tiru, Erki Saluveer. Näitusel oli eksponeeritud kolm mobiilpositsioneerimisega läbi viidud case study (EKA liikmete liikumisuuring, Eestit külastanud turistide uuring, Tallinna regiooni pendelrändajate uuring). Bibliograafia lk. 33

  12. Can prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) reduce the volume of the peripheral zone? MRI evaluation of zonal anatomy and infarction after PAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Ting [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City (China); Amouyal, Gregory; Pereira, Helena; Del Giudice, Costantino; Dean, Carole [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Correas, Jean-Michel [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital Necker, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Inserm (Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale) U970, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Thiounn, Nicolas [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Urology, Paris (France)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the impact of prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) on various prostate gland anatomical zones. We retrospectively reviewed paired MRI scans obtained before and after PAE for 25 patients and evaluated changes in volumes of the median lobe (ML), central gland (CG), peripheral zone (PZ) and whole prostate gland (WPV) following PAE. We used manual segmentation to calculate volume on axial view T2-weighted images for ML, CG and WPV. We calculated PZ volume by subtracting CG volume from WPV. Enhanced phase on dynamic contrasted-enhanced MRI was used to evaluate the infarction areas after PAE. Clinical results of International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function questionnaires and the urodynamic study were evaluated before and after PAE. Significant reductions in volume were observed after PAE for ML (26.2 % decrease), CG (18.8 %), PZ (16.4 %) and WPV (19.1 %; p < 0.001 for all these volumes). Patients with clinical failure had smaller volume reductions for WPV, ML and CG (all p < 0.05). Patients with significant CG infarction after PAE displayed larger WPV, ML and CG volume reductions (all p < 0.01). PAE can significantly decrease WPV, ML, CG and PZ volumes, and poor clinical outcomes are associated with smaller volume reductions. (orig.)

  13. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  14. Determination of the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of combinations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-antibiotic effect (PAE) is one of the pharmacodynamic parameters that can be defined as the time it takes for the microorganisms to regain its normal growth after the complete removal of the antimicrobial agent. PAE on 2 strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-Staphyloccous were induced by ...

  15. Beyond Barriers: Involving Hispanic Families in the Education Process. Padres a la escuela (PAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Magdalena C.

    The Padres a la escuela (PAE) or Parents in the School program in San Antonio (Texas) encouraged the participation of Hispanic parents in the education of their children. The successes of the PAE program are used in this guidebook to help parents, program staff, and policy makers in similar efforts. This handbook describes the history,…

  16. PEWARISAN NILAI-NILAI BUDAYA LOKAL DI MALANG RAYA (STUDI KAUS PAES MANTEN STYLE MALANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Suraya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to generate the construction of the learning component paes manten style Malangan built into the process of inheritance values of the local culture. This study includes qualitative research with case study design. In this study, the researchers present for extracting data on informants, at the time of interview and observation. The results of this study were (1 There is a learning process informally in the process of inheritance of learning paes manten Malangan but the learning process that takes place not only on the next generation but can be to anyone (2 The learning process in inheritance cultural values paes manten Malangan done by stages that must be done by the prospective makeup. And the passing skills of paes manten Malangan informal learning occurs at every stage there are deliberate by students (prospective cosmetic, but a source of learning (cosmetic do not realize, or vice versa. (3 Components of learning in paes manten Malangan can not be seen as in formal education but still can be seen implied. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan konstruksi komponen pembelajaran paes manten style Malangan yang dibangun dalam proses pewarisan nila-nilai budaya lokal. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus. Pada penelitian ini,  peneliti  hadir  untuk penggalian data dari informan, yaitu pada saat wawancara dan observasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah (1 terdapat proses belajar secara informal pada proses pewarisan pembelajaran paes manten Malangan, namun proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung tidak hanya terjadi pada satu generasi penerus saja tetapi bisa kepada siapa saja (2 proses pembelajaran dalam pewarisan nilai-nilai budaya paes manten Malangan dilakukan dengan tahapan-tahapan yang harus dilakukan oleh calon perias. Pewarisan keterampilan paes manten Malangan pembelajaran informal terjadi pada setiap tahapannya ada yang disengaja oleh peserta didik (calon perias namun sumber belajar

  17. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth....

  18. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com; Sánchez, Francisco M., E-mail: msanchez@ccmijesususon.com [Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.

  19. Evidence Supporting the Internal Validity of the Proposed ND-PAE Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2017-06-20

    The internal validity of the proposed Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was evaluated in children diagnosed with either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS who were 3-10 years of age and had enrolled in a math intervention study. Symptoms were coded as present or absent using assessments conducted in the study, including standardized measures of neurocognitive and behavioral functioning, parent interview, and direct observations of the child. The number of endorsed ND-PAE symptoms was not related to environmental factors but was moderately related to the child's age. ND-PAE symptoms were highly consistent and this did not vary by age. Evidence suggested the ND-PAE adaptive symptoms may be too restrictive and only one symptom from this domain may be sufficient. Impulsiveness was not related to an endorsement of the ND-PAE disorder but research is needed with other clinical groups to establish the discriminative validity of this symptom.

  20. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  1. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  2. Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE and studies of Mexican biogeography PAE y el estudio de la biogeografía de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE has become a popular analytical approach in efforts to map the biogeography of Mexican biotas. Although attractive, the technique has serious drawbacks that make correct inferences of biogeographic history unlikely, which has been noted amply in the broader literature.El PAE se ha convertido en un método popular en los esfuerzos por resumir, en forma de mapas, la biogeografía de la biota de México. A pesar de su atractivo, la técnica tiene problemas serios que impiden que las conclusiones resultantes sean las correctas. Estos problemas se han hecho ampliamente evidentes en la literatura sobre este campo.

  3. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com; Sánchez, Francisco M., E-mail: msanchez@ccmijesususon.com [Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  4. PAEs occurrence and sources in road dust and soil in/around parks in May in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Ji, Yaqin; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 45 composite soil and road dust samples collected in the urban zone of Tianjin, China. Three sample types (one soil and two road dust) were collected from the city parks. Soil samples (SI) were obtained from inside the park, road dust samples (RDI) were gathered from inside the park roads and the others (RDA) from roads surrounding parks. The range of concentrations of ∑6PAEs in SI, RDI and RDA were 0.07-0.92μgg-1, 0.42-6.32μgg-1 and 0.40-7.54μgg-1, respectively. The highest SI ∑6PAEs concentration (0.92μgg-1 in The People's Park) was 13 times higher than that of the lowest content (0.07μgg-1 in XiLiu Park). Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PAEs in RDI showed higher contents in the Nankai and Hexi districts. PAEs concentrations in different types of roads displayed significant differences (P roads such as arterial road > sub-arterial road > branch road. The results of nonparametric tests on ∑6PAEs revealed significant differences between every two different sample types (P < 0.05). The analysis of the six PAEs types indicated DnBP and DEHP were the primary contaminating compounds in all sample types. The PCA results showed cosmetics and personal care products were important sources of PAEs in SI, and plasticizers were the key sources of PAEs in RDI and RDA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-xin, E-mail: wenxin973@foxmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, Chinbay Q. [Gas Technology Institute, 1700 S. Mt. Prospect Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60018 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The pine needle/rhizosphere soil distribution of PAEs was related to P{sub L} and K{sub P}. • The P{sub L} and K{sub P} determined the PAE deposition to surface soils and to needles. • High regression parameters of log Rs/n − log P{sub L} and log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} were achieved. • Log Rs/n carried the information of K{sub P} and lineally correlated with log P{sub L}. - Abstract: Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas + particle) was 97.0 ng m{sup −3}. The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (K{sub P}) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined K{sub P} values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (P{sub L}). A set of interesting relationships of log Rs/n − log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in K{sub P} and correlated with P{sub L}.

  6. Evaluating the potential genotoxicity of phthalates esters (PAEs) in perfumes using in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Rajudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran; Manogaran, Pulicat

    2017-10-01

    We previously reported high levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) added as solvents or fixatives in 47 brands of perfumes. Diethyl phthalate was the most abundant compound (0.232-23,649 ppm), and 83.3% of the perfumes had levels >1 ppm, the threshold limit cited by a Greenpeace investigation. All samples had dimethyl phthalate levels higher than its threshold limit of 0.1 ppm, and 88, 38, and 7% of the perfumes had benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate levels, respectively, above their threshold limits. The role of PAEs as endocrine disruptors has been well documented, but their effect on genotoxic behavior has received little attention. We used in vitro single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) and micronucleus (MN) assays with human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to evaluate the genotoxic potency of 42 of the same perfumes and to determine its association with PAEs. All perfumes induced more DNA damage than a negative control (NEG), ≥ 90% of the samples caused more damage than cells treated with the vehicles possibly used in perfume's preparations such as methanol (ME) and ethanol (ET), and 11.6% of the perfumes caused more DNA damage than a positive control (hydrogen peroxide). Chromosome breakage expressed as MN frequency was higher in cells treated with 71.4, 64.3, 57.1, and 4.8% of the perfumes than in NEG, cells treated with ME or ET, and another positive control (x-rays), respectively. The genotoxic responses in the comet and MN assays were not correlated. The comet assay indicated that the damage in TK6 cells treated with five PAEs at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.2 ppm either individually or as a mixture did not differ significantly from the damage in cells treated with the perfumes. Unlike the comet assay, the sensitivity of the MN assay to PAEs was weak at both low and high concentrations, and MN frequencies were generally low. This study demonstrates for the first time the possible contribution of PAEs in perfumes to DNA

  7. Prostatic Tissue Elimination After Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE): A Report of Three Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Leandro Cardarelli; Assis, Andre Moreira de; Moreira, Airton Mota [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Harward, Sardis Honoria [The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (United States); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel [University of Sao Paulo, Discipline of Urology (Brazil); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: francisco.carnevale@criep.com.br [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeWe report three cases of spontaneous prostatic tissue elimination through the urethra while voiding following technically successful prostatic artery embolization (PAE) as a treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsAll patients were embolized with 100- to 300-μm microspheres alone or in combination with 300- to 500-μm microspheres.ResultsDuring follow-up prior to eliminating the tissue fragments, the three patients all presented with intermittent periods of LUTS improvement and aggravation. After expelling the prostatic tissue between 1 and 5 months of follow-up, significant improvements in LUTS and urodynamic parameters were observed in all patients.ConclusionsUrethral obstruction after PAE caused by sloughing prostate tissue is a potential complication of the procedure and should be considered in patients with recurrent LUTS in order to avoid inappropriate management.

  8. Matemaatika mänguline õppimine hoiab rutiini eemal : Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikool, Tallinna Pae Gümnaasium

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Vestlusest Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikooli matemaatikaõpetaja ja keelekümblusvaldkonna õppealajuhataja Jelena Bezvoditskaja ja Tallinna Pae Gümnaasiumi matemaatikaõpetaja ning algklasside keelekümblusprogrammi juhi Roza Skatškovaga

  9. C-band 10-Watt HBT high-power amplifier with 50% PAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, A.P. de; Boer, A. de; Svensson, T.

    2001-01-01

    The design and measurement of a C-band HBT high-power amplifier (HPA) is discussed. The amplifier is realised in the HB20P power HBT process of UMS. The HPA combines a high average output power of 9 Watt with both a high gain of 21.6 dB and a high power added effciency (PAE) of 50% over about 20%

  10. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in agricultural soils of the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Liang, Hong; Gao, Da-Wen

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at the pollution status of six priority control phthalate esters (PAEs) under different cultivation of agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China. Results show the total concentration of PAEs ranged from 162.9 to 946.9 μg kg(-1) with an average value of 369.5 μg kg(-1). PAE concentrations in three types of cultivated soils exhibited decreasing order paddy field (532.1 ± 198.1 μg kg(-1)) > vegetable field (308.2 ± 87.5 μg kg(-1)) > bean field (268.2 ± 48.3 μg kg(-1)). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were the most abundant PAEs congeners. Compared with previous studies, agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain showed relatively low contamination levels. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation practices and industrial emissions were associated with the distribution pattern of PAEs. Furthermore, human health risks of PAEs were estimated and the non-cancer risk shown negligible but carcinogenic risk of DEHP exceeded the threshold limits value. PAE contaminants originated from cultivation practices and intense anthropogenic activities result in placing the agricultural soils under a potential risk to human health and also to ecosystems in the Sanjiang Plain. Therefore, the contamination status of PAEs in agricultural soil and potential impacts on human health should attract considerable attention.

  11. Cost Analysis of Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Sandeep; Smirniotopoulos, John; Orlando, Julie; Piechowiak, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    Prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to TURP; however, there are limited cost comparisons reported. The purpose of this study was to compare in-hospital direct costs of elective PAE and TURP in a hospital setting. Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review was performed on patients undergoing PAE and TURP from January to December 2014. Inclusion criteria included male patients greater than 40 years of age who presented for ambulatory TURP or PAE with no history of prior surgical intervention for BPH. Direct costs were categorized into the following categories: nursing and operating room or interventional room staffing, operating room or interventional supply costs, anesthesia supplies, anesthesia staffing, hospital room cost, radiology, and laboratory costs. Additionally, length of stay was evaluated for both groups. The mean patient age for the TURP (n = 86) and PAE (n = 70) cohorts was 71.3 and 64.4 years, respectively (p supplies for PAE were significantly more costly than TURP ($1472.77 vs $1080.84, p supplies and nursing/staffing, costs were significantly more expensive for TURP than PAE ($2153.64 vs $1667.10 p costs for the TURP group ($5338.31, SD $3521.17) were significantly higher than for PAE ($1678.14, SD $442.0, p costs and shorter hospital stay.

  12. Methods of supporting learning and development of competence's with a view to electricity conservation - exemplified by hotels and restaurants; Metoder der kan stoette medarbejdernes laering og kompetanceudvikling med henblik pae el-besparelser - eksemplificeret ved hoteller og restauranter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report explains the R and D project and provides the background for the developed overview model and the established homepage under www.horesta/elfor.dk, where the results from the project are published. The aim of this project has been to develop and test a method that can support learning and competence development in relation to energy consumption in hotels and restaurants. The aim being to support the employee's ability and will to act towards occurring problems and provide solutions to energy consumption. The project has resulted in the development of an overview model, which support the learning, and competence development of the employees. The model has three main elements or pillars: the hotel, the strategy of involvement and the energy conservation process. Each of them contains a 'descriptive level' and a 'result layer' with conclusions in relation to potentials and barriers. Furthermore there is included a layer of examples. Initial there has been made a systematic mapping of the energy consumption in hotels and restaurants in relation to the building design and the behaviours of the employees. Special focus has been given to the possibilities for energy conservation through change in the behaviour and habits of consuming energy. The mapping is based on already available materials/methods to up-date these materials/methods the energy consumption was registered in 6 typical hotels and restaurants. The mapping covered measurement of the total electricity consumption and the consumption at selected areas/apparatus followed by a registration of the utilisation of locations and apparatus to identify significant possibilities for conservation of electricity. The effect for savings on electricity and especially the behavioural related savings was evaluated and good practices were established. The most promising possibilities for savings were described in guidelines. These guidelines, which are registered at the project homepage and have been forwarded to the project participants, have been used in connection with dialog meetings with the involved companies. The method in the project is based on involvement of the employees from the selected hotels and restaurants a method anchored in action research or the research based development work. Insight in the location is seen as the crucial for the employee's competence/ability to act and the employees are seen as the 'experts' in relation to the changes, which can be made. The projects is based on qualitative research methods and learning and competence development. The project has taken its foundation in this knowledge with regard to develop a new understanding on how knowledge can be connected to action within the area investigated in the project. I.e.: 1) Specify the kind of knowledge that contribute to the employee's ability and will to act and change. 2) Pin point the barriers of different groups in relation to take action, including problems in relation to use explicit knowledge in decision processes which have consequences for the action and behaviour. 3) Enlighten connections between knowledge, actions and participation in learning- and change processes, which include energy consumption and behaviour. 4) Educated understanding of how employees can expand their ways and means to act in relation to consumption of energy, including a way to document technological, normative and organisatorial support structures for action. There has been established a homepage containing information of the project and the results of the project: www.horesta/elfor.dk. The homepage can be used by both case companies and non-participating companies having a general interest in energy conservation. The target group is the employees at hotel (and restaurants). There has been elaborated a folder describing ways and means to involve employees and it can serve as inspiration for both contributors and non-participating companies. The folder has been placed on the homepage under 'materials'. The folder has however also been send to the contributing companies. Furthermore here has been elaborated an idea catalogue for companies which plan to start projects on electricity savings involving employees. Information of the learning's and experiences from the project has been prepared in form of an overview model, which has been put on the homepage. The model is made in a way that different target groups can utilise it as the tool to support the implementation of the electric saving process with involvement of the employees. There has been made a short introduction to the overview model on the homepage especially directed to employees at the hotels. The information can also be used as a folder. Highlights from the project were summaries in connection with the conclusion of the project on dialogue meetings with companies and energy advisers. One of the conclusions of the project is that the model for involvement of employees and the highlights from the development project are exemplary and can be utilised by other businesses that hotels and restaurants, when companies and energy advisers initiates electricity savings and involvement of employees. The project has been carried through with a working group of employees from the Environmental department at HORESTA, HTS, Groen Noegle, Dansk Energianalyse and DPU. Researchers and project participants from DPU have been responsible for the content of the project and for the development and test of methods for involving employees with the aim to carry through electricity savings. Dansk Energi Analyse has carried through the mapping of energy consumption and the information of results to the companies. HORESTA has been responsible for the contact to the companies and the information of the results of the project shown on HORESTAs homepage. (au)

  13. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Versus Original and PErFecTED Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Preliminary Results of a Single Center, Prospective, Urodynamic-Controlled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Iscaife, Alexandre, E-mail: iscaifeboni@yahoo.com.br; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M., E-mail: dumuracca@ig.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br; Srougi, Miguel, E-mail: srougi@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare clinical and urodynamic results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to original and PErFecTED prostate artery embolization (PAE) methods for benign prostatic hyperplasia.MethodsWe prospectively randomized 30 patients to receive TURP or original PAE (oPAE) and compared them to a cohort of patients treated by PErFecTED PAE, with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were assessed for urodynamic parameters, prostate volume, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL).ResultsAll groups were comparable for all pre-treatment parameters except bladder contractility and peak urine flow rate (Q{sub max}), both of which were significantly better in the TURP group, and IIEF score, which was significantly higher among PErFecTED PAE patients than TURP patients. All groups experienced significant improvement in IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, and Q{sub max}. TURP and PErFecTED PAE both resulted in significantly lower IPSS than oPAE but were not significantly different from one another. TURP resulted in significantly higher Q{sub max} and significantly smaller prostate volume than either original or PErFecTED PAE but required spinal anesthesia and hospitalization. Two patients in the oPAE group with hypocontractile bladders experienced recurrence of symptoms and were treated with TURP. In the TURP group, urinary incontinence occurred in 4/15 patients (26.7 %), rupture of the prostatic capsule in 1/15 (6.7 %), retrograde ejaculation in all patients (100 %), and one patient was readmitted for temporary bladder irrigation due to hematuria.ConclusionsTURP and PAE are both safe and effective treatments. TURP and PErFecTED PAE yield similar symptom improvement, but TURP is associated with both better urodynamic results and more adverse events.

  16. Evaluación de AE y PAE para identificar trazos generalizados, a partir de las serpientes del estado de Hidalgo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel Canales, Gustavo; Goyenechea Mayer-Goyenechea, Irene; Fernández Badillo, Leonardo; Castillo Cerón, Jesús Martín

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los conceptos centrales en la Panbiogeografía es el trazo generalizado, el cual representa una biota ancestral que se ha fragmentado por eventos geológicos y puede recuperarse a través de distintos métodos, que incluyen el análisis de simplicidad de endemismos (PAE) y el análisis de endemicidad (AE). El PAE es un método frecuentemente utilizado para la identificación de trazos generalizados, mientras que el AE fue diseñado para encontrar áreas de endemismo, pero recientemente se ha usa...

  17. COMUNICAÇÃO EMPRESARIAL NA MODERNIDADE: uma entrevista com a Dra. Cláudia Paes Borba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Mello Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A entrevistada dessa edição é a professora Cláudia Paes Borba. Ela é graduada em jornalismo, mestre e doutora em Administração pela PUC/RS. Atualmente é professora do curso de Publicidade e Propaganda da Faculdade Novo Milênio de Vila Velha no Espírito Santo. Ministra atualmente as disciplinas de Marketing Estratégico e Comunicação Empresarial. Na conversa com a Dra Cláudia foi colocado em pauta um dos grandes assuntos da gestão moderna, se comunicar de maneira eficiente, dentro e fora da empresa, diante de tantas transformações tecnológicas, bem como ser criativo na relação com os públicos.

  18. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. "I Want It All, and I Want It Now": Lifetime Prevalence and Reasons for Using and Abstaining from Controlled Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAES) among Young Exercisers and Amateur Athletes in Five European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Loukovitis, Andreas; Brand, Ralf; Hudson, Andy; Mallia, Luca; Michaelides, Michalis; Muzi, Milena; Petróczi, Andrea; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Doping use in recreational sports is an emerging issue that has received limited attention so far in the psychological literature. The present study assessed the lifetime prevalence of controlled performance and appearance enhancing substances (PAES), and used behavioral reasoning theory to identify the reasons for using and for avoiding using controlled PAES in young exercisers across five European countries, in the context of the "SAFE YOU" Project. Participants were 915 young amateur athletes and exercisers (M = 21.62; SD = 2.62) from Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, and UK who completed an anonymous questionnaire that included measures of self-reported use of controlled PAES, as well as reasons for using and not using controlled PAES. The results of the descriptive analyses demonstrated that almost one out five exercisers in the sample had a previous experience with controlled PAES. Higher prevalence rates were found in Greece and Cyprus and lower in Italy. The most frequently reported reasons for using controlled PAES included achieving the desired results faster; pushing the self to the (physical) limits; and recovering faster after exercise/training. Furthermore, the most frequently reported reasons for not using controlled PAES involved worry about any possible adverse health effects; not feeling the need for using them; and wanting to see what can be achieved naturally without using any controlled PAES. The findings of the present study indicate that the use of controlled PAES is fast becoming a crisis in amateur sports and exercise settings and highlight the need for preventive action and concerted anti-doping education efforts.

  20. “I Want It All, and I Want It Now”: Lifetime Prevalence and Reasons for Using and Abstaining from Controlled Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAES among Young Exercisers and Amateur Athletes in Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros Lazuras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping use in recreational sports is an emerging issue that has received limited attention so far in the psychological literature. The present study assessed the lifetime prevalence of controlled performance and appearance enhancing substances (PAES, and used behavioral reasoning theory to identify the reasons for using and for avoiding using controlled PAES in young exercisers across five European countries, in the context of the “SAFE YOU” Project. Participants were 915 young amateur athletes and exercisers (M = 21.62; SD = 2.62 from Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, and UK who completed an anonymous questionnaire that included measures of self-reported use of controlled PAES, as well as reasons for using and not using controlled PAES. The results of the descriptive analyses demonstrated that almost one out five exercisers in the sample had a previous experience with controlled PAES. Higher prevalence rates were found in Greece and Cyprus and lower in Italy. The most frequently reported reasons for using controlled PAES included achieving the desired results faster; pushing the self to the (physical limits; and recovering faster after exercise/training. Furthermore, the most frequently reported reasons for not using controlled PAES involved worry about any possible adverse health effects; not feeling the need for using them; and wanting to see what can be achieved naturally without using any controlled PAES. The findings of the present study indicate that the use of controlled PAES is fast becoming a crisis in amateur sports and exercise settings and highlight the need for preventive action and concerted anti-doping education efforts.

  1. Exploring the boundaries of individual and collective land use management: institutional arrangements in the PAE Chico Mendes (Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Michel Le Tourneau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic modernization of the Amazon fostered by the Brazilian military government during the 1960s and 1970s was largely realized without taking into consideration the presence of local households which lived from the extraction of forest products (mainly non-timber. When they began to be expulsed, a political resistance, often guided by the Catholic Church, appeared as well as the creation of unions based on traditional identities, especially that of rubber tappers. During the 1980s, these unions made a strategic alliance with the ecologist movement which started to consider traditional populations, whose lifestyle depended on the forest, as allies for the protection of the Amazon rainforest. The movement gained a decisive momentum at the end of the decade by putting forward new proposals of land tenure for traditional populations, grounded on collective land rights. This strategy has been very efficient during the 1990s and 2000s, during which about 1,300,000 km2 of rainforest were set apart and reserved for the use of “traditional communities” under a variety of legal status. But it has also led to mix under the same “collective” etiquette and principles a number of different ways of using and managing land and natural resources. This assumption however should be nuanced by a careful analysis of the resource management systems existing in each case, for they are in general complex and mix varying proportions of individual and collective decisions. The aim of this paper is to explore this question using the example of the Chico Mendes agroextractive settlement (PAE-CM, inhabited by about 100 rubber tapper families and symbolic of the political struggle of traditional populations in the Amazon for being the home of the rubber tapper leader Chico Mendes assassinated in 1988. Applying Ostrom “design principles”, we try to catch what are the local institutional arrangements and to see if they suggest

  2. Kinetic and isothermal adsorption-desorption of PAEs on biochars: effect of biomass feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and mechanism implication of desorption hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fanqi; Pan, Minjun; Chen, Jiawei

    2018-02-09

    Biochar has the potential to sequester biomass carbon efficiently into land, simultaneously while improving soil fertility and crop production. Biochar has also attracted attention as a potential sorbent for good performance on adsorption and immobilization of many organic pollutants such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a typical plasticizer in plastic and presenting a current environmental issue. Due to lack of investigation on the kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption-desorption of PAEs on biochar, we systematically assessed adsorption-desorption for two typical PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP), using biochar derived from peanut hull and wheat straw at different pyrolysis temperatures (450, 550, and 650 °C). The aromaticity and specific surface area of biochars increased with the pyrolysis temperature, whereas the total amount of surface functional groups decreased. The quasi-second-order kinetic model could better describe the adsorption of DMP/DEP, and the adsorption capacity of wheat straw biochars was higher than that of peanut hull biochars, owing to the O-bearing functional groups of organic matter on exposed minerals within the biochars. The thermodynamic analysis showed that DMP/DEP adsorption on biochar is physically spontaneous and endothermic. The isothermal desorption and thermodynamic index of irreversibility indicated that DMP/DEP is stably adsorbed. Sorption of PAEs on biochar and the mechanism of desorption hysteresis provide insights relevant not only to the mitigation of plasticizer mobility but also to inform on the effect of biochar amendment on geochemical behavior of organic pollutants in the water and soil.

  3. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: The study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wei, Junfu, E-mail: weijunfu1963@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Amphiphilic PP-g-GMA-OA nonwoven was prepared and characterized. • Synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was elucidated. • The effects of hydrophilic microdomain on diffusion resistance and energy barrier were elucidated. • Adsorbent material with amphiphilic structures showed faster adsorption rate and lager adsorption capacity. - Abstract: A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.

  4. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in apparel textile by core-shell structured Fe3O4@silica@triblock-copolymer magnetic microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Liu, Minhua; Sun, Meirong; Chen, Kun; Cao, Xiujun; Hu, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, novel core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/silica nanocomposites with triblock-copolymer grafted on their surface (Fe3O4@SiO2@MDN) were successfully fabricated by combining a sol-gel method with a seeded aqueous-phase radical copolymerization approach. Owing to the excellent characteristics of the strong magnetic responsivity, outstanding hydrophilicity and abundant π-electron system, the obtained core-shell structured microspheres showed great potential as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent. Several kinds of phthalate esters (PAEs) were selected as model analytes to systematically evaluate the applicability of adsorbents for extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Various parameters, including adsorbents amounts, adsorption time, species of eluent, and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Validation experiments such as recovery, reproducibility, and limit of detection were carried on and showed satisfactory results. The analysis method showed excellent linearity with a wide range of 0.2-10mg/kg (R(2)>0.9974) and low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.02-0.09 mg/kg (S/N=3). Ultimately, the novel magnetic adsorbents were successfully employed to detect the PAEs in apparel textile samples. And the results indicated that this novel approach brought forward in the present work offered an attractive alternative for rapid, efficient and sensitive MSPE for PAEs compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola; Al-Rajoudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (pwastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater

  6. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de profesionales en farmacia sobre la anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (PAE en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Barrientos Esquivel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El embarazo no deseado continúa siendo un problema de salud pública que afecta a muchas parejas en todo el mundo. En Costa Rica, a pesar que la prevalencia de uso de anticonceptivos entre las mujeres es 82,1%; un 47% de ellas refirió que el embarazo del último hijo no fue deseado. Por ello, se estudian los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de una muestra de profesionales de farmacia. Mediante un cuestionario se indaga respecto a las indicaciones, efectos secundarios, mecanismo de acción, eficacia, disposición a la prescripción y prescripción de píldoras anticonceptivas de emergencia. Los resultados muestran un alto conocimiento de la existencia y efectos secundarios de las PAE. Asimismo, el conocimiento de su eficacia y mecanismo de acción es bajo; al igual que la prescripción que llega apenas a 10%. Se concluye que, a pesar del alto conocimiento, la baja prescripción se relaciona con el bajo conocimiento de la evidencia vigente de su mecanismo de acción. Se recomienda la actualización continua de la formación de este grupo profesional en Farmacia en Costa Rica en relación con las PAE.

  7. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de profesionales en farmacia sobre la anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (PAE en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Barrientos Esquivel

    Full Text Available El embarazo no deseado continúa siendo un problema de salud pública que afecta a muchas parejas en todo el mundo. En Costa Rica, a pesar que la prevalencia de uso de anticonceptivos entre las mujeres es 82,1%; un 47% de ellas refirió que el embarazo del último hijo no fue deseado.Por ello, se estudian los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de una muestra de profesionales de farmacia. Mediante un cuestionario se indaga respecto a las indicaciones, efectos secundarios, mecanismo de acción, eficacia, disposición a la prescripción y prescripción de píldoras anticonceptivas de emergencia. Los resultados muestran un alto conocimiento de la existencia y efectos secundarios de las PAE. Asimismo, el conocimiento de su eficacia y mecanismo de acción es bajo; al igual que la prescripción que llega apenas a 10%. Se concluye que, a pesar del alto conocimiento, la baja prescripción se relaciona con el bajo conocimiento de la evidencia vigente de su mecanismo de acción. Se recomienda la actualización continua de la formación de este grupo profesional en Farmacia en Costa Rica en relación con las PAE.

  8. Respuesta a Escalante (2011 "De cómo el análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE tampoco explica la selección natural" A reply to Escalante (2011 "About how Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity does not explain natural selection either"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos algunos tópicos que a nuestro entender son controvertidos del trabajo de Escalante (2011. Tanto la definición del PAE como las clasificaciones de los tipos de PAE propuestas por la autora, no reflejan exactamente la propuesta por los autores originales. La defensa que la autora hace a críticas que se han hecho del PAE, creemos que no está justificada. El argumento que utiliza para descalificar estas críticas se contradice con respecto a una de las clasificaciones que propone para el PAE. PAE como método histórico, tiene como objetivo el descubrimiento de relaciones entre áreas. De esta manera, consideramos que el hecho de tener los mismos objetivos que los métodos de la biogeografía cladística es lo que permite su comparación. El PAE considera las especies endémicas de algunas áreas (análogas a sinapomorfías en sistemática filogenética como indicadoras de una historia biótica compartida entre ellas, similar a la aplicación del supuesto 0. La presencia de tales especies en esas áreas también podría explicarse por eventos de dispersión recientes, o bien, porque se encuentran condiciones ecológicas favorables. La pregunta que se le hace al PAE es fundamental para la obtención de hipótesis coherentes, pero no necesariamente la respuesta correcta se obtiene con PAE.We discuss some topics which we believe are controversial on Escalante's work (2011. Both, the definition of PAE and the classification of the types of PAE proposed by the author do not accurately reflect the proposal by the original authors. The defense that the author makes is not justified. The argument used to dismiss these criticisms are inconsistent with the classification proposed for the PAE. PAE as historical method aims at discovering relationships between areas. Thus, we believe that having the same objectives as the methods of cladistic biogeography allow us the comparison. PAE considers the endemic species in shared areas as indicative of

  9. Análisis Socioeconómico de los Modelos de Finca promovidos por el Programa Ambiental de El Salvador (PAES) en la Microcuenca del Rio Guazapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Cortez, Sigfredo

    2010-01-01

    La investigación se realizó de enero del 2003 hasta agosto del 2004 en la micro cuenca del río Guazapa, la cual tiene una extensión de 139.64 km², ubicada en los departamentos de Cuscatlán y San Salvador, abarcando los municipios de San José Guayabal, Tonacatepeque, Guazapa, San Martín, Oratorio de Concepción y Suchitoto. El trabajo consistió en un estudio socio económico de los modelos de finca implementados en los años 1999 y 2000 por los agricultores que participaron en el proyecto MAG-PAE...

  10. Neurodevelopmental disorder associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol (ND-PAE): A proposed diagnostic method of capturing the neurocognitive phenotype of FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Mukherjee, Raja A S

    2017-01-01

    Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) was proposed as a diagnostic formulation intended to capture the range of mental health problems occurring in alcohol-affected individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. The proposed criteria for the disorder are reviewed as well as various factors considered in the development of the disorder and its associated criteria. The taxonomic research related to the disorder is reviewed with preliminary analyses indicating that clinicians are readily able to agree when applying the diagnostic criteria but that the adaptive functioning criteria may need to be modified to expand its coverage of alcohol-affected individuals and to aid in discriminating these individuals from others not alcohol-affected. Finally, the challenges with translating the diagnosis into European medical and mental healthcare systems are discussed and recommendations for facilitating implementation are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of So-cheong-ryong-tang and Yeon-gyo-pae-dok-san on the common cold: randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jun-Seop; Yang, Su-Young; Jeong, In-Cheol; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Kang, Weechang; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2011-01-27

    So-cheong-ryong-tang (SCRT) and Yeon-gyo-pae-dok-san (YPS) extracts are widely used in treatment of the common cold. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of SCRT and YPS on the common cold. Four hundred eighty participants with symptoms of the common cold within 48 h were recruited for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SCRT extract and YPS extract were put in gelatin capsules and orally administered 3 times a day. The pattern of participants was determined according to the Questionnaire for Common Cold Pattern Identification (QCCPI), and the severity of illness was assessed by Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 Korean version (WURSS-21-K) every 7 days. The test and control groups were not significantly different in gender, age, smoking history, and baseline score of WURSS-21-K at the time of enrollment. SCRT treatment significantly decreased the total WURSS-21-K score on the 6th and 7th day (pcold pattern cold, SCRT significantly decreased the total WURSS-21-K score from 4th to 8th day (pcold, neither SCRT nor YPS group showed significant difference from the placebo group. SCRT and YPS did not significantly decrease the time to complete resolution of the cold symptoms. SCRT and YPS have beneficial, albeit limited, effects on common cold patients, especially those with the Wind-cold pattern cold. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpretación del problema público de asistencia alimentaria en el Programa de Alimentación Escolar-PAE- y la Política Pública de Seguridad y Soberanía Alimentaria y Nutricional – PSSAN - de Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Inocencio Gelvez, Javier Emilio

    2016-01-01

    El Programa de Alimentación Escolar – PAE, es una apuesta a nivel nacional que busca, entre otras cosas, el fomento de hábitos alimentarios saludables y el acceso a alimentos, como dos variables que hacen parte de la interpretación del problema público de asistencia alimentaria -- Este programa se encuentra bajo los lineamientos de la Política Pública Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional y es respaldado por la Política Pública de Seguridad y Soberanía Alimentaria y Nutricional de M...

  13. Piirnemised Narvas = Crossings in Narva / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    15.-16. detsembril 2009 toimunud Narva linnafoorumist, mille üldiseks teemaks oli aktuaalsete Narva piirkondadega - Tallinna tänava ümbrus, Peterburi tänav, vanalinn, Narva jõe äär - tegelemine. Foorum võiks mõtestada neid alasid üldisemalt, uurida nende piirnemisi ja suhteid

  14. Tempus og aspekt med særligt henblik på italiensk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Bach

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to discuss some fundamental issues regarding tense and aspect in connection with a presentation of the Italian system of morphologically marked distinctions within the categories of tense and aspect; but it is also intended as a basis for studies in the function of tense and aspect in literary narrative (a matter to which I have dedicated the studies mentioned in the list of references. However, my main view is that inscribing presumed textual functions into the general definitions of morphemes (along the lines originally indicated by Benveniste and Weinrich, does not contribute to our understanding of texts, but will rather create obstacles for it. In fact I can see no valid alternative to describing tense in terms of 'time'. As others before me, I divide tenses in two groups on the basis of the distinctive semantic feature [+/-past]; Italian has two simple tenses in each group, and – corresponding to each of the four simple tenses – compound tenses formed with an auxiliary + the perfect participle, and semantically characterized by the fact that they signify a state as a consequence of an anterior state, process or event signified as espectually perfective. Compound tenses are thus morphologically as well as semantically complex: they differ with regard only to the tense and aspect of the 'consequence level' as expressed by the form of the auxiliary. This means that each tense, even the compound ones, are defined without taking into account a 'point of reference' or similar concepts: compound tenses express in themselves temporal location thanks to their auxiliary verb. Such semantic complexity is of particular importance in the case of the present perfect and the past perfect, both of which have two typical uses according to the predominance of the consequence level signified by their auxiliary or to the state/process/event signified by their lexeme (i.e. the past participle. This view entails an almost complete symmetry between these two tenses, and seems apt to solve a series of problems, especially concerning the use of the past perfect, some of which posed by other scholars. It is also confronted with the problems of consecutio temporum. I stress the fact that the basic distinctive features belong to the semantic level, and do not necessarily correspond to extralinguistical evidence in any instance of the use of a certain form. Thus the presumed "imperfective use" of the perfects is seen as an instance of confusion between semantics and extralinguistic reality. In the final part I mention 'figurative use' as the most important factor to create deviance between the semantics of forms and particular instances of temporal reference; I propose a distinction between metonymic and metaphoric uses, corresponding to different degrees of referential deviance from the basic semantic content of the forms.

  15. Social arv, ulighed og dagtilbuds betydning med henblik på mønsterbrydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    organisatorisk læring (Crossan et al., 1999; Argyris & Schön, 1996) og social innovation (Dawson & Daniel, 2010; Pot & Vaas, 2008) – dette set i modsætning til en mere individuel tilgang til innovation (Marcy & Mumford, 2002, 2007). Desuden inddrages i diskussionen begrebet organisatorisk innovation (Westley...

  16. Modificação e caracterização do resíduo pó de aciaria elétrica (PAE para aplicação em reações de redução de cromo (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Neves de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD was thermally modified at different temperatures under H2 flow or charcoal in order to obtain reduced iron phases (Fe3O4, FeO and Fe0. The formation of these phases was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The tests performed for reducing Cr (VI using resultant materials obtained after thermal treatment of the EAFD showed excellent results, with PAE600H (EAFD reduced at 600 ºC under H2 flow decreasing around 100% of the Cr (VI in only 10 minutes of reaction. These results indicate the possibility of adding value to the residue, obtaining materials that offer great potential for environmental applications.

  17. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology. Pt. 2. The PAEDOS algorithm for computer-assisted dose reconstruction in pediatric radiology and results for X-ray examinations of the skull; Zur Strahlenexposition von Kindern in der paediatrischen Radiologie. T. 2. Der PAeDOS-Algorithmus zur rechnergestuetzten Dosisrekonstruktion in der Kinderradiologie am Beispiel der Roentgenuntersuchung des Schaedels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Regulla, D. [Helmholtz Zentrum, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: Development of an algorithm for computer-assisted dose reconstruction using exposure data from a very large electronic database of a university children's hospital. Radiation dose values and new conversion factors for pediatric radiology were calculated and selected results for skull X-rays of 5-year-old patients will be presented. Materials and Methods: Since 1976 all relevant data from daily routine X-ray examinations performed in Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the university of Munich, DvHK) have been stored electronically in a database. This database now encompasses basic personal patient data, type of radiological procedure, individual radiographic/fluoroscopic settings, dose measurements (dose area product), individual referral criteria and radiological diagnosis. After 30 years of data gathering, the database now includes 305 434 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies) of all age groups, from newborns to adolescents. With a computer program, called PAeDOS, a specific algorithm was created to calculate radiation doses using the individual dose area product values and other known exposure parameters extracted from the databases. The dose reconstruction procedure is based on the conversion factor concept. By means of the PCXMC program developed by the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK, Helsinki), Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate new conversion factors for pediatric radiology based on the radiographic technique used in the DvHK. Results: The entrance dose values of skull X-rays showed a very good correlation with the changes of examination technique in the last 30 years. In our sample, the measured dose values for skull X-rays were far below the reference dose levels set by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) in 2003. Conversion factors for 28 different radiographic procedures, 6 age groups, 40 reference organs, 3 beam projections, 12 voltage settings and

  18. Tunda ära korratamatut = Recognizing the unrepeatable / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Ruumiplaneerimisest. Linnaplaneerimisest 20. sajandil. Fredric Jamesoni düstoopia kontseptsioonist. Ehitusbuumiaegsest ehitusest Hiina näitel. Monumentaalsetest linnaehitusprogrammidest. Ehitusbuumiaegses Eestis tekkinud ruumilisest situatsioonist. Linna tihedusest, spontaansest ruumist. Avaliku ruumi kasutamisest. Kirjeldamatuse ilmingust

  19. Elades düstoopias = Living in dystopia / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Linnast ja teooriatest. Linnast kui utoopiast. Tänapäeva linnadest. Linnaplaneerimisest, planeeringute realiseeritavusest ja realiseerumisest, planeerimatusest. Eesti buumiaegsest ehituspraktikast ja planeeringutest. Põldude muutumisest kinnisvaraküladeks, maastiku muutumisest juhuslikul viisil. Buumiaegsetest asumitest

  20. Involvering af medarbejdere med henblik på kompetenceudvikling i relation til elforbrug og bæredygtig udvikling på hotel- og restaurantområdet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, J.; Carlsson, Monica; Jensen, B. B.

    2005-01-01

    Modellen præsenterer resultaterne af det forskningsbaserede udviklingsprojekt "Elforbrug, medarbejderinvolvering og kompetenceudvikling" Oversigtsmodellen giver dels en mulighed for at differentiere mellem forskellige kulturer og involveringsstrategier, dels en mulighed for at differentiere melle...

  1. Danske børns sprogmangler med specielt henblik på dysfonologiske processer: Et forsøg på en status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kihl, Preben

    2003-01-01

    Før 1990 fandtes der næppe systematiske beskrivelser af danske børns sprogmangler, endsige fortolkninger af sådanne beskrivelser. Når den danske litteratur overhovedet indeholdt eksempler på børns sprogfejl, var disse usystematiske, anekdotiske og ofte simpelthen forkerte. Bøger og artikler om em...

  2. Viimsi ja Haabneeme alevike arengud = Developments in Viimsi and Haabneeme townships / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    7. ja 8. septembril 2010 toimunud Viimsi foorumi teemaks oli Viimsi ja Haabneeme alevike ruumilise arengu mõtestamine. Foorum otsis lahendusi looduse ja kultuuriliste kihistuste kasutamiseks, et luua Viimsi vallale tugevat keskust, mis toimiks mitmekesise elukeskkonnana

  3. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  4. Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation (PAE 1) of the YCH-47D Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    opecations. Overhead console floodlights .... Control panels inadequately improperly aimed. lighted. Lighting not balanced between Integral lighting as much...homing antenna 408 UHF/VHF antenna 409 ADF loop antenna 410 ADF sense antenna 411 Marker beacon antenna 412 Damper (4) 413 Glide slope antenna 414 H.F

  5. [Study on the effect of enzymatic activity and acute toxicity of three PAEs on Eisenia foetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ze-Min; Wu, Shi-Jin

    2014-02-01

    The acute toxic effects of DMP, DEP and DBP to earthworms (Eisenia foetida) were examined in this study. The two pollutants are tested by filter paper contact method and natural soil method, results indicated that they were both poisonous to earthworms. Earthworms were exposed to DMP and DEP for 48 h by filter paper contact method, LC50 (DMP) is 129.603 microg x cm(-2) and LC50 (DEP) is 145.336 microg x cm(-2). Earthworms were exposed to DMP and DEP for 14 d by natural soil method, LC50 (DMP) is 1 560. 120 mg x kg(-1) and LC50 (DEP) is 1516. 186 mg x kg(-1). While non-calculatable for the LC50 of DBP due to its low water solubility, penetrating into the skin and cells of earthworm is not easy. The natural soil test method was used to study the effects of DMP, DEP and DBP on enzyme activities of earthworms, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured. SOD activity was induced by DMP and DEP, CAT is the most sensitive and the activity was induced by DEP and DBP at the low concentration and inhibited at the high concentration. AChE activity was inhibited by DEP and DBP at the low concentration and induced at the high concentration, finally exhibited a tendency to recover to the control level at 28 d.

  6. Tosprogede forældres involvering i deres børns læringsproces med henblik på at forbedre tosprogede børns læringsresultater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarsmand, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    involvement is crucial to their child's academic success in school and partly because social studies show that bilingual children from non-western cultures do worse academically than children of Danish parentage. The objective of the assignment is to document the parents' importance and highlight what...... factors that both hinder and promote: the balance of power between bilingual parents and the school, cultural and linguistic differences. The conclusion of this master dissertation is that there is a need for both a more targeted approach to cooperation between parents and school and a need to work...... with both teachers and bilingual parents' attitudes. Teachers need training in communication and intercultural understanding, while parents need empowerment in terms of "school" language and intercultural understanding. In addition, there is a need for clarity in the law regarding the purpose of home...

  7. Når virkeligheden kommer i vejen. De æstetiske muligheder og grænser indenfor Danmarks Radio, bl.a. med henblik på "Voksdugen"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carlsen

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Når de æstetiske overvejelser skal udmøntes i konkrete program- mer, kommer virkeligheden ofte i vejen. John Carlsen og Bo Dam- gaard skriver i denne artikel med udgangspunkt i deres egne er- faringer, især omkring deres sidste fællesprojekt "Voksdugen", om muligheder og grænser for at overskride de normer, som lig- ger i Danmarks Radio. De refererer til det i marts afholdte seminar om tv-æstetik og henviser direkte til den i forordet citerede indbydelse, når de harcelerer over medieforskningens sendrægtighed til at tage tv-æstetikken op.

  8. Research info materials technology for wind turbine blade surfaces and development of test methods for surface lifetime; Forskning af maerialeteknologi til overfladebelaegning pae vindmoellevinger og udvikling af testmetoder for levetid pae belaegninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Susanne

    2006-02-15

    This article analyses inventories for energy input and output at farm level, i.e. the energy input for manufacturing and transport after the products have left the farm is not included. It has been proven that especially cropped clover is rewarding to grow organic as regards energy. This is partly due to the fact that cows at these fields get the feed units themselves and that insignificant quantities of fertilizer are added. However, there is no significant deviation in energy consumption per feed unit between the remaining assessed crops - neither between the different organic crops nor between similar organic and conventional crops as the higher energy use for e.g. fertilizer is made up for by increased yield. The extra energy use for mechanical weed control in organic plant production is insignificant compared to the rest of the entries in the energy balance. Simulation of energy flow in animal husbandry has as yet shown a smaller consumption of energy per kg organic meat and milk compared to conventional production, but the difference is small. (BA)

  9. Handbook in energy conservation on pump systems for waste water; Haendbog i energibesparelser pae pumpesystemer til spildevand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The handbook primarily addresses staff responsible for the daily operation of local waste water pump stations, but it can also be of use to other professions which are engaged in planning, operation and maintenance of waste water plants. The aim of the handbook is energy conservation, but at the same time all recommendations for energy conservation initiatives take working environment and operating safety into consideration. (BA)

  10. Prices and risks for flexible mechanisms on the international markets; Priser og risici pae internationale markeder for de fleksible mekanismer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. [Copenhagen Economics Aps, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to calculate the expected equilibrium prices on flexible mechanisms in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) and the equilibrium prices on the EU quota trading market in the period 2005-2007. The calculation will combined with additional information be used for evaluating to what extend it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms in the Danish climate strategy. The calculations are made by means of Copenhagen Economics' climate model, CECM, which has been extended with a module performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The report concludes, that before the budget period (2005-2007) the principal element of uncertainty for price fixing will be the individual country's ambition to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions before the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Whether it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms before the budget period is primarily dependent on the expectations to future prices of the flexible mechanisms. (ba)

  11. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology development has to be linked together with the use phase and the removal phase; Campaigns explaining that hygiene is good, but more hygiene is not better. (BA)

  12. Investments and price formation in a liberalized electric power market; Investering og prisdannelse pae et liberaliseret elmarked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2005-05-01

    How will the electric power prices in the Nordic electric power market develop if the generation capacity in the coming 10 to 15 years is increased considerably? And what are the conditions for investors to initiate new investments in power plants? Briefly speaking - these are the issues for the project that is reported in this report. The basis for the project has been the Nordic electric power market model and its capability to handle the future extension of the necessary generating capacity. The main issue in the project has been a quantitative analysis of what the prices in the Nordic electric power market will be in the future, depending on the size of new investments in the power generating capacity. Using the Balmorel model, a basic scenario until the year 2020 is made which contains the present decisions about capacity extension only. Up to 2010 this basic scenario can be seen as a probable development. For the period 2010 to 2020, however, the calculations can primarily be seen as illustrations of how the prices may develop, provided that no further investments are made. Thus, for the period 2010 - 2020 it is a 'worst case' that has been analysed. In the basic scenario several cases for the year 2015 are analysed, among others the consequences of wet and dry years and an unusually cold winter. The project also analyses how the price development impacts the profitability of new investments in power capacity, depending on several exogenous events, like use of more wind power and the price on the carbon dioxide market. The analyses present three cases: 1) A single investor not owing other power plants, 2) a single investor owing a number of power plants in which case a new plant will compete with him self, 3) two competing investors investing in the same known power plants. In all cases investments are made in a natural gas combined cycle plant producing both electric power and heat. Furthermore, the investor's own possibility to time his investment has been quantified, i.e. at which time investments will be optimum. (LN)

  13. Performance of Cement-Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 211 - PAE

    CERN Document Server

    Bertron, Alexandra; Belie, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Concrete and cement-based materials must operate in increasingly aggressive aqueous environments, which may be either natural or industrial.  These materials may suffer degradation in which ion addition and/or ion exchange reactions occur, leading to a breakdown of the matrix microstructure and consequent weakening.  Sometimes this degradation can be extremely rapid and serious such as in acidic environments, while in other cases degradation occurs over long periods.  Consequences of material failure are usually severe – adversely affecting the health and well-being of human communities and disturbing ecological balances. There are also large direct costs of maintaining and replacing deteriorated infrastructure and indirect costs from loss of production during maintenance work, which place a great burden on society. The focus of this book is on addressing issues concerning performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments , by way of this State-of-the-Art Report. The book represe...

  14. Mis on väikese linna avalik ruum? = What is public space in a small city? / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    24. ja 25. novembril 2009 toimunud Rakvere linnafoorum keskendus linna avalikule ruumile. Rakveres elamise headest külgedest ja linna puudustest (Rakvere linna mainekujunduskampaania alusuuring. Emor, 2004). Virumaa pealinna staatuse nihkumisest

  15. Analysis of the competition on the retail market for electric power; Analyse af konkurrencen pae detailmarkedet for el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This year it is almost ten years ago, that it was made possible for all electricity consumers to choose their supplier. Specifically, this was done by changes in the Electricity Supply Act, whereby increased competition was designated as the central means of achieving the energy policy objectives of security of supply, economics, environment, and consumer protection. The retail electricity market's turnover today is approx. 43 billion. DKK, but it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years because consumers are increasingly expected to use electricity from renewable energy for heating and transport. It is obvious that it is also for this reason essential to the economy that competition in the retail market works as well as possible. In practice, competition as an instrument is aimed at production and retail sales in the electricity market, with the significant exception that the smaller consumers are protected by both the competition itself as well as by the special supply regulation. The protective supply regulation means that a majority of consumers and small and medium-sized enterprises do not have sufficient incentive to trade electricity on the free market, which in turn means that there is not exercised pressure on suppliers that can lead to innovation, product development, or to provide electricity at the lowest possible prices. The Secretariat of the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority has against this background made an in-depth analysis of the competition in the retail market for electricity and for the general supply regulation. The analysis shows that there are a number of barriers that stand in the way of effective competition in the retail market, and thus of fostering innovation, product development and potential improvements in infrastructure. The Danish government and parliament have taken a number of initiatives that remove some of the barriers. But challenges still remain. They all originate from inertia and low mobility at customer level. The overall conclusion is that it is doubtful whether the necessary product development and innovation at the lowest possible electricity prices may be encouraged with the current regulation of the power supply. (LN)

  16. The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

  17. Biomass for biogas plants in Denmark - in the short and long term; Biomasse til biogasanlaeg i Danmark - pae kort og langt sigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmose, T.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Stefanek, K.

    2013-04-15

    In the short term, it is one of the major challenges for the developments of the biogas sector that resources of organic waste of the type (organic industrial wastes) that have heretofore been used, generally are estimated to be nearly exhausted. This has led to a number of new biogas projects based on the use of corn (energy crops) as additional biomass to livestock manure. However, Danish policy now has implemented a restriction on the use of corn and other energy crops for biogas production. It is with the restriction clarified that there is a need to use other additional biomass for biogas production. There is a need in the short term to clarify how alternative biomasses such as straw, nature preservation biomass, household waste, etc. in a technically and economically reliable and satisfactory way can be used for biogas production, so that the dependence of energy crops can be reduced. Additionally, it will be essential if the yield of using manure can be increased to reduce economic dependence on energy crops. In the longer term it is essential to strengthen the assessment of the resource potential of biomass available for the production of biogas, and thus what the contribution of biogas in the long term is estimated to be in the future energy supply based on renewable energy. The present report presents the current and future biomass resources potential and biogas production potential. The biomass resources are primarily agricultural and municipal wastes. (LN)

  18. Regulating power for gas boilers in houses. Surplus power from wind power plants for natural gas boilers; Regulerkraft pae villakedelomraedet. Overskuds-el fra vindmoeller til naturgaskedler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael; Frederiksen, Karsten V.

    2011-08-15

    The aim of the project is to clarify the potential development of a simple electric heating unit to gas installations in houses, so that natural gas for heating can be replaced with surplus wind power. The gas network in this way becomes an energy storage for power. In this preliminary project the aim is to estimate the value of these solutions and to verify in the lab, whether it is possible to establish and activate a simple and inexpensive electric heating unit on a typical gas boiler installation. In addition, it must be clarified whether it is possible to establish a simple communication with price signal from the balancing responsible. Based on the preliminary analyses and based on the electric heating unit, which is used in this project, it is estimated that there is a potential for the use of an electric heating unit on gas boilers in houses, and there is also a market, although there are limitations in relation to space and possibly also to the price. The price is estimated to be between 1,500 and 3,000 DKK per. installation (installed). However, this should be further investigated, including that the power balancing responsible /electricity trading companies assess the social value of using the electric heating unit as an element in the regulating power market. Regarding price signal, it is clear that communication opportunities are present at least with two of the balancing responsible companies, but it requires adaptation before a simple price signal to a gas boiler installation can be established. Price wise it is considered feasible. (LN)

  19. Smart energy services to low-energy houses based on user-driven innovation; Intelligente energiydelser i lavenergiboliger baseret pae brugerdreven innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Ditte Marie; Hoej Christensen, A.; Hansen, Lars; Braendgaard Nielsen, S.; Huet, J.-M. [Teknologisk Institut. Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Aarhus (Denmark); Bay Christensen, A. [Asger BC Lys, Koebenhavn (Denmark); Degn Larsen, E. [Fischer, Koege (Denmark); Lux, D. [Seluxit, Aalborg (Denmark); Jacobsen, Lis [Nilan, Hedensted (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    The project tested and documented the energy and use advantages of simple or more complex control concepts and systems for energy services. This has been done with a focus on the control solution being able to control the comfort in the house as efficient and energy-efficient as possible, while the users' requirements and needs for information about and for being able to control comfort and energy consumption in the home also must be taken into account. The experiments with several control strategies in cooperation with the family in the low-energy demonstration house EnergyFlexHouse (EFH), show that one can not develop an adequate control strategy without involving the users. Thus, users will not be satisfied with the indoor environment if they have no influence on control. This should be seen in the context that an energy-efficient management require as little user influence as possible, in order to realize the expected energy efficiency. The optimal control is thus characterized in that it at the same time takes into account the requirements of the user and at the same time results in a change in user behavior that adapts to the control system. The project also shows that there is a significant barrier to getting products of different manufacturers to communicate. Based on the concept, developed in collaboration with the residents of EFH, the companies involved and Technological Institute, a prototype of the advanced control applications was developed and tested by the family in EnergyFlexHouse. Trials were carried out with the 3 advanced control strategies, indoor climate optimized, energy optimized, and user-driven management, for a period of 7 days per strategy. The experiments showed that the degree day adjusted space heating consumption was about. 30% lower for the energy optimized control compared to the user-driven control. For the indoor-optimized control was the degree day adjusted space heating was approx. 21% lower compared to the user-driven control. The family expressed general satisfaction with the indoor climate regardless of the selected control strategy. The family was surprised that their space heating consumption was almost 30% higher at the user-driven control strategy and indicated, that the energy-optimized strategy was absolutely acceptable, especially when the consequences were visible. The family found the control panel on the iPad was user-friendly and intuitively simple in its layout. (LN)

  20. Particle filters on light diesel vehicles - a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters; Partikelfiltre pae lette dieselkoeretoejer - en samfundsoekonomisk analyse af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, M.; Larsen, Thommy; Carlsen, Kirsten; Mulvad Jeppesen, L.

    2006-09-15

    Emission of particles into the atmosphere is one of the biggest air pollution problems of our times. The emission of particles causes severe health problems such as respiratory and circulatory diseases, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and even causes premature deaths. The emission of particles comes from a number of different sources, where traffic is a considerable contributor. The effects of particle emissions from the traffic on the population are substantial, as the emission comes from mobile sources which create a high local pollution in city areas and in consequence high exposure of the local population. Exhaust particle emissions come mainly from diesel engines, and the introduction of particle filters would have a considerable impact on particle emissions. Vehicle emissions regulation is controlled by the EU. The coming emission regulation, EURO 5, is expected to be put into effect by the beginning of 2010. The current suggestions for the EURO 5 restrictions on particles are set so strict that they will be impossible to fulfil without a particle filter. This report performs a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters on all light vehicles (<3,500 kg). The analysis assumes that all newly registered diesel powered cars and vans should have a factory installed particle filter from the beginning of 2007. This thereby gives a period of three years before implementation of the EURO 5. (au)

  1. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 2 (VET-BIO-2). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 2 (VET-BIO-2); Forsknings- og overvaagningsprogram vedroerende bakterier og parasitter med henblik paa opstilling af et driftsovervaagningsprogram for biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, B.; Bonde Larsen, A.

    1990-01-15

    From Feb. '88 through June '89, contents of Salmonella, M. paratuberculosis, total coliforms, faecal streptococci, eggs of Ascaris suum, eggs and larvae of Trichostrongylus spp., and oocysts of bovine Eimeria spp. were quantified in 481 samples of raw and treated biomass collected bi-monthly for up to 12 months from five biogas plants. All five were run semi- continuously, two being thermophilic, one mesophilic, and two mesophilic with thermophilic pre-treatment. Herds delivering slurry to each plant ranged rom 6 - 33 cattle and/or pig herds, and daily input of biomass from 40 - 100 tons. Slurry was treated when mixed with other types of biomass, e.g. waste from pig or poultry slaughterhouses, fish industries or oil mills, and separate samples of these biomasses were examined. It is concluded that thermophilic as well as mesophilic digestion with, thermophilic pre-treatment may be capable of reducing numbers of vegetative pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites potentially present in incoming material, thus to allow for unrestricted use of the degassed biomass in this respect. This requires a reducing capacity on faecal streptococci of at least 3-4 log{sub 10} units by digestons based on or including a thermophillic treatment, corresponding to a maximal concentration of these bacteria in treated biomass in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 2} per ml. Minimum temperature and biomass retention time in the reactors as registered automatically, together with determinations of faecal streptococci in the end-product, are suggested as suitable monitoring parameters in these cases, to check on compliance with criteria for unrestricted use of treated biomass. For mesophilic biogas plants adequate restrictions on the use of the end-product will depend on individual process technology and local conditions. (author) 24 refs.

  2. Plant pectin acetylesterase structure and function: new insights from bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Florian; Pelloux, Jérôme; Rayon, Catherine

    2017-06-08

    Pectins are plant cell wall polysaccharides that can be acetylated on C2 and/or C3 of galacturonic acid residues. The degree of acetylation of pectin can be modulated by pectin acetylesterase (EC 3.1.1.6, PAE). The function and structure of plant PAEs remain poorly understood and the role of the fine-tuning of pectin acetylation on cell wall properties has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a bioinformatic approach was used on 72 plant PAEs from 16 species among 611 plant PAEs available in plant genomic databases. An overview of plant PAE proteins, particularly Arabidopsis thaliana PAEs, based on phylogeny analysis, protein motif identification and modeled 3D structure is presented. A phylogenetic tree analysis using protein sequences clustered the plant PAEs into five clades. AtPAEs clustered in four clades in the plant kingdom PAE tree while they formed three clades when a phylogenetic tree was performed only on Arabidopsis proteins, due to isoform AtPAE9. Primitive plants that display a smaller number of PAEs clustered into two clades, while in higher plants, the presence of multiple members of PAE genes indicated a diversification of AtPAEs. 3D homology modeling of AtPAE8 from clade 2 with a human Notum protein showed an α/β hydrolase structure with the hallmark Ser-His-Asp of the active site. A 3D model of AtPAE4 from clade 1 and AtPAE10 from clade 3 showed a similar shape suggesting that the diversification of AtPAEs is unlikely to arise from the shape of the protein. Primary structure prediction analysis of AtPAEs showed a specific motif characteristic of each clade and identified one major group of AtPAEs with a signal peptide and one group without a signal peptide. A multiple sequence alignment of the putative plant PAEs revealed consensus sequences with important putative catalytic residues: Ser, Asp, His and a pectin binding site. Data mining of gene expression profiles of AtPAE revealed that genes from clade 2 including AtPAE7, AtPAE8 and

  3. Waugh og folkets krig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Egander

    2013-01-01

    Om den britiske forfatter Evelyn Waughs skildring af krigen som en fortsættelse af fredens forfald med særligt henblik på "Sword of Honour" trilogien.......Om den britiske forfatter Evelyn Waughs skildring af krigen som en fortsættelse af fredens forfald med særligt henblik på "Sword of Honour" trilogien....

  4. Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2007-01-01

    En analyse af Carl Schmitts argumentation og begrebsbrug ved etableringen af ven/fjende-distinktionen i Der Begriff des Politischen med henblik på at vise Schmitt som teoretisk decisionist.......En analyse af Carl Schmitts argumentation og begrebsbrug ved etableringen af ven/fjende-distinktionen i Der Begriff des Politischen med henblik på at vise Schmitt som teoretisk decisionist....

  5. Derrida og Carl Schmitt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Derridas læsning og kritik af Carl Schmitt med særlig henblik på Derridas værk "Politiques de l'amitié".......Derridas læsning og kritik af Carl Schmitt med særlig henblik på Derridas værk "Politiques de l'amitié"....

  6. Privacy og selvbeskrivelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, Hans Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse......En beskrivelse af feltet for forskning i Privacy med særligt henblik på privacys betydning for muligheden for at styre sin egen selvbeskrivelse...

  7. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  8. TV-dogmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szatkowski, Janek

    2005-01-01

    En diskussion af dogmers funktion, eksemplificeret gennem DR-TV-Dramas dogmer især med henblik på begrebet "one vision".......En diskussion af dogmers funktion, eksemplificeret gennem DR-TV-Dramas dogmer især med henblik på begrebet "one vision"....

  9. Holberg, lecteur de Locke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn

    2009-01-01

      En undersøgelse af John Lockes modtagelse i dansk Oplysningsfilosofi med særligt henblik på Holberg......  En undersøgelse af John Lockes modtagelse i dansk Oplysningsfilosofi med særligt henblik på Holberg...

  10. Læringskala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Ultra kort teoriforankret digitaliseret analog rating skala til brug for Android, iphone, tablets, pc, med henblik på måling af læring.......Ultra kort teoriforankret digitaliseret analog rating skala til brug for Android, iphone, tablets, pc, med henblik på måling af læring....

  11. Trivselsskala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Ultra kort teoriforankret digitaliseret analog rating skala til brug for Android, iphone, tablets, pc, med henblik på måling af trivsel.......Ultra kort teoriforankret digitaliseret analog rating skala til brug for Android, iphone, tablets, pc, med henblik på måling af trivsel....

  12. Environmental impacts of incineration of livestock manure with the purpose of energy utilization. Scenario analysis for a specific catchment area; Miljoekonsekvenser ved afbraending af husdyrgoedning med sigte pae energiudnyttelse. Scenarieanalyse for et udvalgt opland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schou, J.S.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Levin, G. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Grant, R. [DMU, Afdeling for Ferskvandsoekologi (Denmark); Elmegaard, N. [DMU, Afdeling for Terrestrisk Oekologi (Denmark); Palmgren, F. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    The analyses demonstrate the environmental consequences of incineration of livestock manure in a specific catchment area where an unchanged animal production is presumed. The scenarios are carried out for the Vesthimmerland area, located in the north of the peninsula of Jutland (Denmark) where the agricultural production is characterised by a relatively intensive production of broilers and furred animals. It is assumed that half of the total production of manure from farms with broilers and mink is incinerated on incineration plants on farm level and decentralised CHP plants. This corresponds to an incineration of manure from 1.951 DE (one animal unit corresponds to a production of 100 kg N per year) at which 219 tonnes N, 54 tonnes P and 118 tonnes K are removed, corresponding to 5 % N, 5.5 % P and 3 % K, respectively. The estimated environmental consequences are summarized in Table 19 and the results are commented below. Assuming the effective N content of the incinerated manure is replaced with artificial fertiliser while not compensating for the removed P, it is estimated that the N leaching in the catchment area is reduced by 46.5 tonnes (approx. 2 %) while the P surplus is reduced from 200 tonnes to 146 tonnes (approx. 27 % reduction). Furthermore the incineration of manure will impact the emission of ammonia as the loss from storage and spreading is reduced. Thus there will be a reduction of ammonia emissions from storage facilities by 25.3 tonnes N while the reduction of emission from spreading is estimated to 17.2 tonnes N. All together a reduction of the ammonia emissions of 42.5 tonnes N is thus achieved. Furthermore, analyses of additional deposition of gaseous N compounds, especially N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from the air in the area close to an incineration plant have been carried out. The analyses presume that the amount of N emitted from incineration corresponds to the amount of N in manure. The analyses show that if the NO{sub X} concentration in the smoke is equal to the limit value set in the waste incineration directive (200 mg/m{sup 3}) the deposition in the vicinity of the incineration plants will be relatively small (0.1 kg N with a chimney height of 25 m) compared with the general deposition of 10-20 kg N/ha. To the extent of which N is lost from storage as ammonia or N is accumulated in ash it will reduce the emissions of gaseous N compounds proportionally. It has not been possible to analyse these aspects further. The allocation of the gaseous N compounds of NO{sub X} and pure N will depend very much of the incineration technology and management. In connection with the estimations of the changed nutrient loads the sensitivity of the effected recipients must be included. This implies that the affect will vary between localities, a fact that has not been elucidated in the present analysis. The changed manure practise, as a consequence of the incineration, will also have consequences for the emissions of greenhouse gases, in the form of a reduction of the emission of methane and nitrous oxide and a reduced storage of CO{sub 2} in the soil. At present the effect on Denmark's reduction commitment of greenhouse gases cannot be assessed as it depends on the time frame and whether Denmark chooses to use storage of C in farmland as a mean to fulfil its reduction commitment. Please note that the effects on the greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the manure not being spread in the fields as well as possible transport to incineration plants are not included in this analysis. Under these circumstances a reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions at 2,434 tonnes CO{sub 2} eqv. is achieved. The possibility of using the ash, produced from incineration, for fertiliser purposes depends on a number of conditions. Provided the entire ash fraction is spread on farmland it is likely that the limit values for heavy metals defined in the Danish Sludge directive is exceeded. However, if it is possible to split the ash into different fractions, in which the P content is separated from the heavy metals, the P content can be used for fertilising purposes. Another and more costly option is to process and refine the ash into fertilisers. In both cases there may be a need for deposition of a part of the ash. This would actually act as a sink for heavy metals in agriculture, which may be an advantage in terms of environmental management, but this deposition will cost money. Incineration of livestock manure must, today, be seen as a solution primarily feasible to environmental issues connected to the individual farm or catchment area. This could be e.g. realisation of demands posed in connection with an environmental approval or the fulfilment of the environmental goals for a water body in relation to the EU Water Framework Directive. The technology is, on the other hand, not expected to have a larger potential on a 'here and now'- basis, because the share of the livestock manure applicable for incineration is small and the availability of energy production plants suitable for incineration of livestock manure is limited. (au)

  13. DESIK final report. Energy wise design and regulation of the secondary side of indirect cooling systems with natural coolants; DESIK slutrapportering. Energirigtig design og regulering af sekundaersiden pae indirekte koeleanlaeg med naturlige koelemidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, Arne

    2006-02-15

    The project's aim was to produce knowledge and tools to facilitate the process of implementing energy efficient secondary cooling systems, or merely to avoid overconsumption of energy on account of insufficient relevant professional background. The project has been communicated as a PC tool, which can be ordered from aj(commercial at)ipu.dk. Project focus has been on some general aspects of secondary systems as well as two scopes of application: supermarket cooling systems and air conditioning of office buildings. (BA)

  14. "See on ülesanne, mis mõtlevate inimeste üle jõu on käinud" : valdade liitmise reformid Eestis / Taavi Pae, Erki Tammiksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Taavi, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Esimeset valdade reformist Eesti alal. Valdade reformi takerdumisest iseseisvas Eestis. 1939. aastal jõustunud omavalitsuste reformi tagamaadest. Teise valdade liitmise reformi käigust. Peamistest probleemidest vallapiiride muutmisel.

  15. Towards the methane society? Use of hydrogen for upgrading biogas and synthetic methane production. Phase 1. Final report; Pae vej mod metansamfundet? - anvendelse af brint til opgradering af biogas og kunstig metanfremstilling. Fase 1. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Claus [Agro Business Park, Tjele (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Biogas consists of methane (CH4) and CO{sub 2}. If you react hydrogen produced with wind power with CO{sub 2} in sulfur purified biogas you get biogas upgraded to pure methane, ie. to natural gas quality. The pure methane can for example be sold via the natural gas grid or pressurized and sold for transport. The purpose of the present project is to contribute to the development of a concept and a technology that can store wind energy into the existing natural gas network through the upgrading of CO{sub 2} in biogas. Overall the project combines the technique and concept of electrolysis, biogas upgrading and natural gas network, so that: - electrolysis creates hydrogen and heat from wind turbines; - CO{sub 2} in biogas reacts with H2 from the electrolysis and produces CH4 and high-value steam by biogas reacting directly with H2 in a catalyst ; - The natural gas network is used as distribution and storage of the produced methane. The following main results are achieved in the first phase: - Design and construction of a pilot plant for the purification of biogas, which allows a Sabatier reaction later in the methanization process; - Sensitivity analyses have been carried out of methane prices, which have proven to be competitive compared to other upgrading technologies in the market; - A business plan is developed for a demonstration plant, which among other things will be used in phase 2: demonstration plant. The competitor analysis shows, among other things, a higher efficiency rate of the Danish technology than on the methanization plants being developed in Germany. (LN)

  16. Feasibility studies for final disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste - summary with main conclusions and recommendations from three parallel studies. Report to the cross-departmental working group for preparing a decision basis for establishing a Danish radioactive waste disposal facility; Forstudier til slutdepot for lav- og mellemaktivt affald - sammendrag indeholdende hovedkonklusionerne og anbefalinger fra tre parallelle studier. Rapport til den tvaerministerielle arbejdsgruppe vedr. udarbejdelse af beslutningsgrundlag med henblik paa etablering af et dansk slutdepot for lav- og mellemaktivt affald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-15

    In 2003, the Danish Parliament in resolution No. B 48 on the dismantling of the nuclear facilities at Risoe gave consent to the government to begin preparation of a decision basis for a Danish final repository for low and intermediate level waste. As a result, a working group under the Ministry of Health and Prevention in 2008 prepared the report 'Decision basis for a Danish final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste'. In this report it was recommended to prepare three parallel preliminary studies: one about the repository concepts with the aim to obtain the necessary decision-making basis for selecting which concepts to analyze within the process of establishing a final repository, one on transportation of radioactive waste to the depot and one about regional mapping with the aim to characterize areas as suitable or unsuitable for locating a repository. The present report contains the main conclusions of each of the three parallel studies in relation to the further localization process. The preliminary studies suggest 22 areas, of which it is recommended to proceed with six in the selection process. The preliminary studies also show that all investigated storage concepts will be possible solutions from a security standpoint. However, there will be greater risks associated with depots near the surface, because they are more subjected to intentional or accidental intrusion. Overall, a medium deep repository will be the most appropriate solution, but it is also a more expensive solution than the near-surface repository. Both subsurface and the deep repositories may be reversible, but it is estimated to increase overall costs and may increase risk related to accidents. The preliminary studies establishes a set of conclusions and recommendations concerning future studies related to repository concepts and safety analyses, including in relation to the specific geology at the selected locations. The transportation studies show that radio-ecological issues related to transport do not limit the choice of location. (LN)

  17. Kierkegaard: Educating for Authenticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    En koncentreret fremstilling af Kierkegaards (ellers spredte) tanker om undervisning og uddannelse, med særligt henblik på aktuelle diskussioner om dannelse og ambitiøse og mindre ambitiøse uddannelsesmål...

  18. Hold fast!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen

    Publikationen indeholder en kort præsentation af resultaterne fra en række initiativer for tosprogede og praktisk orienterede elever i erhvervsuddannelserne med henblik på at fastholde dem i uddannelse....

  19. La componente linguistica nell´insegnamento delle scienze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggersen, Dorte Vang; Marianna Bollone, Silvia; Sartoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Komparativ analyse af biologi-undervisningsmaterialer med henblik på sprog, læsbarhed, læsetilpasning og læseunderstøttende elementer. med udgangspunkt i biologifagenes curricula i henholdsvis Italien, Danmark og Wales...

  20. John of Salisbury, The Quadrivium and Demonstrative Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger John of Salisburys viden om, og forståelse af, quadrivium med særlig henblik på betydningen for hans syn på demonstrativ videnskab......Artiklen undersøger John of Salisburys viden om, og forståelse af, quadrivium med særlig henblik på betydningen for hans syn på demonstrativ videnskab...

  1. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  2. EF & den sociale dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Jesper Jørgen; Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem.......En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem....

  3. Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maja Lundemark

    2015-01-01

    et inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og borgere......et inspirationspapir om empowerment som tilgang i det beskæftigelsesrettede arbejde - især til regioner og kommuner og med henblik på samarbejde mellem professionelle og borgere...

  4. Determination and assessment of phthalate esters content in sediments from Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-12-20

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are known organic endocrine disruptors. The distribution of 10 PAEs in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor of Taiwan was studied using organic solvents extraction and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The average concentration of total PAEsPAEs) in the sediment was 8713±11,454ng/g dw with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (3630ng/g-dw) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) (3497ng/g dw) being the major species, which constitutes of 41.7% and 40.1% of ΣPAEs. PAEs concentration was relatively high near the river mouths, especially in Love River mouth, and diminished toward the harbor. Based on the sediment quality guidelines developed from previous studies, several of the observed PAE levels exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level, especially for DEHP and thus may cause adverse effect in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants.

  6. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air of offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Guo, Min; Wang, Xueqing; Cheng, Lingxiao; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-02-01

    The pollution status and characteristics of PAEs (phthalate esters) were investigated in indoor air of offices, and PAEs of both gas-phase and particulate-phase were detected in all the samples. The concentration (sum of the gas phase and the particulate phase) was 4748.24 ng/m3, ranging between 3070.09 and 6700.14 ng/m3. Diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were the most abundant compounds, together accounting for 70% of the ∑6PAEs. Dividing the particulate-phase PAEs into four size ranges (10 μm), the result indicated that PAEs in PM2.5 were the most abundant, with the proportion of 72.64%. In addition, the PAE concentration in PM2.5 correlated significantly with the total particulate-phase PAEs (R2=0.85). Thus, the amount of PAEs in PM2.5 can be estimated from the total amount of particulate-phase PAEs using this proportion. In a comparison between the offices and a newly decorated study room, it was found that pollution characteristics were similar between these two places. Thus, it is implied that the PAE concentration decreased by 50% 2 yr after decorating. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250-2000 μm) and fine sand (53-250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  8. Occurence of the phthalate esters in soil and street dust samples from the Novi Sad city area, Serbia, and the influence on the children's and adults' exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Ji, Yaqin; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-15

    This is the first study reporting the presence of 6 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 60 composite soil and street dust samples collected in the urban zone of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia. The results were further used to assess children's and adults' PAEs nondietary daily intakes (DIs) through incidental soil and dust ingestion and/or dermal absorption. The study could be regarded as the important baseline for future monitoring of PAEs in the urban environments, particularly as it contributes to the rare data on PAEs occurence in the street dust. All 6 PAEs were detected in every analyzed soil and street dust samples from 0.0002mgkg(-1) to 4.82mgkg(-1), with the highest level obtained for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which was the most dominant PAE (70-96%). The highest total PAEs (Σ6PAEs) contents in soil (2.12mgkg(-1)) and street dust (5.45mgkg(-1)) samples were obtained for the samples from city parks. In all soil samples, Σ6PAEs exceeded the soil sustainable quality limit sets by the relevant Serbian Regulation, but were much lower than the limit requiring remediation measures. Concerning the estimated DIs, children were more susceptible to PAEs intake than adults regardless of the exposure routes. All the estimated DIs values were far below the known reference values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mood and implicit alcohol expectancy processes: predicting alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAE) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli-including mood states-and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, this study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. College students (N = 146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the laboratory, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the laboratory. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak blood alcohol concentration in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the laboratory for females. The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs-as indicated by longer RTs-predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores the need for

  10. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  11. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  12. Intra-vesical Prostatic Protrusion (IPP) Can Be Reduced by Prostatic Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Ting, E-mail: ymerically@gmail.com; Amouyal, Grégory, E-mail: gregamouyal@hotmail.com [Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology (France); Thiounn, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.thiounn@egp.aphp.fr [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Urology (France); Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris-Cité (France); Pereira, Héléna, E-mail: helena.pereira@aphp.fr; Giudice, Costantino Del, E-mail: costantino.del-giudice@egp.aphp.fr; Déan, Carole, E-mail: carole.dean@aphp.fr [Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology (France); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris-Cité (France)

    2016-05-15

    BackgroundProstate artery embolization (PAE) is a new approach to improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. PAE results in global reduction of prostate volume (PV). There are no data available on the efficacy of PAE in reducing intra-vesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), an anatomic feature that is clinically related with bladder outlet obstruction and LUTS.ObjectiveTo assess the results of PAE in patients with significant IPP due to median lobe hyperplasia and to compare the IPSS decrease and IPP change.Material and MethodsProspective analysis of 18 consecutive patients with significant IPP (>5 mm) related to median lobe hyperplasia undergoing PAE using 30–500-μm-calibrated trisacryl microspheres. We measured IPP on sagittal T2-weighted images before and 3 months after PAE. IPSS and clinical results were also evaluated at 3 months.ResultsPAE resulted in significant IPP reduction (1.57 cm ± 0.55 before PAE and 1.30 cm ± 0.46 after PAE, p = 0.0005) (Fig. 1) with no complication. IPSS, quality of life (QoL), total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and PV showed significant reduction after PAE, and maximum urinary flow rate (Q{sub max}) showed significant increase after PAE. No significant change of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for clinical evaluation after PAE. A significant correlation was found between the IPP change and the IPSS change (r = 0.636, p = 0.0045).ConclusionPatients had significant IPP reduction as well as significant symptomatic improvement after PAE, and these improvements were positively correlated.

  13. Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Control of Hematuria in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jhih-Wei; Shin, Ji Hoon; Tsao, Teng-Fu; Ko, Heung-Gyu; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Han, Ki-Chang; Thamtorawat, Somrach; Hong, Bumsik

    2017-02-01

    Nine patients with advanced prostate cancer (stage T4) underwent prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for refractory prostatic hematuria. Angiograms showed prostatic neovascularity in all cases, and complete PAE was achieved in 8 cases (89% technical success rate). Gross hematuria ceased after PAE in 6 cases, translating to a 67% clinical success rate. There were no PAE-related complications. At 3-month follow-up, 2 cases showed recurrent hematuria, 4 patients had died from PAE-unrelated etiologies, and only 3 patients survived and were without gross hematuria. PAE could represent an alternative option for patients with advanced prostate cancer to control hematuria. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  15. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in urban soil in the typical semi-arid city of Xi'an, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Mengmei; Tao, Wendong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Li; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping

    2017-10-12

    A total of 62 urban soil samples were collected in the city of Xi'an in Northwest China, and analyzed for six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority phthalate esters (PAEs). Unlike earlier studies on PAEs in agricultural soil as well as urban soil in humid climates, this paper for the first time comprehensively assessed pollution characteristics and health risks of human exposure to PAEs in urban soil in a typical semi-arid climate. The total concentrations of the six PAEs (Σ6PAEs) in the urban soil varied between 193.0 and 19146.4 μg kg(-1) with a mean of 1369.3 μg kg(-1). The PAEs were dominated by di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Magnetic susceptibility and soil texture were controlling factors influencing the concentrations of PAEs in the urban soil. The concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and Σ6PAEs increased from the first to third ring roads, while the concentrations of di-n-octyl phthalate decreased. Relatively higher levels of PAEs were observed in industrial, traffic, and residential areas. The PAEs in the urban soil originated mainly from the application of plasticizers or additives, use of cosmetics and personal care products, emissions of construction materials and home furnishings, industrial processes, and atmospheric deposition. The concentrations of some PAEs in the urban soil exceeded soil allowable concentrations and environmental risk levels. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of human exposure to the PAEs were relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  17. Occurrence, spatial distribution, historical trend and ecological risk of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongli; Liang, Jing; Gong, Zhenbin; Zhang, Ningning; Duan, Hualing

    2017-02-15

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a (210)Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future

  18. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  19. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds. (c) 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  1. Influence of water solubility, side chain degradability and side chain configuration on the degradation of phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnervik, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water solubility and degradability of side chains estrifying phthalic acid are factors possible to influence the degradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To investigate the importance of these factors degradation of butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) were examined under methanogenic conditions as well as was the degradability of the alcohols estrifying these PAEs. We also investigated if the degradation of resistant PAEs could be stimulated by the addition of a degradable PAE. Synthesis of degradation intermediates and two methods for PAE analyses are presented. The investigation showed that all alcohols were degraded to methane and carbon dioxide and that the degradation of PAE occurred in incubations amended with BBP, BEHP, DHP and DBP, whilst DEHP, DOP and DDP were unaffected throughout the experimental period. BBP added to incubations with DEHP, could not stimulate DEHP degradation. In conclusion, the degradability of alcohols estrifying phthalic acid in this study does not affect the anaerobic degradability of PAEs. Water solubility of a PAE can not be rejected as a factor limiting phthalate degradation under methanogenic conditions. Anaerobic degradation of persistent PAEs can not be stimulated by mixing it with a degradable phthalate. 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  2. [Effect of paeonol on LPS-induced rat vascular endothelial cell adhesion reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jun; Dai, Min; Chen, Peng

    2013-03-01

    To observe the effect of Paeonol (Pae) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced rat mononuclear cells (MCs) adhesion to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and provide basis foundation for inflammatary mechanisms of Pae against atherosclerosis. Rat vascular endothelial cells were isolated with tissue predigested adherent method. LPS was used as stimulator to induce VEC injury. Serum containing Pae obtained from healthy rats which were given Pae in intragastric. RP-HPLC method was used for detecting the concentration of Pae in serum. MTT assay was used to determine the protective effect of Pae on injured VECs. Rose Bengal Staining was used to detect the effect of Pae on LPS-induced MCs adhesion to VECs. LPS induced rat MCs adhesion to VECs. The effect was the strongest when the concentration was 10 ng/mL and incubated with VECs for 5 h. Pae in concentration of 2. 5,5 and 10 microg/mL and incubated for 24 h could effectively inhibit the adhesion and improve the survival rate of LPS injured VECs significantly. LPS can damage VECs. Pae could protect VECs from LPS injury via inhibiting MCs adhesion to VECs and improving the VEC survival rate.

  3. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintas, Ümit; Helgstrand, Ulf Johan Vilhelm; Hansen, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings in symptoma......The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings...

  4. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  5. Assessment of SCR catalysts on heavy vehicles as a tool to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions in larger Danish towns; Vurdering af anvendelse af SCR-katalysatorer pae tunge koeretoejer som virkemiddel til nedbringelse af NO{sub 2}-forureningen i de stoerre danske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Ketzel, M. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark); Winther, M. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The project assesses SCR catalysts as an efficient tool to obtain compliance with the EU limit value fo NO{sub 2}. It is expected that Denmark and the other EU member states are not able to comply with the limit value at 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (annual average) in 2010 without further measures (EU, 2006). (au)

  6. DanGrid. Report from working group 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid in Denmark with emphasis on the transmission companies' role; DanGrid. Delrapport. Arbejdsgruppe 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid i Danmark med saerlig vaegt pae netselskabernes rolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomholt Finnemann, K. [DONG Energy, Virum (Denmark); Soerensen, Per [TRE-FOR, Kolding (Denmark); Larsen, Jim [EnergiMidt, Silkeborg (Denmark); Balasiu, A. [Siemens, Ballerup (Denmark); Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [Nordjysk Elhandel, Aalborg (Denmark); Moeller Joergensen, J. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Norsk Jensen, A.; Nejsum, T.; Andersen, Kim [Dansk Energi, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The present report identifies a number of recommendations where specifically grid companies, but also authorities, customers and market players must initiate actions and activities to realize Smart Grid in Denmark by 2020. The report forms the basis for each network operator to implement Smart Grid, and is divided such that: 1 the management can create an overview of the steps to be taken in connection with the implementation, and 2. the technical department can develop a series of concrete actions to be implemented in the Smart Grid. The measures are divided into four groups: 1 - Establishment of business case and strategy: Efforts that support that each network operator prepares a business case and define a strategy for the creation of a Smart Grid. 2 - New technology in the grid: Measures relating to the importation of new technology in the grid, for example establishment of technology solutions for automating and monitoring the load on the network, and installing additional measurements at strategic points in the distribution network. 3 - Enabling customers' demand response: Initiatives that support that the grid company actively involves end users through price signals or by entering into agreements to regulate or move power consumption to a time of free capacity in the grid. 4 - Other activities: Measures which are horizontal and support that network companies develop a Smart Grid. New economic regulation of network companies is required to support the introduction of new technology in the grid, and at the same time crucial to enable customers' demand response. IT and data security must be established and customer engagement as active consumers of electricity should be strengthened. (LN)

  7. Chronic Supplementation of Paeonol Combined with Danshensu for the Improvement of Vascular Reactivity in the Cerebral Basilar Artery of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Qiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae and danshensu (DSS, should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl2-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS

  8. Pemisahan dan Pemurnian Phthalic Acid Ester dari Minyak Nyamplung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ekaputra Taifan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Minyak nyamplung dikenal sebagai minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian tentang minyak ini hanya fokus pada konversi minyak menjadi biodiesel. Pada penelitian ini, kami berusaha untuk memisahkan resin beracun dari fraksi metanol menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut diikuti kolom kromatografi. Resin beracun ini diidentifikasi sebagai phthalic acid ester (PAE. PAE ini biasanya digunakan sebagai zat aditif di industri polimer. Minyak nyamplung mengandung 1,8% PAE, yang masih jauh melebihi nilai ambang batas. Isolasi PAE dari minyak ini diharapkan dapt mengubah minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi menjadi suplemen makanan yang bernilai. Proses isolasi PAE dimulai dengan memisahkan senyawa yang diinginkan dari lipid menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut bertingkat dengan metanol dan n-heksan. Analisa mass spectra dari fraksi pertama dan fraksi kedua metanol menunjukkan kandungan PAE sebesar 60% dan 6% pada tiap fraksi. Fraksi heksan tidak mengandung PAE. PAE yang terkandung pada fraksi metanol diisolasi lebih lanjut dari asam lemak menggunakan liquid column chromatography dengan n-heksan – etil asetat sebagai mobile phase. Bis- 2ethylhexyl phthalate diidentifikasi pada ketiga fraksi sesuai dengan hasil analisa GC-MS. Fraksi pertama diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 5% etil asetat, sedangkan fraksi kedua merupakan campuran 5% etil asetat dan 10% etil asetat. Fraksi ketiga diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 10% etil asetat mengandung PAE sebesar 98%. Fraksi keempat merupakan campuran 10% dan 15% mobile phase dan mengandung PAE sebesar 97%. Akhirnya, kandungan PAE pada fraksi metanol sebesar 58%. Dari hasil analisa, dapat disimpulkan bahwa mobile phase yang optimum untuk kromatografi adalah 10- 15% etil asetat dalam n-heksan.

  9. Rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2008-01-01

    En interviewundersøgelse af patienter, der får gennemført hofteoperation, en opgørelse af deres selvvurdere helbredsstatus med henblik på at tilrettelægge rehabilitering baseret på patienternes egne præmisser.......En interviewundersøgelse af patienter, der får gennemført hofteoperation, en opgørelse af deres selvvurdere helbredsstatus med henblik på at tilrettelægge rehabilitering baseret på patienternes egne præmisser....

  10. Hvilke faktorer i studiemiljøet fremmer trivsel? - en analyse på baggrund af svar fra 11401 studerende ved Aarhus Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper; Jensen, Torben K.; Lassesen, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Alle danske universiteter gennemfører undervisningsmiljøvurderinger (UMV). Denne artikel præsenterer en analysemodel for UMV'en ved Aarhus Universitet samt en statistisk analyse med henblik på at identificere de vigtigste faktorer for studerendes trivsel.......Alle danske universiteter gennemfører undervisningsmiljøvurderinger (UMV). Denne artikel præsenterer en analysemodel for UMV'en ved Aarhus Universitet samt en statistisk analyse med henblik på at identificere de vigtigste faktorer for studerendes trivsel....

  11. Faglig ledelse i socialt arbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Randi Riis

    2013-01-01

    Om definition og udvikling af ledelse på det socialfaglige arbejde på myndighedsområdet og tilstødende arbejdsområder med henblik på at skabe større kvalitet i arbejdet med socialt udsatte børn og unge.......Om definition og udvikling af ledelse på det socialfaglige arbejde på myndighedsområdet og tilstødende arbejdsområder med henblik på at skabe større kvalitet i arbejdet med socialt udsatte børn og unge....

  12. Vilkår og muligheder i det sociale web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Dette podcast gengiver et indlæg på Forskningsnetkonferencen 2007 om muligheder og vilkår i det sociale web med særligt henblik på e-læring. Fysisk medie: Flash-fil......Dette podcast gengiver et indlæg på Forskningsnetkonferencen 2007 om muligheder og vilkår i det sociale web med særligt henblik på e-læring. Fysisk medie: Flash-fil...

  13. Transfer Pricing Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder......Konferencebidraget indeholder en kritisk analyse af transfer pricing reglerne på henholdsvis moms og indkomstskatterettens område med henblik på en diskussion af, det er hensigtsmæssigt med en harmonisering af reglerne på tværs af de to retsområder...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0539 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0539 ref|YP_002016101.1| hypothetical protein Paes_1434 [Prosthecochlo...ris aestuarii DSM 271] gb|ACF46454.1| hypothetical protein Paes_1434 [Prosthecochloris aestuarii DSM 271] YP_002016101.1 1.1 26% ...

  15. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  16. The Physical Activity Environment and Academic Achievement in Massachusetts Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sarah A; Wright, Catherine M; Boulos, Rebecca; Chomitz, Virginia R; Chui, Kenneth; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2017-12-01

    A supportive school-based physical activity environment (PAE) is integral to children's physical activity behaviors, but less understood is its association with academic achievement. We aimed to assess the association between PAE and academic performance and whether a stronger relationship exists in lower-income schools (LIS) compared to middle-income schools (MIS). Schoolchildren (grades 3rd to 5th) were recruited from 17 Massachusetts public schools. Schools were classified based on geographic characteristics and free/reduced-price lunch (FRPL) eligibility (LIS = 7, Median FRPL = 86%; MIS = 10, Median FRPL = 20%). PAE was measured using a 10-item survey. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine associations between PAE and scoring Advanced/Proficient on standardized Math and English Language Arts (ELA) tests. Demographic characteristics differed between LIS (N = 278, 5% non-Hispanic white) and MIS (N = 297, 73% non-Hispanic white). In LIS, PAE was associated with Math (odds ratio = 5.40, 95% CI = 2.52-11.54 p .05). There was no relationship between PAE and MIS test scores (p > .05). Schooltime moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was not associated with test scores (p > .05). A beneficial relationship exists between a high-PAE and test scores among LIS children, suggesting that the PAE may be associated with a more supportive environment and may be more fundamentally important for lower-income students. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  17. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River estuary, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongli; Liang, Jing; Duan, Hualing; Gong, Zhenbin

    2017-09-15

    The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment were investigated in the Jiulong River estuary, Fujian, Southeast China. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only six PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified. The total concentrations of the six PAEs (∑6PAEs) detected for all seasons ranged from 3.01 to 26.4μg/L in water, 1.56 to 48.7mg/kg in SPM, and 0.037 to 0.443μg/kg in sediment. DEHP, DIBP and DBP were the most abundant PAE congeners in all of the water, SPM and sediment phases. The spatial distributions of PAEs in the estuary were controlled not only by the riverine runoff, seasons, hydrodynamic condition and human activities but also the physicochemical properties of PAEs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Aging and drinking problems among mature adults: the moderating effects of positive alcohol expectancies and workforce disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter A; Sonnenstuhl, William J; Vashdi, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between aging and drinking problems among mature workers and the moderating effects of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) and workforce disengagement. This longitudinal study collected data on mature adults (i.e., retirement eligible) in three employment sectors (i.e., construction, manufacturing, and transportation) over five periods: T1 was 6 months before their retirement eligibility date and T5 was 4 years afterward. AtT1, 1,122 subjects participated in the survey; at T5, 917 participated in the survey. Problem drinking was assessed in all five waves by the Drinking Problems Index. PAEs were measured at T4 and T5 by the Alcohol Outcomes Expectancies Scale. Workforce disengagement was assessed by subjects' employment status at T5 (i.e., still working despite eligibility versus fully retired/not working). Control variables were employment sector, age at T1, and gender. PAEs moderated the relationship between aging and drinking problems: High PAEs were associated with an increase in drinking problems, whereas low PAEs were associated with a decrease in drinking problems. With regard to disengagement, continuing to work amplified the moderating effects of PAEs on the relationship between aging and drinking problems, whereas the moderating effects of PAEs were attenuated for the fully retired. This study provides further evidence of the significance of PAEs and drinking problems among mature adults, particularly as they are conditioned by disengagement from work. Implications for employee/member assistance program are discussed.

  19. Soy flour dispersibility and performance as wood adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori

    2013-01-01

    Soy flour adhesives using polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin as the curing agent are being used commercially to make bonded wood products. The original studies on the soy-PAE adhesives used purified soy protein isolate, but the much lower cost soy flour is now used commercially. We examined the performance of commercially available soy flours that have their...

  20. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  1. Cortical gyrification is abnormal in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Timothy J; Mueller, Bryon A; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Mattson, Sarah N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Jones, Kenneth L; Boys, Christopher J; Lim, Kelvin O; Riley, Edward P; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) adversely affects early brain development. Previous studies have shown a wide range of structural and functional abnormalities in children and adolescents with PAE. The current study adds to the existing literature specifically on cortical development by examining cortical gyrification in a large sample of children with PAE compared to controls. Relationships between cortical development and intellectual functioning are also examined. Included were 92 children with PAE and 83 controls ages 9-16 from four sites in the Collaborative Initiative on FASD (CIFASD). All PAE participants had documented heavy PAE. All underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features. MRI data were collected using modified matched protocols on three platforms (Siemens, GE, and Philips). Cortical gyrification was examined using a semi-automated procedure. Whole brain group comparisons using Monte Carlo z-simulation for multiple comparisons showed significantly lower cortical gyrification across a large proportion of the cerebral cortex amongst PAE compared to controls. Whole brain comparisons and ROI based analyses showed strong positive correlations between cortical gyrification and IQ (i.e. less developed cortex was associated with lower IQ). Abnormalities in cortical development were seen across the brain in children with PAE compared to controls. Cortical gyrification and IQ were strongly correlated, suggesting that examining mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts cortical formation may yield clinically relevant insights and potential directions for early intervention.

  2. Photoprotective Effect of a Polyopes affinis (Harvey) Kawaguchi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apoptosis was assessed by apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Results: PAE significantly scavenged the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, as well as hydrogen peroxide- and UVB-induced intracellular ROS. Furthermore, PAE showed 23 % scavenging effect of the superoxide anion and 33 % of the hydroxyl ...

  3. Translation of an evidence-based social skills intervention for children with prenatal alcohol exposure in a community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary J; Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Mogil, Catherine; Lowe, Evy; Welch-Torres, Kathleen; Keil, Vivien; Paley, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have significant social skills deficits and are often treated in community mental health settings. However, it remains unclear whether these children can be effectively treated using manualized, evidence-based interventions that have been designed for more general mental health populations. To shed light on this issue, the effectiveness of Children's Friendship Training (CFT) versus Standard of Care (SOC) was assessed for 85 children ages 6 to 12 years with and without PAE in a community mental health center. Children participating in CFT showed significantly improved knowledge of appropriate social skills, improved self-concept, and improvements in parent-reported social skills compared to children in the SOC condition. Moreover, results revealed that within the CFT condition, children with PAE performed as well as children without PAE. Findings indicated that CFT, an evidence-based social skills intervention, yielded greater gains than a community SOC social skills intervention and was equally effective for children with PAE as for those without PAE. Results suggest that children with PAE can benefit from treatments initiated in community settings in which therapists are trained to understand their unique developmental needs, and that they can be successfully integrated into treatment protocols that include children without PAE. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. [Alcohol consumption and positive alcohol expectancies in young adults: a typological approach using TwoStep cluster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautier, S; Jmel, S; Fourio, C; Moncany, D

    2007-09-01

    The present study investigates the heterogeneity of the population of young adult drinkers with respect to alcohol consumption and Positive Alcohol Expectancies (PAEs). Based on the positive relationship between both kinds of variables, PAE is commonly viewed as a potential motivational factor of alcoholic addiction. Empirical analyses based on the regression of alcohol consumption on PAEs suppose that the observations are statistically homogeneous with respect to the level of alcohol consumption, however. We explored the existence of moderate drinkers with a high PAE profile, and abusive drinkers with a low PAE profile. 1,017 young adult drinkers, mean age=23 +/- 2.84, with various educational levels, comprising 506 males and 511 females, were recruited as voluntary participants in a survey by undergraduate psychology students from the University of Toulouse Le Mirail. They completed a French version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifiction Test (AUDIT) and a French adaptation of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ). Three levels of alcohol consumption were defined using the AUDIT score, and six composite scores were obtained by averaging the relevant item-scores from the AEQ. The AEQ scores were interpreted as measurement of six kinds of PAEs, namely Global positive change, Sexual enhancement, Social and physical pleasure, Social assertiveness, Relaxation, and Arousal/Power. The TwoStep cluster methodology was used to explore the data. This methodology is convenient to deal with a mix of quantitative and qualitative variables, and it provides a classification model which is optimized through the use of an information criterion as Schwarz's Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The automatic clustering suggested five clusters, whose stability was ascertained until 75% of the sample size. Low drinkers (n=527) were split into one cluster of low PAEs (I1) and, interestingly, one cluster of high PAEs (I3, 46%). High drinkers (n=344) were split into one cluster

  5. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interrogating Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer generelt de analytiske muligheder og begrænsninger for brugen af diasporabegrebet og undersøger, hvordan det kan anvendes på et studie af peruansk migration med særlig henblik på migrationens politiske, solidariske og klassemæssige aspekter....

  7. Transnationalization of Television in Five European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepstrup, Preben

    En empirisk opfølgning på gennemgangen af tidligere forskning og opstilling af nye teorier og metoder i samme forfatters 'Transnationalization of Television'. En empirisk undersøgelse af det totale udbud og forbrug af tv i 5 europæiske lande i to uger med særligt henblik på import og eksport af tv...

  8. Begrundelser for ytringsfriheden og dens grænser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Hvilke grunde er der til at have ytringsfrihed og bestemte begrænsninger heraf? De officielle begrundelser for blasfemi- og racismeparagrafferne skitseres, hvorefter tre overordnede begrundelser for ytringsfriheden undersøges med henblik på, om de tillader begrænsninger herpå. Derpå diskuteres de...

  9. Sociale problemer og sociale afvigelser - sociologisk set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2007-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer forskellige definitioner af sociale problemer og sociale afvigelser. Klassiske og moderne sociologiske teorier om årsager til og konsekvenser af sociale problemer og sociale afvigelser præsenteres og diskuteres med særlig henblik på pædagogisk arbejde....

  10. Vision for IT Audit 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation inddrager dele af resultatet som arbejdsgruppe IT Assurance Task force nedsat af ISACA Knowledge board er kommet frem til i løbet af gruppens arbejde 2013-2014 med henblik på at finde trends og tendenser for IT revision i 20220...

  11. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    be downloaded from www.vbn.aau.dk. Furthermore, some of the analyses in this report take as their starting point the analyses conducted in the report ‘Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri – med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri’, published by Aalborg University in January...

  12. The Turk Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    En analytisk, europæisk og interartielt kontekstualiseret gennemgang af eksempler på motivet om den fængslede/udfriede jomfru i danske 'tyrkerier' fra det 18. og 19. årh. med særligt henblik på dramatiske og musikdramatiske gestaltninger....

  13. Collective identities and popular excesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen er en teoretisk diskussion af Ernesto Laclaus populisme-begreb i forhold til Jacques Rancières begreb om folket som supplementært, 'overtalligt' politisk subjekt. Den første del er viet en kritisk diskussion af Laclaus (seneste)populisme-teori - især med henblik på forholdet mellem Lacla...

  14. The new circus performance ABSINTH in Las Vegas - five thoughts on provocative reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, Michael

    Paperet behandler fem mulige postitioner hvorfra en konkret nycirkusforestilling, (Absinth, der spillede i oktober 2017 i et telt på pladsen for Cesars Palace, Las Vegas, USA) kan analyseres med henblik på at undersøge brugen af provokationer, komik og fornærmelser af publikum som kunstnerisk str...

  15. Liberal Nationalism, Pluralism and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    Emnet for denne PhD afhandling er nationalisme og multikulturalisme med særlig henblik på spørgsmål om indvandring til etablerede liberale nationalstater. Liberal nationalisme forstås som baseret på et hensyn til at sikre liberale politiske idealers stabilitet, og diskuteres i forhold til spørgsmål...

  16. Relativsætninger - et lidt upåagtet tekstlingvistisk fænomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer forskellige grammatikaliseringer af relativsætninger (hovedsageligt i dansk, men med udblik til højtysk og danske dialekter)med særligt henblik på at vise deres forbindelse til indholdets tekstlingvistiske indordning....

  17. Comparison of performance of students' soft skills: HEI performance evaluation and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning P.; Roth, Eva

    Rapport vedrørende en sammenligning af studerendes og virksomheders indstilling til en række såkaldte soft skills færdigheder med henblik på at sikre at studerendes opfattelse af deres færdigheder svarer til virksomhedernes ønsker herom....

  18. Den tidslogiske analyse af determinismeproblemet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den filosofiske tidslogik med særligt henblik på A.N. Priors bidrag hertil. Det logiske determinismeproblem benyttes som gennemgående eksempel. Det vises endvidere, hvordan tidslogikken kan udnyttes til at analysere de logisk mulige positioner i en videnskabelig eller videnska...

  19. Total quality in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Nørgaard; Carlsson, Ricci

    1995-01-01

    Resumerer konklusioner fra et internationalt seminar afholdt oktober 1993 om kvalitet i uddannelse. Trods konstatering af barrierer mod 'kvalitet' i uddannelse var der fra seminaret enighed om, at der både er behov og mulighed for at bygge uddannelse på en kvalitetstankegang. Med henblik herpå be...

  20. Trends in the Danish Institutional Development: Changing Paths in the Educational Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel-Schertges, Dirk; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2011-01-01

    Bidraget gennemgår i store træk det danske uddannelsessystems opbygning og udvikling med særligt henblik på at vise ændringerne i uddannelsesstrukturen i forbindelse med overgangen fra skolesystem til arbejdsmarked...

  1. Undervisning og læring i STEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Waaddegaard, Nina Holst; Dolin, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Dette afsnit handler om reviewspørgsmål 1: Hvilke indsatser, metoder og strategier kan ifølge eksisterende forskning styrke undervisningen med henblik på elevers læring – i form af tilegnelse af viden, færdigheder, kompetencer og naturvidenskabelig almendannelse – herunder underviseres brug af en...

  2. Bæredygtighed i Danmarks førindustrielle bygningskultur og dens aktuelle relevans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2016-01-01

    Ph.d. projektet udforsker sammenhænge mellem den førindustrielle bygningskultur og det, der nu kaldes bæredygtighed, med henblik på at øge vores viden om disse bygninger og undersøge, om denne viden kan opkvalificere arbejdet med fredede og bevaringsværdige bygninger samt bidrage til udformningen...

  3. Freiburg Letbane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov-Sørensen, Asbjørn; Christensen, Peter Muhlig

    2015-01-01

    8. semester fra Vej- og Trafikuddannelsen ved Aalborg Universitet har været på studietur i Freiburg med henblik på at studere, hvordan indpasningen af et letbanesystem er håndteret i den sydtyske by. Den daglige transport i Freiburg centrum er helt og holdent på letbanens præmisser, og byen har d...

  4. Autogenous Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Denne afhandling er skrevet med henblik på opnåelse af den danske doktorgrad i teknik, dr.techn. Den vedrører autogene fænomener i cementbaserede materialer – primært deformation og ændring af den relative luftfugtighed (RF). I afhandlingen er det belyst, hvordan betydningen af disse fænomener bl...

  5. Vurdering af nye oplysninger fra ansøgeren som svar på spørgsmål fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. Beta vulgaris. glyphosate (Roundup) tolerance. Modtaget, 26-02-2004, deadline 12-03-2004, svar 11-03-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2002-01-01

    Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser foreslår stadig, at der som supplement til den generelle overvågning foretages en specifik overvågning af dyrkningssystemet med henblik på at detektere eventuelle langtidseffekter af den ændrede anvendelse af herbicid i forbindelse med dyrkning af Roundup resistente fo...

  6. Early literacy and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    Dette paper behandler skriftsprogstilegnelse med særligt henblik på inklusion. Det analyserer aktuel dansk policy, og giver et eksempel på inkluderende praksis vha. en såkaldt sproghistorie (EASE-projektet). Dette paper diskuterer også et amerikansk paper om inklusion og skriftsprogstilegnelse, o...

  7. Indeklima - Materialer - Byggeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo

    I dette hæfte behandles emnerne INDEKLIMA MATERIALER BYGGERI med henblik på at opnå en forståelse af de begreber, der har betydning for menneskets velvære. Nogle af de vigtigste indeklimabegreber gennemgås og materialers fordele og ulemper belyses. Emner som afgasning, materialevalg, depoteffekt,...

  8. Tempus i spansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Med basis i instruktionssemantik og relevansteori analyseres de spanske tempora presente, pretérito imperfecto og pretérito indefinido med henblik på at finde ud af hvad der er kodet i de forskellige tempora og dermed give en definition af tempusfleksiverne. Det søges vist at de mange betydninger...

  9. Reception før produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Lone

    1998-01-01

    Med henblik på at fremme den intersproglige grammatikaliseringsproces, plæderes for anvendelse af en nyere forståelsesorienteret metode på bekostning af den traditionelle produktorienterede, som er en medvirkende årsag til indlæringsmæssige problemer ifm grammatikundervisningen. Endvidere postule...

  10. Science in Society - A Challenging Frontier for Science Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow; Alix, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Rapport med anbefaling til europæiske forskningsråd, fonde og forskningsinstitutioner, med henblik på at styrke båndene mellem forskning og samfund. Udarbejdet af en europæisk arbejdsgruppe, hovedforfatter Jean-Pierre Alix. Søren Harnow Klausen har især bidraget til kap. 2, bl.a. pp. 13-14...

  11. RUC's sprogprofiler i fransk, spansk og tysk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Andersen, Hanne; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sprogprofilerne er et nyt uddannelsestilbud til studerende på RUC's humanistiske og samfundsvidenskabelige bacheloruddannelse. Der udvikles nye didaktiske strategier med henblik på at give de studerende kommunikative og analytiske færdigheder, der kan anvendes i en flersproget og transnational ar...

  12. Medarbejdermobilitet og -stabilitet i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    har den største sandsynlighed for at forlade deres nuværende job. Desuden diskuterer jeg hvordan denne information kan anvendes af virksomhedsledere til dels at håndtere den høje mobilitet og dels at reducere denne med henblik på en omkostningsreduktion. Centralt for artiklen er at belyse hvorledes...

  13. Billeder og viden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen gentænker og problematiserer en række af de forestillinger, der hyppigt knyttes til billeder og visuelle medier. Det sker med henblik på at åbne for en mere nuanceret forståelse af billeders betydning for brug af vidensmediering såvel som billeders funktion som vidensmedier. To væsentlig...

  14. National monitorering af diabetesforekomst på basis af administrative sundhedsregistre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Green, Anders; Carstensen, Bendix

    2005-01-01

      Introduktion: Regeringens Diabeteshandlingsplan anbefalede i 2003 at etablere en national diabetes database med henblik på monitorering af diabetesforekomsten og kvalitetsudvikling. Formålet med denne undersøgelse er at validere en national algoritme til identifikation af erkendt diabetes og sa...

  15. Ungepaneler: Reaktioner på undersøgelsens resultater fra de unge selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Ved unge-paneler på tre forskellige skoler i landet blev undersøgelsens vigtigste konklusioner diskuteret med henblik på at få de unges uddybninger og nuanceringer af de fund, som spørgeskemaundersøgelsen gav anledning til. Unge fra 9.klasser fra tre forskellige skoler indgik i de tre paneler....

  16. Synoptisches Erzählen - Darstellungen des Bombenkriegs bei Gert Ledig, Alexander Kluge und Dieter Forte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen foretager en sammenlignende analyse af Gert Ledigs roman "Vergeltung" (1956), Alexander Kluges hybride tekst "Der Luftangriff auf Halberstadt am 8. April 1945" (1976) og Dieter Fortes roman "Der Junge mit den Blutigen Schuhen" (1995) med henblik på en diskussion af fortællemæssige strate...... strategier overfor bombardementerne af den tyske civilbefolkning under 2. Verdenskrig....

  17. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  18. Vidensfødekæden - fragmenter eller helhed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Julio

    2007-01-01

      Med henblik på at indkredse humanioras rolle i en samfundsmæssig kontekst, anlægges en historisk vinkel på de humanistiske videnskabers sociale funktion siden renæssancen. Forstået som forvalteren af en statsmagts "kulturelle kapital" fremtræder humaniora som en central del af samfundshelheden ...

  19. Support af nye natur/teknik-lærere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob; Evans, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen fremlægger et forslag til en model for fremtidige tiltag til støtte af nyuddannede danske natur/teknik-lærere med henblik på at øge deres udviklingsparathed og sandsynligheden for deres fastholdelse i lærerprofessionen....

  20. Monetary incentives and environmental concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen gennemfører en teoretisk og empirisk diskussion af anvendelsen af økonomiske incitamenter til fremme af miljøvenlig adfærd med særlig henblik på kildesortering af husholdningsaffald. Der argumenteres for, at de fleste forbrugeres holdning til kildesortering er moralsk begrundet, og at my...

  1. Determination of wintering areas for Common Scoters Melanitta nigra breeding in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Due; Petersen, Ib Krag; Dalby, Lars

    Ynglelokaliteter for Sortand Melanitta nigra i Norge blev fundet med henblik på fangst af rugende hunner. Geolokator data loggere, monteret på en fod-ring, skal indhente data til beskrivelse af fuglenes overvintrings-områder. På grund af usædvanlig koldt forår og sommer i fjeldet var der ingen ak...

  2. Modus i ledsætninger på moderne fransk og tysk (I) + (II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsting, Alexandra; Lindschouw, Jan

    2009-01-01

    I de to artikler beskriver vi modusforhold og modusbrug i fransk og tysk, med særligt henblik på modusbrugen i ledsætninger, og sammenligner afaslutningsvis denne. En central pointe er her, at mens konjunktiven i fransk i et vist omfang har en syntaktisk funktion som underordningsmarkør, har den ...

  3. L'insegnamento delle Scienze in Europa:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggersen, Dorte Vang; Marianna Bollone, Silvia; Sartoni, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen er på italiensk. Sammenlignende analyse af læseunderstøttende tiltag i seks biologiundervisningsmaterialer, to fra hvert land. Analyserne ses i lyset af en sammenligning af de tre landes læseplaner for biologifaget med særligt henblik på krav om undervisning i faglig læsning....

  4. Et tekstanalytisk mellemværende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Anita Nell

    deiksisteori, Jurij Lotmans teori om semantiske rum samt kognitionsteoretiske perspektiver. Det gøres med henblik på at elaborere og udbygge Vosmars mondiale analyse i forhold til Text World Theory (TWT). Tekstverdensteorien udgør en tosidet undersøgelse af, hvorledes: 1) tekstverdener konstitueres via sproget...

  5. Europa-Kommissionens Grønbog: Revisionspolitik: læren af krisen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    EU Kommiossionen har i forlængelse af Finanskrisen udgivet en grønbog om revisorfunitionens fremtidige rolle i EU. Grønbogen indeholder en række forslag til stramning af reglerne for revision og revisorer med henblik på at bidrage til stabilisering af finanssystemet. I mærværende artikel gives fo...

  6. Heldagsskoler som uddannelsespolitisk strategi i relation til tosprogede børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Med henblik på øget skolesucces og bedre integration af tosprogede elever har Undervisningsministeriet givet en række skoler i særligt udsatte boligområder dispensation til flerårige forsøg med heldagsskoler. Den overordnede uddannelsespolitiske tænkning bag disse forsøg analyseres og diskuteres...

  7. Den empiriske uddannelsesvidenskab og kvalitet i studieaktivitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Bidraget kobler studieaktivitetesmodellen med kvalitetsindikatorer for god undervisning, og viler blandt andet, hvorledes modellen kan støtte samtænkning af forskellige undervisnings- og læringsformater med henblik på øge den aktive læretid...

  8. Benchmarking af udsættelser i kommunerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunvor; Jeppesen, Anders Gade; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    nuværende tidspunkt stadig mangler relevante forhold i benchmarking-modellen. Eksempelvis antallet af stofmisbrugere, antallet af borgere med psykiatriske indlæggelser samt forekomsten af projekter med henblik på at forebygge udsættelser (fx gældsrådgivning). Disse data er først tilgængelige i 2015....

  9. Passion og (dis)engagement blandt unge i udskolingen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maj Sofie

    (skateboarding, dans, basketball, musik og kunst & håndværk) som sit pædagogiske, ideologiske og organisatoriske omdrejningspunkt... Formålet med projektet er desuden at give et forskningsmæssigt bidrag til den aktuelle uddannelsespolitiske debat om reorganisering af udskolingen med henblik på at skabe øget...

  10. Ekstraktion af aromastoffer fra tørret oregano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud; Jakobsen, Jens Ellitsgård; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2007-01-01

    Ligevægtsforhold omkring ekstraktion af aktivstoffer fra oregano vulgaris med ethanol og vand er undersøgt med henblik på industriel fremstilling af tinkturer er undersøgt. Væskeoptag i tørret oregano som funktion af væskesammensætning er bestemt. Sammensætningen af aktivstoffer i ekstraktet som...

  11. Oplevelsesbaseret innovation og værdiskabelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Søren Graakjær

    Afhandlingen udvikler et bud på en forståelsesramme af oplevelsesbaseret in-novation og værdiskabelse med særligt henblik på forretningsudvikling i ople-velsesøkonomien og delvist også i koblingen imellem oplevelsesøkonomien og andre typer af erhverv. Det etableres i afhandlingen, at oplevelsesøk...

  12. Klasseledelse, inklusion og differentiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christina; Mottelson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet behandler forholdet mellem de tre begreber klasseledelse, inklusion og differentiering og ser på, hvordan de folder sig ud i folkeskolens praksis. Der tages afsæt i en definition af klasseledelse som alle de redskaber, læreren tager i anvendelse med henblik på at få timen til tage form på...

  13. Kompleksitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel sætter fokus på betydningen af kompleksitet i forbindelse med udvikling af terapeutisk kompetence og professionel identitet som terapeut. Artiklen bygger på et forskningsprojekt, hvor musikterapistuderende blev interviewet med henblik på at undersøge de studerendes egen erfaring med...

  14. Fra affald til genbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil; Madsen, Lisbeth Low; Hansen, Jens Arnholtz

    Rapporten beskriver og evaluerer et større udviklingsprojekt på tværs af Øresund med henblik på at udvikle og afprøve en omfattende uddannelse for renovationsarbejdere, som udvikler deres faglige og personlige kompetencer fra indsamling af skrald til funktionen som medarbejdere i virksomheder, de...

  15. Hæsligt mudder, usund luft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Torsten Bøgh

    2015-01-01

    teoretiske debatter om økologisk orienteret kunst og kultur. Andersens debutroman, Improvisatoren, læses derfor i forhold til Mortons teorier med henblik på at anskueliggøre romanens mulige samtidsrelevans. Det er en læsning, der ser bort fra de menneskelige aktanters relationer og konflikter fremme på...

  16. Det momsretlige sektoropdelingsinstitut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    I den momsretlige regulering gives der mulighed for at sektoropdele diversificerede virksomheder med henblik på at sikre en mere retvisende grad af fradragsret. Selvom sektoropdelingsinstituttet siden de oprindelige EU-direktivers vedtagelse i 1967 på fakultativt grundlag har været en del af det ...

  17. Study on Continuing Vocational Training System in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil; Thoregaard, Kamille

    2009-01-01

    4 partnerlande (Bulgarien, Danmark, Grækenland og Rumænien) har i et EU-finansieret projekt analyseret stærke og svage sider ved landenes respektive systemer og situationer vedrørende erhvervsrettet efter- og videreuddannelse (CVT) og livslang læring (LLL) - med henblik på at øge den fremtidige...

  18. De valsende matemathildaer. To eksempler på visuel poesi og computerpoesi i 00'erne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    2004-01-01

    Komparativ analyse af Niels Lyngsøs visuelle poesi i "Morfeus" og Tomas Thøfners computerpoesi i "Altings A", begge udgivet i 2004, med henblik på at kortlægge nutidige forfatteres genbrug af avantgardistiske strategier...

  19. Jeg ka' jo mærke, at de voksne ikke ka' li' mig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Heidi Trude

    2017-01-01

    Denne artikel udarbejdet med henblik på omdeling på Børn- og Ungetopmøde i Aalborg 2017, argumenterer for, at relationskompetencer hos de voksne fagpersoner i skolen bør have samme status, når der planlægges kompetenceudvikling som eks. opkvalificering af linjefag og uddannelse af faglige vejlede...

  20. Heading for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Rækkevidden af virksomheders selvregulering med henblik på bæredygtig produktion. Offentlig regulering nødvendig, men sigtet må være at fremme virksomhedernes tagen ansvar for miljøvirkningerne af egen aktivitet.  Succes med dette vurderes som afgørende for implementeringen af bæredygtighedsstrat...

  1. An Essay on the Qualities of Artistic Performance, Creativity and Aesthetic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Eddy Preben; Rothuizen, Jan Jaap; Hansen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Arbejdspapir til EU-projektet om validering af ikke-formel og uformelle læreprocesser i sociale fællesskaber og kreativ industri, med særligt henblik på unge træneres eller undervisere/tutoreres muligheder for at opnå realkompetence i overensstemmelse med EU Framework for kvalitetssikring i uddan...

  2. SofiS - en strukturmodel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsøe Liebing, Christian; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; B. Munksgaard, Mikkel

    I denne rapport præsenteres den første version af Socialforskningsinstituttets strukturmodel SofiS. Modellen er en computerbaseret matematisk model, der er bygget med henblik på at kunne give vurderinger af de langsigtede konsekvenser for beskæftigelse og velfærd af social- og arbejdsmarkedspolit...

  3. Slutrapport fra følgeforskningsgruppe på projekt om internationalisering i gymnasiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Tranekjær, Louise; Daryai-Hansen, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten indeholder en beskrivelse og vurdering af en række gymnasiers udvikling - i samarbejde med følgeforskere - af modeller for og pædagogisk tilrettelæggelse af sprogundervisning med henblik på at give eleverne internationale kompetencer....

  4. Folkeretlige problemstillinger i forbindelse med konflikten mellem Ukraine og Rusland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    Konflikten mellem Ukraine og Rusland udgør en trussel mod den internationale retsorden og dermed også hele den europæiske orden. Med henblik på at give et grundlag for at forstå omfanget af dette aspekt af konflikten behandles her lovligheden af nogle af de handlinger, som har været konfliktens...

  5. Seniorboliger - en vejledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrose, I.; Henriksen, O.; Hinchely, J.

    Denne vejledning er tænkt som inspiration for mennesker, der overvejer deres boligsituation med henblik på en kommende tilværelse som senior og gammel. Der beskrives de boligkvaliteter, der kan være med til at gøre boligen mere velegnet til seniortilværelsen og til at blive gammel i. I bogen give...

  6. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  7. Klimaskærmens lydforhold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.; Kjær, J.

    Notatet redegør for de fysiske forhold, som knytter sig til lydisolation og for de metoder, der anvendes til måling og vurdering af bygningskomponenters lydisolation. Endvidere gøres der rede for støjniveauets betydning for lydisolationen med henblik på opstilling af forslag til eventuelle krav...

  8. A Theory of Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørgen Podemann

    2008-01-01

    Et forsøg på at forene teorier om myte og ritual, teorier om offer og teorier om liminalitet i en overordnet teori. Dens anvendelighed søges demonstreret med særligt henblik på antikkens religionshistorie. Bl.a. behandles Attismyten og Kybelekulten, det græske slagtoffer (Vernant), det delfiske...

  9. Forsøg med alternative legeringer til erstatning af blyholdige bronzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels; Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Jesper B

    Projektet omfatter et litteraturstudie, der skal have til formål, at give overblik over hvilke materia-ler, der kan komme på tale som erstatning for blyholdige bronzer. De fundne legeringer skal derefter analyseres med henblik på deres indflydelse på primært arbejds-miljøet i produktionskæden, men...

  10. Miljøoptimering af afvaskning ved tryk med vandfortyndbar flexotrykfarve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Helweg, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Rathmann

    Rapporten beskriver praksis ved afvaskning af vandfortyndbare flexotrykfarver i emballageindustrien og anviser muligheder for indførelse af renere teknologi til reduktion af spildevandsbelastningen. Anbefalingerne omfatter a) udformning af farveværker med henblik på effektiv tømning af farve og e...

  11. LCA af genbrug af mursten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Der er gennemført en livscyklusbaseret miljøvurdering af genbrug af mursten. Modelleringen er baseret på, hvordan Virksomheden ”Gamle Mursten” forbereder de gamle mursten med henblik på, at de kan genbruges i nybyggeri. Som alternativ til direkte genbrug nedknuses murstensaffaldet og anvendes som...

  12. Kommunale indsatser rettet mod uddannelse, beskæftigelse og det sociale område

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunvor; Jørgensen, Rune Christian Holger

    2016-01-01

    afdækker centrale kendetræk ved indsatserne, og indsatserne er udførligt beskrevet i rapporten med henblik på, at fagfolk og praktikere kan drøfte, hvordan indsatserne kan realiseres i en lokal kontekst. Der findes ikke en bestemt etableret definition af indsatser, der kan foregå i et boligområde og...

  13. Music therapy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Når klienter henvises til musikterapi, gennemgår de en assessment-procedure (en klinisk vurdering), som kræver terapeutens ekspertise inden for forskellige områder - med henblik på at stille en en diagnose og identificere klientens behov og potentialer, samt at opstille realistiske forventninger ...

  14. Benchmarking af kommunernes sagsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    Fra 2007 skal Ankestyrelsen gennemføre benchmarking af kommuernes sagsbehandlingskvalitet. Formålet med benchmarkingen er at udvikle praksisundersøgelsernes design med henblik på en bedre opfølgning og at forbedre kommunernes sagsbehandling. Dette arbejdspapir diskuterer metoder for benchmarking...

  15. Interior Design and the Socratic architect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2006-01-01

    Dette paper har til formål at inspirere indretningsarkitekter og -designere til at udvikle deres værktøjer og metoder med henblik på at skabe bedre resultater baseret på tæt samarbejde med brugerne og ved inspiration fra andre professioner. I dette paper beskrives det forhold, at indretningsarkit...

  16. Projekt Kitae Part I-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, William Dr.

    Fokuserer på udfordringerne omkring nuværende militære C2 organisation med henblik på at maksimere kamppladsens "smidighed" (Agility). Dette ord er i studiet defineret ved "C2 strukturens evne til at facilitere transformationen af indhentet kendskab fra den komplekse kampplads i en rettidig tidsr...

  17. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Zeng, Hong; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Peng; Tessema, Akalate; Peng, Xue

    2015-06-02

    A variety of plant products have been recognized for their antifungal activity and recently have attracted food industry attention for their efficacy in controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruits. The antifungal activity of perillaldehyde (PAE) was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, a known cause of grape spoilage, and possible mechanisms were explored. PAE showed notable antifungal activity against A. niger, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 0.25 and 1 μl/ml, respectively. The accumulation of mycelial biomass was also inhibited by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, completely inhibiting mycelial growth at 1 μl/ml. In vivo data confirmed that the vapour treatment of grapes with various concentrations of PAE markedly improved control of A. niger and suppressed natural decay. Concentrations of PAE of 0.075 μl/ml air showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth compared to the controls. Further experiments indicated that PAE activated a membrane-active mechanism that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, increases membrane permeability (as evidenced by extracellular pH and conductivity measurements), and disrupts membrane integrity, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that this membrane-active mechanism makes PAE a promising potential antifungal agent for postharvest control of grape spoilage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Acetic acid as a decontamination method for sink drains in a nosocomial outbreak of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjärne Aspelund, A; Sjöström, K; Olsson Liljequist, B; Mörgelin, M; Melander, E; Påhlman, L I

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may colonize water systems via biofilm formation. In hospital environments, contaminated sinks have been associated with nosocomial transmission. Here we describe a prolonged outbreak of a metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa (Pae-MBL) associated with sink drains, and propose a previously unreported decontamination method with acetic acid. To describe a nosocomial outbreak of Pae-MBL associated with hospital sink drains and to evaluate acetic acid as a decontamination method. The outbreak was investigated by searching the microbiology database, microbiological sampling and strain typing. Antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of acetic acid were evaluated in vitro. Pae-MBL-positive sinks were treated with 24% acetic acid once weekly and monitored with repeated cultures. Fourteen patients with positive cultures for Pae-MBL were identified from 2008 to 2014. The patients had been admitted to three wards, where screening discovered Pae-MBL in 12 sink drains located in the patient bathrooms. Typing of clinical and sink drain isolates revealed identical or closely related strains. Pae-MBL biofilm was highly sensitive to acetic acid with a minimum biofilm eradication concentration of 0.75% (range: 0.19-1.5). Weekly treatment of colonized sink drains with acetic acid resulted in negative cultures and terminated transmission. Acetic acid is highly effective against Pae-MBL biofilms, and may be used as a simple method to decontaminate sink drains and to prevent nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  20. Antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis by paeonol in LPS/d-GalN-induced acute liver failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaobao; Yang, You; Huang, Ligua; Zhang, Qingyan; Wan, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects and potential mechanisms of paeonol (Pae) against acute liver failure (ALF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (d-GalN) in mice, we examined anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities of Pae. We found that Pae pretreatment markedly reduced the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase as well as the histopathological changes induced by LPS/d-GalN. Catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities increased and reactive oxygen species activity decreased after Pae treatment compared with LPS/d-GalN treatment. Pretreatment with Pae also significantly inhibited the expression levels of iNOS, nitric oxide (NO), COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, Pae administration prevented the phosphorylated expression of IκB kinase, inhibitor kappa B in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and suppressed the phosphorylated expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 in the MAPK signaling pathway. Pretreatment with Pae also inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis by reducing the expression of caspases 3, 8, 9, and Bax, and increasing Bcl-2. In total, protective effects of Pae against LPS/d-GalN-induced ALF in mice are attributed to its antioxidative effect, inflammatory suppression in NF-κB and MARK signaling pathways, and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis inhibition. Therefore, Pae can be a potential therapeutic agent in attenuating LPS/d-GalN-induced ALF in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Postantibiotic effect of ceftibuten on respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, N X; Huang, H B; Neu, H C

    1995-07-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) of ceftibuten, a novel beta-lactamase-stable cephem, was determined for Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The ceftibuten PAE after a 2-hour exposure to 2 micrograms/ml (4 x minimum inhibitory concentration) for S. pyogenes was 2.7 to > 10 hours. The PAE for S. pneumoniae after a 2-hour exposure to 15 micrograms/ml, concentrations that are achieved in man after usual therapeutic doses, was 1.1 to 3.4 hours and the PAE for H. influenzae was 1 to 1.1 hours. M. catarrhalis had a PAE of 1.5 to 1.8 hours after exposure to 15 micrograms/ml of ceftibuten. The ceftibuten PAE was not affected by serum. The ceftibuten PAE was prolonged by exposure to a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration concentration of ceftibuten as would occur in the clinical situation. The PAE of ceftibuten was not affected by the copresence of erythromycin as would occur when treating infections in which atypical organisms are suspected. There was no correlation between bacterial reduction in colony-forming units and the duration of PAE. A level of 6 micrograms/ml of ceftibuten had a similar bacterial killing activity compared with a 6-hour exposure to 15 micrograms/ml of ceftibuten against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. This study suggests that ceftibuten can be administered orally, once daily in an adult dose of 400 mg or a pediatric dose of 9 mg/kg, to treat respiratory infections caused by the most common pathogens.

  3. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Products Around the Pearl River Delta. South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Deng, Jie-fan; Wang, Ke; Liang, Wen-li; Zeng, Cai-ming; Peng, Si-qing; Zhang, Tian-bin; Yang, Guo-yi

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate and assess the distribution of pathalic acid easters (PAEs) in agricultural products from typical areas of the Pearl River Delta, South China, 131 agricultural products were sampled for determination of 6 PAEs priority pollutants classified by the U. S. EPA by GC-FID. The results showed that the total contents of the PAEs (sigma PAEs) in agricultural products samples ranged from nd to 79.86 mg x kg(-1) and the mean value was 2.84 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 98.5%. The average concentrations of sigma PAEs in different types of agricultural products were ordered by vegetables (3.03 mg x kg(-1)) > rice (2.52 mg x kg(-1)) > fruits (1.26 mg x kg(-1)). The mean concentration of PAEs distributed in the four typical cities of the Pearl River Delta, and decreased in the sequence of Zhuhai (6.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Dongguan (2.59 mg x kg(-1)) > Huizhou (1.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Zhongshan (1.12 mg x kg(-1)). Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) contributed more than 90. 8% of the total PAEs in samples, and were the main components of PAEs in agricultural products from the Pearl River Delta, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. Meanwhile, the average concentrations of sigma PAEs in cabbage mustard, lettuce occurred in Zhuhai and Dongguan cities, followed by lettuce and leaf lettuce in the corresponding DEHP from Zhuhai city, both exceeded the suggested standards in U.S.A. and Europe and were of high health risk. There were significant differences among 14 various vegetables in the contents of the 6 PAEs compounds, and the sigma PAEs contents in cabbage mustard and lettuce as part of leafy vegetables were higher than those in other vegetables, while the lowest were detected in flowering cabbage and edible amaranth. Therefore, the type of vegetables and its growing environment exposed to the atmosphere and soil were the main factors that significantly affected their accumulation of

  4. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment...... pretreatment was found to be proportional to the PAE solubility in water: the higher the solubility, the higher the percentage of the reduction (DEP > DBP > DEHP). PAE were slowly degraded during the pretreatment at 70degreesC, yet this was probably due to physicochemical reactions than to microbial...

  5. F-band, High-Efficiency GaN Power Amplifier for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder and SOFIA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a 4-watt Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) operating at F-band (106-114 GHz) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of greater...

  6. Transient Ischemic Rectitis as a Potential Complication after Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Marques, Carlos Frederico Sparapan, E-mail: sparapanmarques@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Colorectal Surgery Division, Department of Gastroenterology (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel, E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Urology (Brazil); Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah, E-mail: caionahas@usp.br; Nahas, Sergio Carlos, E-mail: sergionahas@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Colorectal Surgery Division, Department of Gastroenterology (Brazil); Gregorio Ariza, Miguel Angel de, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Division of Minimally Invasive Image Guided Surgery (Spain); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an alternative treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications are primarily related to non-target embolization. We report a case of ischemic rectitis in a 76-year-old man with significant lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, probably related to nontarget embolization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 85.5-g prostate and urodynamic studies confirmed Inferior vesical obstruction. PAE was performed bilaterally. During the first 3 days of follow-up, a small amount of blood mixed in the stool was observed. Colonoscopy identified rectal ulcers at day 4, which had then disappeared by day 16 post PAE without treatment. PAE is a safe, effective procedure with a low complication rate, but interventionalists should be aware of the risk of rectal nontarget embolization.

  7. Physical Self-Concept and Physical Activity Enjoyment in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…

  8. Et ta oleks pomme pannud - mina ei usu / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kaitsepolitsei poolt vahistatud Pae tänava piirkonna pommirünnakute korraldamises kahtlustatavast Märt Ringmaast ja tema kinnivõtmisest kõneleb mehe endine abikaasa Karin Ringmaa. Vt. samas: Ainus kahtlusalune

  9. Active Microwave Technologies Using Ultra-High efficiency P-Band and L -Band Power Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN devices on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 85%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors...

  10. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  11. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area

  12. Recurrence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Following Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Hyperplasia: Single Center Experience Comparing Two Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: francisco.carnevale@criep.com.br; Moreira, Airton Mota [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Harward, Sardis Honoria [The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (United States); Bhatia, Shivank [University of Miami Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Assis, Andre Moreira de [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Urology (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni Guido [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Urology (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeTo compare recurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) recurrence at 12 months following original prostate artery embolization (oPAE) or “proximal embolization first, then embolize distal” (PErFecTED) PAE for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Materials and Methods105 consecutive patients older than 45 years, with prostate size greater than 30 cm{sup 3}, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥ 8, quality of life (QoL) index ≥ 3, and refractory status or intolerance of medical management were prospectively enrolled between June 2008 and August 2013. The study was IRB-approved, and all patients provided informed consent. Patients underwent oPAE or PErFecTED PAE and were followed for at least 12 months. Technical success was defined as bilateral embolization and clinical success (non-recurrence) was defined as removal of the Foley catheter in patients with urinary retention, IPSS < 8 and QoL index < 3 at 12 months of follow-up. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare the study groups due to the size of the study population and distributions of clinical data.Results97 patients had 12-month data and were categorized as oPAE without recurrence (n = 46), oPAE with recurrence (n  = 13), PErFecTED without recurrence (n  = 36), or PErFecTED with recurrence (n  = 2). Recurrence was significantly more common in oPAE patients (χ{sup 2}, p = 0.026). Unilateral embolization was significantly associated with recurrence among patients who underwent oPAE (χ{sup 2}, p = 0.032).ConclusionsBoth oPAE and PErFecTED PAE are safe and effective methods for treatment of LUTS, but PErFecTED PAE is associated with a significantly lower rate of symptom recurrence.

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs executive function in mice into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Kristin; Sigdel, Rahul; Caldwell, Kevin; Brigman, Jonathan L

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a wide range of impairments in cognitive, social, and emotional behaviors, drinking during pregnancy remains common. Although there is a general understanding that high levels of drinking during pregnancy are unsafe, conflicting evidence regarding the impact of low intake may account for the persistence of this behavior. To investigate the effects of PAE on learning and executive control, we utilized a voluntary paradigm where pregnant mice had access to a saccharin-sweetened 10% alcohol solution for 4 hours, during the dark cycle, throughout gestation. Male and female offspring were tested as adults on a touch-screen discrimination and reversal task mediated by corticostriatal circuits. Consistent with previous findings, PAE did not lead to gross morphological, motor, or sensory alterations in offspring. Both PAE and saccharin control female mice were slower to acquire the discrimination than males, but PAE did not impair associative learning in either sex. During reversal, PAE led to a specific and significant impairment in the early phase, where cortical control is most required to flexibly alter choice behavior. PAE mice showed a significant increase in maladaptive perseverative responses but showed intact learning of the new association during late reversal. Previously, data from clinical studies have suggested that executive control deficits may underlie cognitive, as well as social, problems seen in adolescents with documented PAE. These data demonstrate that even more moderate alcohol exposure during development can lead to impaired cognitive functioning well into adulthood. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Patient safety events in hospital care of individuals with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendizabal, Adys; Thibault, Dylan P; Willis, Allison W

    2016-08-01

    (1) To describe patient adverse events (PAEs) experienced by hospitalized individuals with epilepsy and examine the association of an epilepsy diagnosis on risk of specific PAEs; (2) to examine the impact of a PAE on (a) length of stay (LOS), (b) inpatient death, and (c) use of institutional post-acute care. We applied the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) software to the National Inpatient Sample database to identify potential medical and postoperative PAEs among >72 million hospitalizations of adults in the United States from 2000 to 2010. Logistic regression models compared the odds of experiencing each PAE between hospitalizations of persons with epilepsy (PWE) and the general inpatient population. We also examined the impact of experiencing a PAE on LOS, inpatient death, and discharge disposition. Hospitalized PWEs were at increased risk for specific postoperative PAEs: fall with hip fracture (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR 1.90, 1.21-2.99), respiratory failure (AOR 2.64, 2.43-2.87), sepsis (AOR 1.41, 1.21-1.63), and preventable postoperative death (AOR 1.25, 1.15-1.36). The odds of perioperative pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis (AOR 1.65, 1.57-1.73), skin pressure ulcer (AOR 1.25, 1.22-1.29), and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (AOR 1.24, 1.17-1.32) were also greater among hospitalizations of PWEs. Experiencing a PAE was associated with a prolonged mean length of stay (15 days vs. 5 days, t-test p epilepsy are vulnerable to specific safety-related adverse events, and these potential patient safety failures substantially impact outcomes and resource use. Efforts to reduce long-term disability and improve the value of care delivered to PWEs may need to consider provider-level interventions to reduce adverse events. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Robotic-Assisted Versus Manual Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Sandeep; Smirniotopoulos, John; Orlando, Julie C; Piechowiak, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a safe and efficacious procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), though is technically challenging. We present our experience of technical and clinical outcomes of robotic and manual PAE in patients with BPH. IRB-approved retrospective study of 40 consecutive patients 49-81 years old with moderate or severe grade BPH from May 2014 to July 2015: 20 robotic-assisted PAE (group 1), 20 manual PAE (group 2). Robotic-assisted PAE was performed using the Magellan Robotic System. American Urological Association (AUA-SI) score, cost, technical and clinical success, radiation dose, fluoroscopy, and procedure time were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed within and between each group using paired t test and one-way analysis of variance respectively, at 1 and 3 months. No significant baseline differences in age and AUA-SI between groups. Technical success was 100% (group 1) and 95% (group 2). One unsuccessful subject from group 2 returned for a successful embolization using robotic assistance. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were similar between groups, with a non-significant lower patient radiation dose in group 1 (30,632.8 mGy/cm2 vs 35,890.9, p = 0.269). Disposable cost was significantly different between groups with the robotic-assisted PAE incurring a higher cost (group 1 $4530.2; group 2 $1588.5, p Robotic-assisted PAE offers technical success comparable to manual PAE, with similar clinical improvement with an increased cost.

  16. Robotic-Assisted Versus Manual Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Comparative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagla, Sandeep, E-mail: sandeep.bagla@gmail.com [Vascular Institute of Virginia, LLC (United States); Smirniotopoulos, John [New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center (United States); Orlando, Julie C.; Piechowiak, Rachel [Vascular Institute of Virginia, LLC (United States)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeProstatic artery embolization (PAE) is a safe and efficacious procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), though is technically challenging. We present our experience of technical and clinical outcomes of robotic and manual PAE in patients with BPH.Materials and MethodsIRB-approved retrospective study of 40 consecutive patients 49–81 years old with moderate or severe grade BPH from May 2014 to July 2015: 20 robotic-assisted PAE (group 1), 20 manual PAE (group 2). Robotic-assisted PAE was performed using the Magellan Robotic System. American Urological Association (AUA-SI) score, cost, technical and clinical success, radiation dose, fluoroscopy, and procedure time were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed within and between each group using paired t test and one-way analysis of variance respectively, at 1 and 3 months.ResultsNo significant baseline differences in age and AUA-SI between groups. Technical success was 100% (group 1) and 95% (group 2). One unsuccessful subject from group 2 returned for a successful embolization using robotic assistance. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were similar between groups, with a non-significant lower patient radiation dose in group 1 (30,632.8 mGy/cm{sup 2} vs 35,890.9, p = 0.269). Disposable cost was significantly different between groups with the robotic-assisted PAE incurring a higher cost (group 1 $4530.2; group 2 $1588.5, p < 0.0001). Clinical improvement was significant in both arms at 3 months: group 1 mean change in AUA-SI of 8.3 (p = 0.006), group 2: 9.6 (p < 0.0001). No minor or major complications occurred.ConclusionsRobotic-assisted PAE offers technical success comparable to manual PAE, with similar clinical improvement with an increased cost.

  17. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilhim, Tiago, E-mail: tiagobilhim@hotmail.com [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Campos Pinheiro, Luis [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A. [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Oliveira, Antonio G. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); O' Neill, Joao [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  18. Radiodermitis after prostatic artery embolization: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Alicia; De Assis, Andre Moreira; Ioakeim, Ignatios; Sánchez-Ballestín, María; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; De Gregorio, Miguel Angel

    2015-06-01

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm(2)) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  19. Alcohol Expectancies, Perceived Norms and Drinking Behavior among College Students: Examining the Reciprocal Determinism Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P

    2012-01-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first e...

  20. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Watkins, Rochelle E; Tsang, Tracey W; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills are essential for successful academic performance, but to date no studies have assessed these skills in a population-based cohort of Australian Aboriginal children who, like many children in other remote, disadvantaged communities, consistently underperform academically. Furthermore, many children in remote areas of Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which are often associated with VMI deficits. VMI, visual perception, and fine motor coordination were assessed using The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, including its associated subtests of Visual Perception and Fine Motor Coordination, in a cohort of predominantly Australian Aboriginal children (7.5-9.6 years, n=108) in remote Western Australia to explore whether PAE adversely affected test performance. Cohort results were reported, and comparisons made between children i) without PAE; ii) with PAE (no FASD); and iii) FASD. The prevalence of moderate (≤16th percentile) and severe (≤2nd percentile) impairment was established. Mean VMI scores were 'below average' (M=87.8±9.6), and visual perception scores were 'average' (M=97.6±12.5), with no differences between groups. Few children had severe VMI impairment (1.9%), but moderate impairment rates were high (47.2%). Children with FASD had significantly lower fine motor coordination scores and higher moderate impairment rates (M=87.9±12.5; 66.7%) than children without PAE (M=95.1±10.7; 23.3%) and PAE (no FASD) (M=96.1±10.9; 15.4%). Aboriginal children living in remote Western Australia have poor VMI skills regardless of PAE or FASD. Children with FASD additionally had fine motor coordination problems. VMI and fine motor coordination should be assessed in children with PAE, and included in FASD diagnostic assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A qualitative investigation among men who have sex with men on the acceptability of performing a self- or partner anal exam to screen for anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butame, Seyram A; Lawler, Sylvia; Hicks, Joseph T; Wilkerson, J Michael; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Baraniuk, Sarah; Ross, Michael W; Chiao, Elizabeth Yu; Nyitray, Alan G

    2017-10-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of anal cancer, a disease that disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no uniform screening protocol to detect anal cancer. This qualitative study explores whether a self-anal exam (SAE) or partner anal exam (PAE), that includes self-palpation or palpation of a partner's anal canal, is an acceptable and self-efficacious screening test, which will cue appropriate follow-up care in MSM. Twenty-four MSM living in Houston took part in four focus group sessions eliciting their responses to a study teaching them to perform an SAE or PAE (SAE/PAE). Participants were asked about the acceptability and feasibility of executing an SAE/PAE routinely. Thematic analysis of session transcripts was used to identify common patterns in participant responses. Overall, participants expressed self-efficacy for performing an SAE/PAE and voiced a preference for being taught the procedure by a clinician. Participants agreed that they would consult with a clinician if they ever discovered an abnormality while performing an SAE/PAE. A lack of knowledge about anal cancer among MSM may present a barrier to adopting SAE/PAE. In discussing their experience of the exams, some participants suggested that it could become a routine practice for them. Our findings suggest that SAE and PAE, as a screen for anal cancer, are acceptable and feasible to MSM. Future research should explore attitudes and beliefs of MSM, with the aim of improving anal cancer education and understanding of pathologic findings.

  2. Determination of 15 phthalate esters in air by gas-phase and particle-phase simultaneous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chenchen; Xia, Meng; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Xueqing; Weng, Mili; Shen, Xueyou

    2017-05-01

    Based on previous research, the sampling and analysis methods for phthalate esters (PAEs) were improved by increasing the sampling flow of indoor air from 1 to 4L/min, shortening the sampling duration from 8 to 2hr. Meanwhile, through the optimization of chromatographic conditions, the concentrations of 9 additional PAE pollutants in indoor air were measured. The optimized chromatographic conditions required a similar amount of time for analysis as before, but gave high responsivity, the capability of simultaneously distinguishing 15 kinds of PAEs, and a high level of discrimination between individual sample peaks, as well as stable peak generation. The recovery rate of all gas-phase and particle-phase samples of the 15 kinds of PAEs ranged from 91.26% to 109.42%, meeting the quantitative analysis requirements for indoor and outdoor air sampling and analysis. For the first time, investigation of the concentration levels as well as characteristics of 15 kinds of PAEs in the indoor air from four different traffic micro-environments (private vehicles, busses, taxis and subways) was carried out, along with validation of the optimized sampling and analytical method. The results show that all the 9 additional PAEs could be detected at relatively high pollution levels in the indoor air from the four traffic micro-environments. As none of the pollution levels of the 15 kinds of PAEs in the indoor air from the 4 traffic micro-environments should be neglected, it is of great significance to increase the types of PAEs able to be detected in indoor air. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, Alicia, E-mail: alaborda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain); Assis, Andre Moreira De, E-mail: andre.maa@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology and Endovascular Surgery Department, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Ioakeim, Ignatios, E-mail: ignacio.ioakim@hotmail.es; Sánchez-Ballestín, María, E-mail: mirisanba@gmail.com [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology and Endovascular Surgery Department, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Gregorio, Miguel Angel De, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  5. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure enhances the susceptibility to NMDA-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sue J; Lovinger, David M; N'Gouemo, Prosper

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with a higher likelihood of developing generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in infants and children. However, experimental studies of PAE-related seizures have yielded conflicting results. Here, we investigated the effect of acute PAE on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in developing rats. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given an oral dose of either ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) or vehicle on embryonic day 18. The offspring were tested for susceptibility to NMDA-induced seizures on postnatal day 7 (P7), 21 (P21), 35 (P35), and 42 (P42). Specifically, the prevalence and latency of NMDA-induced continuous wild running-like behaviors (CWR), flexion seizures (FS), wild running seizures (WRS), GTCS, and tonic seizures (TS) were recorded and analyzed. N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures consisted of CWR, FS, GTCS, and TS in P21 rats. Thus, GTCS were consistently observed during development. PAE significantly increases the prevalence of GTCS in female and male P7-P21 rats and P7-P35 rats, respectively, but not in older rats. PAE also increases the prevalence of TS in male, but not female P21-P35 rats. The PAE animal model of GTCS may provide a new opportunity to investigate the mechanisms that underlie neuronal hyperexcitability in developing animals prenatally-exposed to alcohol. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Determination of total phthalates in perfume and their exposure assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihan; Wang, Zhengmeng; Deng, Hongxia; Duan, Jiahui; Wang, Jinyi; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-12-08

    A novel method for rapid screening of phthalates (PAEs) in perfumes was developed. The PAEs were hydrolyzed to phthalic acid (PA), and the PA in the acidified solution was extracted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) which was detected by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Meanwhile exposure dose to PAEs was estimated by the percentage of a topically applied dose that permeates the skin. The parameters such as the concentration and volume of KOH, the volume of ethanol, hydrolysis time and temperature were employed to evaluate the hydrolysis efficiency of PAEs. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were 10 mL of 4 mol/L KOH, and 1 mL of ethanol at 80℃ for 20 min. The linear range of phthalic acid was 3-240 μmol/L with a good correlation coefficient ( R 2 =0.9991). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 4.6 μmol/kg and 5.9 μmol/kg, respectively. The recoveries varied from 83.4% to 92.7% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 6.8%( n =5). A total of 35 perfume samples were determined, and the contents of total PAEs were found in the range of perfumes. The method is simple and reliable, and has a wide range of applicability. It can be used as a new choice for the detection of PAEs in perfume.

  9. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  11. Phthalate esters and organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils and vegetables from fast-growing regions: a case study from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Zhiheng; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated phthalate esters (PAEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils and vegetables from eastern China. The concentrations of PAEs ranged from 109 to 5560 ng/g in soils and 60.1 to 2390 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 946 and 601 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs ranged from agricultural plastic film were possible input sources of PAEs in the ambient environment. OCPs showed no apparent effect on soil microbial communities, whereas significant negative relationship was observed between PAEs and fungi in soils (R = -0.54, p < 0.01). Human health risk assessment data revealed marginal noncarcinogenic risks and low carcinogenic risks in these soils. Notably, PAEs posed a comparable or higher risk level compared with that of OCPs. This study suggests the need for better regulation on pollution control and management of PAE-elevated sites to protect soil quality and food safety.

  12. Treating murine Kala Azar with a Mayan plant induces immunochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Dávila, C M; Isaac-Márquez, A P

    2017-10-06

    Pentalinon andrieuxii-Muell-Arg is a Mexican-Central American plant anciently used by local people to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. We evaluated a hexane extract of the root we called PAE for its chemical content and for its immunochemical and in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani and healing of experimental Kala Azar. Chemical analysis using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid ethyl ester, octadecanoic acid ethyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester and diethyl phthalate as the main compounds present in PAE. We also demonstrated PAE kills promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro and significantly reduces parasite loads in liver and spleen of infected Balb/c mice. PAE induces expression of NFkB/AP-1 transcription factors and production of IL-2 and IFN-γ by spleen cells of PAE treated but not in the untreated control mice. Furthermore there were not IL-6, IL-10 nor TNF production in macrophages treated in vitro with PAE. We developed an affordable extract of P. andrieuxii effective to treat experimental Kala Azar in Balb/c mice CONCLUSIONS: P. andrieuxii root extract is an affordable phytomedicine to treat experimental Kala Azar in Balb/c mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular simulation study of the specific combination between four kinds of phthalic acid esters and human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Yi, Zhongsheng; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between endocrine disruptor phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. The efficiency of energy transfer and the distance between HSA and PAEs were calculated. The results showed that all of the four kinds of PAEs could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the HSA, with the mechanisms of static quenching and non-radiative energy transfer. Molecular docking study and thermodynamic analysis revealed that the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. And the results of site marker competitive experiments and modeling method suggested that the four PAEs would mainly bind to the HSA in sub-domain IIIA, which demonstrated that the experimental results could coordinate with the theoretical results. Molecular dynamic simulation (MD) revealed that HSA did have a slight conformational change when it bound with PAEs. It also verified the greater stability of HSA-PAEs complex compared to free protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prefrontal cortical responses in children with prenatal alcohol-related neurodevelopmental impairment: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2017-11-01

    Disruption in the neural activation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in modulating arousal was explored in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), who have known neurobehavioral impairment. During a task that elicits frustration, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure PFC activation, specifically levels of oxygenated (HBO) and deoxygenated (HBR) hemoglobin, in children with PAE (n=18) relative to typically developing Controls (n=12) and a Clinical Contrast group with other neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems (n=14). Children with PAE had less activation during conditions with positive emotional arousal, as indicated by lower levels of HBO in the medial areas of the PFC and higher levels of HBR in all areas of the PFC sampled relative to both other groups. Children in the Control group demonstrated greater differentiation of PFC activity than did children with PAE. Children in the Clinical Contrast group demonstrated the greatest differences in PFC activity between valences of task conditions. Specific patterns of PFC activation differentiated children with PAE from typically developing children and children with other clinical problems. FNIRS assessments of PFC activity provide new insights regarding the mechanisms of commonly seen neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with PAE. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  16. Evaluering af projektet De sundhedsfremmende Skoler i Sønderjyllands Amt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens H; Mogensen, Finn

    2006-01-01

    , der kan bidrage til en fremadrettet vurdering af det tiårige (1995-2005) projekt ”De Sundhedsfremmende Skoler” (DSFS) i Sønderjyllands Amt. Der var fra opgavestiller lagt et metodisk evalueringsdesign fast, som blev forventet benyttet i evalueringen. Designet trækker på en række kvalitative metoder...... samt en kvantitativ metode i form af en spørgeskemaundersøgelse. Designet var formuleret med henblik på at udføre en evaluering af projektet DSFS, som giver et billede af hvilke tiltag, der har været iværksat på de deltagende skoler og hvilke tiltag projektet selv har iværksat med henblik på...

  17. Fra hjemmeside som læringsplatform til brug af e-læringssystemet Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Buus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available I foråret 2008 blev der etableret et samarbejde mellem det Samfundsvidenskabelige fakultets it-afdeling og E-Læringssamarbejdet (ELSA på Aalborg Universitet med henblik på at implementere Moodle som e-læringsplatform på Det Samfundsvidenskabelige fakultet. Baggrunden var et ønske om at etablere et virtuelt læringsmiljø, hvor der er mulighed for andet en blot formidling fra administration og undervisere til de studerende. I denne artikel vil jeg belyse den udviklingsproces og nogle af de didaktiske overvejelser, der har været i spil under implementeringen af Moodle. Endvidere inddrages evalueringer foretaget undervejs, samt resultater vedr. brugen af Moodle, indsamlet et stykke inde i processen med henblik på at belyse de pædagogiske forandringer.

  18. Fra hjemmeside som læringsplatform til brug af e-læringssystemet Moodle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    I foråret 2008 blev der etableret et samarbejde mellem det Samfunds-videnskabelige fakultets it-afdeling og E-Læringssamarbejdet (ELSA) på Aalborg Universitet med henblik på at implementere Moodle som e-læringsplatform på Det Samfundsvidenskabelige fakultet. Baggrunden var et ønske om at etablere...... et virtuelt læringsmiljø, hvor der er mulighed for andet en blot formidling fra administration og undervisere til de stude-rende. I denne artikel vil jeg belyse den udviklingsproces og nogle af de didaktiske overvejelser, der har været i spil under implementeringen af Moodle. Endvidere inddrages...... evalueringer foretaget undervejs, samt resultater vedr. brugen af Moodle, indsamlet et stykke inde i processen med henblik på at belyse de pædagogiske forandringer....

  19. Good governance, decentralisation and local economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Bogen omhandler den sociale og økonomiske udvikling i EUropa med særligt henblik på at vurdere udviklingsmulighederne for de perifere regioner i Europa, øer og områder præget af høj arbejdsløshed osv. Også ansøgerlande inddrages i undersøgelserne.......Bogen omhandler den sociale og økonomiske udvikling i EUropa med særligt henblik på at vurdere udviklingsmulighederne for de perifere regioner i Europa, øer og områder præget af høj arbejdsløshed osv. Også ansøgerlande inddrages i undersøgelserne....

  20. Det europæiske Model Company Law Act Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paul Krüger; Baums, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    På initiativ af forfatterne til det følgende blev der i 2007 dannet en europæisk gruppe af fremtrædende selskabsretseksperter med henblik på at udforme en »European Model Company Law Act« (EMCLA). Gruppen holdt sit første møde i Århus i september 2007.  ......På initiativ af forfatterne til det følgende blev der i 2007 dannet en europæisk gruppe af fremtrædende selskabsretseksperter med henblik på at udforme en »European Model Company Law Act« (EMCLA). Gruppen holdt sit første møde i Århus i september 2007.  ...

  1. Early literacy and inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Dette paper behandler skriftsprogstilegnelse med særligt henblik på inklusion. Det analyserer aktuel dansk policy, og giver et eksempel på inkluderende praksis vha. en såkaldt sproghistorie (EASE-projektet). Dette paper diskuterer også et amerikansk paper om inklusion og skriftsprogstilegnelse, og konkluderer bl.a. at inkluderende læringsmiljøer (skriftsprogstilegnelse) må stræbe hinsides 'knækning af læsekoden'.

  2. Risiko eller fare. Åbning og lukning af teaterprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, I.

    Artiklen er en analyse af et rollespilsforløb. Forløbet undersøges med henblik på dets collaborative skabelsespraksis, idet der fokuseres på forløbsledelsens konstruktion af interaktivitet og deltagerrespons. I analysen gøres brug af Niklas Luhmanns modstilling af kalkulerbare risici og uforudsete...

  3. Skole, livsverden og nye læringslandskaber - et debatoplæg om folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hanne; Rønhede, Søren Lykke

    Forfatterne af denne bog kommer med bidrag, der udfordrer den nuværende dagsorden for folkeskolen. Der lægges op til nytænkning med henblik på at gøre hverdagen mere meningsfuld for børn og unge. Et større fokus på det digitale er her centralt, fordi det kan fremme meningsfuld læring, og fordi de...

  4. Rapport: 12th International Zürich Symposium & Technical Exhibition on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Zürich 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Per; Mandrup, Lars

    1987-01-01

    EMC -gruppen er en del af TUR Netværket Elektronik og Informationstekno¬logi. EMC-gruppen har som formål at iværksætte et fagligt udviklingsarbejde inden for EMC-området med henblik på at styrke og forny undervisningen i EMC på de enkelte diplomingeniøruddan¬nelsesinstitutioner. Ud fra en erkende...

  5. Overvågning af influenza afslører flere subtyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2015-01-01

    Et forskerteam fra DTU har færdiggjort rapport om overvågning af influenza A i 2014. Målet med overvågningen var at identificere hvilke influenzavirus subtyper og stammer, der cirkulerer blandt danske svin samt at kortlægge sygdomsårsager med henblik på at sikre det strategiske mål – at mindske...

  6. Svingningsteori, Bind. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Nærværende lærebog i ikke-lineær svingningsteori er skrevet med henblik på undervisningen i bygningsdynamik på konstruktionslinien 9. semester på Aalborg Universitetscenter. Bogens indhold er i det store og hele identisk med et sæt noter Søren R. K. Nielsen udarbejdede i efterårssemestret 1987 i ...

  7. Rapport: IEEE 1997 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 18.-22. august 1997, Austin, Texas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltsen, Knud A.; Mandrup, Lars

    1997-01-01

    EMC -gruppen er en del af TUR Netværket Elektronik og Informationstekno¬logi. EMC-gruppen har som formål at iværksætte et fagligt udviklingsarbejde inden for EMC-området med henblik på at styrke og forny undervisningen i EMC på de enkelte diplomingeniøruddan¬nelsesinstitutioner. Ud fra en erkende...

  8. 3D-netbaserede kollaborationsværktøjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann

    2015-01-01

    for at bruge virtuelle og kollaborative teknologier fremdrages med henblik på at forstå teknologiernes anvendelse i lærings- og uddannelsessammenhænge. Rapporten søger overordnet at besvare spørgsmålet: Givet fremkomsten af specialiserede kollaborationsværktøjer, sociale netværk og MOOCs, kan der peges på nye...

  9. Nationale anbefalinger til kompetencer for sygeplejersker i den palliative indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Halskov

    2012-01-01

    I artiklen præsenteres de nye nationale ”Anbefalinger til kompetencer for sygeplejersker, der arbejder med palliativ indsats”. Anbefalingerne er udarbejdet af sygeplejersker med særlig viden om palliation, herunder med baggrund i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen og palliativ praksis på alle faglige nivea...... palliativ indsats mulighed for at kende og anvende anbefalingerne med henblik på at løfte kvaliteten af kompetenceudviklingen af den palliative sygepleje i Danmark på grund-, efter- og videreuddannelser....

  10. Anmeldelse af Ulrik Rammeskow Bang-Pedersen, Lasse Højlund Christensen, Kim Sommer Jensen, Christian Jul Madsen & Andreas Kærsgaard Mylin: Rekonstruktion – teori og praksis (2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen anmelder det nævnte værk, som i detaljer behandler lov nr. 718 af 25. juni 2010, der indførte regler i konkursloven, som muliggør rekonstruktion af både fysiske og juridiske personer med henblik på virksomhedsoverdragelse og tvangsakkord, og således at skyldneren ikke selv kan standse re...

  11. Mere Musik til Byens Børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn

    Førsteårsrapport på København Kommunes treårige projekt Mere Musik til Byens Børn - et pilotprojekt med henblik på at sikre, at flere børn i København får mulighed for at deltage i forskellige former for frivillig musikundervisning. Særligt fokuseres der på at fremme, at alle børn i hele byen...

  12. Generering af NC-programmer til Cincinatti-Milicron CNC fræser med Pro Engineer Wildfire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dai; Friis, Kasper Leth; Bay, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Kasper Leth Friis. Vejledningen er udarbejdet med henblik på den version af ProEngineer Wildfire, der har været tilgængelig via IPLs computere i perioden 2004/2005. Guiden indeholder gennemgangen af både en CAD- samt en CAM del, men den skal primært tjene som en indføring i CAM delen i SPIF formgivningen...

  13. Svingningsteori, Bd. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    Nærværende lærebog er skrevet med henblik på undervisningen i lineær svingingsteori på konstruktionsliniens 8. semester på Aalborg Universitetscenter. Det pågældende kursus danner grundlaget for efterfølgende undervisning i ikke-lineær svingningsteori, hvilket har påvirket fremstillingens form. D...

  14. EURO-PREVOB Summary Report. Prevention of Obesity in Europe – Consortium of the prevention of obesity through effective nutrition and physical activity actions – EURO-PREVOB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund, Irene; Harling, Pamela; Pomerleau, Joceline

    2010-01-01

    Et consortium af 14 europæiske institutter deltog i projekt støttet af EU 6. forskningsramme med henblik på at undersøge metodere som retter sig mod at undersøge udvalgte indikatorer for at vurdere sociale og økonomiske faktorers påvirkning på ernæring og fysisk aktivitet. 5 pilotlande blev udval...

  15. At give erindringen form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob Lund

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer nogle af de vigtigste spørgsmål og positioner i debatten om repræsentationen af Auschwitz. Med særligt henblik på kunsten og det æstetiskes relation til det etiske afsøger den det grænseområde, hvor de tilsyneladende ikke længere lader sig adskille, idet der argumenteres for ...

  16. Motivation af den Kreative Sælger

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Mikkel Vallentin; Floor, Jeppe Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    Projektet tager udgangspunkt i motivationen af danske sælgere. Med inspiration fra den positive psykologiske videnskab, udfordres eksisterende motivationsredskaber, med henblik på at motivere den enkelte medarbejder til at yde et bedre stykke arbejde for virksomheden. Daniel Pink, Bruno Frey og Frederick Herzberg danner det teoretiske grundlag for opgaven, og problemstillingen undersøges gennem en sammenholdelse af deres teorier med empirisk materiale i en fænomenologisk tilgang. Rapporten af...

  17. Fire måder at håndtere åndenød på i dagliglivet: et grounded theory studie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    , primært håndterer deres åndenød i dagligdagen. Vi valgte et multimodalt "grounded theory"-design, der gør det muligt at kombinere kvalitative og kvantitative data med henblik på at indfange og forklare den flerdimensionelle håndteringsadfærd hos mennesker med KOL. I håndtering af åndenøden var patienterne...

  18. Tunnelerede centrale venekatetre til børn med cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Malchau, Emma; Larsen, Line Nordahl

    2008-01-01

    foretaget en retrospektiv og prospektiv journalgennemgang med henblik på CVK-type, dato for anlæggelse, barnets alder ved CVK-anlæggelse, diagnose, dato for fjernelse af CVK og årsag til fjernelse. Resultater: Der blev anlagt i alt 155 2-Hick og 86 2-PaC. Det samlede antal CVK-dage var 27.192 for 2-Hick og...

  19. Projekt Fodsår

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Inger Vestergaard; Scheving, Ulla; Mark, Edith

      Baggrund for projektet  Diabetespatienter med fodsår (ca. 85 nye pr. år) kommer med henblik på at få vurderet og behandlet deres fodsår. Der er læger og sygeplejersker fra specialområderne endokrinologi, ortopædkirurgi, karkirurgi samt fodterapeut og ortopædisk skomager involveret i denne konsu...

  20. 2 år efter starten på Nakuusa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Justitsvæsen, Grønlands Selvstyre og UNICEF Danmark. Projektet sigter på at forbedre børns vilkår og sikre deres grundlæggende rettigheder i overensstemmelse med FN’s børnekonvention. De unge har fået stillet samme spørgsmål under Youth Forum i 2011 og igen 2013 med henblik på at undersøge, om der er sket...

  1. Koncept til måling af udvaskning fra markstakke af dybstrøelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Hans Spelling; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    2008-01-01

    Rapport om kvælstofudvaskning fra markstakke Resumé og konklusioner: Der er gennemført et projekt om kvælstofudvaskning fra markstakke. Undersøgelserne er udført med henblik på at fastsætte en metode, der kan anvendes til at påvise evt. udvaskningstab. Projektets gennemførelse Dansk Landbrugsrådg...

  2. Evaluation of post-antibiotic effect in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tavella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the postantibiotic effect (PAE is a well recognized phenomenon, the mechanism by which it is induced has not fully elucidated yet. It has been suggested that PAE is the time required by bacteria to synthesize proteins or mRNA characterized by a short half-life that are consumed during antibiotic treatment.This phenomenon is widely studied on Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods, while information about Gram-positive rods and Gram-negative cocci are scanty.To gain new insights on the PAE, this study was addressed to evaluated the time required by Moraxella catarrhalis and Lactobacillus planctarum to resume their physiological growth rate after exposure to various antibiotics. Methods PAE was estimated in accordance with the method of Craig and Gudmundsson using the following drugs: penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefalotin, ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and azithromycin. Log-phase bacteria were exposed to drug at a concentration corresponding to 4 times the MIC value for 1h.The drug was inactivated by 1:1000 dilution. Bacterial counts were determined at time zero, immediately after drug dilution, and at each hour after removal for 6 - 7h by a pour-plate technique. The PAE was defined as the difference in time required by test and control cultures to increase by 1 log in CFU number. Results All drugs tested induced a PAE on the strains studied. M. catarrhalis registered PAE values ranging between 0,5 (gentamycin and 2 (ceftazidime, imipenem and azithromycin.With respect to L. plantarum a PAE between 0,8 (cefalotin and 3 hours (ciprofloxacin were detected. Conclusion. These findings demonstrated that all the drugs tested were able to induce a PAE on the strains tested.This observation differs from that observed on Gram-negative rods characterised by negative PAE values induced by penicillins and cephalosporins.This results might reflect the different target of these compounds on these Gram-positive rods or the

  3. Study on the interaction of phthalate esters to human serum albumin by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoyun [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Zhaowei [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Ximin; Wang, Xiaoru [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Xingguo, E-mail: chenxg@lzu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} Molecular docking revealed PAEs to be located in the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. {center_dot} HSA-DMP had one class of binding sites while HSA-BBP and HSA-DEHP had two types. {center_dot} Hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions dominated in the association of HSA-PAEs. {center_dot} The lifetime of Trp residue of HSA decreased after the addition of PAEs. {center_dot} The presences of PAEs could alter the second structure of HSA. - Abstract: Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally pervasive contaminants that are considered to be endocrine disruptor chemicals and toxic environmental priority pollutants. In this paper, the interactions between PAEs and human serum albumin (HSA) were examined by molecular modelling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD). The association constants between PAEs and HSA were determined using the Stern-Volmer and Scatchard equations. The binding of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to HSA has a single class of binding site and its binding constants (K) are 4.08 x 10{sup 3}, 3.97 x 10{sup 3}, 3.45 x 10{sup 3}, and 3.20 x 10{sup 3} L mol{sup -1} at 289, 296, 303, and 310 K, respectively. The Stern-Volmer and Scatchard plots both had two regression curves for HSA-butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and HSA-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which indicated that these bindings were via two types of binding sites: the numbers of binding site for the first type were lower than for the second type. The binding constants of the first type binding site were higher than those of the second type binding site at corresponding temperatures, the results suggesting that the first type of binding site had high affinity and the second binding site involved other sites with lower binding affinity and selectivity. The thermodynamic parameters of the binding reactions ({Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o}) were measured, and they indicated the presences

  4. Sundhed på tv. Fra læge til sundhedsguru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christa Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med den danske public service-kanal, DR’s, sundhedsprogrammer i perioden fra 1990’erne til 2012. Undersøgelsen baserer sig på en empirisk, kvalitativ indholdsanalyse af udvalgte programmer om sundhed på DR med henblik på en udredning af det diskursive indhold i forestilli......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med den danske public service-kanal, DR’s, sundhedsprogrammer i perioden fra 1990’erne til 2012. Undersøgelsen baserer sig på en empirisk, kvalitativ indholdsanalyse af udvalgte programmer om sundhed på DR med henblik på en udredning af det diskursive indhold i...... forestillinger om sundhed. Programmernes formål, genre, seer-henvendelse og vidensformidlende sigte adresseres. Artiklen er informeret af medialiseringsteori og belyser, hvordan tv-mediet fra at have hentet den sundhedsfaglige ekspertise i institutioner uden for mediet selv, i stigende grad anvender know......-how eksperter, tilpasset og iscenesat med henblik på at opfylde de krav, tv-mediet stiller til dramatisk vellykket underholdning. Artiklen belyser, hvordan oplysning om sygdom, behandling og pleje, formidlet af lægevidenskabelig ekspertise og lægfolk, spillede en central rolle i de tidlige oplysningsprogrammer...

  5. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospective Memory Impairment in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Molteno, Christopher D; Kliegel, Matthias; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to impaired performance on tests of retrospective memory, but prospective memory (PM; the ability to remember and act on delayed intentions) has not been examined in alcohol-exposed children. We investigated event-based PM in children with heavy PAE and the degree to which associations between PAE and PM are influenced by IQ, executive functioning (EF), retrospective memory, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We administered a computerized PM task to 89 children (Mage = 11.1 years) whose mothers were recruited prenatally: 29 with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 32 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 28 Controls. We examined effects of diagnostic group, cue focality, and task difficulty on PM performance. The association between a continuous measure of alcohol exposure and PM performance was also examined after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. Mediation of alcohol effects on PM by IQ, EF, and retrospective memory scores was assessed as was the effect of ADHD on PM performance. Children with FAS/PFAS made more PM errors than either HE or Control children. PAE was negatively related to PM performance even after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, EF, and retrospective memory. This relation was only partially mediated by IQ. PAE was related to ADHD, but ADHD was not related to PM performance. Fetal alcohol-related impairment in event-based PM was seen in children with FAS/PFAS. The effect of PAE on PM was not attributable to impaired EF and retrospective memory and was not solely attributable to lower IQ. Consistent with previous studies, we found no effect of ADHD on event-based PM performance at this age. This is the first study documenting PM impairment in children with heavy PAE and identifies a new domain of impairment warranting attention in diagnosis and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genomewide SNP analysis links PDGF receptor genes with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and –resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss- and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to

  8. Study of XAD-2 adsorbent for the enrichment of trace levels of phthalate esters in hydroalcoholic food beverages and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giuseppe; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan; Centola, Angela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent used as stationary phase for determining phthalate esters (PAEs) in hydroalcoholic food beverages by GC-FID (and peak confirmation by GC-IT/MS) has been set up. The XAD-2 resin shows excellent properties for determining PAEs in solutions at very large alcoholic range (10-40% v/v): 500mL of hydroalcoholic solution spiked with a PAE mixture solution (20pgμL(-1) of each PAE) and containing 25gL(-1) of NaCl are passed onto a cartridge containing 500mg XAD-2 adsorbent and re-extracted for GC analysis. The effects of NaCl concentration (0, 12, 25 and 50gL(-1)) and different solvents (CS2, toluene, acetone, n-hexane, ethyl acetate) are extensively studied as well the PAE recoveries both in hydroalcoholic aqueous solutions (ranging between 94% and 103% with a Relative Standard Deviation, RSD, below 8.3) and spiked (5, 10 and 25pgμL(-1) of each PAE) real samples (between 90% and 106% with a RSD below 9.9). The correlation coefficients (R(2)) of each PAE vary between 0.9830 and 0.9950 and they are calculated in the linear range 5-100pgμL(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) in GC-FID vary between 1.21 and 2.51pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽11.1) whereas the Limits of Quantification (LOQ) range between 2.42 and 5.03pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽8.9) whereas the infra-day and inter-day repeatabilities calculated as RSD for hydroalcoholic solutions, are between 6.5% and 13.7%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The post-exposure response of Enterobacteriaceae to ceftibuten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, F M; Milne, K E; Gould, I M

    1999-01-01

    The responses of ten isolates of Enterobacteriaceae to ceftibuten exposure were monitored by measuring several parameters. Post-antibiotic effect (PAE), control-related effective regrowth time (CERT) and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME) were determined by bacterial enumeration carried out either by impedance in combination with viable counting (IMP/VC) or by impedance in combination with bioluminescence (IMP/BIOL). Kill curves were carried out by bioluminescence, viable counting and direct microscopy and post-exposure morphology was established. Ceftibuten primarily provoked filamentation. Over 24 h, kill of up to 3.6 log10 was evident by viable counting and direct microscopy at and above the MIC. Minimal kill, of up to 0.26 log10, was shown by bioluminescence. PAE was found to be method dependent, with statistical differences established by Student's t-test. PAE values of up to 0.48 h and 1.47 h (by IMP/BIOL and IMP/VC respectively) were not concentration dependent above 1 x MIC. CERT values were not method dependent, with values of up to 1.71 h also showing a lack of concentration dependence above 1 x MIC. PA-SME may reflect the situation in vivo more accurately than either PAE or CERT. In PAE and CERT studies the antibiotic is eliminated almost immediately, whereas in vivo there is gradual decrease in antibiotic levels. These persisting levels are reflected more accurately by PA-SME. Compared with PAE and CERT, significantly longer values, of up to 7.27 h, were obtained by PA-SME, although this parameter was also found to be method dependent. The results of the PA-SME studies, which may be the most clinically relevant pharmacodynamic parameter, confirm the appropriateness of the current once- or twice-daily dosing schedules despite the lack of PAE.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Occlusion of Large Extra-Prostatic Anastomoses During Prostatic Artery Embolization for Symptomatic BPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, Gregory, E-mail: gregamouyal@hotmail.com; Chague, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.chague@gmail.com; Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris – Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France); Pereira, Helena, E-mail: helena.pereira@aphp.fr [Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Clinical Research Unit (France); Giudice, Costantino Del, E-mail: costantino.delgiudice@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris – Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France); Dean, Carole, E-mail: carole.dean@aphp.fr [Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Thiounn, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.thiounn@aphp.fr; Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris – Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France)

    2016-09-15

    IntroductionDuring PAE, preembolization angiography of the prostatic artery can show large extra-prostatic shunts, at high risk, if embolized, of rectal or penile necrosis. We report our experience with 11 consecutive patients who underwent protective embolization of large extra-prostatic shunts before successful PAE.Materials and MethodsWe treated 11 consecutive male patients (mean age 67 years), part of a series of 55 consecutive male patients referred for PAE to treat LUTS due to BPH, between December 2013 and January 2015. The procedure involved the exclusion of an extra-prostatic shunt originating from the PA, prior to complete bilateral PAE. We compared the safety and efficacy of the 11 shunt exclusions followed by embolization of the PA to the other 44 basic PAE. Clinical success was defined as a decrease of 25 % or eight points of IPSS, QoL <3 or a one-point decrease, and a Qmax improvement of 25 % or 2.5 mL/s.ResultsWe had a 100 % rate of occlusion of the anastomosis. Bilateral embolization of the PA was performed in all patients with no additional time of procedure (p = 0.18), but a significant increase of dose area product (p = 0.03). Distal (PErFecTED) embolization was possible in 64 %. There was no worsening of erectile dysfunction, no rectal or penile necrosis, no immediate or late other clinical complications. Clinical success was 91 % (mean follow-up: 3.5 months), compared to 78 % for the entire PAE group.ConclusionPAE using the protection technique in case of large extra-prostatic shunts is as safe and effective as basic procedures and does not induce any additional time of procedure.

  11. Perillaldehyde, a Promising Antifungal Agent Used in Food Preservation, Triggers Apoptosis through a Metacaspase-Dependent Pathway in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Lu, Zhaoqun; Sun, Chunhui; Zhang, Man; Zhu, Aihua; Peng, Xue

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, we provide detailed insights into perillaldehyde (PAE)'s mechanisms of action on Aspergillus flavus and offer evidence in favor of the induction of an apoptosis-like phenotype. Specifically, PAE's antifungal mode of action was investigated through the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (MtΔψ) and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, as well as intracellular Ca 2+ level, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and metacaspase activation. This was done by way of fluorometry, measuring DNA fragmentation, and condensation by fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we searched for phenotypic changes characteristic of apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry, determining the amount of cytochrome c released using Western blotting. Results indicated that cultivation of A. flavus in the presence of PAE caused depolarization of MtΔψ, rapid DNA condensation, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and an elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ level. The percentage of early apoptotic cells with exposure of PS were 27.4% and 48.7%, respectively, after 9 h incubations with 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL of PAE. The percentage of stained cells with activated intracellular metacaspases exposed to PAE at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL compared with control subjects were increased by 28.4 ± 3.25% and 37.9 ± 4.24%, respectively. The above results has revealed that PAE induces fungal apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. In all, our findings provide a novel mechanism for exploring a possible antifungal agent used in food preservation.

  12. Elimination and ecotoxicity evaluation of phthalic acid esters from textile-dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jieying; Ning, Xun-An; Kong, Minyi; Liu, Daohua; Wang, Guangwen; Cai, Haili; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Lu, Xingwen; Yuan, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), presented in fabrics, surfactants and detergents, were discharged into the ecosystem during textile-dyeing wastewater treatment and might have adverse effects on water ecosystems. In this study, comprehensive investigations of the content and component distributions of 12 PAEs across different units of four textile-dyeing wastewater plants were carried out in Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicity assessments were also conducted based on risk quotients (RQs). On average, 93.54% TOC and 80.14% COD Cr were removed following treatment at the four plants. The average concentration of Σ 12 PAEs in effluent was 11.78 μg/L. PAEs with highest concentrations were dimethylphthalate (6.58 μg/L), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (2.23 μg/L), and dibutylphthalate (1.98 μg/L). The concentrations of the main toxic PAEs were 2.23 μg/L (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 0.19 μg/L (diisononylphthalate) and 0.67 μg/L (dinoctylphthalate); corresponding RQs were 1.4, 0.55, and 0.54 for green algae, respectively. The RQs of Σ 12 PAEs in effluent of the four plants were >0.1, indicating that Σ 12 PAEs posed medium or higher ecological risk to fish, Daphnia and green algae. Physicochemical-biochemical system was found to be more effective than biochemical-physicochemical system for TOC and COD Cr removal, because pre-physicochemical treatment helped to remove macromolecular organic substances, and reduced the competition with other pollutants during biochemical treatment. However, biochemical-physicochemical system was more effective than physicochemical-biochemical system for elimination of PAEs and for detoxification, since the biochemical treatment might produce the toxic PAEs that could helpfully be settled by post-physicochemical treatment. Moreover, ecotoxicity evaluation was recommended for current textile-dyeing wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  14. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  15. MR imaging and MR angiography in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atilla, S.; Akpek, S.; Yuecel, C.; Tali, E.T.; Isik, S.; Ilgit, E.T. [Department of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-07-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment (PAE) syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly seen in young adults causing ischemic symptoms in the lower extremities. It is the result of various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscular structures. The purpose of this study was to define the role of MR imaging combined with MR angiography in the diagnosis of PAE cases. Four cases with segmental occlusion and medial displacement of popliteal artery in digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations were diagnosed as PAE syndrome by MR imaging and MR angiography. The DSA and MRA images are compared. All of the cases showed various degrees of abnormal intercondylar insertion of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The MR images showed detailed anatomy of the region revealing the cause of the arterial entrapment. Subclassification of the cases were done and fat tissue filling the normal localization of the muscle was evaluated. The DSA and MRA images demonstrated the length and localization of the occluded segment and collateral vascular developments equally. It is concluded that angiographic evaluation alone in PAE syndrome might result in overlooking the underlying cause of the arterial occlusion, which in turn leads to unsuccessful therapy procedures such as balloon angioplasty. Magnetic resonance imaging combined with MR angiography demonstrates both the vascular anatomy and the variations in the muscular structures in the popliteal fossa successfully, and this combination seems to be the most effective way of evaluating young adults with ischemic symptoms suggesting PAE syndrome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 17 refs.

  16. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  17. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  18. What research is being done on prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Russian research community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD.

  19. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  20. Carbon isotopic fractionation during biodegradation of phthalate esters in anoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Zhen; Huang, Xianyu; Yarnes, Chris; Li, Minjing; Tong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Here we evaluate the quantitative relationship between carbon isotopic fractionation and anoxic biodegradation of phthalate esters (PAEs), a kind of endocrine disruptors. The stable carbon isotope delta values (δ(13)C) of 4 PAEs, i.e. di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), were analyzed during biodegradation by a pure bacteria strain isolated from the shallow aquifer sediment in anoxic condition. Results showed that the carbon isotopic fractionation in the initial degradation of PAEs was well-described by the Rayleigh equation model with R(2) from 0.8885 to 0.9821. The carbon isotopic fractionation (ε) for DMP and DEP were -4.6±0.4‰ and -2.9±0.1‰, respectively, while DBP and DiBP showed limited isotopic fractionation. A linear relationship between ε values and the total carbon atoms present in straight-carbon-chain PAE molecules with R(2) of 0.9918. The apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) were calculated for proposed 4 initial transformation pathways of PAEs. The high carbon AKIEs of 1.048 and 1.036 were obtained for single enzymatic hydrolysis of DMP and DEP, respectively, and fell in the expected KIE range of 1.03-1.09. However, the intrinsic carbon isotope effects for enzymatic hydrolysis of DBP and DiBP might be masked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the repartition of phthalate esters during distillation of wine for spirit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Di Pascale, Nicolas; Vasile Simone, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-12-15

    Due to health concerns and legal matters, an investigation to limit phthalates esters (PEAs) in spirits is necessary. A lab still was used to perform pilot distillations according to the official method for brandy production in order to explore the repartition into the distilled fractions of each PAE. The process was divided in two steps: a première chauffe and a bonne chauffe. The former step included the cut into heads, heart and tails, while the latter into heads, brandy, secondes, and tails. The behaviour of each PAE during distillation was affected by its own chemical nature. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was entirely carried over into the distillate, while bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) only partially, and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) accumulated in the stillage. During the bonne chauffe, DBP and DEHP accumulated in the secondes more than in the brandy. A rectification step of the secondes was demonstrated to considerably reduce PAEs concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. PRICE ON THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE ATANASOAIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices are analyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products, distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage. This paper is based on the investigation of secondary sources, of specialized literature related to PAE consumers. The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or high level and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very important barrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communication policies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development.

  3. Determination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in polyamine epichlorohydrin solution by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Wan, Xiao-Fang; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Run-Quan

    2017-05-05

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of residual epichlorohydrin (ECH) and the by-product 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP) in polyamine epichlorohydrin (PAE) solution. It was based on the vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of these analytes at 60°C for 30min in a closed headspace sample vial before GC measurement. It was found that matrix of the PAE solution had the effect on the headspace equilibrium of these species and therefore a standard addition must be applied in the method validation. The results showed that the present method has a good measurement precision (RSD volatile organic compounds in the commercial PAE resin solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students' Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis examines the association between teacher support and students' academic emotions [both positive academic emotions (PAEs and negative academic emotions (NAEs] and explores how student characteristics moderate these relationships. We identified 65 primary studies with 58,368 students. The results provided strong evidence linking teacher support and students' academic emotions. Furthermore, students' culture, age, and gender moderated these links. The correlation between teacher support and PAEs was stronger for Western European and American students than for East Asian students, while the correlation between teacher support and NAEs was stronger for East Asian students than for Western European and American students. Also, the correlation between teacher support and PAEs was strong among university students and weaker among middle school students, compared to other students. The correlation between teacher support and NAEs was stronger for middle school students and for female students, compared to other students.

  5. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  6. An attempt to revisit the global biogeography of limno-terrestrial Tardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J.A. PUGH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The major increase in distribution records of limno-terrestrial tardigrades over the last ten years has enabled us to reassess the global biogeography of the Tardigrada using cluster analysis, principal components analysis and parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE. Although the new clustergram topology shows a close correlation with those we originally presented in 1998, the PAE outputs warrant a radical reinterpretation of the results as they imply that the Laurasian fauna is derived and the Gondwanan groups basal. The distribution of endemic tardigrade genera and families provides some support for this argument though the findings should be viewed with some caution as PAE has its detractors and has not been previously applied on a 'global' scale.

  7. Biomechanical and morphological multi-parameter photoacoustic endoscope for identification of early esophageal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dayang; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2017-09-01

    The combination of phase-sensitive photoacoustic (PA) imaging of tissue viscoelasticity with the esophagus-adaptive PA endoscope (PAE) technique allows the characterization of the biomechanical and morphological changes in the early stage of esophageal disease with high accuracy. In this system, the tissue biomechanics and morphology are obtained by detecting the PA phase and PA amplitude information, respectively. The PAE has a transverse resolution of approximately 37 μm and an outer diameter of 1.2 mm, which is suitable for detecting rabbit esophagus. Here, an in-situ biomechanical and morphological study of normal and diseased rabbit esophagus (tumors of esophagus and reflux esophagitis) was performed. The in-situ findings were highly consistent with those observed by histology. In summary, we demonstrated the potential application of PAE for early clinical detection of esophageal diseases.

  8. In-situ observation of the temperature and orientation dependence of the surface concentration of Ni adatoms deposited on Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnik, Samantha; Dickmann, Marcel; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    We report the direct observation of the in-situ temperature-dependent migration of Ni adatoms in Pd using Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). For this study, a single atomic layer of Ni was grown on Pd with the crystallographic orientations Pd(111), Pd(110) and Pd(100). The sample temperature was increased from room temperature to 350 °C and the intensity of the Ni and Pd signal was evaluated from the recorded PAES spectra. Due to the outstanding surface sensitivity of PAES a clear tendency for Pd segregation at the surface was observed for all samples. Moreover the activation temperature T0 for surface segregation was found to depend strongly on the surface orientation: We determined T0 to 172± 4 °C, 261± 12 °C and 326± 11 °C for Pd(111), Pd(100) and Pd(110), respectively.

  9. a Gan on sic Hfet Device Technology for Wireless Infrastructure Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B.; Henry, H.; Moore, K.; Abdou, J.; Lawrence, R.; Clayton, F.; Miller, M.; Crowder, J.; Mares, E.; Hartin, O.; Liu, C.; Weitzel, C.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents Freescale's baseline GaN device technology for wireless infrastructure applications. At 48 V drain bias and 2.1 GHz operating frequency 10-11 W/mm, 62-67% power-added efficiency (PAE) is realized on 0.3 mm devices and 74 W (5.9 W/mm), 55% PAE is demonstrated for 12.6 mm devices. A simple thermal model shows that a more than twofold increase in channel temperature is responsible for limiting the CW power density on the 12.6 mm compared to 0.3 mm devices. The addition of through wafer source vias to improve gain and tuning the device in a fixture optimized for efficiency yield an output power of 57W (4.7 W/mm), PAE of 66%, and a calculated channel temperature of approximately 137°C at a 28 V bias.

  10. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters Functional Connectivity in the Adult Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Davies, Suzy; Calhoun, Vince; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-01

    Past studies of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have focused on specific brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and behaviors. However, the effects of PAE on brain function and behavior are complex and not limited to discrete brain regions. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the global effects of moderate PAE on neural function. A primary aim of this research was to explore the functional relationships in neural activity of spatially distinct areas by applying a widely used computational algorithm-group-independent component analysis (gICA)-to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from rats exposed to either an alcohol or saccharin control solution via maternal consumption during pregnancy. Long-Evans rat dams consumed either 5% (v/v) alcohol or a saccharin control solution throughout gestation. Adult offspring from each prenatal treatment group were anesthetized for functional, structural, and perfusion magnetic resonance-based image acquisition sequences. gICA was applied to the functional data to extract components. To determine connectivity, component time-course correlations were computed and compared. Additionally, spectral power analyses were utilized as an additional measure of functional connectivity. Finally, blood perfusion-assessed by arterial spin labeling-and whole-brain volumetric analyses were evaluated. Analyses revealed 17 components in several brain regions such as the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. PAE was associated with reductions in coordinated activity between components, especially in males. PAE was also associated with reductions in low-frequency spectral power, an effect that was more robust in females. Brain volumetric analyses revealed sex-dependent reductions in females while blood flow analyses revealed sex-dependent reductions in males. Moderate PAE leads to persistent changes in functional connectivity in the absence of whole-brain volume or blood flow measures. Future studies will

  11. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ 3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  12. Enhanced expression of recombinant elastase in Pichia pastoris through the substitution of Thr for Ser in Asn-Xaa-Ser sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minghai; Wang, Weixian; Wang, Xinfeng; Liu, Xin; Cao, Hui; Tao, Yuan; Yu, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    N-glycosylation usually occurs at the Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr sequon of glycoproteins in Pichia pastoris, exerting great effects on expression efficiency; however, Asn-Xaa-Thr is more efficiently glycosylated than Asn-Xaa-Ser. In this study, the role of the two sequons in the expression of recombinant elastase (rPAE) was investigated. At N43, N212, and N280 of rPAE, Asn-Xaa-Thr was substituted for the native Asn-Xaa-Ser sequon through site-directed mutagenesis, and the two sequon forms were introduced into rPAE at N36 and N264. As expected, substitution at N36, N43, N212, and N280 enhanced the degree of N-glycosylation. At N212 or N280, substitution increased rPAE production effectively by 43 and 25 %, respectively. In comparison, at N36, N43, and N264, the change inhibited rPAE expression to varying extents; specifically, substitution at N36 resulted in a 31 % decrease, while substitution at N43 or N264 resulted in a decrease of less than 9 %. It is suggested that the effect of the substitution of Asn-Xaa-Thr for Asn-Xaa-Ser on rPAE expression is roughly related to the role of the original Asn-Xaa-Ser sequon. As the conversion of Ser to Thr at N-glycosylation sites through site-directed mutagenesis is easily achieved, it is a feasible means of improving the expression of recombinant proteins in P. pastoris.

  13. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  14. Acquiring nutrients from tree leaves: effects of leaf maturity and development type on a generalist caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Kapila, Madhav; Kileen, Sara; Nusbaum, Caleb P

    2017-05-01

    The rapid growth and prolific reproduction of many insect herbivores depend on the efficiencies and rates with which they acquire nutrients from their host plants. However, little is known about how nutrient assimilation efficiencies are affected by leaf maturation or how they vary between plant species. Recent work showed that leaf maturation can greatly decrease the protein assimilation efficiency (PAE) of Lymantria dispar caterpillars on some tree species, but not on species in the willow family (Salicaceae). One trait of many species in the Salicaceae that potentially affects PAE is the continuous (or "indeterminate") development of leaves throughout the growing season. To improve our understanding of the temporal and developmental patterns of nutrient availability for tree-feeding insects, this study tested two hypotheses: nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) are more efficiently assimilated from immature than mature leaves, and, following leaf maturation, nutrients are more efficiently assimilated from indeterminate than determinate tree species. The nutritional physiology and growth of a generalist caterpillar (L. dispar) were measured on five determinate and five indeterminate tree species while their leaves were immature and again after they were mature. In support of the first hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on immature leaves had significantly higher PAE and carbohydrate assimilation efficiency (CAE), as well as higher protein assimilation rates and growth rates, than larvae that fed on mature leaves. Contrary to the second hypothesis, caterpillars that fed on mature indeterminate tree leaves did not have higher PAE than those that fed on mature determinate leaves, while CAE differed by only 3% between tree development types. Instead, "high-PAE" and "low-PAE" tree species were found across taxonomic and development categories. The results of this study emphasize the importance of physiological mechanisms, such as nutrient assimilation efficiency, to

  15. Fast microextraction of phthalate acid esters from beverage, environmental water and perfume samples by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-15

    In this work, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by mixing the magnetic particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed solutions. Due to their excellent adsorption capability towards hydrophobic compounds, the magnetic CNTs were used as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to extract phthalate acid esters (PAEs), which are widely used in many consumable products with potential carcinogenic properties. By coupling MSPE with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for the analysis of PAEs was established. Our results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PAEs ranged from 4.9 to 38 ng L(-1), which are much lower compared to the previously reported methods. And good linearities of the detection method were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9821 and 0.9993. In addition, a satisfying reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 11.7% and 14.6%, respectively. Finally, the established MSPE-GC/MS method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs from bottled beverages, tap water and perfume samples. The recoveries of the 16 PAEs from the real samples ranged from 64.6% to 125.6% with the RSDs less than 16.5%. Taken together, the MSPE-GC/MS method developed in current study provides a new option for the detection of PAEs from real samples with complex matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  17. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alberto A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Yoshinaga, Eduardo M. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Cerri, Luciana M. O. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Magnetic Resonance Unit (Brazil); Marcelino, Antonio S. Z. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Radiology Department (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  18. Paeoniflorin blocks the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB through ROS mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xianwei; Wu, Jintao; Yang, Haitao; Yan, Lijie; Wang, Shanling

    2018-01-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the development of vascular remodeling. In the present study, the effect of paeoniflorin (PAE) on the platelet derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB)‑induced proliferation of primary cultured rat VSMCs and its molecular mechanism was investigated. The toxicity was determined by the try pan blue exclusion test. Cell proliferation was determined using a CCK‑8 assay, DNA synthesis was assessed by measuring the incorporation of BrdU. Cell cycle progression was determined using PI staining and fluorescence‑activated cell sorting. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate. mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Changes of p38, JNK, ERK1/2 signaling pathways were determined by western blot analysis. Cell migration was detected by scratch assay. PAE was demonstrated to significantly inhibit VSMC proliferation induced by PDGF‑BB in a dose‑and time‑dependent manner without cell cytotoxicity. Thus, PAE blocked progression through the G0/G1 to Sphase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, inhibition of the cell cycle was associated with the inhibition of them RNA expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK2 as well as with increased cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA expression in PDGF‑BB‑stimulated VSMCs. Further studies showed that the beneficial effect of PAE on blocking VSMCs proliferation was related to the suppression of the ROS‑mediated extra cellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, although PAE had no significant effect on the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase signalling pathway. These results demonstrated that PAE suppressed PDGF‑BB‑induced VSMC proliferation through the ROS‑mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, suggesting that it may be a feasible therapy for vascular

  19. Cardiac Orienting Responses Differentiate the Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Ukrainian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D; Jones, Kenneth L; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Kulikovsky, Yaroslav; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Chambers, Christina D

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to impact neurophysiological encoding of environmental events negatively in the first year of life but has not been evaluated in older infants or toddlers. Cardiac orienting responses (ORs) collected during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 12- to 18-month-olds to assess the impact of PAE beyond the first year of life. Participants included women and their toddlers who differed in PAE histories and enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of multivitamin/mineral usage during pregnancy. Those who were randomly assigned to the no intervention group were used for this analysis. The habituation/dishabituation paradigm consisted of 10 habituation and 5 dishabituation trials. Baseline heart rate (HR) was collected for 30 seconds prior to stimulus onset, and responses to the stimuli were assessed by sampling HR for 12 seconds poststimulus onset. The speed of the OR in response to auditory stimuli in the dishabituation condition was found to be altered as a function of maternal alcohol use around conception. For visual stimuli, positive histories of PAE were predictive of the magnitude but not the speed of the response on habituation and dishabituation trials. A history of binge drinking was associated with reduced magnitude of the OR response on visual encoding trials, and level of alcohol exposure at the time of conception was predictive of the magnitude of the response on visual dishabituation trials. Cardiac ORs collected in the toddler period were sensitive to the effects of PAE. The magnitude of the OR was more sensitive to the impact of PAE than in previous research with younger infants, and this may be a function of brain maturation. Additional research assessing the predictive utility of using ORs in making decisions about individual risk was recommended. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bildung: A hidden reason for adult mathematics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Lene Østergaard

    2005-01-01

    In May 2000 the Danish Government adopted a reform of the vocational education and continuing training system for adults. A new element is to strengthen basic skills such as reading, writing and mathematics, and the reform comprises an additional education level, "Preparatory Adult Education" (PAE......). PAE will be offered to all persons over 18 who wish to improve their general skills to become better equipped for the labour market and as citizens in a democratic society. The question "Why teach numeracy to adults with lack of basic mathematical skills?" has been the core question in my research...

  2. Elaboración de barras energéticas para escolares a partir de subproductos industriales de soya y maíz

    OpenAIRE

    De La Paz Castro, Viviana; Coello Ojeda, Karín Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    El Programa de Alimentación Escolar del Ecuador (PAE) ofrece a escuelas fiscales productos como complemento alimenticio que contienen un adecuado aporte de calorías, proteínas, vitaminas y minerales con el propósito de mejorar la nutrición y por consiguiente la capacidad en el aprendizaje de los niños en edad escolar. Entre los productos que el PAE distribuye se encuentra la granola en barra hecha a base de avena, la cual al ser una materia prima importada eleva el costo del producto final. ...

  3. Aripiprazole treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder and the relationship between prior antipsychotic exposure, adverse events, and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoski, Raymond; Stockton, Gwen; Manos, George; Marler, Sabrina; McQuade, Robert; Forbes, Robert A; Marcus, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of prior antipsychotic exposure (PAE) on safety and tolerability outcomes in pediatric subjects receiving aripiprazole treatment. This study was a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from two 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies evaluating aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability in pediatric subjects with autistic disorder, aged 6-17 years. Subjects were stratified by PAE; adverse events (AEs), and changes in weight, and metabolic measures were evaluated. For subjects receiving aripiprazole, regardless of PAE, baseline weight, age, gender, and symptom severity were evaluated in a regression model predicting body weight change. Of 316 randomized subjects, 259 (82.0%) were antipsychotic naïve (AN) and 57 (18.0%) had a PAE. Aripiprazole-treated AN subjects were more likely than PAE subjects to report somnolence (11.9% vs. 2.8%), sedation (22.7% vs. 11.1%), or fatigue (17.0% vs. 13.9%). Rates of extrapyramidal disorder and drooling, but not akathisia or tremor, were marginally higher in AN subjects. Overall, 10.8% of aripiprazole-treated AN subjects had at least one AE leading to discontinuation compared with 8.3% of aripiprazole-treated PAE subjects. AN subjects receiving aripiprazole had a larger change in weight from baseline to endpoint compared with those receiving placebo (1.9 vs. 0.7 kg; treatment difference 1.2 kg, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.9) than PAE subjects receiving aripiprazole compared with subjects receiving placebo (0.4 vs. -0.4 kg; treatment difference 0.9 kg, 95% CI: -0.6, 2.4). Regression analysis identified that younger subjects with higher baseline weight z-score were at highest risk for weight gain. There were no significant changes in metabolic measures compared with placebo in either group. Weight gain was more pronounced in AN subjects and more likely to occur in younger subjects with a higher baseline weight z-score. AN subjects were more likely to experience AEs related

  4. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.

    2003-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are commonly found in the sludge generated in the wastewater treatment plants. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is a common treatment and disposal practice of sludge. To date, many studies exist on the anaerobic biodegradation rates of PAE, especially...... with anaerobic sludge of different origin (US and Europe) showed that degradation of DEHP occurs under methanogenic conditions. Accumulation of high levels of DEHP (more than 60 mg/l) in the anaerobic digester has a negative effect on DBP and DEHP removal rates as well as on the biogas production....

  5. Envelope tracking CMOS power amplifier with high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier for mobile handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Sakai, Yasufumi; Oishi, Kazuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Mori, Toshihiko; Yamaura, Shinji; Suto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    A high-efficiency CMOS power amplifier (PA) based on envelope tracking (ET) has been reported for a wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and long term evolution (LTE) application. By adopting a high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier with current direction sensing, a 5% improvement in total power-added efficiency (PAE) and a 11 dB decrease in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) are achieved with a W-CDMA signal. Moreover, the proposed PA achieves a PAE of 25.4% for a 10 MHz LTE signal at an output power (Pout) of 25.6 dBm and a gain of 24 dB.

  6. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal-dependent outcome measures is influenced by prenatal and early-life rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Goggin, Samantha L; Labrecque, Matthew T; Allan, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    The clinical course of individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is influenced by multiple factors, including the social environments of the gravid female and offspring. In the present studies we focused on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the prenatal and early-life social environments on the hippocampal formation, as impaired development and functioning of this brain region have been implicated in several of the adverse cognitive outcomes associated with PAE. We combined our PAE mouse model with 2 conditions of housing pregnant dams and their preweanling offspring: the standard nest (SN), in which a dam is individually housed prior to parturition and then remains isolated with her offspring, and the communal nest (CN), in which multiple dams are housed together prior to parturition and then following delivery the moms and their litters share a nest. Mouse dams consumed either 10% (w/v) ethanol in 0.066% (w/v) saccharin (SAC) or 0.066% (w/v) SAC alone using a limited (4-hour) access, drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Immunoblotting techniques were used to measure levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, the FK506-binding proteins 51 and 52, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 in the hippocampal formation isolated from male adolescent offspring. We also determined the effect of PAE and rearing conditions on context discrimination, a hippocampal-dependent learning/memory task. SN PAE offspring displayed impaired context discrimination and neurochemical changes in the hippocampal formation consistent with increased GR nuclear localization. These effects of PAE were, in general, ameliorated in mice reared in a CN. The CN also altered neurochemical measures and improved learning/memory in SAC control animals. These studies demonstrate a complex interplay between the effects of PAE and social environments. The findings have important translational implications, as well as highlight the importance of

  7. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...... to the level observed in a control digester. Other process parameters of digester performance were not affected by DEHP accumulation. These results are similar to the toxic effects of long chain fatty acids on sludge digestion, suggesting that DEHP or its degradation products affect all the microbial...

  8. Ku and K band GaN High Power Amplifier MMICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    Ku- and K -band GaN High Power Amplifier MMICs Val Kaper, Scott Harris, Keith Kessler Raytheon, Andover MA 01810 vkaper@raytheon.com Abstract: This...paper describes development and characteri- zation of three Ku- and K -band GaN High Power Amplifier (HPA) MMICs. The circuits are implemented in...delivers 25 Watts of output power with 45% PAE. A K -band HPA operates from 19.5 to 22 GHz and delivers 18 Watts of output power with 29% PAE

  9. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicinsk versus kirurgisk provokeret abort i første trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C

    2005-01-01

    Ph.d.-afhandlingen er baseret på undersøgelser udført på Gynækologisk/Obstetrisk afdeling, H:S Hvidovre Hospital, i samarbejde med Gynækologisk/Obstetrisk Klinik, H:S Frederiksberg Hospital, i perioden 2000-2004. Formålet med studiet var at sammenligne medicinsk og kirurgisk abort med henblik på ......,05. Fremtidige studier må vise hvor mange af de formodede infektioner, der afspejler underlivsbetændelser med nedsat fertilitet som følge. Desuden stiles mod en optimering af det medicinske regime med en forventet stigning i tilfredsheden....

  11. Forum for Almen Medicinske ph.d.-studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Eriksson, Tina

    Rapport fra første fællesmøde mellem nuværende og kommende almenmedicinske ph.d.-studerende. Rapporten anbefaler dannelse af et egentligt almenmedicinsk ph.d.-forum, der søges optaget i DSAM som en interessegruppe. Ph.d.-forum betragter sig som en ressource ved forskellige initiativer og ønsker...... blandt andet at arbejde for en værdig ansættelse af yngre forskere. Blandt de konkrete forslag, Ph.d.-forum har stillet, er almenmedicinske ph.d.-kurser og ph.d.-stipendium med henblik på udarbejdelse af protokol....

  12. Case-baseret undervisning – et overset værktøj for klassiske humanistiske fag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Hvithamar, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Case-baseret undervisning er blevet udbredt, fordi den er velegnet til at træne analyse af problemer med henblik på at foreslå løsninger. Denne artikel argumenterer for, at klassiske humanistiske fag også bør tage metoden til sig, selvom fagene typisk ikke har problemløsning som afgørende målsætn...... målsætning. Udviklingen skal dog hjælpes på vej....

  13. Styringsformer i forebyggelsen af overvægt og depression blandt gravide i den danske folkesundhedspolitik 1999-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Forholdet mellem styring og subjektivitet i forebyggelsen af overvægt og depression blandt de gravide belyses med udgangspunkt i socialkonstruktivistisk tilgang. Styringen af de overvægtige gravide sker med modstridende teknologier - både paternalistiske og autonomiserende. Styringen af de...... depressive gravide sker mere entydigt ud fra en paternalistisk strategi. Styringsteknologierne bidrager til dannelse af nye subjektiviteter, som kan være produktive eller undergravende for selvet. Praksisstudier foreslås med henblik på at påvise selvteknologier (Otto 2003, s. 8) til forebyggelse af overvægt...... og depression....

  14. Hvordan kan kriterier for ph.d.-bedømmelser danne grundlag for ph.d.-uddannelse? Pædagogiske perspektiver af en analyse af 41 ph.d.-bedømmelser fra et humanistisk fakultet

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte Rienecker; Peter Stray Jørgensen

    2013-01-01

    Pointen i denne artikel er at indholdet i ph.d.-bedømmelser kan og bør have pædagogiske implikationer for ph.d.-skrivning og ph.d.-vejledning. For at skabe grundlag for sådanne implikationer har vi analyseret 41 ph.d. bedømmelser fra 2009 på Det Humanistiske Fakultet med henblik på at identificere styrker og svagheder i afhandlingerne. Analysen er baseret på international empirisk forskning i ph.d.-bedømmelser. Analysen viste tydelige mønstre i bedømmelserne: Mens afhandlingernes analysedel v...

  15. Enhancement of Wide-Area Service Discovery using Dynamic Context Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    ) modellering af tilgang til dynamisk informationer i distribuerede netværk med henblik på ydelsesanalyse af netværkstraffik, tilgangstider og såakaldt mismatch probability, 2) system koncepter der tillader context sensitive service discovery og 3) evaluering af implementeret prototype.......Eksisterende service discovery løsninger kan i dag ikke levere informationer om hvorvidt fundne services nu også er relevante for brugeren, hvorom denne afhandling omhandler hvorledes man kan forbedre service discovery ved brug af context informationer. De væsentligste dele af projektet omhandler 1...

  16. Persondata i relation til ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2011-01-01

    En intelligent verden er under udvikling. En verden, hvor stadig flere ting har indbygget digital teknologi, der indsamler personoplysninger med henblik på at lette borgernes tilværelseog for at realisere samfundsmæssige målsætninger. Atiklen vedrører især anvendelsen af intelligente ting i relat...... relation til måling af energiforbrug m.v. Dette kan medføre en øget anvendelse af persondata, og på denne baggrund sætter artiklen fokus på, hvorledes persondataretten finder anvendelse i denne sammenhæng....

  17. Digital Tinglysning - rettigheder over fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter

    Bogen omhandler de nye regler om digital tinglysning vedrørende fast ejendom. Den er udarbejdet med henblik på undervisningen på universiteter og højere læreanstalter og giver praktikere en indføring i det nye digitale tinglysningssystem samt en opdatering med seneste retspraksis. I bogen gennemgås...... ved digital tinglysning - herunder brugen af digital signatur, fuldmagtsordning og anmelderordning - om tingbogslegitimation, automatisk og manuel prøvelse samt om aflysning af rettigheder og rettelse af tingbogen....

  18. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 39, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  19. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 28, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  20. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 12, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  1. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 43, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  2. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 49, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  3. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 47, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  4. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 45, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  5. Målinger og Analyse af Indeklima og Energiforbrug i Komforthusene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    Denne rapport beskriver måleprogram og resultater for Komforthuset beliggende Stenagervænget 37, Skibet, 7100 Vejle. Måleprogrammet er gennemført af Aalborg Universitet i en tre-årig periode med opstart 1. oktober 2008. Rapporten giver en gennemgang af resultaterne fra ovenstående bolig. Generelle...... resultater fundet for alle huse i projektet findes i rapporten ”Komforthusene - Målinger og analyse af indeklima og energiforbrug i 8 passivhuse 2008-2011”. Desuden henvises til rapporten ”Vurdering af indeklimaet i hidtidigt lavenergibyggeri - med henblik på forbedringer i fremtidens lavenergibyggeri”, som...

  6. Hygrotermisk Bygningssimulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen-Thøde, Mogens

    Dette notat er primært skrevet til brug ved undervisningen i kurset "Hygrotermisk Bygningssimulering" med henblik på at give en første introduktion af numeriske metoder til løsning af varmeledningsproblemer og vise eksempler på metodernes anvendelse. Formålet er at give en kort indføring i grundl...... finite element metoden omtales, da disse to metoder indgår i henholdsvis den termiske rummodel i programmet BSim og ved løsning af flerdimensional varmeledning med programmet COMSOL Multiphysics....

  7. Transhumanisme - Er det skævt?

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Rasmus; Andersen, Katja; Hirsch, Kiki; Wakefield, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    I opgaven diskuteres argumenter for og imod transhumanismen, med særlig henblik på de lighedskonsekvenser, et transhumanistisk samfund eventuelt vil medføre. I opgaven tages der udgangspunkt i biokonservatisten Fukuyama og medstifteren af den transhumanistiske organisation, Nick Bostrom. Fukuyama opstiller på baggrund af transhumanisternes ønske om at optimere mennesket, tre scenarier, der ifølge ham, er med til at øge den eksisterende ulighed i samfundet. I disse, argumenterer han for at...

  8. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Ussery, David; Lund, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) spiller en vigtig rolle i den globale sundhed både grundet dennes rolle som kommensal bakterie, der lever i dennes vært og som patogen bakterie, der er skyld i millioner af infektioner hvert eneste år. Infektionerne er både sporadiske eller som udbrud med tusindvis af smittede i visse tilfælde. For at mindske antallet af infektioner er det vigtigt at overvåge patogene E. coli med henblik på hurtigt opdagelse af udbrud og sporing af kilden til disse. Effektiviteten a...

  9. Cut and Column Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spoorendonk, Simon

    Denne afhandling omhandler Dantzig-Wolfe dekomponering af heltalsproblemer med specielt henblik på at tilføje snit i det dekomponerede problem. Dantzig-Wolfe dekomponering benyttes ofte på heltalsproblemer (de originale problemer) med strukturelle egenskaber, der gør, at de med fordel kan opdeles i...... omkostning fra snittene medtages i omkostningsberegningerne for de generede kolonner. Hvis et snit kan opskrives som en linear kombination af variable i det originale problem er dette ligetil, da kun omkostningen for de enkelte variable i delproblemerne ændrer sig. Det skal dog nævnes, at selvom kun...

  10. Ledelsesudvikling i ejerledede virksomheder med vækstambitioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    2006-01-01

    Dette bidrag beskriver konsulentvirksomheden Jonathan A/S' ledelsesudviklingsforløb 'Virksomheder i Vækst'. Forløbet henvender sig til ejerledere med vilje til og potentiale for vækst. Bidraget gør rede for Jonathan A/S' metoder og forudsætningerne for deres arbejde. Disse sættes løbende i relation...... til Action Learning-tilgangen med henblik på at perspektivere ideerne bag Jonathans metoder yderligere. Til slut opridses enkelte 'best practice'-forslag uddraget fra Jonathan A/S' arbejde med ejerledere....

  11. Risikostyring gennem retlige standarder i CSR værktøjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer udvalgte CSR værktøjer med særligt henblik på, hvordan retlige standarder kan hjælpe virksomheder til at undgå forretningsmæssige risici relateret til menneskerettigheder og arbejdstagerrettigheder. De værktøjer, der gennemgås, er udvalgt ud fra det kriterium, at menneskeret...... UN Global Compact o UN Norms (FNs normer om virksomheders menneskerettighedsansvar) o SA8000 o GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) o AA1000 o CSR Kompasset...

  12. Moms og grænsehandelskoncepter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl; Stensgaard, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Som følge af de forskellige momssatser i Danmark og Tyskland på henholdsvis 25 og 16 % florerer grænsehandelen i et stadigt stigende omfang. I flere brancher involve-rer danske virksomheder sig således i forskellige grænsehandelskoncepter med hen-blik på at kunne sælge varer til danske forbrugere......-bredte grænsehandelskoncepters vedkommende forekommer særdeles tvivlsomt, om der retmæssigt kan faktureres med tysk moms....

  13. Profilfag i didaktisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnitz, Majken Leth; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er resultatet af et mindre følgeforskningsprojekt, der blev værksat i regi af Center for Undervisningsudvikling og Digitale Medier med henblik på at bidrage til et fælles, erfaringsbaseret didaktisk grundlag for kommende profilfagsundervisere på Arts, AU. Profilfagene er resultatet af...... den nuværende model primært skal udvikles i flerfaglige forløb på tværs af uddannelser eller om det tværfaglige og det handlingsorienterede i højere grad skal skilles ad,...

  14. OCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ane Søndergaard

    Det er svært at leve med tvangstanker og tvangshandlinger. De ramte selv kan have vanskeligt ved at forstå lidelsen, og den misforstås ofte både af pårørende og fagfolk. Bogen er skrevet med henblik på at skabe en bedre forståelse af OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder eller på dansk tvangstanker ...... klinisk psykologi, men inddrager også temaer som f.eks. vilje og stress....

  15. Tablets i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2012-01-01

    Denne rapport afslutter CELMS undersøgelse af Odder Kommunes projekt med indførelse af iPads på alle kommunens skoler. Undersøgelsen har til formål at belyse om der er pædagogiske og læringsmæssige fordele forbundet med brugen af tablets i undervisningen i grundskolen og i givet fald hvilke...... designer og tablet’ens egenskaber i et generelt perspektiv. Rapporten afsluttes med en række anbefalinger til henholdsvis lærere og skoleledere med henblik på videre udvikling af indsatsen....

  16. Hvilken betydning har ergoterapi- og fysioterapiydelser i Akut Sengeafsnit og Akut Hjerteafsnit, set i et tværfagligt perspektiv?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Nørgaard, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    terapeutiske ydelser vil blive belyst med data fra journalaudit, spørgeskemaer og fokusgruppe-interview. Metodetrianguleringen er valgt, da der ønskes såvel hypotesetestende som beskrivende og uddybende data. Vigtigste variable: Der gennemgås i alt 96 journaler med henblik på at afdække hvorvidt...... fysioterapeuter i Akut Sengeafsnit gennemsnitlig har henholdsvis 1,5 og 1,4 kontakter med patienterne. Der er endnu ingen resultater relateret til det aktuelle projekt. Konklusioner: Projektet er igangsat pr. 1. marts, 2012, hvorfor det endnu er for tidligt at præsentere resultater....

  17. Perfil de clientes colostomizados inscritos em programa de atenção aos estomizados

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mara Rúbia Violin; Thais Aidar de Freitas Mathias; Taqueco Teruya Uchimura

    2008-01-01

    ..., exploratório, de natureza quantitativa, foi o de identificar o perfil do paciente colostomizado, inscrito no Programa de Atenção ao Estomizado – PAE, da 15ª Regional de Saúde do Paraná...

  18. Critique of parsimony analysis of endemicity as a method of historical biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, D.R.; Veller, van M.G.P.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Assess the value of parsimony analysis of endemism as either an a priori (cladistic) and an a posteriori (phylogenetic) method of historical biogeography. Location World-wide. Methods Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) and Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA). Results Parsimony analysis of

  19. Moblaga Veneetsiasse! / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Veneetsia X arhitektuuribiennaalil esindab Eestit arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark (arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi) ja Tartu Ülikooli Geograafia Instituudi (teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm) projekt. Kommenteerib Ülar Mark. Lühidalt ka teistest eestisisesel konkursil osalenud töödest

  20. developpement des systemes de production innovants d'association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    égumineuses. DEVELOPPEMENT DES ... et l'alimentation animale. Elles représentent une alternative dans la gestion des risques et des incertitudes pour les agro-éleveurs, ... Projet d'Appui à l'Enseignement Supérieur. (PAES) dans les pays de ...

  1. Training Phonological Reading in Deep Alexia: Does It Improve Reading Words with Low Imageability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mikyong; Beaudoin-Parsons, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether training phonological reading using a bigraph-syllable pairing method (e.g. pa - /pae/) instead of grapheme-phoneme pairing (e.g. p - /p/, a - /ae/) resulted in improved reading of words with low imageability and paragraphs in an individual with deep alexia. In the treatment, Friedman and Lott's…

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of biphenylene ethynylene co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    izations and applications as active materials in organic electronics. PAEs have been made solution process- able by adding alkyl or alkoxy side chains to the aro- matic fragment of the polymers so that the optoelec- tronic properties can be studied either in solution or in spin-cast thin films.13 Furthermore, it is possible.

  3. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE.

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure and traumatic childhood experiences: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan; Cook, Penny A; Norgate, Sarah; Mukherjee, Raja

    2017-05-25

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and traumatic childhood experiences (trauma) such as abuse or neglect can each cause central nervous system neurobiological changes or structural damage which can manifest as cognitive and behavioural dysfunction. In cases where both exposures have occurred, the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment may be greater, but this interaction has not been well studied. Here we present a systematic review that identified five primary research studies which investigated either the impact of trauma in children with PAE, or of PAE in children with trauma. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, narrative analysis was applied. Children in these cohorts with both exposures were more likely to show deficits in language, attention, memory and intelligence, and exhibit more severe behavioural problems than children with one exposure in absence of the other. However, the current literature is scarce and methodologically flawed. Further studies are required that: assess dual exposure in other neurodevelopmental domains; feature developmentally impaired yet non-exposed controls; and account for the wide spectrum of effects and different diagnostic criteria associated with PAE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. 24 CFR 401.312 - Confidentiality of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of information. 401.312 Section 401.312 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... (PRA) § 401.312 Confidentiality of information. A PAE and every other restricted person (as defined in...

  6. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P alkaline phosphatase and bile salts. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of 50 mg kg-1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg-1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  7. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... comparable market rents. 401.410 Section 401.410 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... rents. (a) When are comparable market rents required? The Restructuring Plan must establish restructured rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents...

  8. Relationships between self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity and exercise behavior in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jessica M; Iwanaga, Kanako; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Deiches, Jon; Morrison, Blaise; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Correlational techniques and canonical correlation analysis were performed to examine the relationships and variance within and between theoretical dimensions. Overall, the SDT set accounted for 37% of the TpB variance and the TpB set accounted for 32% of the SDT set variance. The results indicate there are statistical similarities and differences between concepts in SDT and TpB models for PA&E. Using both empirical guidance and clinical expertise, researchers and practitioners should attempt to select and integrate non-redundant and complementary components from SDT, TpB, and other related health behavior theories.

  9. Vtoroje dõhanije / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2001-01-01

    Ehtekunstnik Jaan Pärna projektist Meistrite hoov. Dolomiidi kasutamist kunstis kajastavast näitusest "Pae aeg" Meistrite hoovi galeriis. Kujundas Urve Küttner. Jaan Pärna, Urve Küttneri, Andrei Balashovi ja Helmet Raja töödest näitusel

  10. Chapter 8: Soy Properties and Soy Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Soy flour has been used for many years as a wood adhesive. Rapid development of petroleum-based infrastructure coupled with advancement of synthetic resin technology resulted in waning usage since the early 1960s. Discovery of using polyamidoamine–epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin as a co-reactant has been effective in increasing the wet bond strength of soy adhesives and...

  11. Submicron-AlGaN/GaN MMICs for Space Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quay, R.; Waltereit, P.; Kühn, J.; Brückner, P.; Heijningen, M. van; Jukkala, P.; Hirche, K.; Ambacher, O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on two AlGaN/GaN MMICtechnologies, performances of MMICs and modules, and reliability for space applications at X-band to W-band frequencies. Quarter-micron gate length HEMTs deliver 5 W/mm output power density at 30 V drain bias with >58% PAE at 10 GHz operating frequency.

  12. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Multi-source Piroxicam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the dissolution profiles in both media (SIF and SGF) were mathematically treated according to the model proposed by Khan (with slight modification) and the resulting predicted availability equivalent (PAE) was used to quantitatively assess/ predict bioavailability of piroxicam from the various brands.

  13. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and AS1411 aptamer by poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( β-amino esters) polymeric micelles for targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shi-Bin; Wu, Wen-Guo; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Chen, Ai-Zheng; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Fan, Jing-Qian

    2017-06-01

    Recently, targeted drug delivery systems (TDDS) have offered a great potential and benefits towards the anti-tumor drug delivery. In this work, we designed the TDDS using a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( β-amino esters) amphiphilic block copolymer (PEG-PAEs) synthesized by Michael addition polymerization for combinatorial therapy. Further, the chemotherapeutic agents' doxorubicin (DOX) and AS1411 DNA aptamer (Apt) are encapsulated in the PEG-PAEs NPs (PDANs) for co-delivery therapeutics. PDANs have shown the monodisperse spherical shape, smooth surface with a net positive charge (average diameter—183.1 ± 27.2 nm, zeta potential—31.2 ± 6.3 mV), and good colloidal stability (critical micelle concentration of PEG-PAEs is about 6.3 μg/mL). The pH-sensitive PAEs endowed PDANs both pH-triggered drug release characteristics and enhanced endo/lysosomal escape ability, thus improving the localization and cytotoxicity of DOX. AS1411 Apt conjugated PDANs precisely targeted nucleolin and their uptake correlates to a significant activity enhancement only in tumor cells (MCF-7) but not in normal cells (MCF-10A). Thus, PDANs can be a very promising targeted drug delivery platform for effective breast cancer therapy.

  14. Puuduv raamat ruumis : Eesti Panga ühendusgalerii = The Missing Book : Bank of Estonia Gallery / Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruudi, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Projekteerija: Arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark. Autorid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Kaiko Kivi. Konstruktor: Inseneribüroo Peipman. Eriosad: Eldeco Inseneribüroo. Pingi disainis Bruno Lillemets. Projekt 2003, valmis 2005. Ill.: korruse plaan, lõige, 3 välis- ja 3 sisevaadet

  15. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Ren, Lijun; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Yeru

    2012-01-01

    The pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the surface water of the rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta region was investigated. Fourteen surface water samples were collected in June 2010. Water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PAHs and PAEs ranged 12.9-638.1 ng/L and 61-28550 ng/L, respectively. Fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, phenanthrene, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate were the most abundant compounds in the samples. The water samples were moderately polluted with benzo[a]pyrene according to China's environmental quality standard for surface water. The two highest concentrations of PAHs and PAEs occurred in samples from Taihu Lake, Wuxi City and the western section of Yangchenghu Lake. Potential sources of pollution at S7 were petroleum combustion and the plastics industry, and at Yangchenghu Lake were petroleum combustion and domestic waste. Pollution in samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal originated from diesel engines. There were no obvious sources of pollution for the other water samples. These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs of pollution from PAHs and PAEs.

  16. Kuldsõduri ja ufo invasioon / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    Kristina Normani isikunäitus "Me ei ole universumis üksi" Tallinna Kunstihoones 10. aprillist 9. maini 2010. Näitus hõlmab kunstniku loomingut aastatest 2007 - 2010. Installatsioonist "After-War" ja kunstiteosest, mille aluseks on ufomälestusmärk Padisel Pae külas Poosimatsi talus

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 11 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Marcos Ribeiro da Silva Vieira, Caio Marcio Guimarães Santos, Angela Vacaro de Souza, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Luzia Ferreira da Silva, 1168- ...

  18. Effect of refrigeration on post-harvest flowers | Vieira | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of refrigeration on post-harvest flowers. Marcos Ribeiro da Silva Vieira, Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros, Paula Nepomuceno Costa, Caio Marcio Guimarães Santos, Reinaldo de Alencar Paes, Luiza Maria de Sousa Fernandez, Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira, Arthur Allan, Flavio Silva ...

  19. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 28 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of luteolin from shells of Korean peanut cultivars for industrial utilization · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Suk-Bok Pae, Byoung-Kyu Lee, In-Youl Baek ...

  20. Evaluation of luteolin from shells of Korean peanut cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of luteolin from shells of Korean peanut cultivars for industrial utilization. Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Suk-Bok Pae, Byoung-Kyu Lee, In-Youl Baek. Abstract. Luteolin is a medicinally valuable phyto-chemical, which was indentified in plants. This study was aimed to analyse the luteolin content in peanut waste ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4801 - 4850 of 11090 ... Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Suk-Bok Pae, Byoung-Kyu Lee, In-Youl Baek. Vol 4, No 9 (2005):, Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread production in Nigeria, Abstract PDF. MO Edema, LO Sanni, AI Sanni. Vol 14, No 22 (2015), Evaluation of methane production features ...

  2. DD-Amp for Deep Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN MMICs on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 60%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors will be...

  3. Effect of biochar aging on surface characteristics and adsorption behavior of dialkyl phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Ghosh, Saikat; Li, Fangfang; Dong, Xudong; Zhang, Di; Wu, Min; Li, Hao; Pan, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The implications of biochar aging regarding their material properties as well as their interactions with other contaminants are not vivid. We report the role of biochar aging on sorption behavior of di-alkyl phthalates (PAEs). Biochars used in this study were produced from peanut-shell and their aging was simulated by chemical oxidation. The structural composition and morphology of the obtained biochars, before and after oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4, were analyzed by element composition, XPS, DRIFT, and SEM/EDX. Several experimental results unequivocally showed oxygen enrichment in the mixed acid treated samples compared to their precursors. Despite surface area reduction and pore destruction, increased PAEs sorption on oxidized biochar surfaces portrayed existence of strong PAEs binding sites. The adsorption of PAEs on oxidized biochar surface is a cumulative influence of hydrophobic interactions and pi-pi electron donor-acceptor interactions. Our results suggest that imminent aging of biochar upon environmental exposure may change their sorbent properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome misdiagnosed as chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    months apart he was symptom-free, except for some discomfort in the fasciotomy scars. PAES is a relatively underdiagnosed cause of exercise-induced lower limb claudication. The syndrome usually affects young athletes who undertake vigorous exercise leading to muscle hypertrophy of the calf muscles which unmasks ...

  5. The curse of sequentiality in routing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa, José; de Jong, Jasper; de Keijzer, Bart; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Markakis, Evangelos; Schäfer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the "The curse of simultaneity", Paes Leme at al. show that there are interesting classes of games for which sequential decision making and corresponding subgame perfect equilibria avoid worst case Nash equilibria, resulting in substantial improvements for the price of anarchy. This is called the

  6. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Sludge and Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Carlsen, L.

    Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment....

  7. Nanophase and Nanocomposite Materials II. Symposium Held December 2-5, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Volume 457.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    4 this pae Ae Arsne moeuar statics siuaioso raktpc6fgrtin o Aopr Aikl an CuNi *utlaee stutrsAhe A etain Anr studie for. eachAA.A6* . stucur; wowee...Li Shizhi and J. Dian , Proc. Int. Conf. on Metal- lurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, April 1996, in press. [12] S. Veprek, Proc. of the 5th

  8. Air University Athletic Programs and Related Sport Injuries: What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Squadron Officers School and Air Command and Staff College In CY 1983.4 Irm ac473 ETorO I Nov ish OBSOLETE SEtCUITY CLASSIICATOOF TNIS PAE (3mm D=e &.ws...schools. Con- * sequently, lack of conditioning and skills associated with a particular sport predisposes the student participant to the risk of

  9. Na meste Paeskogo karjera budjet razbita zona otdõha / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Lasnamäel asuvasse Pae karjääri rajatakse park, spordiväljakud, elu- ja büroohooned ning kaubanduskeskus. Laste mänguväljakud ja palliplatsi kavandas arhitektuuribüroo Ruum ja Maastik. Hoonestusõiguse seadmise konkursi võitis Merko tütarfirma Constancia

  10. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao galeriil...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööde näitus. I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla

  11. Distribution of Phthalate Esters in Underground Water from Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    plastics such as polyvinyl chloride, cellulosic and styrene, their softness and flexibility are improved. Many PAEs ... the water system through effluent discharges, leaching from waste dumps and through several diffuse sources ..... from selected wastewater treatment plant and freshwater systems in Republic ofSouth. Africa.

  12. S Synerg with istic ac thiam ction o ethoxa of Azos am on maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    of research, producing improved cultivars, inputs and appropriate farming techniques, coupled with expansion of the planted area (Paes, 2008). Plant growth promoting substances have propelled the recent increases in pro- ductivity. These substances have been widely used in modern agriculture, and have biological or ...

  13. Automation of the Marine Corps Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Continuance Model EOU ease of use EPLRS Enhanced Position Location and Reporting System ESGPP ESG Planning Process FA field artillery FRAGO...planning processes like MCPP, MEU/ARG Planning Process (MEU/ARG PP), Army Planning Process (the MDMP) and the ESG Planning Process (ESGPP) (PAE Manual

  14. Integrated environment and energy management; Integreret miljoe- og energiledelse - erfaringer fra 11 virksomheder - Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, Kirsten [Teknologisk Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The report collects experiences from 11 companies from different sectors. The companies have during the past few years been working with integration of environment and energy management. the report forms background for the booklet 'Spar penge pae miljoe og energi - slae to fluer med et smaek'. (BA)

  15. Arhitekti ilumeel väljendub just nüanssides / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu korraldatud väikevormide arhitektuurivõistlusest "Väike 2002-2006" ja näitusest Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Avatud 9.05.-3.06.2007. Konkursi esimest-teist kohta jagasid Tiit Kaljundi ja Ivo-Martin Veelma loodud Saka trepistik ning Ülar Margi ja Kaja Pae kujundatud Eesti Panga galerii

  16. The Joint Action of Destruxins and Botanical Insecticides (Rotenone, Azadirachtin and Paeonolum Against the Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Hu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The joint action of destruxins and three botanical insecticides, rotenone (Rot, azadirachtin (Aza and paeonolum (Pae against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, was bioassayed. In laboratory experiment, several synergistic groups of destruxins with botanical insecticides were found by means of Sun’s Co-toxicity Coefficients (CTC and Finney’s Synergistic Coefficient (SC. The best synergistic effect was discovered in the ratio group Des/Rot 1/9 with the CTC or SC and LC50 values of 479.93 or 4.8 and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. The second and third synergistic effects were recorded in the ratio groups Des/Rot 7/3 and 9/1. Although the ratio groups Des/Aza 6/4, Des/Pae 4/6, 3/7 and 2/8 indicated synergism by Sun’s CTC, they were determined as additive actions by Finney’s SC. Additive actions were also found in most of the ratio groups, but antagonism were recorded only in three ratio groups: Des/Pae 9/1, 7/3 and 6/4. In greenhouse tests, the highest mortality was 98.9% with the treatment Des/Rot 1/9 at 0.60 μg/mL, meanwhile, the treatments Des/Pae 4/6 and Des/Aza 6/4 had approximately 88% mortality.

  17. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaal otsib metropoli hinge / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    10.09-19.11.2006 toimuvast Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist, mis on pühendatud globaalsele urbaniseerumisele. Avatseremoonial antakse Elutöö Kuldlõvi inglise arhitektile Richard Rogerile. Eestit esindavad arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi ja Tartu Ülikooli Geograafia instituudi teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm

  18. Arhitektide Veneetsia - projekt ulatab peegli / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    X Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil esindab Eestit reaalajas toimiv linnaplaneerimise keskkonna projekt (sotsiaalse positsioneerimise meetod). Projekti autorid on arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Yoko Alender ja Tartu Ülikooli geograafia instituudi teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa ja Siiri Silm. Mobiiltelefonide positsioneerimist on arendatud koostöös firmaga Positium ja EMT

  19. Kujundame roosiaeda / Mart Ojasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasalu, Mart

    2004-01-01

    5 ill.: Aleksander Niine kavandatud massiivsete paesõõridega Jäneda rosaarium, väänroos "Climbing Queen" kaarväraval Rosmakori roosiaias Harjumaal, väänroosi "Coral Dawn" toetab Jäneda pargis karprauast püramiid, roosipeenar Marzahni puhkepargis Berliinis

  20. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  1. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  2. Preparation and characterization of novel zwitterionic poly(arylene ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membrane with good thermostability and excellent antifouling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Guolong; Zhou, Di; Han, Xiaocui; Pang, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES-NS) was synthesized via copolymerization by using a bisphenol monomer with a pyridine group. The chemical structures of the copolymers were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy; the copolymers showed good thermal stability. A series of polyphenysulfone (PPSU)/PAES-NS blend ultrafiltration (UF) membranes was prepared via conventional immersion precipitation phase inversion methods The morphologies of the modified membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface hydrophilicity of the UF membranes was studied by water contact angle measurement, indicating that the zwitterionic group increased the membrane hydrophilicity. UF of solvated model pollutants using the membranes showed a significant reduction of the irreversible adsorption of the foulants, illustrating the excellent anti-fouling properties of the membrane. The water flux of the PAES-NS membrane was significantly enhanced, being almost three times higher than that of the pristine PPSU membrane, with retention of a high rejection level. After three UF cycles, the water flux recovery of the PAES-NS membrane was as high as 96%.

  3. 5. oktoobril on õpetajate päev - kuidas tähistate? / Izabella Riitsaar, Helge Arro, Kadi Kruusmaa ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Tallinna Pae Gümnaasiumi direktor Izabella Riitsaar, Tudu Põhikooli direktor Helge Arro, Rakvere Gümnaasiumi õppealajuhataja Kadi Kruusmaa, Tallinna Rahumäe Põhikooli direktor Matti Martinson ja Jüri Gümnaasiumi õppedirektor Anne Kloren

  4. AS FASES DO TREINAMENTO DE NATAÇÃO INFLUENCIAM OS SUBSTRATOS ENERGÉTICOS, CORTISOL E LEUCÓCITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Cristina Schadeck Zago1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise in immune function has been extensively studied. The intensity and duration of physical exercise have considerable influence in immunologic parameters. However, few studies have compared different exercise intensities in different stages of a physical training program. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the metabolic, hormonal and immunologic changes before and after acute intermittent swimming exercise, following different stages of training program. Seventeen male swimmers were evaluated in three stages of training. The intensity of the three sessions was 90% (anaerobic potency – PAN, 70% (aerobic potency - PAE and 98% (lactate tolerance – TLA of the maximal speed from the best time of the distance, resulted from peak performance in competition. Blood samples were collected pre and immediately after exercise for cells counting and measurement of substrates and cortisol concentrations. It was used ANOVA to verify the significance of difference (p<0.05. There was a significant increase of glucose and cortisol post exercise in the PAN and PAE sessions. Glutamine increased significantly in PAE and TLA. Leukocytes increased significantly after the three different sessions and lymphocytes decreased significantly on PAE and TLA. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that changes of the several parameters studied in different stages of training program can cause temporary alterations in immune cells and may compromise resistance to common minor illnesses and athlete performance.

  5. Paediatric community-acquired septic shock: Results from the REPEM network study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van de Voorde (Patrick); B. Emerson; B. Gómez (Borja); J. Willems; D. Yildizdas; I. Iglowstein; E. Kerkhof (Evelien); N. Mullen; C.R. Pinto; T. Detaille; N. Qureshi (Nadeem); J. Naud; J. de Dooy; R. van Lancker; A.G. Dupont (Alain); N. Boelsma; M. Mor; D. Walker; M. Sabbe (Marc); S. Hachimi-Idrissi; L. Da Dalt (Liviana); H. Waisman; D. Biarent; I.K. MacOnochie (Ian); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); J. Benito (Javier)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction and purpose of the study With this study we aimed to describe a "true world" picture of severe pae-diatric 'community-acquired' septic shock and establish the feasibility of a future prospective trial on early goal-directed therapy in children. During a 6-month to 1-year

  6. Biochemical characterization of DNA-binding proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Aeropyrum pernix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Christine D; Martin, Patrick K

    2008-03-01

    Several representatives of the Crenarchaeal branch of the Archaea contain highly abundant, small, positively charged proteins exemplified by the Sso7d protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. These proteins bind to DNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Using publicly available genomic sequence information, we identified a second class of small Crenarchaeal DNA-binding proteins represented by the Pyrobaculum aerophilum open reading frame 3192-encoded (Pae3192) protein and its paralogs. We investigated the biochemical properties of the Pae3192 protein and an orthologous protein (Ape1322b) from Aeropyrum pernix in side-by-side experiments with the Sso7d protein. We demonstrate that the recombinant Ape1322b, Pae3192 and Sso7d proteins bind to DNA and that the DNA-protein complexes formed are slightly different for each protein. We show that like Sso7d, Pae3192 constrains negative supercoils in DNA. In addition, we show that all three proteins raise the melting temperature of duplex DNA upon binding. Finally, we present the equilibrium affinity constants and kinetic association constants of each protein for single-stranded and double-stranded DNA.

  7. Biodegradation of phthalate esters by newly isolated Rhizobium sp. LMB-1 and its biochemical pathway of di-n-butyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W-J; Zhang, L-S; Fang, Y; Zhou, Y; Ye, B-C

    2016-07-01

    To isolate a novel strain that could degrade many kinds PAEs efficiently and investigate the DBP-degrading pathway in this strain. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was identified as Rhizobium sp. This strain, named LMB-1, can also utilize phthalates, such as DEHP, DMP, DBP and DEP. During the degradation of DBP, six possible metabolites, diethyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, di-methyl phthalate, mono-methyl phthalate, phthalic acid and tartaric acid, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and the degradation pathway of DBP was also identified in this study. In summary, strain LMB-1, identified as Rhizobium sp., was found to be capable of efficiently degrading PAEs, and it was determined that the strain degraded DMP completely within 45 h. DEP, DMP, MEP, MMP, PA and tartaric acid were detected during the course of DBP degradation by LMB-1. We propose that this strain could completely degrade DBP or other PAEs. Our results offer a novel and potential candidate, Rhizobium sp. LMB-1, for use in the bioremediation of cultivated soil contaminated by PAEs. This is the first report concerning the complete degradation of phthalate esters by Rhizobium sp. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Väikearhitektuuri võlukevad / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistluse "Väike 2002-2006" näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Peapreemiad saanud tööd: 1.-2. koht - Saka trepistik (arhitektid Tiit Kaljundi, Ivo-Martin Veelma); 1.-2. koht - Eesti Panga galerii (arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae); 3. koht - Tabasalu eramu tara (arhitektid Peeter Pere, Urmas Muru)

  9. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  10. Influence of soy type on wood bonding performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    Proteins were the main wood bonding adhesives for centuries, but they were displaced by fossil fuel-based adhesives in the 20th century because synthetic adhesives offered better water resistance, ease of use, and lower cost. Recently, studies using a polyamidoamine– epichlorohydrin (PAE) curing agent have led to soybean-based adhesives that are...

  11. Rotational Response of Toe-Restrained Retaining Walls to Earthquake Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    the Internet . The major disadvantage of FLUSH is that it does not allow for permanent displacement of the wall (although strain softening associated...and ( )2 tan sin cosA Su u uCONSTANT S L S Lα α− α= + • • • + • • A.30 The dynamic active earth pressure force, PAE, is equal to the maximum value

  12. A 20dBm outphasing class E PA with high efficiency at power back-off in 65nm CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghahremani, Ali; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an outphasing class E PA (OEPA) in a 65nm CMOS technology, using a pcb transmission-line based power combiner. The OEPA can provide +20dBm output power from VDD=1.25V at 1.4GHz with 61% drain efficiency (DE) and 58% power added efficiency (PAE). We introduced a technique to

  13. Progress in GaAs Metamorphic HEMT Technology for Microwave Applications. High Efficiency Ka-Band MHEMT Power MMICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Dugas, D.; Chu, K.; Nichols, K.; Duh, K. H.; Fisher, J.; MtPleasant, L.; Xu, D.; Gunter, L.; Vera, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of GaAs metamorphic HEMT (MHEMT) technology for microwave applications. Commercialization has begun, while efforts to further improve performance, manufacturability and reliability continue. We also report the first multi-watt MHEMT MMIC power amplifiers, demonstrating up to 3.2W output power and record power-added efficiency (PAE) at Ka-band.

  14. ONR D&I Electronics Technology Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Jeong

    2008-01-01

    Program Status: One of the D&I program goals is to develop greatly improved field-plated MMW GaN HEMT devices with high ft/fmax, which will improve gain/PAE and output power of GaN HEMT MMIC PAs simultaneously...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    argamu dha. Akkasumas haadholii du'an keessaa immoo %32 kan ta'aniif sababa akka ta'e qoraannoon ni mul'isa. (MS TN, LINBC:får tPAE MS NAMS avanzS AMS NavrPPF: Dalia Mortada, Ethiopia's Game baasuu hayyamu kan hordofan yoo ta'u, Paartiin Rippaablikaan immoo daa'imman ulfaa. 87 ...

  16. Protein Modifiers Generally Provide Limited Improvement in Wood Bond Strength of Soy Flour Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Soy flour adhesives using a polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) polymeric coreactant are used increasingly as wood adhesives for interior products. Although these adhesives give good performance, higher bond strength under wet conditions is desirable. Wet strength is important for accelerated tests involving the internal forces generated by the swelling of wood and...

  17. Galeriiühendus Eesti Panga kvartalisse = Connecting Gallery to the Bank of Estonia Block

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. veebruaris toimunud kutsutud arhitektuurikonkursi, mille eesmärgiks oli parandada Eesti Panga kvartali funktsionaalsust Estonia puiestee ja Sakala tänava poolsete osade vahel, töö. Projekterija: AB Urban Mark OÜ. Autorid: Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae. Konstruktsioonid: Inseneribüroo Peipman OÜ

  18. Actividades acuáticas educativas para bebés: una propuesta de formación de técnicos basada en el asesoramiento/Educational Water Activities for Babies: A Technical Training Proposal Based on Counselling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gema Boluda Viñuales; Núria Simó i Gil

    2010-01-01

      La investigación que presentamos tiene como objetivo fundamental analizar la aplicación de un programa acuático educativo (PAE) para niños de cero a tres años a través de la formación a un grupo de técnicos...

  19. Burden Sharing in the Context of Global Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringius, L.; Frederiksen, P.; Birr-Pedersen, K.

    Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment....

  20. Which kind of exercise is best in fibromyalgia therapeutic programmes? A practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Atzeni, F; Salaffi, F; Stisi, S; Cassisi, G; Sarzi-Puttini, P

    2010-01-01

    All of the specialists who deal in some way with fibromyalgia (FM) broadly agree that physical reconditioning programmes are useful, but it is not yet clear what type of physical activity is the most appropriate for different subsets of patients. The aim of this review was to examine the randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1985 and August 2010 whose outcome measures indicate the effectiveness of different types of physical exercise (PE) on the main health domains affected by FM: pain, and physical and mental function. Studies that simultaneously used different types of PE or multimodal treatment strategies were excluded from the analysis, as were those in which the primary and secondary endpoints prevented any assessment of treatment efficacy in all three health domains. Twenty-seven studies were selected: 15 considered land-based physical aerobic exercise (PAE); seven exercises in water; and five muscle strengthening exercise (MSE). There was substantial uniformity in assessing the effectiveness of land- or water-based PAE and MSE in improving aerobic physical fitness (PF) and functional state. Water-based PAE offers some advantages over similarly intense land-based PAE in reducing spontaneous pain and improving depressive symptoms, but the data are insufficient to establish its overall superiority. Regardless of method, the latest findings concerning the neurophysiology of nociception indicate the fundamental importance of assigning workloads that do not exacerbate post-exercise pain.

  1. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-02-12

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development.

  2. Determination of phthalate esters in airborne particulates by heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyzed aromatic hydroxylation fluorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, He-Hua; Li, Xue-Qin; Hao, Wen-Li; Zhang, Li-Zhong; Wei, Ting; Zhao, Xiu-Feng; Liu, Yu-Yan; Li, Jian-Hui

    2017-02-15

    The environmental contaminants phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were determined by aromatic hydroxylation fluorimetry combined with heterogeneous photo-Fenton process in the presence of vermiculite supported BiFeO3 (VMT-BiFeO3). In strong alkaline solution, PAEs were hydrolyzed into phthalates with no fluorescence, which then reacted with hydroxyl free radicals produced in photo-Fenton process catalyzed by VMT-BiFeO3 to form the fluorescent hydroxyl phthalates. The fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of PAEs with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength of 300nm and 417nm, respectively. A good linear relationship can be obtained in the range of 3.8×10-7 to 4.8×10-5molL-1 for DEP with correlation coefficient of 0.9997, and the sensitivity of the method was high with detection limit of 5.43×10-8molL-1. The method has been successfully applied to determine total PAEs in airborne particulates with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical gyrification is abnormal in children with prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Hendrickson

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Abnormalities in cortical development were seen across the brain in children with PAE compared to controls. Cortical gyrification and IQ were strongly correlated, suggesting that examining mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts cortical formation may yield clinically relevant insights and potential directions for early intervention.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Sta58 Major Antigen Gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: Sequence homology and Antigenic Comparison of Sta58 to the 60-Kilodalton Family of Stress Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    I’t" FILE COPY ( ... ’ ",, , 1w Til PACE I -N PAE Form Ap edAD -A 2 109 TR~yNATO PAGE OMB N07048 C Unclassified Ib. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS...chemistry (2). Sequencing-gel electrophoresis was per- Bacterial strains, media , and passage and preparation of R. formed on 6% polyacrylamide-7 M urea

  5. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of amoxicillin on Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y

    2000-10-01

    Amoxicillin is one of the most frequently recommended antibiotics for prophylaxis of infective endocarditis in dental/oral procedures. In this study, the postantibiotic effect (PAE), postantibiotic sub-MIC (PASME) and sub-MIC effect (SME) of amoxicillin on oral streptococci, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguis, which are two of the major etiological agents in infective endocarditis, were investigated. The PAE was induced by 10 x MIC of amoxicillin for 2 h and the antibiotic was eliminated by washing. The PASMEs were studied by addition of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 x MICs during the postantibiotic phase of the bacteria, and the SMEs were studied by exposing bacteria to amoxicillin at the sub-MICs only. The PAE of amoxicillin was 2.0 h with S. gordonii DL1 and 0.7 h with S. sanguis MPC1. The PASME and SME of amoxicillin were observed both for S. gordonii DL1 and for S. sanguis MPC1. However, the durations of effects for S. sanguis MPC1 were shorter than those for S. gordonii DL1. The PASME values for both strains increased as the concentration of amoxicillin increased. The PASME values for both strains were substantially longer than the SME values. The present study illustrates the existence of PAE, PASME and SME for amoxicillin against S. gordonii and S. sanguis, thereby extending the pharmacodynamic advantages of amoxicillin for these bacteria in the prophylaxis procedures of infective endocarditis.

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). International Communication, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Split Images: Arab and Asian Political Leaders' Portraits in Major U.S. News Magazines" (Hye-Kyeong Pae); "Public Relations Functions and Models: U.S. Practitioners in International Assignments" (Alan R. Freitag); "The…

  7. Elav kaart viib Margi ja Ahase Veneetsiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Komisjon (liikmed loetletud) valis Veneetsia X arhitektuuribiennaalil "Meta-linn" Eestit esindama sotsiaalse positsioneerimise meetodi. Väljapaneku loovad AB Urban Mark (arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi) ja Tartu Ülikooli geograafia instituut (teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm). Avalikule ideekonkursile laekus 9 projekti

  8. Eestit esindab Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil sotsiaalset positsioneerimist käsitlev installatsioon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Veneetsia X arhitektuuribiennaalil "Meta-linn" Eestit esindavaks väljapanekuks valis komisjon (liikmed loetletud) reaalajas toimiva linnaplaneerimise keskkonna projekti. Väljapaneku loovad arhitektuuribüroo Urban Mark (arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi) ja Tartu Ülikooli geograafia instituut (teadurid Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm). Ideekonkursile laekus 9 näituseprojekti

  9. Does food insecurity compromise maternal dietary Zinc or energy intake in favor of her child, in rural poor Mexican households? ¿En hogares rurales pobres de México, la inseguridad alimentaria compromete el consumo de zinc y energía de las madres en favor de sus hijos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Moreno-Tamayo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze quantitative indicators of food insecurity (FI, and estimate if FI modifies the association between maternal and child Zinc and energy intake as evidence for maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study (n=2 563, data derived from baseline impact evaluation of the Mexican Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Quantitative indicators of FI were:Household food storage, maize and/or bean production, food expenditure, and spatial access to food markets. We evaluated percentage adequacy of energy (PAE and Zinc (PAZn intake. Multiple linear regression model was fitted to estimate the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. RESULTS: Child PAE and PAZn were positively associated with those of their mothers. None of the FI indicators modified the association between maternal and child PAE and PAZn. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence of maternal dietary compromise in favor of her child was observed using four quantitative indicators of FI in central-southern rural Mexican househods.OBJETIVO: Analizar indicadores cuantitativos de inseguridad alimentaria (IA y estimar si IA modifica la asociación del consumo de energía y zinc en madres e hijos como evidencia del compromiso de la dieta materna a favor de su hijo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal,información basal de la evaluación de impacto del Programa de Apoyo Alimentario. Indicadores de IA: reserva de alimentos en hogar, autoproducción maíz y/o frijol, porcentaje del gasto en alimentos y acceso físico a mercados de alimentos.Se calculó el porcentaje de adecuación del consumo energético (PAE y Zinc (PAZn (n=2 563 pares. Se estimó un modelo de regresión lineal ajustado por covariables. RESULTADOS: El PAE y PAZn de madres e hijos se asoció positivamente. Ningún indicador de IA modificó la asociación entre PAE y PAZn materno con respecto a sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES: Los indicadores de IA estudiados no modifican la relaci

  10. Benign prostatic hyperplasia after prostatic arterial embolization in a canine model: A 3T multiparametric MRI and whole-mount step-section pathology correlated longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Basen; Xu, Anhui; Wang, Nan; Min, Xiangde; Feng, Zhaoyan; Deng, Ming; Li, Liang; Cai, Jie; Kang, Zhen; Jiang, Kehua; Kuang, Dong; Wang, Liang

    2017-10-01

    To explore the morphological and functional characteristics of prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) in a canine model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with 3T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and whole-mount step-section pathology correlation. Eight adult male beagle dogs with hormone-induced BPH underwent 3T mp-MRI before and 1, 3, and 6 months after PAE, with subsequent whole-mount step-section pathologic assessment. Images were acquired using T1 -weighted images (T1 WI), T2 WI, 3D-SPACE, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), T2 -mapping, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences. Variance analysis was performed to assess statistical differences in prostatic volume (PV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and T2 values. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to correlate ADC, T2 , and PV. The PV decreased from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 months after PAE from (25.88 ± 7.09) cm(3) to (6.48 ± 2.08) cm(3) , (6.48 ± 3.39) cm(3) , (6.20 ± 2.88) cm(3) . The ADC values sequentially decreased from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 months after PAE from (1497.06 ± 222.72) × 10(-6) mm(2) /s to (1056.00 ± 189.46) × 10(-6) mm(2) /s, (950.48 ± 77.85) × 10(-6) mm(2) /s, (980.98 ± 107.78) × 10(-6) mm(2) /s. The T2 values decreased from baseline to 1, 3, and 6 months after PAE were (83.74 ± 5.29) msec, (68.72 ± 5.66) msec, (53.96 ± 15.04) msec, (49.81 ± 13.34) msec, respectively. ADC and T2 values were positively correlated with PV (r = 0.823 and 0.744, respectively). Microhemorrhages and hemosiderin were found on SWI after PAE. 3T mp-MRI may facilitate noninvasive assessment of morphological and functional changes of BPH after PAE. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1220-1229. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Surface temperature of deposit probe; Overfladetemperatur af belaegningsprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, S. [Risoe National Lab., Optics and Plasma Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Holst Soerensen, L. [Rea Tech, Roskilde (Denmark); Hu, G.; Arendt Jensen, P. [Depart. of Chemical Engineering, (KT), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Simonsen, P.; Berg, M. [Energi E2, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    Belaegningsdannelser ved fyring med biomasse kan give anledning til driftforstyrrelser og problemer saesom taering af hedeflader, forringede varmeoverfoeringsforhold i kedlen samt aflejringer som skaber forringede flowforhold i kedlen. Belaegningsdannelse kan soeges undersoegt pae laboratorieskala i en fastbraendselsreaktor af flowreaktor typen, hvor isaer temperaturforholdene i reaktoren og pae belaegningsproben tilstraebes, at vaere sae realistiske og velbestemte som mulige. Som en del af biostoevfyringsprojektet undersoeges overfladetemperaturforhold af faststofreaktorens belaegningsprobe som funktion af tid og belaegningsudvikling vha. et infraroed kamera. Desuden er belaegningstemperaturer maelt med samme udstyr pae overhedere pae Avedoere biokedlen under halm-forbraending til sammenligning af temperaturforhold. Pae Avedoere biokedel maeles belaegningstemperaturerne pae overhederne til 850 grader C - 1000 grader C. Dette er vaesentligt hoejere end i faststofreaktorforsoegene, hvor belaegningsoverfladetemperaturerne maeles til 550 grader C - 710 grader C. Ved paebraending af partikler pae probe og overheder ses lokalt overfladetemperaturer som er 90 grader C - 150 grader C hoejere end temperaturniveauet af belaegningen. Deposits formation in biomass combustion may cause operational irregularities and problems like corrosion of heating surfaces, decreased heat transfer conditions in the boiler. Deposits formation may be sought investigated in a laboratory scale in a solid fuel reactor of the flow reactor type, where in particular the temperature conditions in the reactor and on the deposits probe is targeted to be as realistic and well determined as possible. As a part of the biomass firing project the surface temperature relations of the solid fuel reactor is investigated as a function of time and deposits evolution using an infrared camera. Additionally for comparison Avedoere biofuel boiler (ABB) deposits temperatures at the super heaters are monitored using

  12. Postantibiotic effect of colistin alone and combined with vancomycin or meropenem against Acinetobacter spp. with well defined resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Beader, Natasa; Godič-Torkar, Karmen; Prahin, Esmina; Mihaljević, Ljiljana; Ćačić, Marko; Vraneš, Jasmina

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies found short postantibiotic effect of colistin on Acinetobacter baumannii. Many studies have evaluated the potential for synergy between colistin and other antibiotics against A. baumannii. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergy and postantibiotic effect (PAE) of colistin alone and combined with other antibiotics (vancomycin or meropenem) against eight carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. strains with defined resistance mechanisms. It was hypothesised that vancomycin or meropenem would prologue the PAE of colistin since it was previously found that they exert synergism with colistin in time-kill kinetics and chequerboard analysis. After exposure of 1 hour colistin alone exhibited the negative ( - 0.07 hour) (OXA-143), short (0.2-1.82 hours) (OXA-24, OXA-58, OXA-72, VIM-1+OXA-23, OXA-58+NDM-1, ISAba1/OXA-69) or moderate PAE (3.2 hours) for OXA-23 positive strain. When combined with vancomycin, the PAE was moderate (1.7-4 hours) with OXA-23, OXA-23+VIM-1, OXA-72 and OXA-24 positive strains while with OXA-58, OXA-143, OXA-58/NDM-1 and ISAba1/OXA-69 positive strains, it was not possible to calculate mean duration of PAE because there was no regrowth after exposure to antibiotics or it was longer than 5 hours. The combination with meropenem resulted in short (0.2 hours) (OXA-143), moderate (2.4-3.73 hours) (OXA-24, OXA-58, OXA-23, OXA-23+VIM-1), long PAE of 5 hours (OXA-23) or longer than 5 hours (OXA-58+VIM-1, ISAba1/OXA-69). From the clinical point of view, the prolongation of colistin PAE when combined with other antibiotics could provide a rationale for the modification of the dosing interval and could be important for the optimization of the treatment regimen and the minimization of drug-induced side effects.

  13. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  14. Magnetic covalent triazine framework for rapid extraction of phthalate esters in plastic packaging materials followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zijun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Gui, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-24

    Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs), featuring with high surface area, good thermal, chemical and mechanical stability, are good adsorbents in sample pretreatment. Herein, magnetic CTFs/Ni composite was prepared by in situ reduction of nickel ions on CTFs matrix with a solvothermal method. The prepared CTFs/Ni composite exhibited good preparation reproducibility, high chemical stability, and high extraction efficiency for targeted phthalate esters (PAEs) due to π-π interaction and hydrophobic effect. The porous structure of CTFs/Ni composite benefited the fast transfer of target PAEs from aqueous solution to the adsorbents, and the integrated magnetism contributed to the rapid separation of adsorbents from sample and elution solution. Based on it, a novel method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was developed for the analysis of PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) in plastic packaging materials. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) for six PAEs were found to be in the range of 0.024-0.085mg/kg. The linear range was 0.32-16mg/kg for DMP, DEP, 0.08-80mg/kg for DBP, 0.16-32mg/kg for BBP, DEHP, and 0.32-32mg/kg for DNOP, respectively. The enrichment factors ranged from 59 to 88-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 133-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAEs in various plastic packaging materials with recoveries in the range of 70.6-119% for the spiked samples. This method is characterized with short operation time, high sensitivity, low consumption of harmful organic solvents and can be extended to the analysis of other trace aromatic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Books Like Number Lines? Children Spontaneously Encode Spatial-Numeric Relationships in a Novel Spatial Estimation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa A. Thompson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Do children spontaneously represent spatial-numeric features of a task, even when it does not include printed numbers (Mix et al., 2016? Sixty first grade students completed a novel spatial estimation task by seeking and finding pages in a 100-page book without printed page numbers. Children were shown pages 1 through 6 and 100, and then were asked, “Can you find page X?” Children’s precision of estimates on the page finder task and a 0-100 number line estimation task was calculated with the Percent Absolute Error (PAE formula (Siegler and Booth, 2004, in which lower PAE indicated more precise estimates. Children’s numerical knowledge was further assessed with: (1 numeral identification (e.g., What number is this: 57?, (2 magnitude comparison (e.g., Which is larger: 54 or 57?, and (3 counting on (e.g., Start counting from 84 and count up 5 more. Children’s accuracy on these tasks was correlated with their number line PAE. Children’s number line estimation PAE predicted their page finder PAE, even after controlling for age and accuracy on the other numerical tasks. Children’s estimates on the page finder and number line tasks appear to tap a general magnitude representation. However, the page finder task did not correlate with numeral identification and counting-on performance, likely because these tasks do not measure children’s magnitude knowledge. Our results suggest that the novel page finder task is a useful measure of children’s magnitude knowledge, and that books have similar spatial-numeric affordances as number lines and numeric board games.

  16. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water sample using different activated carbon-polymer monoliths as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen; Fu, Chung-Wei; Lin, Jhih-Yun; Hsu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-07-13

    In this study, the application of different activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monoliths as adsorbents for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water sample were investigated. The activated carbon (AC) was embedded in organic polymers, poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) or poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (poly(STY-DVB)), via a 5-min microwave-assisted or a 15-min water bath heating polymerization. Preliminary investigation on the performance of the native poly(BMA-EDMA) and poly(STY-DVB) demonstrated remarkable adsorption efficiencies for PAEs. However, due to the strong hydrophobic, π-π, and hydrogen bonding interactions between the analytes and polymers, low extraction recoveries were achieved. In contrast, the presence of AC in native polymers not only enhanced the adsorption efficiencies but also assisted the PAE desorption, especially for AC-poly(STY-DVB) with extraction recovery ranged of 76.2-99.3%. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries for intra-, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 76.5-100.8% (<3.7% RSDs), 77.2-97.6% (<5.6% RSDs) and 75.5-99.7% (<6.2% RSDs), respectively. The developed AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column showed good mechanical stability, which can be reused for more than 30 extraction times without any significant loss in the extraction recoveries of PAEs. The AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column was successfully applied in SPME of PAEs in water sample with extraction recovery ranged of 78.8%-104.6% (<5.5% RSDs). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentration effect of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from swine and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D H; Yu, Y; Zhou, Y F; Shi, W; Deng, H; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) effect (PA-SME) of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in vitro using a spectrophotometric technique and classic viable count method. A standard curve was constructed by regression analysis of the number of colonies and the corresponding optical density (OD) at 630 nm of the inoculum. After exposure to valnemulin at different concentrations for an hour, the antibiotic was removed by centrifuging and washing. The PA-SMEs were measured after initial exposure to valnemulin at 4 × the MIC, and then, valnemulin was added to reach corresponding desired concentrations in the resuspended culture. Samples were collected hourly until the culture became turbid. The results were calculated by converting the OD values into the counts of bacteria in accordance with the curve. The MIC of valnemulin against eight strains was identically 0.125 μg ml(-1) . The mean PAEs were 2.12 h (1 × MIC) and 5.06 h (4 × MIC), and the mean PA-SMEs were 6.85 h (0.1 × MIC), 9.12 h (0.2 × MIC) and 10.8 h (0.3 × MIC). The results showed that the strains with identical MICs exhibited different PAEs and PA-SMEs. Valnemulin produced prolonged PAE and PA-SME periods for Staph. aureus, supporting a longer dosing interval while formulating a daily administration dosage. In this study, valnemulin demonstrated prolonged postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects on strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The strains with identical MICs of valnemulin exhibited different PAEs and PA-SMEs. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different species has little impact on the postantibiotic effect of valnemulin. The result suggests a longer dosing interval while formulating a daily administration dosage, and it may play a valuable role of valnemulin in treating Staph. aureus infections in animals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  19. A polymeric prodrug of 5-fluorouracil-1-acetic acid using a multi-hydroxyl polyethylene glycol derivative as the drug carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Liang, Zhen; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular prodrugs obtained by covalently conjugating small molecular drugs with polymeric carriers were proven to accomplish controlled and sustained release of the therapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been extensively used due to its low toxicity, low immunogenicity and high biocompatibility. However, for linear PEG macromolecules, the number of available hydroxyl groups for drug coupling does not change with the length of polymeric chain, which limits the application of PEG for drug conjugation purposes. To increase the drug loading and prolong the retention time of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), a macromolecular prodrug of 5-Fu, 5-fluorouracil-1 acid-PAE derivative (5-FA-PAE) was synthesized and tested for the antitumor activity in vivo. PEG with a molecular weight of 38 kDa was selected to synthesize the multi-hydroxyl polyethylene glycol derivative (PAE) through an addition reaction. 5-fluorouracil-1 acetic acid (5-FA), a 5-Fu derivative was coupled with PEG derivatives via ester bond to form a macromolecular prodrug, 5-FA-PAE. The in vitro drug release, pharmacokinetics, in vivo distribution and antitumor effect of the prodrug were investigated, respectively. The PEG-based prodrug obtained in this study possessed an exceedingly high 5-FA loading efficiency of 10.58%, much higher than the maximum drug loading efficiency of unmodified PEG with the same molecular weight, which was 0.98% theoretically. Furthermore, 5-FA-PAE exhibited suitable sustained release in tumors. This study provides a new approach for the development of the delivery to tumors of anticancer agents with PEG derivatives.

  20. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: morphological classification utilizing MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Hyeok Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-09-15

    To retrospectively analyze magnetic resonance (MR) findings in patients with popliteal arterial entrapment syndrome. This study was a retrospective MRI and CT scan review of 12 patients with 23 limbs with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) treated over a 10-yr period. All 12 patients (23 limbs) were evaluated with MR and CT scan (11 patients - bilateral sides; one patient - unilateral side). All cases were classified as to various types of anomalous relationships between the popliteal artery and the neighboring muscles. The PAES was classified to gastrocnemius medial head and lateral head anomaly. Gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was classified according to the classification made by Whelan and Rich, from type 1 to type 6 [12, 13]. Gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly was defined as popliteal artery entrapment due to medially inserted gastrocnemius lateral head or aberrant accessory head of gastrocnemius lateral head. The gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was found in 14 limbs (14/23). The classic type 1 was found in none, type 2 in five patients (six limbs), type 3 in four patients (five limbs), type 4 in none, type 5 in one patient (one limb) and type 6 in one patient (two limbs). The uncommon type, i.e. lateral head of gastrocnemius anomaly, was found in five patients (eight limbs). The gastrocnemius medial head anomaly was the cause of PAES, and PAES was classified by medial head anomaly. However the gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly was also the cause of PAES, and most cases of gastrocnemius lateral head anomaly showed aberrant accessory slip which entrapped the popliteal artery and vein. (orig.)

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure, adaptive function, and entry into adult roles in a prospective study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n =5 9) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Results After Prostatic Artery Embolization Using the PErFecTED Technique: A Single-Center Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, Gregory, E-mail: gregamouyal@hotmail.com; Thiounn, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.thiounn@aphp.fr; Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris - Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France); Yen-Ting, Lin, E-mail: ymerically@gmail.com [Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Giudice, Costantino Del, E-mail: costantino.delgiudice@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris - Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France); Dean, Carole, E-mail: carole.dean@aphp.fr [Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Pereira, Helena, E-mail: helena.pereira@aphp.fr [Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Clinical Research Unit (France); Chatellier, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.chatellier@aphp.fr; Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris - Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France)

    2016-03-15

    BackgroundProstatic artery embolization (PAE) has been performed for a few years, but there is no report on PAE using the PErFecTED technique outside from the team that initiated this approach.ObjectiveThis single-center retrospective open label study reports our experience and clinical results on patients suffering from symptomatic BPH, who underwent PAE aiming at using the PErFecTED technique.Materials and MethodsWe treated 32 consecutive patients, mean age 65 (52–84 years old) between December 2013 and January 2015. Patients were referred for PAE after failure of medical treatment and refusal or contra-indication to surgery. They were treated using the PErFecTED technique, when feasible, with 300–500 µm calibrated microspheres (two-night hospital stay or outpatient procedure). Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months.ResultsWe had a 100 % immediate technical success of embolization (68 % of feasibility of the PErFecTED technique) with no immediate complications. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 months, we observed a 78 % rate of clinical success. Mean IPSS decreased from 15.3 to 4.2 (p = .03), mean QoL from 5.4 to 2 (p = .03), mean Qmax increased from 9.2 to 19.2 (p = .25), mean prostatic volume decreased from 91 to 62 (p = .009) mL. There was no retrograde ejaculation and no major complication.ConclusionPAE using the PErFecTED technique is a safe and efficient technique to treat bothersome LUTS related to BPH. It is of interest to note that the PErFecTED technique cannot be performed in some cases for anatomical reasons.

  3. Functional connectivity abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits in fetal alcohol Spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Mattson, Sarah N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Jones, Kenneth L; Boys, Christopher J; Lim, Kelvin O; Riley, Edward P; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites. All participants had documented heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. All underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features. MRI data were collected using modified matched protocols on three platforms (Siemens, GE, and Philips). Resting-state FC was examined using whole-brain graph theory metrics to characterize each individual's connectivity. Although whole-brain FC metrics did not discriminate prenatally-exposed from unexposed overall, atypical FC (> 1 standard deviation from the grand mean) was significantly more common (2.7 times) in the PAE group vs. In a subset of 55 individuals (PAE and controls) whose dysmorphology examination could not definitively characterize them as either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or non-FAS, atypical FC was seen in 27 % of the PAE group, but 0 % of controls. Across participants, a 1 % difference in local network efficiency was associated with a 36 point difference in global cognitive functioning. Whole-brain FC metrics have potential to identify individuals with objective neurodevelopmental abnormalities from prenatal alcohol exposure. When applied to individuals unable to be classified as FAS or non-FAS from dysmorphology alone, these measures separate prenatally-exposed from non-exposed with high specificity.

  4. Competitive adsorption and transport of phthalate esters in the clay layer of JiangHan plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Dan; Li, Minjing; Tong, Lei; Feng, Liang

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the adsorption behavior of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the clay layer of JiangHan Plain, China, so as to make better understanding about the source and control of PAEs in groundwater. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and miscible displacement experiments were conducted, and different models were used to simulate the experiment data. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. The kinetic parameters showed quantitative relationships with straight and branched chain carbon numbers of PAEs. These relationships were simulated and carefully discussed. The adsorption isotherms followed linear model better. And partition coefficient (Kd) increased with the carbon chain length of PAEs. Miscible displacement experiments showed that DEHP could not flow out of the column in 100d. HYDRUS-1D and two-site sorption model (linear, first order nonequilibrium adsorption) were used for the simulation of the breakthrough and transport curves of DMP, DEP, DBP, and DiBP. Results showed that the dispersion coefficients (D) and partition coefficient (Kd(')) increased with the carbon chain length. About 10% DBP and DiBP and 1% DMP and DEP were absorbed on the type-1 sites. DMP and DEP were much easier to transfer into the type-2 sites than DBP and DiBP. DBP and DiBP might aggregate in micro-pores of the sorbent. Retardation coefficient and Damkohler number were also calculated and discussed. It was proved that clay layer is an important retarder for PAEs downward transport. However, it can be passed through if the time is sufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat resisting and water-soluble chocolate polyesters containing azomethine group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temizkan Kevser

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soluble in water poly(azomethine-esters (PAEs were synthesized via elimination reactions of aromatic dihydroxy compounds containing imine bonding with terephthaloyl chloride. The structures of Schiff bases (SBs and PAEs containing different aliphatic chains were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV-Vis analyses. Physicochemical properties of the new polymers were characterized. Thermal properties of the compounds were investigated by TGA-DTA, DMA and DSC. According to TGA measurements, the starting degradation temperatures (Ton of P-1, P-2, P-3, and P-4 poly(azomethine-esters were found as 255 °C, 232 °C, 222 °C, and 221 °C, respectively. The starting degradation temperatures of the poly(azomethine-esters were higher than their Schiff base compounds. According to dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, glass transition temperature (Tg of P-1, P-2, P-3, and P-4 poly(azomethine-esters were found as 95 °C, 138 °C, 140 °C, and 145 °C, respectively. The morphological and topographic properties of the PAEs containing azomethine linkage in the main chain were investigated by FE-SEM and AFM, respectively. The molecular mass distributions of PAEs were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. Electrochemical (E′g and optical band gap (Eoptg values of the prepared SBs and PAEs were calculated from cyclic voltammetry (CV and UV-Vis analyses. The electrochemical band gap (E′g values of P-1, P-2, P-3 and P-4 were found as 2.44 eV, 2.41 eV, 2.39 eV and 2.39 eV, respectively, from the cyclic voltammetry.

  6. Læring i netbaseret uddannelse i det danske forsvar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Rander

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 8: Tilrettelæggelse af efter- og videreuddannelse på universitetet, nov. 2006, red. Sanne Almeborg og Tom Nyvang. ISSN 1603-5518.

    I artiklen belyses resultaterne fra en undersøgelse, vi har foretaget for det danske Forsvarsakademi, og som vedrører Forsvarets nyere udnyttelse af netbaseret uddannelse med et kollaborativt omdrejningspunkt. I det danske Forsvar eksisterer i relation til efter- og videreuddannelse en længere tradition for fjernundervisning, som man stadig kalder det, og som i nyere tid også foregår i elektronisk form. Ved siden af den ganske traditionelle informationsoverførsel eller one-to-one kommunikation er der de seneste år gennemført uddannelse i fleksibel form, altså i en blanding af tilstedeværelse og netbaseret arbejde, hvor der er tale om en kollaborativ organisering. Det er denne dimension, vi har undersøgt med særligt henblik på deltagernes læreproces, og med henblik på at vurdere den didaktiske konstruktion samt at skitsere didaktiske anbefalinger.

  7. Sundhed på tv: fra læge til sundhedsguru [Health on television: from doctor to health guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Lykke Christensen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen beskæftiger sig med den danske public service-kanal, DR’s, sundhedsprogrammer i perioden fra 1990’erne til 2012. Undersøgelsen baserer sig på en empirisk, kvalitativ indholdsanalyse af udvalgte programmer om sundhed på DR med henblik på en udredning af det diskursive indhold i forestillinger om sundhed. Programmernes formål, genre, seer-henvendelse og vidensformidlende sigte adresseres. Artiklen er informeret af medialiseringsteori og belyser, hvordan tv-mediet fra at have hentet den sundhedsfaglige ekspertise i institutioner uden for mediet selv, i stigende grad anvender know-how eksperter, tilpasset og iscenesat med henblik på at opfylde de krav, tv-mediet stiller til dramatisk vellykket underholdning. Artiklen belyser, hvordan oplysning om sygdom, behandling og pleje, formidlet af lægevidenskabelig ekspertise og lægfolk, spillede en central rolle i de tidlige oplysningsprogrammer, mens nyere programmer fremstiller sundhed som et iværksætterprojekt, møntet på forbedring og hurtig forandring af individuel adfærd og livsstil.

  8. Målinger på ventilationsanlæg med lavt elforbrug i nyere kontorbygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagemar, L.

    Med henblik på at undersøge mulighederne for at opnå besparelser på el-forbruget til ventilation er mere end 25 ventilationsanlæg i nyere kontorbygninger undersøgt. Resultaterne af de tekniske målinger viser, at med få undtagelser overholdes bygningsreglementets krav til maksimal SEL-værdi (Speci......Med henblik på at undersøge mulighederne for at opnå besparelser på el-forbruget til ventilation er mere end 25 ventilationsanlæg i nyere kontorbygninger undersøgt. Resultaterne af de tekniske målinger viser, at med få undtagelser overholdes bygningsreglementets krav til maksimal SEL......-værdi (Specifik Elforbrug til Lufttransport). Rapporten diskuterer muligheder og metoder til reduktion af SEL-værdien herunder ventilatorers totalvirkningsgrad og tryktab i kanalsystemer. Endelig viser rapporten teoretiske beregninger af dels den driftsøkonomisk optimale SEL-værdi ved valg af aggregatstørrelse...

  9. Cytotoxicity of VEGF121/rGel on vascular endothelial cells resulting in inhibition of angiogenesis is mediated via VEGFR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hittelman Walter N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fusion protein VEGF121/rGel composed of the growth factor VEGF121 and the plant toxin gelonin targets the tumor neovasculature and exerts impressive anti-vascular effects. We have previously shown that VEGF121/rGel is cytotoxic to endothelial cells overexpressing VEGFR-2 but not to endothelial cells overexpressing VEGFR-1. In this study, we examined the basis for the specific toxicity of this construct and assessed its intracellular effects in vitro and in vivo. Methods We investigated the binding, cytotoxicity and internalization profile of VEGF121/rGel on endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2, identified its effects on angiogenesis models in vitro and ex vivo, and explored its intracellular effects on a number of molecular pathways using microarray analysis. Results Incubation of PAE/VEGFR-2 and PAE/VEGFR-1 cells with 125I-VEGF121/rGel demonstrated binding specificity that was competed with unlabeled VEGF121/rGel but not with unlabeled gelonin. Assessment of the effect of VEGF121/rGel on blocking tube formation in vitro revealed a 100-fold difference in IC50 levels between PAE/VEGFR-2 (1 nM and PAE/VEGFR-1 (100 nM cells. VEGF121/rGel entered PAE/VEGFR-2 cells within one hour of treatment but was not detected in PAE/VEGFR-1 cells up to 24 hours after treatment. In vascularization studies using chicken chorioallantoic membranes, 1 nM VEGF121/rGel completely inhibited bFGF-stimulated neovascular growth. The cytotoxic effects of VEGF121/rGel were not apoptotic since treated cells were TUNEL-negative with no evidence of PARP cleavage or alteration in the protein levels of select apoptotic markers. Microarray analysis of VEGF121/rGel-treated HUVECs revealed the upregulation of a unique "fingerprint" profile of 22 genes that control cell adhesion, apoptosis, transcription regulation, chemotaxis, and inflammatory response. Conclusions Taken together, these data confirm the selectivity of VEGF121/rGel for VEGFR-2

  10. Adenomatous-Dominant Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (AdBPH) as a Predictor for Clinical Success Following Prostate Artery Embolization: An Age-Matched Case–Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M. W., E-mail: m.little@doctors.org.uk; Boardman, P.; Macdonald, A. C.; Taylor, N.; Macpherson, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Crew, J. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom); Tapping, C. R., E-mail: crtapping@doctors.org.uk [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeTo investigate the clinical impact of performing prostate artery embolization (PAE) on patients with adenomatous-dominant benign prostatic hyperplasia (AdBPH).Materials and MethodsTwelve patients from the ongoing proSTatic aRtery EmbolizAtion for the treatMent of benign prostatic hyperplasia (STREAM) trial were identified as having AdBPH; defined as two or more adenomas within the central gland of ≥1 cm diameter on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI). These patients were age-matched with patients from the STREAM cohort, without AdBPH. Patients were followed up with repeat MP-MRI at 3 months and 1 year. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), international index for erectile function (IIEF), and quality of life assessment from the IPSS and EQ-5D-5S questionnaires were recorded pre-PAE and at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 68 (61–76). All patients had PAE as a day-case procedure. The technical success in the cohort was 23/24 (96%). There was a significant reduction in prostate volume following embolization with a median reduction of 34% (30–55) in the AdBPH group, compared to a mean volume reduction of 22% (9–44) in the non-AdBPH group (p = 0.04). There was a significant reduction in IPSS in the AdBPH group following PAE when compared with the control group [AdBPH median IPSS 8 (3–15) vs. non-AdBPH median IPSS 13 (8–18), p = 0.01]. IPSS QOL scores significantly improved in the AdBPH group (p = 0.007). There was no deterioration in sexual function in either group post-PAE.ConclusionsThis is the first time that AdBPH has been identified as being a predictor of clinical success following PAE.

  11. Assessing the independent and joint effects of un-medicated prenatal depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption in pregnancy and infant neurodevelopmental outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoli, G; Coles, CD; Kable, JA; Wertelecki, W; Granovska, IV; Pashtepa, AO; Chambers, CD

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an established risk factor for neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring. Prenatal depression has been associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, although investigations into un-medicated prenatal depression have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that un-medicated prenatal depressive symptoms would independently and jointly with PAE predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in infant offspring. Methods We studied 344 participants from a randomized clinical trial of multivitamin supplements in pregnant women in Ukraine. Women were recruited based upon peri-conceptional alcohol use and followed up to 12 months postpartum. Prenatal depressive symptoms were assessed at approximately 32 weeks of gestation using the Beck Depression Scale. Neurodevelopment was assessed with the Bayley Scales for Infant Development II Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Generalized linear regression models were constructed to assess the independent and joint effects of prenatal depressive symptoms and PAE in models adjusted for sociodemographic and pregnancy characteristics. Results PAE was independently associated with deficits in neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6 and 12 months, however, level of prenatal depressive symptoms was not. We found marginal evidence of synergism of depressive symptoms and PAE, with larger deficits in those with both exposures observed for the PDI-6 months (p=0.05) and MDI-12 months (p=0.09). Additionally, there was a suggestion of sexual dimorphism; females had stronger deficits from joint exposures than males (depressive symptom (MDI-6 months) female: −8.28, 95% CI −13.06, −3.49; male: 0.68, 95% CI −4.58, 5.94; p for interaction 0.04). While not statistically significant for the MDI or PDI at 12 months, the trend persisted. Conclusion Infants exposed to PAE and prenatal depression may be at an increased risk of

  12. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in a prospective sample of young adults: Mental health, substance use, and difficulties with the legal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the transition to adulthood in adults with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). In this study, we examine the occurrence of problem behavior at this transition, including mental health problems, substance use, and difficulties with the legal system. The sample is prospective and provides an opportunity to examine effects of a wide range of prenatal exposure. Adults with PAE were expected to show more problem behavior; the impact of level of exposure was examined as well. The sample was drawn from a predominantly low-income, African-American population. Mothers of the alcohol-exposed participants (n=123) and those in the non-exposed SES-Control group (CONT) (n=59) were recruited at a prenatal visit when information on alcohol and drug use during pregnancy was collected. A disability contrast group (n=54) was recruited at adolescence. The adults with PAE were assigned to three groups varying in physical and cognitive effects of exposure. This report is based on the adults' responses to interviews or questionnaires on problem behavior and laboratory tests related to substance use. Adults with PAE showed more problem behavior in all three areas than adults from the CONT group. For mental health problems, the exposed group showing cognitive, but not physical effects, had the highest scores; their scores were similar, however, to those of the disability contrast group on several scales. Results for outcomes on substance use and legal difficulties were less consistent, but, when significant effects occurred, the group that was exposed, but neither physically nor cognitively affected, was more likely to show negative outcomes. Males in this group were most involved in these behaviors. Effects of PAE continue into early adulthood and affect mental health problems, substance use, and interactions with the legal system. Adults who are exposed, but less physically affected, seem to be the most involved in problem behavior. More research is necessary to

  13. The social media: its impact on a vascular surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, William D

    2013-04-01

    Social media has revolutionized interpersonal communication and has become a commonly used public informational resource. This study evaluates the impact of intranet informatics on a specialty practice of vascular surgery. Referral patterns for patients with chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) and popliteal entrapment syndrome (PAES) between 2008 and 2011 were analyzed. Demographics included referral source (physicians, nonphysicians), media resource, and case volume change. Prior to 2008, referrals came from local or regional sports medicine practices (100%). Since 2008 this pattern has changed; local/regional (80%), national (15%), and international (5%). Physician referrals dropped from 97% to 70%, and nonphysician referrals increased from 3% to 30%. Both CCS procedures and PAES procedures increased as remote geographic and public referrals increased. Referral change was associated with social media searches using applications such as PubMed and Google. Social media is an evolving source of medical information and patient referrals which physicians should cautiously embrace.

  14. THE PRICE ON THE ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATĂNĂSOAIE GEORGE SEBASTIAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices areanalyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products,distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage.The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or highlevel and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very importantbarrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communicationpolicies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development

  15. Exercise is Medicine Canada Physical Activity Counselling and Exercise Prescription Training, Improves Counselling, Prescription and Referral Practices Among Physicians Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jonathon R; O'Brien, Myles W; Solmundson, Kara; Oh, Paul I; Shields, Christopher A

    2018-01-09

    Exercise is Medicine Canada (EIMC) is an initiative that promotes physical activity (PA) counselling and exercise prescription within health care. The purpose of this study was to compare physicians' perceptions and practices around PA counselling and exercise prescription following EIMC training. Physicians (n=46) from 7 different provinces completed questionnaires initially and three-months following an EIMC workshop. Three-months post-intervention, physicians reported greater confidence compared to baseline, for providing physical activity and exercise (PAE) information to patients (79% vs 55%; pexercise professionals (77% vs 52%, p=0.002). At follow-up, physicians reported PA prescription barriers as less impactful (out of 4; all pexercise prescriptions increased from 20% to 74%. This study suggests that the completion of a one-day EIMC workshop increases physicians' confidence, knowledge and counselling behaviours of physicians in prescribing PAE.

  16. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p americana leaf could be used as a natural supplementary remedy in essential hypertension and certain cases of cardiac dysfunctions in some rural Africa communities.

  17. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  18. Drug detoxification dynamics explain the postantibiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Huang, Shuqiang; Lopatkin, Allison J; You, Lingchong

    2017-10-23

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) refers to the temporary suppression of bacterial growth following transient antibiotic treatment. This effect has been observed for decades for a wide variety of antibiotics and microbial species. However, despite empirical observations, a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. Using a combination of modeling and quantitative experiments, we show that the PAE can be explained by the temporal dynamics of drug detoxification in individual cells after an antibiotic is removed from the extracellular environment. These dynamics are dictated by both the export of the antibiotic and the intracellular titration of the antibiotic by its target. This mechanism is generally applicable for antibiotics with different modes of action. We further show that efflux inhibition is effective against certain antibiotic motifs, which may help explain mixed cotreatment success. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. Anatomical Variants in Prostate Artery Embolization: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Soares, Guilherme Rebello; de Assis, Andre Moreira; Moreira, Airton Mota; Harward, Sardis Honoria; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2017-09-01

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The main challenges related to this procedure are navigating arteries with atherosclerosis and anatomical variations, and the potential risk of non-target embolization to pelvic structures due to the presence of collateral shunts and reflux of microparticles. Knowledge of classical vascular anatomy and the most common variations is essential for safe embolization, good clinical practice, and optimal outcomes. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the pelvic vascular anatomy relevant to PAE in order to provide a practical guide that includes the most common anatomical variants as well as to discuss the technical details related to each.

  20. Bilateral Arterial Embolization of the Prostate Through a Single Prostatic Artery: A Case Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, Gregory, E-mail: gregamouyal@hotmail.com; Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.pellerin@aphp.fr; Giudice, Costantino Del, E-mail: costantino.delgiudice@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris - Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France); Déan, Carole, E-mail: carole.dean@aphp.fr [Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Interventional Radiology Department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (France); Thiounn, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.thiounn@aphp.fr; Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes - Sorbonne - Paris - Cité, Faculté de Médecine (France)

    2017-05-15

    Peri-prostatic shunts are frequent during PAE, carrying the risk of non-target embolization of penis/corpus cavernosum or rectum but also the potential advantage to irrigate the contralateral lobe. Sometimes, bilateral embolization is impossible, carrying the risk of limited clinical success. The possibility to reach contralateral prostatic territory from the ipsilateral prostatic artery (PA) and embolize it via peri/intra-prostatic anastomoses could be of interest in this situation. We describe a series of three consecutive patients (among 89 consecutive patients treated by PAE for symptomatic BPH) who underwent successful embolization of both prostatic lobes through catheterization of a PA on only one side. All patients had clinical success after a mean follow-up of 3.3 months. Dosimetry of these three procedures indicates that there may be radiation dose savings.

  1. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  2. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  3. Workshop on Avionics Corrosion Control: Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD (62nd) Held in Hovik (Norway) on 16-17 April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    the extent of the problem (b) to ascertain from designers and materials specialists the state-of-the- art in devising protection schemes applicable to...Structures and Materials Pae on Avionics Cooo. The discussion covered the problerms extent, the state of the corrosion-prevention art . the prospects for...Radar Plumbing Joints Failure of gaskets. pitting and power loss. Printed Circuits and Microminiature Circuits Shorts. increased resistance

  4. Net ecosystem calcification and net primary production in two Hawaii back-reef systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, S.; Colbert, S.; Hart, K.

    2016-02-01

    Back-reef systems have complex carbon cycling, driven by dominant benthic communities that change with environmental conditions and display characteristic patterns of net primary production (NP) and net ecosystem calcification (G). The G/NP ratio provides a fundamental community-level assessment to compare systems spatially and to evaluate temporal changes in carbon cycling. Carbon dynamics were examined at leeward Hōnaunau and windward Waíōpae, Hawaíi Island. Both locations discharge brackish groundwater, including geothermal water at Waíōpae. The change in total CO2 (TCO2) and total alkalinity (TA) between morning and afternoon was measured to calculate the G/NP ratio along a salinity gradient. At both sites, aragonite saturation (ΩAr) was lower than open ocean conditions, and increased with salinity. Between the morning and afternoon, ΩAr increased by at least 1 as photosynthesis consumed CO2. At Waíōpae, water was corrosive to aragonite due to the input of acidic groundwater, but not at Honaunau, demonstrating the importance of local watershed characteristics on ΩAr. Across the salinity gradient, TA and TCO2 decreased between morning and afternoon. At Hōnaunau, G/NP increased from 0.11 to 0.31 with salinity, consistent with an offshore increase in coral cover. But at Waíōpae, G/NP decreased from 0.49 to 0.0 with salinity, despite an increase in coral cover with salinity. Low G may be caused by benthic processes, including coral bleaching or high rates of carbonate dissolution in interstitial waters between tide pools. Broader environmental conditions than just salinity, including pH of fresh groundwater inputs, shape the carbon cycling in the back-reef system. Examining the G/NP ratio of a back-reef system allows for a simple method to establish community level activity, and possibly indicate changes in a dynamic system.

  5. Influence of Pilates Mat and Apparatus Exercises on Pain and Balance of Businesswomen with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants’ static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway leng...

  6. Prostatic Artery Embolization as an Alternative to Indwelling Bladder Catheterization to Manage Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Poor Surgical Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampoldi, Antonio; Barbosa, Fabiane, E-mail: fabiane001@hotmail.com [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Secco, Silvia [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Migliorisi, Carmelo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Galfano, Antonio; Prestini, Giovanni [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Harward, Sardis Honoria [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (United States); Trapani, Dario Di [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy); Brambillasca, Pietro Maria; Ruggero, Vercelli; Solcia, Marco [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Interventional Radiology (Brazil); Bocciardi, Aldo Massimo [Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Department of Urology (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo prospectively assess discontinuation of indwelling bladder catheterization (IBC) and relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) following prostate artery embolization (PAE) in poor surgical candidates.MethodsPatients ineligible for surgical intervention were offered PAE after at least 1 month of IBC for management of urinary retention secondary to BPH; exclusion criteria for PAE included eligibility for surgery, active bladder cancer or known prostate cancer. Embolization technical and clinical success were defined as bilateral prostate embolization and removal of IBC, respectively. Patients were followed for at least 6 months and evaluated for International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, prostate size and uroflowmetric parameters.ResultsA total of 43 patients were enrolled; bilateral embolization was performed in 33 (76.7%), unilateral embolization was performed in 8 (18.6%), and two patients could not be embolized due to tortuous and atherosclerotic pelvic vasculature (4.7%). Among the patients who were embolized, mean prostate size decreased from 75.6 ± 33.2 to 63.0 ± 23.2 g (sign rank p = 0.0001, mean reduction of 19.6 ± 17.3%), and IBC removal was achieved in 33 patients (80.5%). Clavien II complications were reported in nine patients (21.9%) and included urinary tract infection (three patients, 7.3%) and recurrent acute urinary retention (six patients, 14.6%). Nine patients (22.0%) experienced post-embolization syndrome.ConclusionsPAE is a safe and feasible for the relief of LUTS and IBC in highly comorbid patients without surgical treatment options.

  7. Profesní morálka pedagoga v mateřské škole

    OpenAIRE

    Richtrová, Monika

    2012-01-01

    BIBLIOGRAPHY IDENTIFICATION Title of thesis: Professional kindergarten teacher morale Department: Department of Primary Education Faculty of Education, Charles University Name and surname: Monika Richtrová Field of Study: Pre-school education Leader: PaeDr. Jana Havlova Year of defense: 2012 ANNOTATION Diploma work "Professional ethics teacher in kindergarten" deals with the professionalism and the moral aspect of and personality of the teacher. In the theoretical part I try, as fully to desc...

  8. Basel II - mis, milleks ja milliste mõjudega laenuvõtjatele?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 10 dets. lk. 6-7. Pankade kapitali adekvaatsuse uue raamistiku Basel II tulemuseks võiksid teoreetiliselt olla soodsamad intressid ja laenutingimused, suureneb turudistsipliini roll. Vt. samas: USA ei kiirusta Basel IIga; Mida muudab Basel II panga äriklientide jaoks? Küsimusele vastavad Sampo Panga finantsdirektor Ivar Pae ja SEB Ühispanga krediidi arenduse ja koolituse osakonna juhataja Jaanus Leemets; Kui palju omakapitali vajab pank laenukliendi krediidiriski katteks?

  9. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  10. Seasonal fate and gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor and outdoor air

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Gasperi, Johnny; Blanchard, Martine; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Mandin, Corinne; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Fifty-eight semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were investigated simultaneously in three indoor (apartment, nursery and office building) and one outdoor environment in the centre of Paris (France). All of these compounds except tetrabromobisphenol A were quantified in the gaseous and particulate phases in all three environments, and at a frequency of 100% for the predominant compounds of each SVOC class. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were the most abundant group (di...

  11. Annual National Small Business Conference (5th) Held in San Diego, California on May 19-21, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-21

    tactical aircraft, airlift, and aeronautical research and development lines of business. • Space Systems: includes space launch, commercial satellites ...government satellites , and strategic missiles lines of business. • Systems & IT Group: includes missiles and fire control, naval systems, platform...Gov’t Services Multimax 5 Stanley, Inc. Morgan Research 6 Lockheed Martin PAE 7 EDO Corp. CAS, Inc. 8 General Dynamics FC Business Systems 9 CACI

  12. Arctic Ice Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Hz-50 SO al cycles of phyto- and zooplankton andy remteseduring MIZEX 83 by ship kHz . Floe bumping and shearing are hypoth- dynamics and to assess the...olctoed n M trche e.F9Fither fhpes of ’ci ore lacritialp In hct, pae prsn, thre frs~ut-s eor mothe inesti.ai First-.a rogh a-re trcondsmartted

  13. Comparative Study Using 100–300 Versus 300–500 μm Microspheres for Symptomatic Patients Due to Enlarged-BPH Prostates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Octavio Meneghelli, E-mail: octaviogalvao@hotmail.com; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: francisco.carnevale@criep.com.br; Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel, E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina, E-mail: vanessapaular@yahoo.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel, E-mail: srougi@terra.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to compare safety and efficacy outcomes following prostate artery embolization (PAE) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with 100–300 versus 300–500 μm tris-acryl gelatin microspheres.Materials and MethodsPatients were prospectively treated between August 2011 and June 2013 to receive PAE with 100–300 μm (group A) or 300–500 μm (group B) tris-acryl gelatin microspheres. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months and were assessed for changes in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) index, prostate volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), and maximum urine flow rate (Q{sub max}), as well as any treatment-related adverse events.ResultsFifteen patients were included in each group, and PAE was technically successful in all cases. Both groups experienced significant improvement in mean IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, PSA, and Q{sub max} (p < 0.05 for all). The differences observed between the two groups included a marginally insignificant more adverse events (p = 0.066) and greater mean serum PSA reduction at 3 months of follow-up (p = 0.056) in group A.ConclusionsBoth 100–300 and 300–500 μm microspheres are safe and effective embolic agents for PAE to treat LUTS-related to BPH. Although functional and imaging outcomes did not differ significantly following use of the two embolic sizes, the greater incidence of adverse events with 100–300 μm microspheres suggests that 300–500 μm embolic materials may be more appropriate.

  14. Kaks linna : Narva kolledzhi arhitektuurivõistlus / Andres Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Žürii koosseis, võistlusest, pikemalt võidutööst. Auhinnatud tööd: I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla. Ill.: võidutöö asendiplaan, korruste plaanid, lõiked, vaated

  15. Anaerobic degradation of phthalic acid esters during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-08-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms in municipal solid waste samples from laboratory-scale landfill reactors and a pilot-plant biogas digestor were investigated with the aim of assessing their ability to transform four commercially used phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and phthalic acid (PA). The PAEs studied were diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). No biological transformation of DEHP could be detected in any of the experiments. Together with waste samples from the simulated landfilling conditions, the PAEs (except DEHP) were hydrolytically transformed to their corresponding monoesters. These accumulated as end products, and in most cases they were not further degraded. During incubation with waste from the biogas digestor, the PAEs (except DEHP) were completely degraded to methane and carbon dioxide. The influence of the landfill development phase on the transformations was investigated utilizing PA and DEP as model substances. We found that during both the intense and stable methanogenic (but not the acidogenic) phases, the microorganisms in the samples had the potential to transform PA. A shorter lag phase was observed for the PA transformation in the samples from the stable methanogenic phase as compared with earlier phases. This indicates an increased capacity to degrade PA during the aging phases of the municipal solid waste in landfills. No enhancement of the DEP transformation could be observed as conditions in the methanogenic landfill model changed over a year's time. The results indicate that microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment have a substantially lower potential to degrade compared with those developing in a biogas reactor.

  16. Kättpidi Veneetsias / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Muljeid X rahvusvaheliselt Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalilt "Linnad. Arhitektuur ja ühiskond", kuraator Richard Burdett. Ülar Margi kureeritud projektist "Joint Space", kommenteerib Rein Ahas. Väljavõtteid Rem Koolhaasi ja Jacques Herzogi esinemisest Arsenales. Andres Sevtshuki kureeritud projektist. Kuldlõvi auhinna pälvis inglise arhitekt Richard Rogers (sünd. 1933). Bernard Tschumi elliptilise linna projekti kommenteerib Kaja Pae

  17. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  18. Deckersamphiura vitea, a new Late Campanian ophiuroid from southern Limburg (The Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagt, J. W. M.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of amphiurid ophiuroid of early Late Campanian age, Deckersamphiura vitea, is recorded from the Benzenrade Member (Vaals Formation) as exposed at the De Wingerd quarry, south of Benzenrade (southern Limburg, The Netherlands). It is the second known member of the genus Deckersamphiura, the type of which (D. inusitata Jagt & Kutscher in Jagt, 2000) is of late Late Maastrichtian age. The decrease in the number of disc plates and plate circlets seen in D. inusitata is probably a pae...

  19. In Vitro Activity of Gepotidacin (GSK2140944) against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D J; Sader, H S; Rhomberg, P R; Scangarella-Oman, N E; Flamm, R K

    2017-03-01

    Gepotidacin (formerly GSK2140944) is a novel, first-in-class, triazaacenaphthylene antibacterial that inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV via a unique mechanism and has demonstrated in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including drug-resistant strains, and also targets pathogens associated with other conventional and biothreat infections. Broth microdilution was used to evaluate the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) activity of gepotidacin and comparators against 25 N. gonorrhoeae strains (including five ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains). Gepotidacin activity was also evaluated against three N. gonorrhoeae strains (including a ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strain) for resistance development, against three N. gonorrhoeae strains (including two tetracycline- and azithromycin-nonsusceptible strains) using time-kill kinetics and checkerboard methods, and against two N. gonorrhoeae strains for the investigation of postantibiotic (PAE) and subinhibitory (PAE-SME) effects. The MIC50 and MIC90 for gepotidacin against the 25 N. gonorrhoeae isolates tested were 0.12 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. The MBC50 and MBC90 for gepotidacin were 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. Gepotidacin was bactericidal, and single-step resistance selection studies did not recover any mutants, indicating a low rate of spontaneous single-step resistance. For combinations of gepotidacin and comparators tested using checkerboard methods, there were no instances where antagonism occurred and only one instance of synergy (with moxifloxacin; fractional inhibitory concentration, 0.375). This was not confirmed by in vitro time-kill studies. The PAE for gepotidacin against the wild-type strain ranged from 0.5 to >2.5 h, and the PAE-SME was >2.5 h. These in vitro data indicate that further study of gepotidacin is warranted for potential use in treating infections caused by N. gonorrhoeae. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Design and Construction of Foundations in Areas of Deep Seasonal Frost and Permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    scientific research, especially the Division of Building Research of the National Research Council of Canada. Pertinent literature, experience records, and...and soils in which segregated ice is visible. The visual division is not necessarily determinative for thaw settlement potential. The boundaries...conditions. 96 .’,’ __________ -_ -- ."- ’ .. : , -. - -i , . .* ,. : . .. . , ,; .. .. ,,.: .’ . .- . : S aM O dPae 4 " Celular Glow ! _ . IoI¢ P

  1. Effects of poultry manure on soil biochemical properties in phthalic acid esters contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Xiaojian; Ren, Xuqin; Zhou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poultry manure (PM) on soil biological properties in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils. An indoor incubation experiment was conducted. Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil enzymatic activities, and microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were measured during incubation period. The results indicated that except alkaline phosphatase activity, DBP and DEHP had negative effects on Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, protease activities, and contents of total PLFA. However, 5 % PM treatment alleviated the negative effects of PAEs on the above biochemical parameters. In DBP-contaminated soil, 5 % PM amendment even resulted in dehydroenase activity and Cmic content increasing by 17.8 and 11.8 % on the day 15 of incubation, respectively. During the incubation periods, the total PLFA contents decreased maximumly by 17.2 and 11.6 % in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without PM amendments, respectively. Compared with those in uncontaminated soil, the total PLFA contents increased slightly and the value of bacPLFA/fugalPLFA increased significantly in PAE-contaminated soils with 5 % PM amendment. Nevertheless, in both contaminated soils, the effects of 5 % PM amendment on the biochemical parameters were not observed with 10 % PM amendment. In 10 % PM-amended soils, DBP and DEHP had little effect on Cmic, soil enzymatic activities, and microbial community composition. At the end of incubation, the effects of PAEs on these parameters disappeared, irrespective of PM amendment. The application of PM ameliorated the negative effect of PAEs on soil biological environment. However, further work is needed to study the effect of PM on soil microbial gene expression in order to explain the change mechanisms of soil biological properties.

  2. A solid-phase microextraction fiber with carbon nanoparticles as sorbent material prepared by a simple flame-based preparation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Leilei; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-07-26

    A novel carbon nanoparticles-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared via a simple and low-cost flame-based preparation process, with stainless steel wire as support. Surface characteristic of the fiber was studied with scanning electron microscope. A nano-scaled brushy structure was observed. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was used to extract phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Analytical performances of the proposed method were investigated under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature, 40°C; content of KCl, 30% (w/v); extraction time, 50min for PAEs and 40min for PAHs) and compared with other reports for the same analytes. Calibration ranges were 0.06-500μgL(-1) for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and 0.1-300μgL(-1) for di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP). For the eight PAHs, good linearity was obtained ranging from 0.01 to 150μgL(-1). Limits of detection were 0.005μgL(-1) for three PAEs and 0.001-0.003μgL(-1) for eight PAHs. The fiber exhibited excellent stability. It can be used for 100 times with RSDs of extraction efficiency less than 22.4%. The as-established SPME-GC method was applied to determine PAEs in food-wrap and PAHs in cigarette ash and snow water, and satisfactory results were obtained. The carbon nanoparticles-coated SPME fiber was efficient for sampling of organic compounds from aqueous samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of Material and Devices for Very High Density Information Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-24

    crystal bismuth doped garnets , having properties equivalent to IPE grown materials,,’., onto gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. There was speculation... LPE onto0 (111)-.""’’ oriented calcium-, magnesium- or zirconium-substituted gadolinium, samarium or neodymium gallium /’’’ garnet substrates. Garnet ...properties of LPE garnetmusesit favor garnets a s a t arting poiut. ref og Vmagnetic and m g e-optical po et s o a- , pae d m u , alu inu-%, li

  4. Modulated protonation of side chain aminoethylene repeats in N-substituted polyaspartamides promotes mRNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hirokuni; Itaka, Keiji; Nomoto, Takahiro; Ishii, Takehiko; Suma, Tomoya; Ikegami, Masaru; Miyata, Kanjiro; Oba, Makoto; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-09-03

    Fine-tuning of chemical structures of polycation-based carriers (polyplexes) is an attractive strategy for safe and efficient mRNA transfaction. Here, mRNA polyplexes comprising N-substituted polyaspartamides with varied numbers of side chain aminoethylene repeats were constructed, and their transfection ability against human hepatoma cells was examined. Transfection efficacy clearly correlated with the number of aminoethylene repeats: polyplexes with odd number repeats (PA-Os) produced sustained increases in mRNA expression compared with those with even number repeats (PA-Es). This predominant efficacy of PA-Os over PA-Es was contradictory to our previous findings for pDNA polyplexes prepared from the same N-substituted polyaspartamides, that is, PA-Es revealed superior transfection efficacy of pDNA than PA-Os. Intracellular FRET analysis using flow cytometry and polyplex tracking under confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that overall transfection efficacy was determined through the balance between endosomal escaping capability and stability of translocated mRNA in cytoplasm. PA-Es efficiently transported mRNA into the cytoplasm. However, their poor cytoplasmic stability led to facile degradation of mRNA, resulting in a less durable pattern of transfection. Alternatively, PA-Os with limited capability of endosomal escape eventually protect mRNA in the cytoplasm to induce sustainable mRNA expression. Higher cytoplasmic stability of pDNA compared to mRNA may shift the limiting step in transfection from cytoplasmic stability to endosomal escape capacity, thereby giving an opposite odd-even effect in transfection efficacy. Endosomal escaping capability and nuclease stability of polyplexes are correlated with the modulated protonation behavior in aminoethylene repeats responding to pH, appealing the substantial importance of chemistry to design polycation structures for promoted mRNA transfection.

  5. Spatial distributions, source apportionment and ecological risk of SVOCs in water and sediment from Xijiang River, Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiao; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-03-09

    Xijiang River is an important drinking water source in Guangxi Province, China. Along the Xijiang River and surrounding tributary, the pollution profile of three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), was analyzed. Relatively low levels of PAHs (64-3.7 × 10(2) ng L(-1)) and OCPs (16-70 ng L(-1)), but high levels of PAEs (7.9 × 10(2)-6.8 × 10(3) ng L(-1)) occurred in the water. Comparatively, low levels of OCPs (39-1.8 × 10(2) ng g(-1)) and PAEs (21-81 ng g(-1)), but high levels of PAHs (41-1.1 × 10(3) ng g(-1)) were found in sediment. Principal component analyses for source identification indicated petroleum-derived residues or coal and biomass combustion, and vehicular emission was the main sources for PAHs. The OCPs sources of each category were almost independent, whereas the new input of HCHs and p,p'-DDTs probably existed in some areas. PAEs were mainly originated from personal care products of urban sewage, plastic and other industrial sources. Ecological risk through the risk quotient analysis indicated a small or significant potential adverse effect on fish, daphnia and green algae. Nevertheless, the integrated risk of all pollutants should be taken into account in future study.

  6. Intervention recommendations and subsequent access to services following clinical assessment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jacqueline; Baugh, Lauren; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) experience multiple difficulties requiring various interventions. Researchers have called for investigation into service use with respect to clinically recommended interventions. To examine intervention recommendations for children with FASD/PAE and subsequent access to these recommended interventions. Intervention recommendations following FASD assessment were examined for children (1-17 years). Recommendations were compared according to diagnostic status and demographic and environmental variables. Subsequent access to several interventions was examined for 45 participants. A variety of recommendations were given. Children with FASD received more recommendations overall and received more education, anticipatory guidance, family support, and safety recommendations than undiagnosed children with PAE. Undiagnosed children received more mental health and reassessment recommendations. Older children received fewer family support and developmental therapy recommendations but more mental health recommendations than younger age groups. Many families accessed modified school programming, developmental therapy, psychiatry, child counseling, and parent support as recommended. Children with FASD and PAE have extensive needs and should receive individualized recommendations. An assessment is valuable even without an FASD diagnosis. Areas of high/low service access may provide insight into accessibility and perceived importance of interventions. This study responds to important research questions regarding the intervention needs of individuals with FASD. It is novel in its exploration of intervention recommendations given to children prenatally exposed to alcohol without an FASD diagnosis (rather than only children with FASD) and in its examination of post-assessment service use patterns specifically in relation to clinical recommendations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  7. Short-Term Pretreatment of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Gentamycin Inhibits the Swarming Motility of Escherichia Coli by Down-Regulating the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Yijing Zhuang; Weidong Chen; Fen Yao; Yuanchun Huang; Shuqin Zhou; Haiyan Li; Zijie Zhang; Congyi Cai; Yi Gao; Qing Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Motility is a feature of many pathogens that contributes to the migration and dispersion of the infectious agent. Whether gentamycin has a post-antibiotic effect (PAE) on the swarming and swimming motility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to examine whether short-term pretreatment of sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamycin alter motility of E. coli and the mechanisms involved therein. Methods: After exposure to sub-inhibitory concentr...

  8. New evidence for positive selection helps explain the paternal age effect observed in achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Deepali N.; Elmer, Dominik P.; Calabrese, Peter; Boulanger, Jérôme; Arnheim, Norman; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2013-01-01

    There are certain de novo germline mutations associated with genetic disorders whose mutation rates per generation are orders of magnitude higher than the genome average. Moreover, these mutations occur exclusively in the male germ line and older men have a higher probability of having an affected child than younger ones, known as the paternal age effect (PAE). The classic example of a genetic disorder exhibiting a PAE is achondroplasia, caused predominantly by a single-nucleotide substitution (c.1138G>A) in FGFR3. To elucidate what mechanisms might be driving the high frequency of this mutation in the male germline, we examined the spatial distribution of the c.1138G>A substitution in a testis from an 80-year-old unaffected man. Using a technology based on bead-emulsion amplification, we were able to measure mutation frequencies in 192 individual pieces of the dissected testis with a false-positive rate lower than 2.7 × 10−6. We observed that most mutations are clustered in a few pieces with 95% of all mutations occurring in 27% of the total testis. Using computational simulations, we rejected the model proposing an elevated mutation rate per cell division at this nucleotide site. Instead, we determined that the observed mutation distribution fits a germline selection model, where mutant spermatogonial stem cells have a proliferative advantage over unmutated cells. Combined with data on several other PAE mutations, our results support the idea that the PAE, associated with a number of Mendelian disorders, may be explained primarily by a selective mechanism. PMID:23740942

  9. Lutshshije sooruzhenija iz stalnõh konstruktsii 2002-2006 godov / Riho Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oras, Riho

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Teraskonstruktsiooniühingu korraldatud konkursist "Terasehitis 2006", võidu- ja silmapaistnud töödest, žürii koosseis. Parim teraskonstruktsioon: Riga Arena katusekonstruktsioon, auhind Maru kontsernile. Parim teraskonstruktsiooniga tervikehitis: spordimaja A. Le Coq Sport Tartus, arhitekt Eero Palm, konstruktsioonide koostaja AS Randväli & Karema. Parima arhitektuurse lahendusega terasehitis: Eesti Panga galerii, arhitektid Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae (AB Urban Mark), konstruktsioonilahendus: IB Peipman OÜ

  10. Analysis for Non-Traditional Security Challenges: Methods and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-20

    come don t therol ofthe eciion- Integrated Munitions Effects Assessment (IMEA) comaer aownd t the derele of rikthey arec- Vulnerability Assessment...government operations Mr Don Clements, OSD PA&E, Cata- neeringfrom the University of Missouri in research analyst while supporting pro- strophic WG Chair...Defense Hudson, Mr Fred S Cubic Defense Applications Ihde , Mr Alexander G JHU/APL Juge, Dr Matthew Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control - LaRiviere, Mr

  11. Interhemispheric Functional Brain Connectivity in Neonates with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A; Ipser, Jonathan C; Howells, Fleur M; Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Riley, Edward P; Koen, Nastassja; Woods, Roger P; Biswal, Bharat; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity. While early evidence suggests altered functional brain connectivity in the lateralization of motor networks in school-age children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), the specific effects of alcohol exposure on the establishment of intrinsic connectivity in early infancy have not been explored. Sixty subjects received functional imaging at 2 to 4 weeks of age for 6 to 8 minutes during quiet natural sleep. Thirteen alcohol-exposed (PAE) and 14 age-matched control (CTRL) participants with usable data were included in a multivariate model of connectivity between sensorimotor intrinsic functional connectivity networks. Seed-based analyses of group differences in interhemispheric connectivity of intrinsic motor networks were also conducted. The Dubowitz neurological assessment was performed at the imaging visit. Alcohol exposure was associated with significant increases in connectivity between somatosensory, motor networks, brainstem/thalamic, and striatal intrinsic networks. Reductions in interhemispheric connectivity of motor and somatosensory networks did not reach significance. Although results are preliminary, findings suggest PAE may disrupt the temporal coherence in blood oxygenation utilization in intrinsic networks underlying motor performance in newborn infants. Studies that employ longitudinal designs to investigate the effects of in utero alcohol exposure on the evolving resting-state networks will be key in establishing the distribution and timing of connectivity disturbances already described in older children. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. [Determination of phthalic acid esters in imitation jewellery and investigation of their migration risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying; Huang, Zongping; Ge, Xiuxiu; Lin, Rui; Chen, Hexiu

    2012-07-01

    A reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 14 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in imitation jewellery. The influences of sample pretreatment methods including microwave extraction, ultrasonic extraction, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction on the determination of PAEs were investigated. The migration risk of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in plastic imitation jewellery was investigated under the simulated body temperature and sweat environment within 0 h to 168 h. The results showed that the target compounds can be effectively extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) under microwave extraction for 35 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 5 mg/kg for 12 PAEs (25 mg/kg for diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)). The calibration curves were linear within 0.1-50 mg/L (0.5-250 mg/L for DINP and DIDP) with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. The recoveries ranged from 90.95% to 98.67% at three spiked levels. The migration risk of DEHP was higher than DBP and DOP with 0.75% dissolved after soaking for 72 h under the simulated conditions. The sensitivity, recovery and selectivity of the method can meet the requirements of the practical work.

  13. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Veerasingam Armugam; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2013-02-01

    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

  14. Seasonal fate and gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Gaspéri, Johnny; Blanchard, Martine; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Mandin, Corinne; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Fifty-eight semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were investigated simultaneously in three indoor (apartment, nursery and office building) and one outdoor environment in the centre of Paris (France). All of these compounds except tetrabromobisphenol A were quantified in the gaseous and particulate phases in all three environments, and at a frequency of 100% for the predominant compounds of each SVOC class. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were the most abundant group (di-iso-butyl phthalate: 29-661 ng m-3, diethyl phthalate: 15-542 ng m-3), followed by 4-nonylphenol (1.4-81 ng m-3), parabens (methylparaben: 0.03-2.5 ng m-3), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (0.002-0.26 ng m-3) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) (0.001-0.23 ng m-3). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (as ∑8PAHs) ranged from 0.17 to 5.40 ng m-3, polychlorinated biphenyls (as ∑7PCBi) from 0.06 to 4.70 ng.m3 and polybromodiphenyl ethers (as ∑8PBDEs) from 0.002 to 0.40 ng m-3. For most pollutants, significantly higher concentrations were observed in the nursery compared to the apartment and office. Overall, the indoor air concentrations were up to ten times higher than outdoor air concentrations. Seasonal variations were observed for PAEs, PCBs and PAHs. SVOCs were predominantly identified in the gaseous phase (>90%), except for some high-molecular-weight PAEs, PAHs and PCBs.

  15. Plant-expressed pyocins for control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Paškevičius

    Full Text Available The emergence, persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria heralds a growing global health crisis. Drug-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are especially dangerous and the medical and economic burden they impose underscore the critical need for finding new antimicrobials. Recent studies have demonstrated that plant-expressed bacteriocins of the colicins family can be efficient antibacterials against all major enteropathogenic strains of E. coli. We extended our studies of colicin-like bacteriocins to pyocins, which are produced by strains of P. aeruginosa for ecological advantage against other strains of the same species. Using a plant-based transient expression system, we expressed six different pyocins, namely S5, PaeM, L1, L2, L3 and one new pyocin, PaeM4, and purified them to homogeneity. Among these pyocins, PaeM4 demonstrated the broadest spectrum of activity by controlling 53 of 100 tested clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. The activity of plant-made pyocins was confirmed in the agar drop, liquid culture susceptibility and biofilm assays, and in the Galleria mellonella animal infection model.

  16. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  17. Functional approach to high-throughput plant growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Method Taking advantage of the current rapid development in imaging systems and computer vision algorithms, we present HPGA, a high-throughput phenotyping platform for plant growth modeling and functional analysis, which produces better understanding of energy distribution in regards of the balance between growth and defense. HPGA has two components, PAE (Plant Area Estimation) and GMA (Growth Modeling and Analysis). In PAE, by taking the complex leaf overlap problem into consideration, the area of every plant is measured from top-view images in four steps. Given the abundant measurements obtained with PAE, in the second module GMA, a nonlinear growth model is applied to generate growth curves, followed by functional data analysis. Results Experimental results on model plant Arabidopsis thaliana show that, compared to an existing approach, HPGA reduces the error rate of measuring plant area by half. The application of HPGA on the cfq mutant plants under fluctuating light reveals the correlation between low photosynthetic rates and small plant area (compared to wild type), which raises a hypothesis that knocking out cfq changes the sensitivity of the energy distribution under fluctuating light conditions to repress leaf growth. Availability HPGA is available at http://www.msu.edu/~jinchen/HPGA. PMID:24565437

  18. Use of atropine to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cohort study included children with esotropia and hypermetropia of ≥ +2.0 diopters (D. The deviation was measured at presentation, under atropine cycloplegia and 3 months after full refractive correction. Of 44 children with a mean age of 5.2 ± 2.4 years, 25 were males. Eighteen (41% had fully refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE, 10 (23% had partial accommodative esotropia (PAE, and 5 (11% had nonaccommodative esotropia (NAE. Eleven (25% had convergence excess (CE. Under cycloplegia, all with RAE and RAE with CE had orthotropia. There was no significant change in the deviation in the patients with NAE. The deviation under cycloplegia and that with full refractive correction in PAE and PAE with CE (with +3.0 D addition were not different. The intraclass correlation coefficient for deviation under cycloplegia and after full refractive correction (+3.0 D addition for CE was 0.89. It was concluded that ocular deviation under cycloplegia can help to predict the accommodative component in esotropia with hypermetropia.

  19. Synergism and postantibiotic effect of tobramycin and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Manuela; Ginestra, Giovanna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Furneri, P M; Bisignano, G

    2010-04-01

    The application of antimicrobial combinations may address the rising resistance to established classes of both systemic and topical agents and their clinical relevance is related to the presence of a significant postantibiotic effect (PAE). We investigated the effectiveness in vitro of the association between tobramycin and tea tree oil (TTO) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations, the bacterial killing and the PAE of tobramycin and TTO were determined both singly and in combination against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. A synergistic interaction was observed against both strains tested: the mean PAEs were 1.3 and 1.7h for tobramycin against E. coli and S. aureus respectively, 10.8h for tobramycin and TTO (0.05%) against E. coli, 10.4h and 17.4h against S. aureus for tobramycin and TTO (0.25 and 0.50%, respectively). Longer PASMEs were observed with S. aureus after TTO/tobramycin exposure. In vitro interactions can improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of the antibiotic and may contribute for the development of novel topical agents for the treatment of skin lesions including conjunctiva and respiratory infections by inhalation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring and removal of residual phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Yen, Chia-Heng; Wang, Chih-Lung

    2014-07-30

    This study monitored the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 8 phthalate esters (PAEs) and 13 pharmaceuticals present in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration (EC/EF) process was used to remove the contaminants. To this end, a monitoring program was conducted and a novel laboratory-prepared tubular carbon nanofiber/carbon/alumina composite membrane (TCCACM) was incorporated into the EC/EF treatment module (collectively designated as "TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module") to remove the abovementioned compounds from water samples. The monitoring results showed that the concentrations of PAEs were lower in water samples from drinking fountains as compared with tap water samples. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the two types of water samples. Under optimal operating conditions, the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module yielded the lowest residual concentrations, ranging from not detected (ND) to 52ng/L for PAEs and pharmaceuticals of concern in the tap water samples. Moreover, the performance of the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module is comparable with a series of treatment units employed for the drinking fountain water treatment system. The relevant removal mechanisms involved in the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module were also discussed in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.