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Sample records for hemoglobin levels predict

  1. Longitudinal discriminant analysis of hemoglobin level for predicting preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Malihe; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Zayeri, Farid; Kariman, Noorosadat; Safavi Ardebili, Nastaran

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications during pregnancy with important effects on health of mother and fetus that causes maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This study was performed to evaluate whether high levels of hemoglobin may increase the risk of preeclampsia. The present study aimed to predict preeclampsia by the hemoglobin profiles through longitudinal discriminant analysis and comparing the error rate of discrimination in longitudinal and cross sectional data. In a prospective cohort study from October 2010 to July 2011, 650 pregnant women referred to the prenatal clinic of Milad Hospital in Tehran were evaluated in 3 stages. The hemoglobin level of each woman was measured in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy by an expert technician. The subjects were followed up to delivery and preeclampsia was the main outcome under study. The covariance pattern and linear-mixed effects models are common methods that were applied for discriminant analysis of longitudinal data. Also Student t, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for comparing the demographic and clinical characteristics between two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software version 9.1. The prevalence rate of preeclampsia was 7.2% (47 women). The women with preeclampsia had a higher mean of hemoglobin values and the difference was 0.46 g/dL (P = 0.003). Also the mean of hemoglobin in the first trimester was higher than that of the second trimester, and was lower than that of the third trimester and the differences were significant (P = 0.015 and P < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity for longitudinal data and cross-sectional data in three trimesters was 90%, 67%, 72%, and 54% and the specificity was 88%, 55%, 63%, and 50%, respectively. The levels of hemoglobin can be used to predict preeclampsia and monitoring the pregnant women and its regular measure in 3 trimesters help us to identify women at risk for preeclampsia.

  2. Hepcidin level predicts hemoglobin concentration in individuals undergoing repeated phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Alan E; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David J; Johnson, Bryce; Glynn, Simone A; Busch, Michael P; Olbina, Gordana; Westerman, Mark; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2013-08-01

    Dietary iron absorption is regulated by hepcidin, an iron regulatory protein produced by the liver. Hepcidin production is regulated by iron stores, erythropoiesis and inflammation, but its physiology when repeated blood loss occurs has not been characterized. Hepcidin was assayed in plasma samples obtained from 114 first-time/reactivated (no blood donations in preceding 2 years) female donors and 34 frequent (≥3 red blood cell donations in preceding 12 months) male donors as they were phlebotomized ≥4 times over 18-24 months. Hepcidin levels were compared to ferritin and hemoglobin levels using multivariable repeated measures regression models. Hepcidin, ferritin and hemoglobin levels declined with increasing frequency of donation in the first-time/reactivated females. Hepcidin and ferritin levels correlated well with each other (Spearman's correlation of 0.74), but on average hepcidin varied more between donations for a given donor relative to ferritin. In a multivariable repeated measures regression model the predicted inter-donation decline in hemoglobin varied as a function of hepcidin and ferritin; hemoglobin was 0.51 g/dL lower for subjects with low (>45.7 ng/mL) or decreasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL), and was essentially zero for other subjects including those with high (>45.7 ng/mL) or increasing hepcidin and low ferritin (>26 ng/mL) levels (P<0.001). In conclusion, hepcidin levels change rapidly in response to dietary iron needed for erythropoiesis. The dynamic regulation of hepcidin in the presence of a low levels of ferritin suggests that plasma hepcidin concentration may provide clinically useful information about an individual's iron status (and hence capacity to tolerate repeated blood donations) beyond that of ferritin alone. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00097006.

  3. Prediction of hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors: how to model donation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Atsma, F.; Moons, K.G.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, prediction models for hemoglobin (Hb) deferral risk have been developed. These models consider the previous Hb level plus change in Hb. Here, we investigated if the performance of models could be improved by considering more information on Hb level history. STUDY DESIGN AND

  4. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...... load measured 6 months prior to starting cART was included in the analyses. Anemia was defined as mild (...

  5. Middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity to predict fetal hemoglobin levels in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaghekke, F; Pasman, S; Veujoz, M; Middeldorp, J M; Lewi, L; Devlieger, R; Favre, R; Lopriore, E; Oepkes, D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) Doppler measurements in prediction of hemoglobin levels in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). This study involved a consecutive cohort comprising monochorionic twin pregnancies complicated by TAPS managed at three European fetal medicine centers between 2005 and 2013. The accuracy of MCA-PSV, measured immediately prior to fetal hemoglobin (Hb) measurement by fetal or cord blood sampling, for prediction of anemia and polycythemia was assessed using 2 × 2 tables. A total of 116 measurements (74 recorded in donors and 42 in recipients) from 43 twin pregnancies complicated by TAPS were available for analysis. MCA-PSV multiples of the median (MoM) values correlated well with Hb levels (r = - 0.86; P  5 SD below the mean) in TAPS donors was 94% (95% CI, 85-98%); specificity was 74% (95% CI, 62-83%); positive and negative predictive values were 76% (95% CI, 65-85%) and 94% (95% CI, 83-98%), respectively. The sensitivity of MCA-PSV ≤ 1.0 MoM to predict polycythemia (Hb level > 5 SD above the mean) in TAPS recipients was 97% (95% CI, 87-99%); specificity was 96% (95% CI, 89-99%); positive and negative predictive values were 93% (95% CI, 81-97%) and 99% (95% CI, 93-100%), respectively. MCA-PSV measurement has high diagnostic accuracy for predicting abnormal Hb levels in fetuses with TAPS. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predicting glycated hemoglobin levels in the non-diabetic general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M

    2017-01-01

    , Inter99, KORA S4/F4) were combined to predict HbA1c levels at six year follow-up. Using backward selection, age, BMI, waist circumference, use of anti-hypertensive medication, current smoking and parental history of diabetes remained in sex-specific linear regression models. To minimize overfitting...

  7. Hemoglobin A1c Levels Predicts Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Non-Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Ugur Kocogulları

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Elevated hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes mellitus have been known as a risk factor for acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting. However, the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels in non-diabetics and acute kidney injury is under debate. We aimed to investigate the association of preoperative hemoglobin A1c levels with acute kidney injury in non-diabetic patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: 202 non-diabetic patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine <1.4 mg/dl who underwent isolated coronary bypass were analyzed. Hemoglobin A1c level was measured at the baseline examination. Patients were separated into two groups according to preoperative Hemoglobin A1c level. Group 1 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of < 5.6% and Group 2 consisted of patients with preoperative HbA1c levels of ≥ 5.6%. Acute kidney injury diagnosis was made by comparing baseline and postoperative serum creatinine to determine the presence of predefined significant change based on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO definition. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 19 (10.5% patients after surgery. The incidence of acute kidney injury was 3.6% in Group 1 and 16.7% in Group 2. Elevated baseline hemoglobin A1c level was found to be associated with acute kidney injury (P=0.0001. None of the patients became hemodialysis dependent. The cut off value for acute kidney injury in our group of patients was 5.75%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in non-diabetics, elevated preoperative hemoglobin A1c level may be associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Prospective randomized studies in larger groups are needed to confirm these results.

  8. Zinc protoporphyrin levels have added value in the prediction of low hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, A Mireille; de Kort, Wim L A M; Moons, Karel G M; Atsma, Femke; Vergouwe, Yvonne

    2013-08-01

    Increased zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels can indicate iron deficiency and may be predictive for low hemoglobin (Hb) deferral in blood donors. Prediction models for Hb deferral in whole blood donors have already been developed. In this study, we examined if addition of ZPP to these prediction models improves risk estimation of Hb deferral. This study included 4598 Dutch whole blood donors. Information on ZPP levels measured at the previous visit was added to the existing prediction models to estimate the risk of Hb deferral. Models were compared using the following measures: concordance (c)-statistic, continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI), and clinical net benefit (NB). Seventy-six male donors (2.9%) and 69 female donors (3.5%) were deferred because of a low Hb level. Previous ZPP level was associated with risk of Hb deferral (odds ratio for interquartile range of previous ZPP level, men 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.7-2.3]; women 2.2 [95% CI, 1.9-2.4]) in a multivariable risk model. Addition of ZPP into the models resulted in an increase of the c-statistic from 0.93 to 0.94 for men and from 0.80 to 0.85 for women. The added value of ZPP was confirmed by measures of clinical usefulness. NRI for men was 0.42, and for women, 0.56. At relevant threshold probabilities between 10 and 15%, NB was higher for models considering ZPP. This study shows that ZPP measurements obtained at the previous visit may have added value in the risk prediction of Hb deferral in whole blood donors. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as rheumatoid arthritis HIGHER THAN NORMAL HEMOGLOBIN High hemoglobin level is most often caused by low oxygen ... and other severe lung disorders Other reasons for high hemoglobin level includes: A rare bone marrow disease that ...

  10. Prediction of glycated hemoglobin levels at 3 months after metabolic surgery based on the 7-day plasma metabolic profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Nam Kwon

    Full Text Available Metabolic surgery has been shown to provide better glycemic control for type 2 diabetes than conventional therapies. Still, the outcomes of the surgery are variable, and prognostic markers reflecting the metabolic changes by the surgery are yet to be established. NMR-based plasma metabolomics followed by multivariate regression was used to test the correlation between the metabolomic profile at 7-days after surgery and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels at 3-months (and up to 12 months with less patients, and to identify the relevant markers. Metabolomic profiles at 7-days could differentiate the patients according to the HbA1c improvement status at 3-months. The HbA1c values were predicted based on the metabolomics profile with partial least square regression, and found to be correlated with the observed values. Metabolite analysis suggested that 3-Hydroxybutyrate (3-HB and glucose contributes to this prediction, and the [3-HB]/[glucose] exhibited a modest to good correlation with the HbA1c level at 3-months. The prediction of 3-month HbA1c using 7-day metabolomic profile and the suggested new criterion [3-HB]/[glucose] could augment current prognostic modalities and help clinicians decide if drug therapy is necessary.

  11. Hemoglobin level predicts outcome for vulvar cancer patients independent of GLUT-1 and CA-IX expression in tumor tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Hullu, J.A. de; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia has been associated with poor prognosis in several solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoxia-associated markers glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-IX expression and preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels correlate with presence

  12. [Prospective cohort study of the predictive value of hemoglobin levels for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen; Zhang, Bei; Miao, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Zou, Yuan; Li, Yuhua; Yao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To assess the predictive value of hemoglobin (HGB) levels for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by performing a prospective cohort study of NAFLD incidence in a healthy population. A total of 2840 individuals in the Xinjiang province were enrolled in the study from 2008 to 2011, based on liver ultrasound showing no evidence of fatty liver disease and the discovery of no major risk factors upon interview. All participants completed an epidemiological questionnaire survey, a physical examination, an abdominal ultrasonography, and gave blood for biochemistry testing. The hazard ratios of NAFLD were compared when the participants were grouped according to HGB level (g/L in quintiles): Q1, less than or equal to 145 for males and less than or equal to 123 for females; Q2, > 145 to less than or equal to 151 for males and > 123 to less than or equal to 129 for females; Q3, > 151 to less than or equal to 155 for males and >129 to less than or equal to 134 for females; Q4, > 155 to less than or equal to 161 for males and > 134 to less than or equal to 139 for females; Q5, > 161 for males and > 139 for females. Between-group comparison of measurement data was carried out by t-test and of percentage or count data by chi-square test. Between group comparison of the HGB level was carried out by one-way ANOVA. The prospective association between HGB levels and NAFLD was assessed by conditioned logistic regression analysis. The values of body mass index, blood pressure, and triglyceride level were significantly higher in the participants with elevated serum uric acid quartiles. Within the 3-year study period, NAFLD was newly diagnosed in 19.6% of the male participants and 10.1% of the female participants; the difference between males and females reached the threshold of statistical significance (X2 = 51.043, P less than 0.01). The incidence of NAFLD in the quintile groups was 6.10% in Q1, 10.50% in Q2, 13.13% in Q3, 16.95% in Q4, and 22.03% in Q5 (X2 = 70.495, P less than

  13. Nadir Hemoglobin Levels after Discontinuation of Epoetin in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Jose A.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Meyer, Klemens B.; Weiner, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: In hemodialysis patients, both hemoglobin variability and targeting normalization of hemoglobin may have adverse consequences. There are few data on epoetin management in patients achieving high hemoglobin levels.

  14. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    .48) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk. The improvement provided by HbA1c assessment in prediction of CVD risk was equal to or better than estimated improvements for measurement of fasting, random, or postload plasma glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In a study of individuals without known CVD...... and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. The C......IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction...

  15. Determinants of hemoglobin level in adolescence students at Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Hemoglobin (Hb) level could be affected by different interfering factors that include nutritional, socio-demographical, economical, and habitual determinant factors. The present study was designed to identify possible factors that could affect the hemoglobin level in adolescence students (14-22 years) at Gaza Strip, ...

  16. Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-08

    protein that transports oxygen in the body by binding oxygen from the air that is inhaled into the lungs, carrying it throughout the circulatory system ...hemoglobin in the tissues. This classic relationship between hemoglobin structure and function has become a model for the study of cooperative protein systems ...will be 6 required to define precisely the connection between hemoglobin structure and the thermodynamics of 02 binding. Thus, understanding the

  17. Effect of hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients with asymptomatic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, R N; Parfrey, P S; Morgan, J; Barré, P E; Campbell, P; Cartier, P; Coyle, D; Fine, A; Handa, P; Kingma, I; Lau, C Y; Levin, A; Mendelssohn, D; Muirhead, N; Murphy, B; Plante, R K; Posen, G; Wells, G A

    2000-09-01

    Hemoglobin levels below 10 g/dL lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, a lower quality of life, higher cardiac morbidity, and a higher mortality rate in end-stage renal disease. The benefits and risks of normalizing hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease are unknown. One hundred forty-six hemodialysis patients with either concentric LV hypertrophy or LV dilation were randomly assigned to receive doses of epoetin alpha designed to achieve hemoglobin levels of 10 or 13.5 g/dL. The study duration was 48 weeks. The primary outcomes were the change in LV mass index in those with concentric LV hypertrophy and the change in cavity volume index in those with LV dilation. In patients with concentric LV hypertrophy, the changes in LV mass index were similar in the normal and low target hemoglobin groups. The changes in cavity volume index were similar in both targets in the LV dilation group. Treatment-received analysis of the concentric LV hypertrophy group showed no correlation between the change in mass index and a correlation between the change in LV volume index and mean hemoglobin level achieved (8 mL/m2 per 1 g/dL hemoglobin decrement, P = 0.009). Mean hemoglobin levels and the changes in LV mass and cavity volume index were not correlated in patients with LV dilation. Normalization of hemoglobin led to improvements in fatigue (P = 0.009), depression (P = 0.02), and relationships (P = 0.004). Normalization of hemoglobin does not lead to regression of established concentric LV hypertrophy or LV dilation. It may, however, prevent the development of LV dilation, and it leads to improved quality of life.

  18. Hemoglobin A1c values are affected by hemoglobin level and gender in non‐anemic Koreans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bae, Ji Cheol; Suh, Sunghwan; Jin, Sang‐Man; Kim, Se Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong‐Ki; Lee, Myung‐Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jeon, Won Seon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Kwang‐Won

    2014-01-01

    ... and hemoglobin glycation could influence HbA1c values independent of glycemia . Thus, the relationship between mean glycemia and the HbA1c value might not be the same in all people . The HbA1c result is calculated as the ratio of glycated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin , suggesting that the hemoglobin level could affect HbA1c test results independently o...

  19. Correlation of serum leptin with levels of hemoglobin in hemodialysis

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    Rafieian-Kopaei Mahmoud

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the association of serum leptin level with anemia in hemodialysis, we investigated 36 patients (males: 21, diabetics: 11 under regular hemodialysis. For patients, complete blood counts, iron profile, serum leptin, and adequacy of hemodialysis were assessed. In this study a significant correlation of serum leptin with level of hemoglobin and body mass index was detected. An association between serum leptin and total iron binding capacity was observed. No correlation of serum ferritin with leptin level was seen. Our findings attest previous findings showing that greater serum leptin levels are associated with greater hemoglobin levels.

  20. Hemoglobin level as the prognostic factor for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemoglobin level as the prognostic factor for patients with carcinoma cervix receiving radiation therapy. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... (Hb) level on local control and pelvic disease-free and overall disease-free survival in patients with carcinoma of the cervix receiving radiation therapy. Material ...

  1. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  2. Characterization of lean patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: potential role of high hemoglobin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Umit; Yesil, Atakan; Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, a minority of NAFLD patients have a body mass index (BMI) hemoglobin, a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and less severe hepatic fibrosis. In NAFLD patients with overweight/obesity, diabetes was the only independent predictor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In lean NAFLD, the only variable independently associated with NASH was hemoglobin. Alanine aminotransferase and diabetes were independent predictors of fibrosis ≥2 in NAFLD patients with overweight/obesity, whereas hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of fibrosis ≥2 in lean NAFLD. In summary, lean NAFLD patients are younger and show less severe hepatic fibrosis. However, such subjects have higher hemoglobin levels, which seem to predict the histological severity.

  3. The Relationship Between Hemoglobin Level and Intellectual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Nancy

    In a study to learn whether or not poor nutrition, as indicated by low hemoglobin levels, affects intelligence and behavior, 113 Head Start children in Missoula, Montana took part. Group testing with the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test and individual testing with the Wechsler and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  4. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  5. Virucidal levels of ozone induce hemolysis and hemoglobin degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S.J.; Wagner, K.F.; Friedman, L.I.; Benade, L.F. (Jerome H. Holland Laboratory for the Biomedical Sciences, American Red Cross, Rockville, MD (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and the bacterial virus, phi 6, were inactivated by greater than 4 log10 in response to incubation with 13 to 14 mL of 1.4 mmol per L (65 micrograms/mL) to 1.6 mmol per L (75 micrograms/mL) of overlaid ozone in virus-spiked, dilute, red cell suspensions. Virus inactivation was greatly inhibited when ozone was overlaid in the presence of high-hematocrit red cells or, to a lesser degree, high levels of plasma. At hematocrits at which 5 to 6 log10 of VSV were inactivated, ozone caused 30-percent hemolysis, as measured by the loss of total cellular hemoglobin. Unexpectedly, this level of hemolysis could not be observed in supernatants because of the ozone-induced destruction (bleaching) of extracellular hemoglobin. These results suggest that ozone may have little biological specificity for damaging viruses over red cells.

  6. Reaching Target Hemoglobin Level and Having a Functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    documented measure of dialysis adequacy (HR = 2.7, P =0.00), poor functional capacity (HR = 2.4, P = 0.00), lack of a functioning AV fistula (HR = 2.0, P = 0.00), age . 65 years (HR = 1.6, P = 0.02) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.5, P = 0.04). Patients with hemoglobin level < 10 g/dl had significantly lower survival rates ...

  7. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive correlation between BMI with fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin emphasizes the importance of maintenance of normal BMI to prevent early onset of type 2 diabetes

  8. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, B.A.; Vogelzangs, N.; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  9. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially

  10. Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Nadelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aim of this study is to determine if HbA1c levels are a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. 200 unique patients referred for liver transplantation at University of Tennessee/Methodist University Transplant Institute with a HbA1c result were included. Three glucose levels prior to the “measured” A1c (MA1c were input into an HbA1c calculator from the American Diabetes Association website to determine the “calculated” A1c (CA1c. The differences between MA1c and CA1c levels were computed. Patients were divided into three groups: group A, difference of 1.5. Results. 97 (49% patients had hemoglobin A1c of less than 5%. Discordance between calculated and measured HbA1c of >0.5% was seen in 47% (n=94. Higher level of discordance of greater than >1.5 was in 12% of patients (n=24. Hemoglobin was an independent predictor for higher discordance (odds ratio 0.77 95%, CI 0.60–0.99, and p value 0.04. HbA1c was an independent predictor of occurrence of HCC (OR 2.69 955, CI 1.38–5.43, and p value 0.008. Conclusion. HbA1c is not a reliable predictor of glycemic control in patients with decompensated cirrhosis, especially in those with severe anemia.

  11. Starting hemoglobin value predicts early phase prognosis after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G-Q; Bai, D-S; Chen, P; Fan, J; Tan, J-W; Peng, M-H

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the relationship between starting hemoglobin (Hb) value and early phase prognosis after liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between the starting Hb value and the early phase prognosis after OLT by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of 102 consecutive recipients. Within this cohort, 47 patients had pulmonary complications after OLT, including eight cases of pulmonary edema, 12 cases of acute lung injury, six cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 21 cases of pneumonia. According to whether the patients had pulmonary complications or not, they were categorized into the "no" versus the pulmonary complication groups. Twenty-two perioperative variables were analyzed in both groups to screen for variables that affected early pulmonary complications. A starting Hb ≤ 100 g/L was an independent risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications. The duration to initial passage of flatus and the intensive care unit length of stay were significantly prolonged in patients with starting Hb values ≤ 100 g/L; these patients had poorer arterial blood gas analyses. The starting Hb value predicted the early phase prognosis after OLT for cirrhosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemoglobin levels and new-onset heart failure in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, IJsbrand T.; Postmus, Douwe; Voors, Adriaan A.; Brouwers, Frank P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Hillege, Hans L.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Meer, Peter

    Background In established cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), low hemoglobin levels are associated with unfavorable outcome. Whether hemoglobin levels are associated with the development of new-onset HF in the population is unclear. This study sought to investigate the relationship

  14. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  15. Hemoglobin levels in persons with depressive and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever-van Milligen, Bianca A; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-04-01

    Both low and high hemoglobin levels lead to more physical diseases, and both are linked to mortality. Low hemoglobin, often classified as anemia, has also been linked to more depressive symptoms, but whether both hemoglobin extremes are associated with depressive disorder and potentially also with anxiety disorder has not been examined before. This study examines to which extent hemoglobin levels are associated with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort. The study sample consisted of 2920 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Hemoglobin levels were determined after venipuncture. Depressive and anxiety disorders were determined according to a DSM-IV-based psychiatric interview. Clinical psychiatric characteristics included the severity of depression and anxiety, the duration of symptoms, the age of onset and the antidepressant use. Higher hemoglobin levels were found in those with current depressive and/or anxiety disorders after sociodemographic adjustment and both higher, and lower hemoglobin levels were found in persons with higher depression and anxiety severity. However, after full adjustment for sociodemographics, disease indicators and lifestyle, associations were no longer significant. This cohort study showed that there is no independent association between depressive and/or anxiety disorders and hemoglobin levels or anemia status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation between blood lead level and hemoglobin level in mitrovica children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-10-01

    Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U '= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood.

  17. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  18. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched ..... This reduced red blood cell lifespan in the subjects is due to premature hemolysis. Furthermore, lower socioeconomic status was associated with significant reduction in mean hemoglobin.

  19. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Liao, Yu-Kuei; Hsiao, Li-Chen; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Tok, Teck-Siang; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-10-12

    To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years) who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI), levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%), more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, pHemoglobin levels had a significant linear correlation with ALT levels in both genders. Abnormal ALT started to occur if hemoglobin >11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 24.7 (15.0-40.6) for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2); 5.5 (2.9-10.4) for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2); 2.7 (1.3-5.5) for Q5 (top 20th percentile) hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1) for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  20. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  1. The relationship between Type D Personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Pelle, A.J.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore,

  2. Association between post-dialysis hemoglobin level and the survival of vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Ikenoue, Tatsuyoshi; Tominaga, Naoto; Yazawa, Masahiko; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-10-24

    Although a few dialysis facilities conduct a complete blood cell count for some patients at post-dialysis, including hemoglobin, clinical findings supporting the interpretation of results are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between post-dialysis hemoglobin level and vascular access failure with clinical data. Study design: Case crossover design. Setting: Japanese dialysis facilities, which routinely take post-dialysis blood samples, including complete blood cell counts at least once a month. Participants: Hemodialysis patients who experienced vascular access failure in January 2010 until December 2014. Exposure: Post-dialysis hemoglobin level. Main outcome: Vascular access failure treated with endovascular treatment or operation. Statistical analysis: Self-matched odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by comparing post-dialysis hemoglobin just before events ("case") with levels at 6 and 12 months before events ("control") using conditional logistic regression, and presented with restricted cubic spline. Two hundred and thirty hemodialysis patients with vascular access failure were identified. Mean post-dialysis hemoglobin level before the failure was 11.8 g/dL (standard deviation 1.7). The spline curve showed that higher post-dialysis hemoglobin levels above 11.8 g/dL had a greater odds ratio for vascular access failure. Post-dialysis hemoglobin levels and odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for vascular access failure relative to the reference value (Hb 11.8 g/dL) were Hb 12.0 g/dL, 1.1 (1.0-1.1); Hb 14.0 g/dL, 1.4 (1.0-2.0); and Hb 16.0 g/dL, 2.1 (1.1-4.3). A higher post-dialysis hemoglobin level was associated with vascular access failure. Higher post-dialysis Hb could be a factor that triggers vascular access failure.

  3. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Phemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal...

  4. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  5. Effect modification by transferrin C2 polymorphism on lead exposure, hemoglobin levels, and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ananya; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David; Schwartz, Joel; Modali, Rama; Wright, Robert O; Palaniappan, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2013-09-01

    Iron deficiency and lead exposure remain significant public health issues in many parts of the world and are both independently associated with neurocognitive deficits. Polymorphisms in iron transport pathways have been shown to modify the absorption and toxicity of lead. We hypothesized that the transferrin (TF) C2 polymorphism modifies the effects of lead and hemoglobin on intelligence. Children aged 3-7 years (N=708) were enrolled from 12 primary schools in Chennai, India. The Binet-Kamath Scale of Intelligence were administered to ascertain intelligence quotient (IQ). Venous blood was analyzed for lead and hemoglobin levels. Genotyping for the TF C2 polymorphism (rs1049296) was carried out using a MassARRAY iPLEXTM platform. Stratified analyses and interaction models, using generalized estimating equations, were examined to explore interactions between lead, hemoglobin, and TF C2 categories. A one-unit increase in log blood lead and 1g/dl higher hemoglobin was associated with -77 (95% CI: -136, -18) and 17 (95% CI 14, 21) IQ points, respectively, among children carrying the C2 variant. In comparison, among children who had the homozygous wildtype allele, the same increment of lead and hemoglobin were associated with -21(95% CI: -65, 24) and 28 (95% CI: 15, 40) IQ points, respectively. There was a significant interaction between lead (p=0.04) and hemoglobin (p=0.07) with the C2 variant. Children who carry the TF C2 variant may be more susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of lead exposure and less protected by higher levels of hemoglobin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemoglobin levels as a component of the paraneoplastic syndrome in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslanagić Selma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some studies indicate that paraneoplastic syndrome may be the first sign of lung cancer and may serve in early detection of cancer. Namely, during the last ten years, an increasing importance is given to hematological paraneoplastic syndrome of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hemoglobin levels have paraneoplastic nature in patients diagnosed with lung cancer prior to any form of therapy, and to examine its relationships with platelet count. The study included 239 patients with lung cancer who were hospitalized at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Center of Sarajevo, during the period from January 2005 to December 2008, and a control group of 60 healthy persons. The study did not include lung cancer patients with evident hemoptysis and patients who were under chemotherapy and/or were undergoing surgery. The results of our study have shown that the average hemoglobin for each histopathological type of lung cancer was significantly lower than the average hemoglobin in control group, except for large cell carcinoma. Lung cancers are classified according to the TNM classification. There were no significant differences in average hemoglobin between different stage of non small cell lung carcinoma as well as in average hemoglobin between limited and extended stage of small cell lung carcinoma. Our results also showed that there was a significant negative correlation between platelet count and hemoglobin levels. On the basis of our results we concluded that low hemoglobin in patients with lung cancer, with no evident hemoptysis, may have the character of paraneoplastic syndrome.

  7. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  8. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-related cardiovascular risk: Is there an association with blood hemoglobin levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoglu, Alpaslan; Kara, Muammer

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. There is emerging evidence on the relationship between NAFLD and increased cardiovascular risk. NAFLD is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, but several other entities play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD more than metabolic syndrome. Currently, studies suggest that elevated hemoglobin levels are associated not only with the existence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but also with the severity of hepatic fibrosis. In this review, we aimed to discuss the potential role of high hemoglobin levels in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NAFLD-associated cardiovascular risk.

  10. The epidemiology of hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Tsalamandris, Con; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George

    2006-10-01

    Anemia is a common finding in patients with diabetes, for whom it constitutes an additional burden. The aim of this study is to clarify the natural history of anemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and describe factors that predict a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb) levels. A 5-year prospective cohort study was designed as a follow-up of 503 individuals with type 2 diabetes in a single diabetes clinic. In addition to standard management, a full blood count was obtained at each routine visit. No intervention was undertaken to modify Hb levels. At baseline, 12% of patients had anemia, and an additional 13% developed anemia during follow-up. Overall Hb levels decreased by -0.07 +/- 0.01 g/dL/y, suggesting that anemia is the end point of a process that begins more than 10 years previously with the initiation of vascular damage. The greatest decreases in Hb levels were seen in patients with macroalbuminuria, renal impairment, or established macrovascular disease at baseline (all P disease, decreasing Hb levels tracked with decreasing glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). Patients with an estimated GFR greater than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (>1.5 mL/s) or normoalbuminuria had stable Hb levels during the 5-year follow-up. In patients with anemia in our cohort who were managed conservatively, Hb levels decreased by 0.09 +/- 0.03 g/dL/y. This decrease was associated with HbA1c levels, but not renal function. This study defines the natural history of Hb levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Early identification of anemia may be achieved by means of annual or biannual screening in high-risk groups with nephropathy, advanced age, or macrovascular disease. These data are important for developing a rational response to the prevention and management of anemia.

  11. Bone density and hemoglobin levels in older persons: results from the InCHIANTI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesari, M.; Pahor, M.; Lauretani, F.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bartali, B.; Russo, R.; Cherubini, A.; Woodman, R.; Bandinelli, S.; Guralnik, J.M.; Ferrucci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxemia has been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of bone mass and density measures with anemia and hemoglobin levels in a large sample of older community-dwelling persons. The study is based on data from 950 participants

  12. Elderly patients affected by glioblastoma treated with radiotherapy: the role of serum hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Alba; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the role of serum hemoglobin level for elderly patients with glioblastoma treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patients older than 65 years with glioblastoma, who underwent surgical resection/biopsy and RT, were evaluated. Total doses were 30 or 60 Gy:30 Gy in 10 or 5 fractions (palliative approach) and 60 Gy in 30 fractions (standard approach). In the standard approach, temozolomide was administered concomitantly and adjuvantly to RT. Before starting and weekly during RT, serum hemoglobin level was assessed for all patients. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to classify patients. From 2005 to 2011, 45 patients (median age 71 years) were treated in our institution. Hemoglobin level less than 12 was confirmed in 11 patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8 and 13 months, respectively. Only RPA class and extent of surgery correlated to PFS (p = .002, p = .04, respectively). RPA class, surgery, and RT dose affected OS (p = .003, p = .02, p = .03, respectively), whereas age (<70 vs. ≥70 years) and hemoglobin level (<12 vs. ≥12) did not influenced outcome (p = 0.2, p = 0.5, respectively). Our data suggested that extent of surgery and RPA class remain independent prognostic factor, whereas patients' anemia did not adversely affect prognosis in glioblastoma elderly patients.

  13. Blood toxic metals and hemoglobin levels in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Galván, Marcos; González-Unzaga, Marco; Hernández Ávila, Juan; Pérez-Labra, M

    2017-04-01

    Metal toxicity can cause hematologic abnormalities and hemolysis. To evaluate the relationship of anemia with metal contamination in children, the following elements were quantified in dry blood: silicon, chromium, lead, titanium, vanadium, nickel, arsenic, manganese, and cadmium. A total of 88 samples of anemic children and 208 of non-anemic children aged 6-12 years were analyzed. Lead (35.1%), chromium (24.3%), vanadium (24.3%), nickel (45.6%), and silicon (48.6%) were identified in the samples, with titanium only detected in anemic children. The average level of arsenic was higher in anemic than non-anemic children (0.041 ± 0.11 wt% vs 0.014 ± 0.05 wt%, p metals, which confer a health risk, were detected in the dry blood of the children evaluated, and the levels of arsenic and titanium were found to be related to anemia.

  14. Relationship between hemoglobin levels and risk for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver in Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chyi-Huey; Wu, Ming-Shun; Owaga, Eddy; Cheng, Shu-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su

    2014-10-31

    Body iron levels have recently been shown to be a strong predictor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in a general adult population, and to investigate the relationship between body iron levels, NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 2186 adults participated in the third National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 2005-2008). The participants underwent anthropometry measurements and phlebotomy after an overnight fast, and those with excessive alcohol intake, iron overload of serum ferritin > 600 ng/ml, hepatitis viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed by three alanine transaminase (ALT) cut-points: cut-point 1: serum ALT > 40 U/l; cut-point 2: ALT ≥ 25 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 17 U/l for female; and cut-point 3: ALT ≥ 35 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 26 U/l for female. The prevalence proportion of suspected NAFLD among Taiwanese adults was 6.6% (cut-point 1), 36% (cut-point 2); and 14.3% (cut-point 3). Body iron levels were significantly higher in individuals with suspected NAFLD compared with those without. Distribution of hemoglobin levels, but not serum ferritin levels, by decade of age showed strong correlation with the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in individuals with MetS. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) showed that the best predictors for suspected NAFLD with the MetS were hemoglobin [OR 1.43 (1.21-1.68); P hemoglobin [OR 1.25 (1.12-1.41); P hemoglobin levels (14.4 μg/dl for male and 13.2 μg/dl for female) are at the greatest risk for developing abnormal liver function. Hemoglobin test should be considered as a part of clinical evaluation for patients with NAFLD.

  15. Association of aggressive periodontitis with reduced erythrocyte counts and reduced hemoglobin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, P S; Sagar, D K; Ashok, S; Kamath, K P

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown that erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin levels are reduced in patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that this condition may be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Although increased leukocyte counts have been reported in aggressive periodontitis, very little is known about the effects of aggressive periodontitis on erythrocyte counts. The present study was undertaken to determine whether generalized aggressive periodontitis is associated with reduced erythrocyte counts and reduced hemoglobin levels. The present study was conducted as a case-control study in which 64 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis were categorized as cases and 58 periodontally healthy individuals were categorized as controls. Erythrocyte parameters (such as erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit and erythrocyte indices) and clinical parameters (such as gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, clinical attachment level and percentage of severe sites) were recorded. Significant differences were observed between cases and controls in mean erythrocyte count (4.45 ± 0.6 × 10(6) erythrocytes/μL and 4.78 ± 0.56 × 10(6) erythrocytes/μL respectively, p = 0.002) and hemoglobin level (12.43 ± 1.83 g/dL and 13.53 ± 1.64 g/dL, respectively, p = 0.001). Other erythrocyte parameters, such as hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were also significantly lower among cases compared with controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that generalized aggressive periodontitis was significantly associated with lower erythrocyte counts ( p = 0.032) and a lower hemoglobin concentration ( p = 0.017). The findings of the present study suggest that patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis tend to have lower erythrocyte counts and lower hemoglobin levels compared with periodontally healthy controls. This suggests that generalized aggressive periodontitis, like chronic

  16. Hemoglobin combined with triglyceride and ferritin in predicting non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youzhao; Zeng, Jun; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The red blood cells (RBC) count is closely associated with insulin resistance (IR), which is origin of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to investigate the correlation of RBC indices with NAFLD. A total of 977 cases including 446 NAFLD patients and 531 controls were enrolled and examined for biochemical and metabolic indices. RBC, hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), insulin, and ferritin were detected. The IR indicator latest homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and fatty liver index were calculated. The correlation analysis was assessed by Spearman's rank test. Receiver operating characteristic was used to evaluate diagnostic performance. After quartile classification of RBC indices, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the odds ratios (OR) of NAFLD. RBC, HCT, and HGB levels were obviously higher in NAFLD group. RBC, HCT, and HGB showed significant positive correlation with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and NAFLD. Multivariate analysis revealed HGB, ferritin, and triglyceride (TG) as independent parameters associated with NAFLD. The predictive value after combination of HGB with ferritin and TG was equal to fatty liver index. After adjustment for age,body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, TG, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and smoking, comparing the groups with the highest and lowest HGB, HCT, and RBC, the OR (95% confidence intervals) of NAFLD were 2.369 (1.279-4.368) (P  0.05), and 2.332 (0.823-2.550) (P > 0.05) in men. In women, the OR were 2.541 (1.118-5.771), 3.578 (1.464-8.748), and 3.215 (1.387-7.455) (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that HGB combined with TG and ferritin may serve as the indicator of predicting NAFLD. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Increased fetal hemoglobin levels in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV1/2

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    A. Poli-Neto

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Fetal hemoglobin was measured in HIV1/2 patients under treatment with combined therapy (zidovudine and a protease inhibitor. A total of 143 patients and 103 normal individuals were investigated by the quantitative method of Betke and the semi-quantitative acid elution method of Kleihauer. In the normal person, hemoglobin F makes up less than 1% and an increase higher than 1.5% was observed in 21.4% of HIV patients by the method of Betke and in 24.8% of HIV-infected patients by the method of Kleihauer. The quantitative biochemical method of Betke showed that the populations were significantly different (two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The reason for this hemoglobin F increase might be ascribed to the effect of zidovudine or to direct viral action on gamma chain expression. The finding of a higher F cell frequency indicated by the method of Kleihauer rather suggests that there is an increased F cell clone proliferation rather than an increase in hemoglobin F level in every cell.

  18. Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A(1C) Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soranzo, Nicole; Sanna, Serena; Wheeler, Eleanor; Gieger, Christian; Radke, Doerte; Dupuis, Josee; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Stolerman, Elliot; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ricketts, Sally L.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Willenborg, Christina; Wright, Benjamin; Altshuler, David; Arking, Dan; Balkau, Beverley; Barnes, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehm, Bernhard; Bonnefond, Amelie; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Boinstein, Stefan R.; Boettcher, Yvonne; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Burnett-Miller, Mary Susan; Campbell, Harry; Cao, Antonio; Chambers, John; Clark, Robert; Collins, Francis S.; Coresh, Josef; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dei, Mariano; Deloukas, Panos; Doering, Angela; Egan, Josephine M.; Elosua, Roberto; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita; Fox, Caroline S.; Franklin, Christopher; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Gallina, Sophie; Goe, Anuj; Graessler, Juergen; Grallert, Harald; Greinacher, Andreas; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair; Hamsten, Anders; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Simon; Herder, Christian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Illig, Thomas; Jackson, Anne U.; Jula, Antti; Kleber, Marcus; Knouff, Christopher W.; Kong, Augustine; Kooner, Jaspal; Koettgen, Anna; Kovacs, Peter; Krohn, Knut; Kuehne, Brigitte; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lathrop, Mark; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Man; Li, Mingyao; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Maegi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Maelarstig, Anders; Mangino, Massimo; Martinez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Maerz, Winfried; McArdle, Wendy L.; McPherson, Ruth; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mooser, Vincent E.; Morken, Mario A.; Narisu, Narisu; Nathan, David M.; Nauck, Matthias; O'Donne, Chris; Oexle, Konrad; Olla, Nazario; Pankow, James S.; Payne, Felicity; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Polasek, Ozren; Porcu, Eleonora; Rader, Daniel J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Ripatti, Samuli; Rocheleau, Ghislain; Roden, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Saxena, Richa; Schlessinger, David; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter; Seedorf, Udo; Selvin, Elizabeth; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Shrader, Peter; Silveira, Angela; Siscovick, David; Song, Kjioung; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strachan, David P.; Strawbridge, Rona; Stumvoll, Michael; Surakka, Ida; Swift, Amy J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Toenjes, Anke; Usalai, Gianluca; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Gordon H.; Wilson, James F.; Winkelmann, Juliane; Wright, Alan F.; Zabena, Carina; Zhao, Jing Hua; Epstein, Stephen E.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Roberts, Robert; Samani, Nilesh J.; Fleming, Mark D.; Sladek, Robert; Abecasis, Goncalo; Boehnke, Michael; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif; McCarthy, Mark I.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Florez, Jose C.; Uda, Manuela; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Barroso, Ines; Meigs, James B.; van der Hout, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA(1c). We aimed to

  19. What Should the Hemoglobin A1c Level Goal be in Diabetics?

    OpenAIRE

    Aronow WS

    2015-01-01

    An increased hemoglobin A1c level in patients with diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of ischemic stroke, increased severity of coronary artery disease, and an increased severity of peripheral arterial disease. Results from 5 prospective clinical trials which randomized diabetics to intensive blood glucose control or to standard blood glucose control and one retrospective observational study of 26,673 diabetics are discussed. The 5 clinical trials were the United King...

  20. Reticulocyte count and hemoglobin concentration predict survival in candidates for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Bruns, Tony; Hodson, James; Rowe, Ian A C; Corbett, Chris D T; Reuken, Philip A; Gunson, Bridget K; Houlihan, Diarmaid D; Stephenson, Barney; Malessa, Christina; Lester, William; Ferguson, James W

    2014-02-27

    Prognostic scores are used to assess the likelihood of mortality in cirrhosis and the necessity of liver transplantation. These models are imperfect and refinement would allow more accurate prognostication and selection of patients for transplant. This study investigated association of red cell parameters and mortality in liver transplant candidates. Data from patients with cirrhosis assessed for transplantation from 2008 to 2010 at Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, UK were reviewed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used to generate indices predicting mortality. Accuracy of existing and updated models was tested by calculation of c-statistics. Results were validated in a cohort of patients assessed for liver transplant in Jena, Germany. Data were collected from 386 patients in the study cohort. Median follow-up was 15 months (0-45). During follow-up, 151 patients (39%) were transplanted, 138 (36%) died, and 97 (25%) survived without transplant. Abnormal reticulocyte count (Phemoglobin concentration (PLiver Disease (MELD) to incorporate reticulocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (MELD-red) improved predictive power from 0.701 to 0.731 (c-statistics). This was confirmed in an independent validation cohort of 157 patients with c-statistics of 0.787 and 0.816, respectively, for MELD and MELD-red. Abnormal red cell indices, in particular increased reticulocyte count and decreased hemoglobin concentration, are associated with increased risk of death in liver transplant candidates. Refining MELD to incorporate these indices improves prediction of mortality.

  1. EFFECT OF ROSELLE (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA ON CHANGES IN HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ANEMIA TAKING IRON SUPPLEMENT

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    Rif’atun Nisa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is one of the most common disorders in pregnant women in Indonesia. The Government has made efforts to overcome this problem, however, the rate of anemic mothers remains high. Rosella (Hibiscus Sabdariffa is considered able to increase the hemoglobin levels in pregnant mothers. Objective: To analyze the effect of Rosella flower extract (Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the increase of Hemoglobin level in pregnant women with anemia receiving Fe tablet. Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest-posttest control group design conducted in November - December 2016 in the working area of Tlogosari Wetan Community Health Center. Forty-two participants were selected using accidental sampling, which 21 assigned in the experiment and control group. All samples were pregnant women in the second trimester suffering from anemia and receiving iron tablets. Hemoglobin levels were measured using hematology analyzer in laboratory. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Paired t-test obtained p-value 0.00 (<0.05, indicated that there was an increase of hemoglobin levels in both experiment and control group. The mean increase of hemoglobin levels in the control group was 0.61 gr and in the experiment group was 1.08. The hemoglobin levels in the experiment group were higher than the levels in the control group. Independent t-test obtained p-value 0.000 (<0.05 indicating that there was a significant difference of mean of hemoglobin levels between the control group and the treatment group. Conclusion: The consumption of rosella extract combined with Fe tablet showed a significant increase of hemoglobin levels compared with the consumption of Fe tablet alone. Therefore, it is suggested for midwife to use the result of this research as a evidence practice through counseling for pregnant mother about utilization of rosella extract that can increase hemoglobin level in pregnant woman with anemia.

  2. Anemia. Infarto de miocardio. Influence of Hemoglobin Level on In-Hospital Prognosis in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José González-Ferrer, Juan; Carlos García-Rubira, Juan; Vivas Balcones, David; Núñez Gil, Iván; Carda Barrio, Rocío; Fuentes-Ferrer, Manuel; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Many patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) suffer from anemia. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the admission hemoglobin level and the post-admission fall in hemoglobin level on short-term prognosis during hospitalization. This retrospective study involved 542 highrisk ACS patients who were admitted during 2005. The hemoglobin level was recorded on admission and at least every 24 hours thereafter, with anemia being defined according to WHO criteria. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the relationship of the admission hemoglobin level and the fall in hemoglobin level to allcause mortality and cardiogenic shock during hospitalization. During follow-up (median time, 7 days), the incidence of cardiogenic shock or mortality was 6.9% (37 patients). Anemia was present in 147 patients (27.1%) at admission, increasing to 266 patients (49.1%) during hospitalization (P1.8 g/dL (OR=5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-18.8; P=.009). In high-risk ACS patients both the admission hemoglobin level and a subsequent fall in hemoglobin level >1.8 g/dL were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality or cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. High Levels of Hemoglobin Promote Carotid Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Neoangiogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Maria Vittoria Arcidiacono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, characterized by traditional and nontraditional risk factors, are prone to develop atheromatosis and thus cardiovascular events and mortality. The angiogenesis of the adventitial vasa vasorum (aVV surrounding the carotid has been described as the atheromatosis initiator. Therefore, the aim of the study was to (1 evaluate if the carotid aVV in CKD patients increases in comparison to its physiological value of healthy patients; (2 explore which traditional or nontraditional risk factor including inflammation, bone and mineral metabolism, and anemia could be related to the aVV angiogenesis. CKD patients without previous cardiovascular events (44, stages 3-4; 37, stage 5D and 65 healthy subjects were compared. The carotid aVV and the intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated by ultrasound. CKD patients at stages 3-4 showed higher aVV of the right carotid artery even after adjusting for age. Importantly, a multiple linear regression model showed hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dL as the factor for an estimated higher aVV of the right carotid artery. In conclusion, the association of hemoglobin with higher aVV could suggest the role of high hemoglobin in the higher incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients.

  4. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  5. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G. L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G. Y.

    2008-08-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 Å and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ɛ bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases.

  6. Hemoglobin levels related to days of illness, race, and Plasmodium species in Colombian patients with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Felipe; Ramírez, Oscar; Vergara, Juana; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2005-11-01

    Prevalence of malaria-related anemia in disease-endemic regions of the American continents has been poorly studied. We describe the relationships between hemoglobin level and race, Plasmodium species, and days of illness in 150 Colombian patients with uncomplicated malaria diagnosed by thick blood smear. Hemoglobin was measured at admission and a standardized questionnaire was used to determine days of illness and other variables. Associations between hemoglobin and the variables were estimated and adjusted according to the other covariates using regression analysis. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were found in similar proportions and mild anemia was present in 50% of the patients. Volunteers were classified as Afro-Colombians (61%) and non-Afro-Colombians (39%). An inverse relationship between hemoglobin and days of illness was identified, and a statistical interaction was found between race and P. falciparum infection in determining the hemoglobin concentration. These observations could guide the design of research to better understand malarial anemia.

  7. Correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months

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    Fajar Diah Tri Kusumastuti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early detection of iron deficiency is important in young children to prevent iron deficiency anemia, which may cause permanent neurocognitive development disorders. Hemoglobin level is an insensitive tool for detecting iron deficiency without anemia, while serum ferritin levels may be influenced by infection and inflammation. However, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR is a sensitive marker for detecting iron deficiency, yet not widely used in daily practice. Objective To assess for correlations between hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels in children aged 6-59 months. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Yogyakarta and Bantul Districts involving 85 children aged 6-59 months who visited integrated health posts (posyandu and who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were chosen by cluster random sampling. Blood specimens were collected to examine hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and sTfR levels. Results Spearman’s correlation test revealed weak negative correlations between hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels, as well as between hemoglobin and sTfR levels, with coefficient correlations of r = -0.220, (P=0.043 and r = -0.317, (P=0.003, respectively. There was no correlation between serum ferritin and sTfR levels (r = -0.033; P=0.767. Conclusion Hemoglobin levels has weak negative correlations with serum ferritin and sTfR, but serum ferritin does not correlate with sTfR. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:122-6.

  8. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MIXED JUICE MUNG BEAN AND GUAVA FOR INCREASING HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN CANCER PATIENT WITH CHEMOTHERAPY

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    Nurul Huda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in a year. One of therapy in curing cancer is chemotherapy. But unfortunately chemotherapy has some negative effects such as decreasing the level of hemoglobin (Hb. Mung bean that contain a lot of iron and Guava which is rich of vitamin C for iron absorption are useful in cancer patient with chemotherapy. Therefore, a mixture of both is believed in increasing hemoglobin level significantly. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mixed juice mung bean and guava for increasing hemoglobin level in experiment and control group of cancer patient with chemotherapy.This research used Quasi Experiment design with pretest-posttest design control group approach. The total number of respondent was 30 chosen by purposive sampling method. Results of this study showed hemoglobin level in experiment group 14.07 and 10.42 in control group with p value (0,000 < α (0,05. It can be concluded that a mixture juice mung beans and guava effective for increasing hemoglobin level in cancer patient with chemotherapy. This research suggests that this mixture can be an option for nursing intervention in increasing hemoglobin level for cancer patient after receiving chemotherapy.

  9. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ANALYSES BASED ON WHOLE-GENOME SEQUENCING IN SARDINIA PROVIDE INSIGHTS INTO REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Fabrice; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Mulas, Antonella; Perseu, Lucia; Barella, Susanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio; Pitzalis, Maristella; Pala, Mauro; Menzel, Stephan; Metrustry, Sarah; Spector, Timothy D.; Leoni, Lidia; Angius, Andrea; Uda, Manuela; Moi, Paolo; Thein, Swee Lay; Galanello, Renzo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We report GWAS results for the levels of A1, A2 and fetal hemoglobins, analyzed for the first time concurrently. Integrating high-density array genotyping and whole-genome sequencing in a large general population cohort from Sardinia, we detected 23 associations at 10 loci. Five are due to variants at previously undetected loci: MPHOSPH9, PLTP-PCIF1, FOG1, NFIX, and CCND3. Among those at known loci, 10 are new lead variants and 4 are novel independent signals. Half of all variants also showed pleiotropic associations with different hemoglobins, which further corroborated some of the detected associations and revealed features of coordinated hemoglobin species production. PMID:26366553

  10. Hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels as predictors of retinopathy at 10 years: the French DESIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Pascale; Lange, Céline; Tichet, Jean; Vol, Sylviane; Erginay, Ali; Cailleau, Martine; Eschwège, Eveline; Balkau, Beverley

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the predictive values of hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for retinopathy 10 years after the baseline examination. Seven hundred men and women from the DESIR (Data From an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome) Study underwent evaluation for retinopathy using a nonmydriatic digital camera. During the preceding 9 years, 235 had diabetes mellitus (treated or FPG level of ≥126 mg/dL at least once), 227 had an impaired FPG level (110-125 mg/dL) at least once, and 238 always had glucose levels within reference limits (<110 mg/dL). Compared with those without retinopathy, the 44 participants with retinopathy at 10 years had higher baseline mean (SD) levels of FPG (130 [49] vs 106 [22] mg/dL) and HbA(1c) (6.4% [1.6%] vs 5.7% [0.7%]) (both, P < .001). The frequency of retinopathy at 10 years, standardized according to the distribution of glycemia across the entire DESIR population, was 3.6%. In our population, FPG levels of 108 and 116 mg/dL had positive predictive values of 8.4% and 14.0%, respectively, for retinopathy at 10 years; HbA(1c) levels of 6.0% and 6.5% had positive predictive values of 6.0% and 14.8%, respectively. After 10 years of follow-up, retinopathy was equally frequent in participants with impaired FPG levels and in those who became diabetic during the study (8.6% and 6.7%, respectively), lower than in those with diabetes at baseline (13.9%). Because the positive predictive values for retinopathy increase sharply from 108 mg/dL for FPG and from 6.0% for HbA(1c) levels, these thresholds are proposed to identify those at risk of retinopathy 10 years later.

  11. Impact of preoperative levels of hemoglobin and albumin on the survival of pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, J; Martín-Pérez, E; Fernández-Contreras, M E; Reguero-Callejas, M E; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer presents the worst survival rates of all neoplasms. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment, but is associated with high complication rates and outcome is bad even in those resected cases. Therefore, candidates amenable for resection must be carefully selected. Identification of prognostic factors preoperatively may help to improve the treatment of these patients, focusing on individually management based on the expected response. We perform a retrospective study of 59 patients with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma between 1999 and 2003, looking for possible prognostic factors. We analyze 59 patients, 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 63.8 years. All the patients were operated, performing palliative surgery in 32% and tumoral resection in 68%, including pancreaticoduodenectomies in 51% and distal pancreatectomy in 17%. Median global survival was 14 months (Range 1-110).We observed that preoperative levels of hemoglobin under 12 g/dl (p = 0.0006) and serum albumina under 2.8 g/dl (p = 0.021) are associated with worse survival. Preoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumina may be prognostic indicators in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Maternal consumption of flaxseed during lactation affects weight and hemoglobin level of offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila F M F; Soares, Lavínia L; Chagas, Maurício A; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal flaxseed consumption during lactation on the body weight, hematological indicators and visceral fat mass of male offspring in adulthood. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth. During lactation the control group (CG) was fed a casein-based diet and the flaxseed group (FG) was fed a casein-based diet containing 25% flaxseed. After weaning, male offspring were fed on commercial chow until adulthood and euthanized at 170 days for blood collection and visceral fat mass assessment. Offspring of rats in the FG had lower body weight (FG = 42.69+/-3.06 g; CG = 47.31+/-4.72 g; p = 0.036) at weaning. At 170 days, lower hemoglobin levels were observed in the FG (FG = 12.30+/-1.28 g/dL; CG = 13.88+/-0.91 g/dL; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in visceral fat mass between groups. Maternal consumption of a flaxseed-based diet during lactation resulted in lower body weight at weaning and lower hemoglobin levels in adulthood, when compared with the control group.

  13. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  14. Low Hemoglobin Levels and Risk of Developing Depression in the Elderly: Results From the Prospective PRO.V.A. Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Caterina; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Correll, Christoph U; Zambon, Sabina; Musacchio, Estella; Sartori, Leonardo; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Solmi, Marco; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    presence of anemia (P = .05). Low baseline hemoglobin strongly predicted incident depression in older men, but not in women.​.

  15. Association of maternal blood pressure and hemoglobin level with organochlorines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M K J; Nigam, U; Srivastava, S; Tejeshwar, D S; Chandrawati

    2002-01-01

    Milk samples of women from the general population in Lucknow were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography to determine the concentration of organochlorine pesticides and their possible association with maternal characteristics. p,p'-DDT (dichloro diphenyltrichloroethane), p,p-DDE (dichloro diphenyltrichloroethylene), p,p'-DDD (dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane), alpha, beta gamma and delta isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and aldrin were detected. The calculated daily intake of DDT and HCH by the neonates exceeded their acceptable daily intake (ADI) set by the WHO. A statistically significant association was noted between alpha-HCH residues in milk and hemoglobin (Hb) level in maternal blood (P milk and diastolic blood pressure of mother (P negative relationship between p,p'-DDE level in mother's milk and birthweight of the baby was also noticed (P milk and assess their impact on mother and on neonatal health.

  16. EFFECT OF CONSUMING PAPAYA (CARICA PAPAYA LINN. ON THE LEVEL OF HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRIT IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ANEMIA

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    Choralina Eliagita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was still high in Indonesia, especially in Bengkulu. Consuming papaya is considered as one of the solutions to increase hemoglobin and hematocrit level. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of consuming papaya on the level of hemoglobin and hematocrit in pregnant women. Methods: This study employed a true experiment with randomized pretest and posttest design with control group. There were 42 respondents recruited in this study using simple random sampling. Randomization was performed to divide the samples into two groups, namely 21 respondents in the treatment group and 21 respondents in the control group. A total of 110 grams of papaya was given to the intervention group every day for 14 days. Data were analyzed using dependent t-test and independent t-test. Result: There was a significant effect of consuming papaya on the hemoglobin and hematocrit level with p-value 0.000 (< .05. The mean difference between two groups showed that hemoglobin level (control group 10.010 gr/dL; intervention group 10.838 gr/dL and hematocrit level (control group 27.43 %; intervention group 30.10 %. Conclusion: Consuming papaya has a significant effect on changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. It is suggested that consuming papaya should be one of alternative treatment for midwives to prevent anemia in pregnant women.

  17. Correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life

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    Rosa de Fátima da Silva Vieira Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation between hemoglobin levels of mothers and their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 221 binomials (mother-child enrolled in a breastfeeding support program, who were stratified into six groups according to the children's age group. The sample consisted of children born at term with normal weight, with no neonatal complications and whose mothers did not have anemia or infectious disease at the time of data collection. Interviews were carried out with the mothers, blood was collected by peripheral venipuncture from mothers and children, and children's anthropometric data were assessed. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the hemoglobin levels of mothers and children were calculated. Six multiple linear regression models were adjusted with regression coefficient estimates, considering as statistically significant associations with p ≤ 0.05. Results: The correlation coefficients of hemoglobin levels of mothers and children ranged from 0.253, at three months, to 0.601, at five months. The hemoglobin level of mothers was correlated with the hemoglobin level of their children at four months (r = 0.578 and at five months (r = 0.601. In the adjusted multiple linear regression, the regression coefficients were higher at four months (β = 1.134; p = 0.002 and at five months (β = 0.845; p < 0.001. Conclusion: These findings allow for the conclusion that there is a correlation between the hemoglobin of mothers and the hemoglobin of their children on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life.

  18. Association of Hemoglobin levels and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses in Lead-Exposed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Decreased blood hemoglobin (HbB) levels and anemia have been associated with abnormal brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Lead (Pb) exposure has also been associated with anemia and aberrant BAER. This study investigated the relationship between HbB level and BAER wave latency and amplitude in Pb-exposed Andean children. Design and methods Sixty-six children aged 2 to 15 years (mean age: 9.1; SD: 3.3) living in Pb-contaminated villages were screened for HbB levels, blood Pb (PbB) levels and BAER latencies and amplitudes. Results The mean HbB level observed in the study group was 11.9 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 8.6–14.8 g/dL). The mean HbB level corrected for altitude was 10.3 g/dL (SD: 1.4; range: 6.9–13.1 g/dL), and suggestive of anemia. The mean PbB level was 49.3 μg/dL (SD: 30.1; range: 4.4–119.1 μg/dL) and indicative of Pb poisoning. Spearman Rho correlation analyses revealed significant associations between the BAER absolute latencies and HbB level, indicating that as the HbB level decreased, the BAER wave latency increased. Children with low HbB levels (≤11 g/dL) showed significantly prolonged absolute latencies of waves I, II, III, IV and V compared to the children with normal HbB levels. Although a significant relationship between HbB and BAER waves was observed, no significant associations between PbB level and BAER parameters were found. Conclusion Low hemoglobin levels may diminish auditory sensory-neural function, and is therefore an important variable to consider when assessing BAER in children with anemia and/or Pb exposure. PMID:22735387

  19. Hemoglobin levels and blood pressure are associated in rural black Africans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Bjarke Jarløv; Mwaniki, David L; Kaduka, Lydia U

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between blood levels of hemoglobin (B-hgb) and blood pressure (BP) has been widely investigated in Caucasians and Asians but there is a paucity of data in rural black Africans. The objective was to investigate the association between B-hgb and BP in a rural black African...... test were obtained in each participant. RESULTS: Background characteristics among 1,167 participants showed that anemic and non-anemic participants differed significantly from each other as there were more women, lower body mass index and waist circumference (WC), lower degree of hepatic insulin......-cholesterol, WC, Log2(HOMA2-IR), ethnicity, and smoking status-revealed that B-hgb (per mmol/l increment) was significantly associated with systolic BP (estimate: 1.18 (0.37-1.98)) and diastolic BP (estimate: 1.06 (0.54-1.57)) (P black Africans. Am. J...

  20. Self Reported Halitosis in Relation to Glycated Hemoglobin Level in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S; Zawawi, Khalid H; Austah, Obadah N; Al-Ghamdi, Hamed S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between the glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and halitosis status among diabetic patients affected with periodontitis and to examine if there is a relationship between halitosis and different periodontal parameters. Methods and Materials: Consecutive type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from patients presented for treatment at a University hospital. Age, gender and smoking were recorded. A structured questionnaire on patients’ perception of their oral health, halitosis and diabetes severity and control was completed. Peripheral blood samples were obtained and analyzed for HbA1c levels. In addition, periodontal clinical parameters including probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing and plaque scores were recorded. Results: A total of 38 type 2 diabetic patients were selected. The mean age was 52.1 (±8.8) years. Sixteen subjects (42.1%) reported halitosis. Of these, 62.5% were females, and only one subject was a current smoker. The mean levels of HbA1c were significantly different between those with and without halitosis, mean 9.6 (±2) and 8.2 (±1.6), respectively (p=0.03). No significant differences were found in the mean periodontal parameters between those with and without halitosis. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest an association between halitosis and increased levels of HbA1c. Further studies are needed to explain the nature of this association. PMID:21966334

  1. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Nonhuman Apes at Moderate Altitudes: A Comparison with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wilfong, DeeAnn

    2016-12-01

    Mortola, Jacopo P. and DeeAnn Wilfong. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of nonhuman apes at moderate altitudes: a comparison with humans. High Alt Med Biol. 17:323-335, 2016.-We asked to what extent the hematologic response (increase in hematocrit [Hct] and in blood hemoglobin concentration [Hb]) of humans to altitude hypoxia was shared by our closest relatives, the nonhuman apes. Data were collected from 29 specimens of 7 species of apes at 2073 m altitude (barometric pressure Pb = 598 mm Hg); additional data originated from apes located at a lower altitude (1493 m, Pb = 639 mm Hg). The human altitude profiles of Hct and Hb between sea level and 3000 m were constructed from a compilation of literature sources that (all combined) comprised data sets of 10,000-12,000 subjects for each gender. These human data were binned for 0-250 m altitude (sea level) and for each 500 m of progressively higher altitudes. Values of Hb and Hct of both men and women were significantly higher than at sea level at the 1500 bin (1250-1750 m); hence, the altitude threshold for the human hematological responses must be between 1000 and 1500 m. In the nonhuman apes, no increase in Hct or Hb was apparent at 1500 m; at 2000 m, the increase was significant only for the Hb of females. At either altitude in the group of nonhuman apes, the increase in Hct was much less than in humans, and that of Hb was significantly less at 1500 m. We conclude that lack of, or minimal, hematopoietic response to moderate altitude can occur in mammalian species that are not genetically adapted to high altitudes. Polycythemia is not a common response to altitude hypoxia and, at least at moderate altitudes, the degree of the human response may represent the exception among apes rather than the rule.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea increases hemoglobin A1c levels regardless of glucose tolerance status.

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    Tamura, Akira; Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Toru; Kadota, Junichi

    2012-09-01

    We sought to clarify the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. HbA1c levels were measured in 330 subjects who were suspected of having OSA and who underwent polysomnography. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 308 subjects who had not been diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus. Patients with use of hypoglycemic agents were excluded. The 330 subjects were divided into three subgroups: 164 with normal glucose tolerance, 111 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 55 with diabetes mellitus (DM). Univariate regression analyses showed that natural logarithm(Ln)age, Lnbody mass index, hypertension, DM, Lnapnea-hypopnea index, Lnarousal index, and Lnlowest arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (L-SpO(2)) were associated with LnHbA1c. A multiple regression analysis showed that Lnage (β=0.16, P=0.003), DM (β=0.39, P<0.001), and Ln L-SpO(2) (β=-0.29, P<0.001) were associated with LnHbA1c. Subgroup analyses showed that Ln L-SpO(2) was independently associated with LnHbA1c in each subgroup. L-SpO(2) was independently associated with HbA1c regardless of the glucose tolerance status. This suggests that OSA-induced hypoxia could increase an individual's average blood glucose level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of genetic variability on the correlation between blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Antonacci, Elena; Cozzoli, Eliana; De Acetis, Christine; Bottini, Egidio

    2011-02-01

    The disturbing results of recent clinical trials aimed to control cardiovascular risk of diabetes by aggressive control of blood glucose prompted us to analyze the effect of genetic variability of 2 polymorphic enzymes abundant in red blood cells on the correlation between blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb). Two hundred eighty subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied. Adenylate kinase locus 1 (AK₁) and acid phosphatase locus 1 were determined. Correlation between blood glucose and glycated Hb was determined for phenotypes of the 2 systems. The correlation between blood glucose and glycated Hb is higher in carriers of AK₁*2 allele than in subjects with AK₁1 phenotype. The highest coefficient is observed in acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes with the highest enzymatic activity; and the lowest, in phenotypes with the lowest activity. Effects of sex, blood glucose level, age, age at onset, and duration of disease have been also considered. Our data are in agreement with recent observation in healthy subjects suggesting a role of genetic factors on glycated Hb level. If glycation of structural and functional protein is dependent not only on blood glucose level but also on genetic factors, these factors could have an important role in the susceptibility and clinical course of diabetes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonsurgical periodontal-therapy improves glycosylated hemoglobin levels in pre-diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rosamma; Sasikumar, Meera; Mammen, Jerry; Joseraj, M G; Radhakrishnan, Chandni

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycosylated haemoglobin levels in pre-diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis (CHP). Sixty pre-diabetic patients with CHP were selected and equally allocated to case and control group. All subjects were evaluated at base line for periodontal parameters (plaque index, oral hygiene index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level) and systemic parameters [glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose]. The case group received non-surgical periodontal therapy. Subjects were re-evaluated for periodontal and systemic parameters after three months. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Three months after non surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT), there was significant improvement in periodontal parameters in case group. The mean difference in systemic parameters like HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose from baseline to fourth month for case group was 0.22 ± 0.11 and 3.90 ± 8.48 respectively and control group was -0.056 ± 0.10 and -1.66 ± 6.04 respectively, which was significant between case and control group (P periodontal inflammation could affect the glycemic control in otherwise systemically healthy individuals. Periodontal therapy improved periodontal health status and decreased glycosylated haemoglobin levels, thus reducing the probability of occurrence of inflammation induced prediabetes in patients with CHP.

  5. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kody K; Lee, Christopher; Myung, Karen; Johnston, Charles; Shah, Suken A; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Skaggs, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study examines preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in a group of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients and the effect of distraction-based growing rods (GRs) on these levels. Children with EOS are at risk for respiratory insufficiency and chronic hypoxemia. Increased Hgb and Hct levels have been identified as surrogate markers for chronic hypoxemia. A study of patients who underwent VEPTR surgery showed a significant decrease in Hgb levels following surgery. Data were retrospectively collected on 66 EOS patients without confounding respiratory issues or oxygen dependence who were treated with GRs at 5 institutions. Average age at initial surgery was 5.5 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (average 3.7 y). Preoperative and postoperative Hgb and Hct levels were converted to Z-scores based on age-adjusted mean blood indices and were compared using a paired t test. The prevalence of elevated Hgb and Hct levels (Z-score >2) preoperatively was 15% (10/66) and 19% (12/64), respectively. The average Hgb Z-score decreased from 0.20 to -0.31 (P=0.005) 6 to 24 months following surgery and the Hct Z-score decreased from 0.31 to -0.28 (P=0.002) 6 to 24 months following surgery. Following distraction-based GR treatment of children with EOS there was a significant decrease in both their Hgb and Hct. This is a physiological marker of decreased hypoxemia and improved pulmonary function. Level III-therapeutic study.

  6. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    .3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P

  7. High Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels Associated With Low Hemoglobin Levels in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Liou, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), decreased erythropoietin production, low serum active vitamin D levels, and high renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activities had been regarded as major causes of renal anemia. At present, no clinical data are available to elucidate the association between renal anemia and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in CKD. This study aimed to access whether FGF23 is involved in the pathogenesis of renal anemia. This cross-sectional observational study included 53 stable outpatients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Our primary predictor was serum FGF23 levels and outcome was hemoglobin levels. Measurements contained hemoglobin, FGF23, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, plasma renin, serum aldosterone, HbA1C levels, lipid and iron profiles, and serum and urine electrolytes. Mean age of our patients was 66.4 ± 12.8 (SD) years, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 33.5 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73 m, median FGF23 level 200 (25th-75th percentile, 124-303) pg/mL, vitamin D level 19.5 (25th-75th percentile, 14.0-25.9) ng/mL, and hemoglobin level 12.7 (25th-75th percentile, 10.7-13.75) g/dL. Even after adjusting multiple variables, lower hemoglobin levels correlated significantly with FGF23 levels that were higher than the median value (>200 pg/mL). Moreover, after adjusting for aldosterone, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D, it decreased the association with FGF23 that higher than median level and hemoglobin levels. We also observed a significant decrease of hemoglobin level in the higher FGF23 group who had a diabetes history. High FGF23 levels were observed to be associated with low hemoglobin levels, which may be partially mediated through the effects of serum aldosterone levels in our patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Furthermore, we also presumed that diabetes itself may have an impact on the loop among FGF23, hemoglobin, and aldosterone levels in these CKD patients.

  8. The level of Vitamin B12 and hemoglobin in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

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    Kamran Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral cavity. Although many factors have been suggested as possible causes of RAS, its precise etiology is controversial. Vitamin B12 (vit B12 and iron deficiencies may cause RAS. Aims: We investigated the level of serum hemoglobin (Hb and vit B12 in patients with RAS and to compare them with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients who had had at least one episode of oral ulcerations per month since childhood were diagnosed as having RAS. Blood samples were drawn from the RAS group and control group for measuring blood Hb and vit B12 concentrations. Results: Exactly 195 patients (62 men and 133 women with RAS and 217 healthy controls (62 men and 155 women were enrolled in the study. The RAS group had significantly lower mean Hb levels than the control group (P < 0.001. No significant difference in the mean vit B12 level was demonstrated between the study group and controls. Around 58 (29.7% patients were diagnosed as Hb deficient in the RAS group and 21 (9.7% patients in controls. Vit B12 deficiency was diagnosed in 63 (32.3% individuals in the RAS group and 32 (14.7% individuals among controls. Conclusions: In our study, vit B12 and Hb deficiency were found higher in patients with RAS compared to the control group. Therefore, we suggested the investigation of the level of vit B12 and Hb in patients with RAS.

  9. Effects of Sleep Disorders on Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Ahmet Keskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have reported the presence of sleep disorders in approximately 50-70% of diabetic patients, and these may contribute to poor glycemic control, diabetic neuropathy, and overnight hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sleep disorders in diabetic patients, and to investigate possible relationships between scores of these sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS and diabetic parameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], and lipid levels. Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire (BQ for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels. Results: The study included 585 type 2 diabetic patients admitted to family medicine clinics between October and December 2014. Sleep, sleep quality, and sleep scores were used as the dependent variables in the analysis. The ESS scores showed that 54.40% of patients experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, and according to the PSQI, 64.30% experienced poor-quality sleep. The BQ results indicated that 50.20% of patients were at high-risk of OSAS. HbA1c levels correlated significantly with the ESS and PSQI results (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 and r = 0.14, P = 0.001, respectively, and were significantly higher in those with high-risk of OSAS as defined by the BQ (P < 0.001. These results showed that HbA1c levels were related to sleep disorders. Conclusions: Sleep disorders are common in diabetic patients and negatively affect the control of diabetes. Conversely, poor diabetes control is an important factor disturbing sleep quality. Addressing sleep disturbances in patients who have difficulty controlling their blood glucose has dual benefits: Preventing diabetic complications caused by sleep disturbance and improving diabetes control.

  10. Should all patients be optimized to the same preoperative hemoglobin level to avoid transfusion in primary knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basora, M; Tió, M; Martin, N; Lozano, L; Salazar, F; Sánchez-Etayo, G; Raquel, B; Pereira, A

    2014-08-01

    Optimization of the preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level is an effective way to reduce allogeneic transfusion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) though the procedure is expensive, requires close monitoring and is often inconvenient for patients with reduced mobility. Our aim was to investigate the value of preoperative Hb levels to predict transfusion and thereby tailoring Hb optimization to patient characteristics. All consecutive patients who undergone primary TKA in our center over 2 years, and received tranexamic acid intraoperatively, were reviewed. The adjusted association between preoperative Hb levels and transfusion was assessed by multivariate logistic regression, and the estimated probability of transfusion for individual patients was derived from the logistic model. Out of the 784 patients who meet the inclusion criteria, risk of transfusion was associated with poorer performance status, as measured by the America Association of Anestesiology (ASA) score III/IV (OR: 3·3, P < 0·001) and lower preoperative Hb level (OR 3·8 for each g/dl below 13 g/dl; P < 0·001). According to the Hb level, the estimated probability of transfusion was 0·03 (range: 0·03-0·64) for ASA I/II patients and 0·10 (range: 0·10-0·84) for ASA III/IV. Not all the patients undergoing TKA who receive tranexamic acid need the same preoperative Hb optimization target. Two easily available factors, such as the ASA score and the Hb level, can help individualize the Hb optimization target. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. [Analysis of hemoglobin level and anemia prevalence in students aged 7-14 years in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Ma, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To analyze the level of hemoglobin level and the prevalence of anemia in students aged 7-14 years in China. Methods: According to the 2010 Chinese National Surveys on Students'Constitution and Health, 71 130 students who were aged 7, 9, 12 and 14 years and had received hemoglobin test were sampled as the subjects, WHO anemia diagnostic criteria was used to explore the hemoglobin level and the prevalence of anemia. Results: The mean concentrations of hemoglobin were (129.25±11.37) g/L, (131.04±11.08) g/L, (135.02±12.12) g/L and (138.47±13.97) g/L and the prevalence of anemia was 9.0%, 6.5%, 8.6% and 7.7% respectively in 7, 9, 12 and 14 years old students. The prevalence of anemia was 9.7% in girls, significant higher than that in boys (6.2%), and 8.8% in rural students, significantly higher than that in urban students (7.1%). The hemoglobin levels were (133.19±12.56) g/L, (133.28±12.76) g/L, (134.24±12.73) g/L and (133.79±12.16) g/L and the prevalence of anemia were 8.8%, 8.3%, 6.7% and 5.9% respectively in thin, normal, overweight and fat students, there were significant differences among four groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in students aged 7-14 years in China was still high, and there was significant differences among different gender, area, age and nutritional status groups.

  12. Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Natalia; Frostne, Cecilia; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Tareke, Eden; Bergman, Rolf; Haghdoost, Siamak; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Segerbäck, Dan; Jenssen, Dag; Grawé, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  13. Association between insomnia symptoms and hemoglobin A1c level in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for an association between insomnia symptoms and blood hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level has been limited and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether each symptom of initial, middle, and terminal insomnia influences HbA(1c) level in Japanese men. This cross-sectional study examined 1,022 male workers aged 22-69 years with no history of diabetes at a Japanese company's annual health check-up in April 2010. High HbA(1c) was defined as a blood level of HbA(1c) ≥6.0%. Three types of insomnia symptoms (i.e., difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) from the previous month were assessed by 3 responses (i.e., lasting more than 2 weeks, sometimes, and seldom or never [reference group]). The overall prevalence of high HbA(1c) was 5.2%. High HbA(1c) was positively and linearly associated with both difficulty in maintaining sleep (P for trend  = .002) and early morning awakening (P for trend  = .007). More specifically, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, high HbA(1c) was significantly associated with difficulty in maintaining sleep lasting more than 2 weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 6.79 [95% confidence interval, 1.86-24.85]) or sometimes (2.33 [1.19-4.55]). High HbA(1c) was also significantly associated with early morning awakening lasting more than 2 weeks (3.96 [1.24-12.59]). Insomnia symptoms, particularly difficulty in maintaining sleep and early morning awakening, were found to have a close association with high HbA(1c) in a dose-response relationship.

  14. The Relationship between Serum Hemoglobin and Creatinine Levels and Intra-Hospital Mortality and Morbidity in Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR and Hemoglobin (Hb concentrations are two predictive values for ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (MI mortality.. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between GFR and Hb concentrations and intra-hospital mortality and electrocardiographic (ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities in ST-elevation MI patients admitted to a highly equipped hospital in Mashhad. The results will help define some factors to manage these patients more efficiently.. Patients and Methods: This descriptive study aimed to assess the relationship between Hb and GFR concentrations and mortality and morbidity among 294 randomly selected patients with ST-elevation MI. Echocardiography, ECG, and routine laboratory tests, including Hb and creatinine, were performed for all the patients. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 16 and were analyzed using chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.. Results: Intra-hospital mortality rate was 10.5%. Besides, the results showed higher levels of serum blood sugar (P < 0.001, higher levels of creatinine (P < 0.001, lower levels of GFR (P < 0.001, lower ejection fraction (P < 0.001, higher grades of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.002, and lower mean Hb concentration (P = 0.022 in the dead compared to the alive cases. Besides, the patients with mechanical complications had lower Hb levels (P = 0.008. The results showed no significant relationship between creatinine level and mechanical and electrical complications (P = 0.430 and P = 0.095, respectively. However, ejection fraction was significantly associated with GFR (P = 0.016.. Conclusions: According to the results, low levels of Hb and GFR could predict mortality caused by ST-elevation MI and ECG abnormalities could notify intra-hospital death. Moreover, lower Hb levels were associated with mechanical

  15. Placental share and hemoglobin level in relation to birth weight in twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Slaghekke, F; Middeldorp, J M; Duan, T; Oepkes, D; Lopriore, E

    2014-12-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described form of chronic twin transfusion. Previous observational studies noted a discordance between birth weight and individual placental share in TAPS. The purpose of this study was to investigate if fetal growth in monochorionic (MC) twins with TAPS is determined by placental share or by the net inter-twin blood transfusion. All consecutive MC twin placentas of live-born twin pairs with and without TAPS examined at our center between June 2002 and February 2014 were included in this study. Hemoglobin (Hb) levels and individual placental share were evaluated at birth and correlated with birth weight share. We excluded MC twin pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. A total of 270 MC twin pregnancies (TAPS group, n = 20; control group without TAPS, n = 250) were included in this study. Donors with TAPS had a lower birth weight than recipients in 90% (18/20) of cases, but a larger placental share in 65% (13/20) of cases. In the TAPS group, birth weight share was positively correlated with Hb share at birth (P < 0.01) but not with placental share (P = 0.54). In the control group without TAPS, birth weight share was strongly correlated with placental share (P < 0.01) but not with Hb share (P = 0.14). A relatively larger placental share may enable the survival of the anemic twin in TAPS. In contrast with uncomplicated MC twins, fetal growth in MC twins with TAPS is determined primarily by the net inter-twin blood transfusion instead of placental share. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Food Pattern and Hemoglobin Level in Pregnant Women at Maros, South Sulawesi

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    Zulkifli Abdullah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption pattern is known as a determinant factor for nutritional problems among pregnant mothers. This study was intended to assess food consumption and its relationship to anemia in Maros Districts, Indonesia. This study was conducted in two sub-districts and pregnant mothers was randomly selected (n = 200 and proportionally from both districts. Data was collected by train field workers including measurement of hemoglobin, height and weight, 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to see the relationship between food consumption and anemia. It showed that anemia prevalence was 41% whereas mostly in mild and moderate levels (44% and 55% respectively. The most common pattern of food consumption was rice, fish, and some vegetables. However, vegetables and fruit mostly consumed only 3-6 time a week. Energy and protein intakes were only 59% to 72% recommended dietary allowance (RDA or 1300 kcal and 48 gr respectively. Most vitamin was consumed only around 40% except for vitamin A (76%, 605 RE, folic acid (195%, 1170 ug, and Vitamin B12 (142%, 3,7 ug. However, iron and zinc intakes were only 6.1 gr (17.5% RDA and 5.9 gr (44% RDA, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that education duration of mothers, nutritional status, iron tablet intakes, vitamin C, and B6 consumption were significantly related to anemia of pregnant mothers in the study and accounted for 24% (p<0.05. We conclude that food consumption was relatively low and caused lack intakes for both macro and micro nutrients of pregnant mothers in the study. Education and nutritional status of the mothers contributed also to the anemia prevalence.

  17. Association Between Neighborhood Supermarket Presence and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Laraia, Barbara A; Warton, E Margaret; Blanchard, Samuel D; Moffet, Howard H; Downing, Janelle; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-06-15

    We estimated associations between neighborhood supermarket gain or loss and glycemic control (assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values) in patients from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n = 434,806 person-years; 2007-2010). Annual clinical measures were linked to metrics from a geographic information system for each patient's address of longest residence. We estimated the association between change in supermarket presence (gain, loss, or no change) and change in HbA1c value, adjusting for individual- and area-level attributes and according to baseline glycemic control (near normal, Supermarket loss was associated with worse HbA1c trajectories for those with good, moderate, and poor glycemic control at baseline, while supermarket gain was associated with marginally better HbA1c outcomes only among patients with near normal HbA1c values at baseline. Patients with the poorest baseline HbA1c values (≥9.0%) had the worst associated changes in glycemic control following either supermarket loss or gain. Differences were not clinically meaningful relative to no change in supermarket presence. For patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, gaining neighborhood supermarket presence did not benefit glycemic control in a substantive way. The significance of supermarket changes on health depends on a complex interaction of resident, neighborhood, and store characteristics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. EFFECT OF CONSUMING RED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS JUICE ON THE LEVELS OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ERYTHROCYTE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

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    Ari Widyaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia during pregnancy. Red dragon fruit is assumed having much iron to increase hemoglobin and erythrocyte level. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of dragon fruit juice on levels of hemoglobin and erythrocytes. Methods: This was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. There were 34 respondents recruited in this study using consecutive sampling. The samples were divided into intervention group (17 respondents and control group (17 respondents. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test and Paired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice Hb level on the 7th day of intervention with p-value 0.037 (0.05. This study also revealed that there was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on pregnant women's erythrocyte level on the 7th day with p-value 0.025 ( 0.05. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels. This study provides the insight of knowledge that the red dragon fruit juice can be an alternative treatment to deal with anemia among pregnant women.

  19. The effects of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels in pregnant women with high-normal hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Saeideh; Janghorban, R; Shariatdoust, Sosan; Faghihzadeh, Sofhrate

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron supplementation on serum copper and zinc levels. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 66 pregnant women with hemoglobin 13.2 g/dL or greater between the 13th and 18th week of pregnancy were randomized into case and control groups. From the 20th week until the end of pregnancy the case group received one ferrous sulfate tablet containing 50 mg elemental iron daily, while the control group received placebo. Hemoglobin, ferritin, copper, and zinc levels at 24-28 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy were measured and compared. In the case group, serum copper levels in the second and third trimester were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Serum zinc levels in the case group in the second and third trimester were also significantly lower than the control group (P<0.001). Iron supplementation in pregnant women with hemoglobin greater than 13.2 g/dL reduces serum levels of copper and zinc.

  20. Low Hemoglobin Levels and the Onset of Cognitive Impairment in Older People: The PRO.V.A. Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Caterina; Veronese, Nicola; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Maggi, Stefania; Zambon, Sabina; Musacchio, Estella; Sartori, Leonardo; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Low hemoglobin (Hb) levels are attracting interest as a risk factor for cognitive impairment, but with contrasting evidence emerging from the current literature. The aim of our work was to investigate the relationship between baseline serum Hb levels and the incidence of cognitive impairment in older people over a follow-up of 4.4 years. Our study considered a sample of 1227 elderly subjects cognitively intact at baseline, enrolled under the Progetto Veneto Anziani (Pro.V.A.) among 3099 screened subjects. For all participants, we measured serum Hb levels on blood samples; incident cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <24 and confirmed by geriatricians skilled in psychogeriatric medicine. No differences in baseline MMSE scores across Hb tertiles emerged in either gender. After the 4.4 years of follow-up, we identified 403 new cases of cognitive impairment (147 men and 256 women). Cox's regression analysis showed that participants with the lowest baseline Hb concentrations carried a significant 37% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.75; p = 0.01) of being diagnosed with cognitive impairment during the follow-up. Considering the gender separately, the risk of cognitive impairment only increased significantly, by 60%, for men in the lowest Hb tertile (95% CI: 1.06-2.41; p = 0.02), but not for women (hazard ratio = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.97-1.79; p = 0.08). In conclusion, low Hb concentrations may predict the onset of cognitive impairment in the elderly, apparently with a stronger association in men than in women.

  1. [The evaluation of serum vitamin B12, folic acid and hemoglobin levels in patients with recurrent minor aphthous stomatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynali, Giray; Ozkan, Mustafa; Aynali, Ayşe; Ceyhan, Betül; Armağan, Hakan; Yarıktaş, Murat; Doğan, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the serum levels of hemoglobin, vitamin B12 and folic acid in patients with recurrent minor aphthous stomatitis. Between June 2010 and January 2012, a total of 112 patients including 57 with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (study group; 30 males 27 females; mean age 36.7±13.9 years; range 13 to 74 years) and 45 with chronic tinnitus patients without recurrent aphthous stomatitis (control group; 18 males 27 females; mean age 39.7±15.1 years; range 20 to 80 years) who were admitted to our clinic were included in this study. The serum hemoglobin, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels of the patients were measured and statistically compared. There was no significant difference in serum levels of hemoglobin and folic acid between the groups. Serum levels of vitamin B12 were significantly lower in the study group, compared to the control group (paphthous stomatitis. Vitamin B12 supplements may be added to the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

  2. [Optimization of preoperative hemoglobin levels in patients without anemia and/or patients who undergo surgery with high blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, M J; Basora Macaya, M

    2015-06-01

    To minimize allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs) during complex surgery and surgery with considerable blood loss risk, various blood-sparing techniques are needed (multimodal approach). All surgical patients should be assessed with sufficient time to optimize hemoglobin levels and iron reserves so that the established perioperative transfusion strategy is appropriate. Even if the patient does not have anemia, improving hemoglobin levels to reduce the risk of ABT is justified in some cases, especially those in which the patient refuses a transfusion. Treatment with iron and/or erythropoietic agents might also be justified for cases that need a significant autologous blood reserve to minimize ABT during surgery with considerable blood loss. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency and low hemoglobin level as risk factors for severity of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children: A case-control study

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    Abeer S. El Sakka

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with severity of ALRTIs. Low hemoglobin level was more prevalent in those children. Improving the nutritional status in children by preventing vitamin D deficiency and low hemoglobin might influence the outcome of children with ALRTI.

  4. Genetic variants associated with fetal hemoglobin levels show the diverse ethnic origin in Colombian patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Cristian; Menzel, Stephan; Lizarralde, María Alejandra; Barreto, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin is an important factor in modulating the severity of sickle cell anemia. Its level in peripheral blood underlies strong genetic determination. Associated loci with increased levels of fetal hemoglobin display population-specific allele frequencies. We investigated the presence and effect of known common genetic variants promoting fetal hemoglobin persistence (rs11886868, rs9399137, rs4895441, and rs7482144) in 60 Colombian patients with sickle cell anemia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and the use of the TaqMan procedure. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) from these patients was quantified using the oxyhemoglobin alkaline denaturation technique. Genotype frequencies were compared with frequencies reported in global reference populations. We detected genetic variants in the four SNPs, reported to be associated with higher HbF levels for all four SNPs in the Colombian patients. Genetic association between SNPs and HbF levels did not reach statistical significance. The frequency of these variants reflected the specific ethnic make-up of our patient population: A high prevalence of rs7482144-'A' reflects the West-African origin of the sickle cell mutation, while high frequencies of rs4895441-'G' and rs11886868-'C' point to a significant influence of an Amerindian ethnic background in the Colombian sickle cell disease population. These results showed that in the sickle cell disease population in Colombia there is not a unique genetic background, but two (African and Amerindian). This unique genetic situation will provide opportunities for a further study of these loci, such as fine-mapping and molecular-biological investigation. Colombian patients are expected to yield a distinctive insight into the effect of modifier loci in sickle cell disease.

  5. The Usefulness of the Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level for the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Jeong Ryu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is the current method used for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. OGTT is a relatively complicated procedure and is expensive. Thus, new strategies that do not require fasting or more than a single blood draw may improve the diagnosis of GDM and increase the rate of GDM testing. We investigated the utility of monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels for the diagnosis of GDM.MethodsThe data from 992 pregnant women with estimated gestational ages ranging from 24 to 28 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. There were 367 women with plasma glucose levels ≥140 mg/dL 1 hour after a 50-g OGTT. GDM was diagnosed according to the Carpenter-Coustan criteria for a 3-hour 100 g OGTT. A HbA1c assessment was performed at the same time.ResultsWe enrolled 343 women in this study, and there were 109 women with GDM. The area under the curve the receiver operating characteristic curve for HbA1c detection of GDM was 0.852 (95% confidence interval, 0.808 to 0.897. A HbA1c cutoff value ≥5.35% had maximal points on the Youden index (0.581. The sensitivity was 87.2% and the specificity was 70.9% for diagnosing GDM. A threshold value ≥5.35% indicated that 163 patients had GDM and that 68 (41.7% were false positive. The positive predictive value was 58.3% at this threshold value.ConclusionDespite substantial progress in methodology, HbA1c values cannot replace OGTT for the diagnosis of GDM.

  6. Hemoglobin (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  7. Chemoradiation of unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: impact of pretreatment hemoglobin level on patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganti, A.G.; Macchia, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Forni, F. [Dept. of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, V.; Smaniotto, D.; Trodella, L.; Balducci, M.; Cellini, N. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Policlinico A. Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    Aim: To evaluate, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma undergoing concomitant chemoradiation, the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on the outcome in terms of clinical response, local control, metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Patients and Methods: 30 patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiation (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], 1,000 mg/m{sup 2}/day, continuous i.v. infusion days 1-4 of radiotherapy) and external beam radiotherapy (50.4-59.4 Gy) were divided into two groups based on pretreatment median Hb value (11.5 g/dl). The potential prognostic factors examined besides Hb concentration were: tumor site (head vs body-tail), sex (female vs male), cN (cN0 vs cN1), dose of external beam radiotherapy (50.4 Gy vs 59.4 Gy), presence of jaundice at diagnosis (yes vs no), weight loss at diagnosis ({>=} 5 kg vs < 5 kg), epigastric-lumbar pain at diagnosis (yes vs no), maximum tumor diameter (< 40 mm vs {>=} 40 mm). Results: Pretreatment Hb ranged between 9.6 and 15.0 g/dl. No statistically significant differences were observed as for clinical response and local control between patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and those with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl. Metastasis-free survival was 5.1 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 g/dl and 10.7 months in patients with an Hb > 11.5 g/dl (p = 0.010). Median actuarial disease-free survival was 5.1 and 10.2 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.026). Median actuarial overall survival was 7.5 and 10.3 months in patients with an Hb {<=} 11.5 and > 11.5 g/dl, respectively (p = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, Hb concentration at diagnosis was the only factor prognostically correlated with metastasis-free survival (p = 0.026), disease-free survival (p = 0.032), and overall survival (p = 0.048). Conclusion: In a group of patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma treated with chemoradiation, a significant correlation was observed

  8. Making predictions skill level analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  9. Increased hemoglobin levels in patients with early onset scoliosis: prevalence and effect of a treatment with Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubet, Jean-Francois; Emans, John B; Smith, John T; Vanbosse, Harold; Ramirez, Norman; Flynn, John; Vitale, Michael; Smith, Melissa; St Hilaire, Tricia; Klinge, Steve

    2009-11-01

    The medical records of 138 subjects with Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) from 5 US institutions were reviewed to analyze their hemoglobin levels before and after surgery. Eighty-five subjects were operated with the Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) and 53 with growing rods. To estimate the prevalence of hypoxia and thoracic insufficiency using hemoglobin as a surrogate marker for pulmonary function, and to measure the effect of spine surgery with expandable devices. An early intervention with expandable devices might improve pulmonary function. This hypothesis is difficult to test in young subjects because the standard pulmonary function tests require that the patient be at least 7-year old. Previous studies demonstrated that hemoglobin levels are correlated with chronic hypoxemia. Blood data were collected before and 6 to 24 months after surgery. The hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were converted into Z-scores, using age-adjusted references to perform t test paired comparisons. The prevalence of elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in EOS was 23.2% and 22.5%, respectively. The mean hemoglobin Z-score decreased from 1.26 to 0.92 (P = 0.03) after surgery and the hematocrit Z-score changed from 0.90 to 0.88 (P = 0.90). In the VEPTR group, the mean hemoglobin Z-score decreased from 0.98 to 0.69 (P = 0.20) and in the subgroup of subjects who had an expansion thoracostomy, it decreased from 0.82 to 0.24 (P = 0.04). In the subjects operated with growing rods, the hemoglobin Z-score decreased from 1.75 to 1.32 (P = 0.83). Twenty-three percent of the patients with EOS showed signs of chronic hypoxia. The hemoglobin levels decreased significantly 6 to 24 months after surgery. The greatest effect was observed in subjects with congenital scoliosis and rib fusion and who had an expansion thoracostomy with implantation of VEPTR.

  10. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p sweets and desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes.

  11. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F.; Palacios, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20–28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6% by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (psweets and desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  12. The Prediction of Preeclampsia and Its Association With Hemoglobin and Hematocrit in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

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    Pakniat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are one of the most serious complications and their early diagnosis is one of the most important goals of prenatal care. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the association of first trimester Hemoglobin (Hb and Hematocrit (Hct with preeclampsia. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytic, prospective study was performed on 1376, less than 12 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancies, visited for their prenatal care in health and medical clinics of the Qazvin province during years 2013 and 2014. At first, demographic data were recorded in a questionnaire and then all pregnant cases were referred to one of the three reference laboratories for their first trimester routine tests. After hemoglobin and hematocrit date collection, women were categorized in three groups: Hb 38% (4.41 - 12.044: CI 95%. According to Youden’s Index, optimum cut-off for 1st trimester Hb was 12.65 and for Hct, this was 38.05%. Conclusions The association of the 1st trimester high Hb and Hct with preeclampsia was revealed in this study, therefore it could be used as a prediction factor for early preeclampsia diagnosis.

  13. A probe to study the toxic interaction of tartrazine with bovine hemoglobin at the molecular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yating; Wei, Haoran; Liu, Rutao

    2014-03-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in food products, but tartrazine in the environment is potentially harmful. The toxic interaction between tartrazine and bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was investigated using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular modeling techniques under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence data showed that tartrazine can bind with BHb to form a complex. The binding process was a spontaneous molecular interaction, in which van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonds played major roles. Molecular docking results showed that the hydrogen bonds exist between the oxygen atoms at position 31 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys99, and also between the oxygen atoms at position 15 of tartrazine and the nitrogen atom NZ7 on Lys104, Lys105. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that tartrazine led to conformational changes in BHb, including loosening of the skeleton structure and decreasing α helix in the secondary structure. The synchronous fluorescence experiment revealed that tartrazine binds into the hemoglobin central cavity, and this was verified using a molecular modeling study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting; Sheng, Hongguang; Wu, Johnna; Cheng, Yuan; Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Yan

    2012-06-01

    For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemoglobin A1c Level Is Not Related to the Severity of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Xinhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels and the extent of coronary artery stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS remains uncertain. The present study aimed to assess the correlation of HbA1c level with angiographic coronary atherosclerosis. Methods. 292 consecutive ACS patients were enrolled and stratified into three groups according to HbA1c levels (group 1: 40 by logistic regression analysis. Diabetes mellitus (DM and LVEF levels were two independent risk factors for high Gensini score. Conclusions. HbA1c level is not a significant and independent marker for the severity of angiography in ACS patients, even in high-risk patients.

  16. Hemoglobin S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anand, Usha

    2015-01-01

    ...; The hemoglobin becomes abnormal, Its normal quaternary structure it cannot sustain. [...]that this condition protected them against malaria, Caused by the dreaded plasmodium falciparum it was reported...

  17. Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated

  18. Acrylamide Hemoglobin Adduct Levels and Ovarian Cancer Risk: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Terry, Kathryn L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Willett, Walter C.; Vesper, Hubert W.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen formed during cooking of starchy foods. Two large prospective cohort studies of dietary acrylamide intake and ovarian cancer risk observed a positive association, although two other studies reported no association. Methods We measured acrylamide exposure using red blood cell acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts among women in two large prospective cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Between blood collection and 2010, we identified 263 incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer, matching two controls per case. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between acrylamide exposure and ovarian cancer risk, adjusting for matching factors, family history of ovarian cancer, tubal ligation, oral contraceptive use, body mass index (BMI), parity, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, and caffeine intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) of ovarian cancer comparing the highest versus lowest tertile of total acrylamide adducts was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.50–1.24, P trend = 0.08). The comparable RR of ovarian cancer among non-smokers at blood draw was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.57–1.27, P trend =0.14). The association did not differ by tumor histology (serous invasive versus not), P for heterogeneity=0.41. Individual adduct types (acrylamide or glycidamide) were not associated with risk. Conclusions We observed no evidence that acrylamide exposure as measured by adducts to hemoglobin is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Impact Our finding indicates that acrylamide intake may not increase risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:23417989

  19. Altered Metabolism of Blood Manganese Is Associated with Low Levels of Hemoglobin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Minyoung Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood manganese (Mn level has been reported to be higher in patients with anemia or iron deficiency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between blood Mn level and anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. A total of 334 patients with CKD who were not treated with dialysis were included in this study. Blood Mn level and serum markers regarding anemia, renal function, and nutrition were measured and analyzed. Median blood Mn level was 8.30 (interquartile range(IQR: 5.27–11.63 μg/L. Univariate linear regression showed that blood Mn level was correlated with age (β = −0.049, p < 0.001, smoking (β = −1.588, p = 0.009, hypertension (β = −1.470, p = 0.006, serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC (β = 0.025, p < 0.001, serum transferrin (β = 0.029, p < 0.001, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; β = 0.036, p < 0.001. Results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that beta coefficient of hemoglobin was 0.847 (p < 0.001 for blood Mn level in all participants after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and eGFR. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis with robust variance after adjusting for gender, age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, eGFR, and nutritional markers showed that higher blood Mn level (per 1 μg/L increase was associated with decreased prevalence of anemia (PR 0.974, 95% CI: 0.957 to 0.992, p = 0.005. Taken together, our results demonstrate that blood Mn level is positively associated with hemoglobin level in CKD patients. This might provide important information in the understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD-related anemia.

  20. Differences in hemoglobin adduct levels of acrylamide in the general population with respect to dietary intake, smoking habits and gender.

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    Hagmar, Lars; Wirfält, Elisabet; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2005-02-07

    The variation in dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) has been studied through measurement of hemoglobin adduct levels from AA, as a measurement of internal dose, in a sample from the blood bank of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort (n=28,098). The blood donors are well characterised with regard to their food habits, and 142 individuals were selected to obtain highest possible variation in the adduct levels from AA (none, random or high intake of coffee, fried potato, crisp bread and snacks, food items estimated to have high levels of AA). Among 70 non-smokers the AA-adduct levels varied by a factor of 5, and ranged between 0.02 and 0.1 nmol/g, with considerable overlap in AA-adduct levels between the different dietary groups. There was a significant difference between men with high dietary exposure to AA compared to men with low dietary exposure (P=0.04). No such difference was found for women. As expected a higher level (range: 0.03-0.43 nmol/g) of the AA-adduct, due to AA in tobacco smoke, was found in smokers. Smoking women with high dietary exposure to AA had significantly higher AA-adduct levels compared to smoking women with low dietary exposure (P=0.01). No such significant difference was found in smoking men. The median hemoglobin (Hb) adduct level in the randomly selected group of non-smokers was compatible with earlier studies (0.031 nmol/g). The variation in the average internal dose, measured as Hb adducts, was somewhat smaller than estimated for daily intake by food consumption questionnaires in other studies. Thus, the observed relatively narrow inter-individual variation in AA-adduct levels means that estimates of individual dietary AA intake have to be very precise if they should be useful in future cancer epidemiology.

  1. Altered metabolism of copper, zinc, and magnesium is associated with increased levels of glycated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus.

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    Viktorínová, Alena; Toserová, Eva; Krizko, Marián; Duracková, Zdenka

    2009-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with the alterations in the metabolism of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg). The aim of the present study was to investigate plasma levels of these elements in patients with DM and in healthy subjects. Association between glycated hemoglobin and levels of metals was also evaluated. We studied 36 subjects with DM (type 1, 11; type 2, 25) and 34 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. Plasma concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. An imbalance in the levels of studied metals was observed in both type 1 and type 2 DM. We found higher levels of Cu (P diabetic complications.

  2. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

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    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M. [Ospedale S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica; Pistillucci, G.; D' Aprile, M. [Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina (Italy). Unita operativa complessa di oncologia medica

    2005-06-15

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy.

  3. Elevated glycated hemoglobin predicts macrosomia among Asian Indian pregnant women (WINGS-9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Deepa, Mohan; Harish, Ranjani; Malanda, Belma; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Belton, Anne; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Ranjit, Unnikrishnan; Uma, Ram; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) cut point for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to evaluate the usefulness of HbA1c as a prognostic indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. HbA1c estimations were carried out in 1459 pregnant women attending antenatal care centers in urban and rural Tamil Nadu in South India. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out using 75 g anhydrous glucose, and GDM was diagnosed using the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. GDM was diagnosed in 195 women. Receiver operating curves showed a HbA1c cut point of ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) have a sensitivity of 66.2% and specificity of 56.2% for identifying GDM (area under the curve 0.679, confidence interval [CI]: 0.655-0.703). Women with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) were significantly older and had higher body mass index, greater history of previous GDM, and a higher prevalence of macrosomia compared to women with HbA1c macrosomia in those with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol) was 1.92 (CI: 1.24-2.97, P = 0.003). However, other pregnancy outcomes were not significantly different. In Asian Indian pregnant women, a HbA1c of 5.0% (31 mmol/mol) or greater is associated with increased risk of macrosomia.

  4. Elevated glycated hemoglobin predicts macrosomia among Asian Indian pregnant women (WINGS-9

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    Balaji Bhavadharini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the optimal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c cut point for diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to evaluate the usefulness of HbA1c as a prognostic indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: HbA1c estimations were carried out in 1459 pregnant women attending antenatal care centers in urban and rural Tamil Nadu in South India. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out using 75 g anhydrous glucose, and GDM was diagnosed using the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Results: GDM was diagnosed in 195 women. Receiver operating curves showed a HbA1c cut point of ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol have a sensitivity of 66.2% and specificity of 56.2% for identifying GDM (area under the curve 0.679, confidence interval [CI]: 0.655–0.703. Women with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol were significantly older and had higher body mass index, greater history of previous GDM, and a higher prevalence of macrosomia compared to women with HbA1c < 5.0% (<31 mmol/mol. The adjusted odds ratio for macrosomia in those with HbA1c ≥ 5.0% (≥31 mmol/mol was 1.92 (CI: 1.24–2.97, P = 0.003. However, other pregnancy outcomes were not significantly different. Conclusion: In Asian Indian pregnant women, a HbA1c of 5.0% (31 mmol/mol or greater is associated with increased risk of macrosomia.

  5. Increased Glycated Hemoglobin Level is Associated With SYNTAX Score II in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

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    Karakoyun, Süleyman; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Rencüzoğulları, İbrahim; Karabağ, Yavuz; Altıntaş, Bernas; Topçu, Selim; Lazoğlu, Zakir; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Sevimli, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    SYNTAX score II (SS II) uses 2 anatomical and 6 clinical variables for the prediction of mortality after coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), and SYNTAX Score (SS) and SS II in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (CAD). We enrolled 215 consecutive diabetic patients with stable angina pectoris who underwent coronary angiography. The SS II was calculated using a nomogram that was based on the findings of a previous study. There was a moderate correlation between HbA1c and SS (r = .396, P II (r = .535, P II. A better correlation has been detected between HbA1c and SS II compared to the correlation between HbA1c and SS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  7. Performance of a Predictive Model for Long-Term Hemoglobin Response to Darbepoetin and Iron Administration in a Large Cohort of Hemodialysis Patients.

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    Carlo Barbieri

    Full Text Available Anemia management, based on erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA and iron supplementation, has become an increasingly challenging problem in hemodialysis patients. Maintaining hemodialysis patients within narrow hemoglobin targets, preventing cycling outside target, and reducing ESA dosing to prevent adverse outcomes requires considerable attention from caregivers. Anticipation of the long-term response (i.e. at 3 months to the ESA/iron therapy would be of fundamental importance for planning a successful treatment strategy. To this end, we developed a predictive model designed to support decision-making regarding anemia management in hemodialysis (HD patients treated in center. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm for predicting hemoglobin concentrations three months into the future was developed and evaluated in a retrospective study on a sample population of 1558 HD patients treated with intravenous (IV darbepoetin alfa, and IV iron (sucrose or gluconate. Model inputs were the last 90 days of patients' medical history and the subsequent 90 days of darbepoetin/iron prescription. Our model was able to predict individual variation of hemoglobin concentration 3 months in the future with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE of 0.75 g/dL. Error analysis showed a narrow Gaussian distribution centered in 0 g/dL; a root cause analysis identified intercurrent and/or unpredictable events associated with hospitalization, blood transfusion, and laboratory error or misreported hemoglobin values as the main reasons for large discrepancy between predicted versus observed hemoglobin values. Our ANN predictive model offers a simple and reliable tool applicable in daily clinical practice for predicting the long-term response to ESA/iron therapy of HD patients.

  8. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study.

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    Afeworki, Robel; Smits, Jeroen; Tolboom, Jules; van der Ven, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role. This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children's hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother's education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001) in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding birth interval was

  9. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Afeworki

    Full Text Available Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role.This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6-59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7-72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21-49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children's hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother's education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001 in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect of length of preceding

  10. Epoetin therapy and hemoglobin level variability in nondialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutolo, Roberto; Chiodini, Paolo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Pota, Andrea; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Avino, Deborah; Mascia, Sara; Laurino, Simona; Bertino, Valerio; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca

    2009-03-01

    Intrapatient variability of hemoglobin (Hb) is a newly proposed determinant of adverse outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated whether intensity of epoetin therapy affects Hb variability and renal survival in nondialysis CKD. We calculated the individual therapeutic index (TI) for epoetin (EPO; difference between rates of visits that required EPO dosage change and those with effective EPO change) from 1198 visits during the first year of EPO in 137 patients. Renal death was registered in the subsequent 18.1 mo. Analysis was made by TI tertile (lower, middle, and higher; i.e., from more to less intensive therapy). Main features and visit number were similar in tertiles. Lower Hb response to first EPO dosage was an independent predictor of higher TI (P = 0.002). The area under the curve for Hb (11.56 +/- 0.87, 11.46 +/- 1.20, and 10.95 +/- 1.48 g/dl per yr; P = 0.040) decreased from lower to higher tertile. Hb variability increased in parallel, as shown by the reduction of time with Hb at target (time in target, from 9.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.0 +/- 2.2 mo; P < 0.0001) and the wider values of within-patient Hb standard deviation (from 0.70 to 0.96; P = 0.005) and Hb fluctuations across target (P < 0.0001). In Cox analyses (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]), risk for renal death was increased in the middle and higher tertiles (2.79 [1.36 to 5.73] and 2.94 [1.40 to 6.20]) and reduced by longer time in target (0.90 [0.83 to 0.98]). Lack of adjustment of EPO worsens Hb variability in CKD. Hb variability may be associated with renal survival, but further studies are needed to explore the association versus causal relationship.

  11. Monitoring of plethysmography variability index and total hemoglobin levels during cesarean sections with antepartum hemorrhage for early detection of bleeding

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    Ahmed Elsakka

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plethysmography variability index and non invasive hemoglobin monitoring as well can be used for optimization of intravascular volume status during cesarean sections in parturients with antepartum hemorrhage.

  12. Correction to: Association of adiposity with hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis.

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    Honda, Hirokazu; Ono, Kota; Akizawa, Tadao; Nitta, Kosaku; Hishida, Akira

    2018-02-06

    The article Association of adiposity with hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, written by Hirokazu Honda, Kota Ono, Tadao Akizawa, Kosaku Nitta and Akira Hishida, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently springerlink) on November 4, 2017 without open access. With the author(s)' decision to opt for Open Choice, the copyright of the article changed on February 6, 2018 to © The Author(s) [2017] and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The original article was corrected.

  13. Study on the toxic interaction of methanol, ethanol and propanol against the bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on molecular level.

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    Jun, Chai; Xue, Yan; Liu, Rutao; Wang, Meijie

    2011-09-01

    The toxic interaction of methanol, ethanol and propanol with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) at protein molecular level was studied by resonance light scattering (RLS), fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The experimental results showed that the three alcohols all had toxic effects on BHb and the effects increased along with the increasing alcohol dose. The results of RLS and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that alcohols can denature BHb. They changed the microenvironment of amino acid residues and led to molecular aggregation. The decreasing order of the influence is propanol, ethanol and methanol. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that alcohols led to conformational changes of BHb, including the loosening of the skeleton structure and the decreasing of α-helix in the second structure. The changes generated by propanol were much larger than those by methanol and ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in postoperative infection rates and their relationship to glycosylated hemoglobin levels in diabetic patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery.

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    Jupiter, Daniel C; Humphers, Jon M; Shibuya, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    The association of hyperglycemia with postoperative infectious complications after foot and ankle surgery has been well studied. However, many surgeons in their current practice use the somewhat arbitrary cutoff of 7% glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as the level above which surgery is considered unsafe and conducive to complications. Our goal in the present study was to assess the relationship between the HbA1c levels and the rate of postoperative infection to begin to determine whether 7% is a suitable cutoff or whether this level needs to be reevaluated. Furthermore, we were interested in the general trends relating to the infection rates and preoperative HbA1c levels. Our preliminary, subjective, analysis has indicated that infection rates increase steadily as the HbA1c increases toward 7.3%, increase rapidly at an HbA1c of 7.3% to 9.8%, and then level off. Additional study is warranted to better understand the role played by other covariates in determining the infection rate and to investigate whether patient selection has influenced the appearance of decreased infection rates at high HbA1c levels. Additional study could also assess similar relationships for other types of complication, such as nonunion, and perhaps examine different foot and ankle procedures in isolation. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high homocysteine level with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

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    Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-04-01

    A portion of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) may have nutritional deficiency. This study evaluated whether there was an intimate association of the deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and high blood homocysteine level with RAS. The blood hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine concentrations in 273 RAS patients were measured and compared with the corresponding levels in 273 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. We found that 57 (20.9%), 55 (20.1%), 13 (4.8%), and 7 (2.6%) RAS patients had deficiencies of hemoglobin (Men < 13 g/dl, Women < 12 g/dl), iron (<60 μg/dl), vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and folic acid (<4 ng/ml), respectively. Moreover, 21 (7.7%) RAS patients had abnormally high blood homocysteine level. RAS patients had a significantly higher frequency of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid deficiency and of abnormally elevated blood homocysteine level than healthy control subjects (all P-values = 0.000 except for folic acid P = 0.022). If 273 RAS patients were further divided into 32 patients with major-typed RAS (MjRAS) and 241 patients with minor-typed RAS (MiRAS), we found that male MjRAS patients had a significantly lower mean hemoglobin concentration than MiRAS patients (P = 0.021), but MjRAS patients had a significantly higher mean homocysteine level than MiRAS patients (P = 0.000). We conclude that there is a significant association of deficiencies of hemoglobin, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid and abnormally high blood homocysteine level with RAS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A post-genome-wide association study validating the association of the glycophorin C gene with serum hemoglobin level in pig

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    Yang Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to validate the statistical evidence from the genome-wide association study (GWAS as true-positive and to better understand the effects of the glycophorin C (GYPC gene on serum hemoglobin traits. Methods Our initial GWAS revealed the presence of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (ASGA0069038 and ALGA0084612 for the hemoglobin concentration trait (HGB in the 2.48 Mb region of SSC15. From this target region, GYPC was selected as a promising gene that associated with serum HGB traits in pigs. SNPs within the GYPC gene were detected by sequencing. Thereafter, we performed association analysis of the variant with the serum hemoglobin level in three pig populations. Results We identified one SNP (g.29625094 T>C in exon 3 of the GYPC gene. Statistical analysis showed a significant association of the SNP with the serum hemoglobin level on day 20 (p<0.05. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the GYPC gene was expressed in eight different tissues. Conclusion These results might improve our understanding of GYPC function and provide evidence for its association with serum hemoglobin traits in the pig. These results also indicate that the GYPC gene might serve as a useful marker in pig breeding programs.

  17. Clinical influence of early follow-up glycosylated hemoglobin levels on cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after coronary reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jinhee; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Jin Sup; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Han Cheol; Cha, Kwang Soo; Yun, Eunyoung; Jeong, Myung Ho; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Rha, Seung Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Park, Seung Jung

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown continuous control of diabetes is important for favorable outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical influence of postprocedural glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in diabetic patients with STEMI after coronary reperfusion. A total of 303 patients with diabetes and STEMI undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled in this study. All eligible patients were divided into the following three groups on the basis of follow-up HbA1c (FU-HbA1c) levels, which were measured at a median of 85 days after the procedure: optimal, FU-HbA1c<7%; suboptimal, 7%≤FU-HbA1c<9%; and poor, FU-HbA1c≥9%. We analyzed the 12-month cumulative MACE, defined as mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and revascularization. In addition, we investigated FU-HbA1c levels as a predictor of MACE. The incidence rates of MACE differed significantly between groups (6.4 vs. 13.6 vs. 19.6%; P=0.048). Moreover, the risk was increased in each successive group (hazard ratio: 1.00 vs. 2.19 vs. 3.68; P=0.046). Each 1% increase in the FU-HbA1c level posed a 26.6% relative increased risk of MACE (P=0.031). The optimal cutoff value for FU-HbA1c in predicting MACE was 7.45%. This study showed that higher levels of early FU-HbA1c after reperfusion in diabetic patients with STEMI were associated with increased 12-month MACE, suggesting continuous serum glucose level control even after reperfusion is important for a better outcome. FU-HbA1c seems to be a useful marker for predicting clinical outcome.

  18. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

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    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm(2) group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3%) exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4%) and non-smokers (18.8%). The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smokers (17.9%) and former smokers (14.9%) demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%). In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm(2) group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  19. Predicting of trend of hemoglobin a1c in type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Bahrampour, Abbass; Faghihimani, Elham; Amini, Masood

    2014-10-01

    There are some evidences that control the blood sugar decreasing the risk of diabetes complications, and even fatal. There are so many studies, but they are mostly cross-sectional and ignore the trend and hence it is necessary to implement a longitudinal study. The aim of this prospective study is to find the trend of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) over time and the associative factors on it. Participants of this longitudinal study were 3440 eligible diabetes patients referred to Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center during 2000-2012 who are measured 2-40 times. A linear mixed model was applied to determine the association between HbA1c and variables, including lipids, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and complications such as nephropathy, and retinopathy. Furthermore, the effect of mentioned variables on trend of HbA1c was determined. The fitted model showed total cholesterol, retinopathy, and the method of therapy including oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) plus insulin and insulin therapy decreased the trend of HbA1c and high-density lipoprotein, weight, hyperlipidemia and the method of therapy including diet, and OADs increased the trend of HbA1c. The present study shows that regular visits of diabetic patients as well as controlling blood pressure, lipid profile, and weight loss can improve the trend of HbA1c levels during the time.

  20. The effects of hemoglobin levels and their interactions with cigarette smoking on survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Shen, Lu-Jun; Li, Sheng; Chen, Ling; Guo, Xiang; Qian, Chao-Nan; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2016-05-01

    There is very little published information regarding the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) levels combined with smoking on the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the interactions between them remain unclear. A total of 2440 NPC patients were confirmed, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify valuable prognostic Hb levels in the entire population and in the cohort of smokers. The survival differences were compared using log-rank tests. The multiplicative and additive interactions were assessed using Cox regression and a Microsoft Word Excel spreadsheet. Postradiotherapy (RT) Hb was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.797; P = 0.006), failure-free survival (FFS) (HR=0.811; P = 0.010), and loco-regional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) (HR = 0.725; P = 0.000). In the cohort of smokers, pack-years was also an independent predictor of OS (HR = 0.673; P OS, with RERI = 5.616, AP = 0.665, and S = 4.078. Stratified analyses demonstrated that heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb had HRs of 2.295 (P < 0.001) for death, 2.222 (P < 0.001) for disease failure, and 2.267 (P < 0.001) loco-regional recurrence compared with light smokers with high post-RT Hb levels, and post-RT Hb level is an important predictor of survival in patients with NPC. The positive interaction between post-RT Hb level and pack-years contributes to the elevated risk of poor survival. Oncologists should devote particular attention to heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb levels in the future. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with normal and altered glycated hemoglobin levels in two regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pimentel Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial microbiota of the conjunctiva in diabetic patients with regard to the management of diabetes, assessed using glycated hemoglobin levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using conjunctival smears of diabetic patients from both sexes and with different ages, residing in two different Brazilian cities (Sorocaba and Rio Branco. A control group of non-diabetic patients was also included. The diabetic patients were considered to have controlled diabetes when their glycated hemoglobin level was ≤7% and blood glucose level was ≤126 mg/dL. Patients with non-controlled diabetes were those with glycated hemoglobin levels >7% and blood glucose levels >126 mg/dL. The samples obtained were inoculated in Brain-Heart Infusion broth and in culture media for aerobic bacteria (blood and chocolate agars; bacterial growth was evaluated in a microbiology laboratory. Results: A total of 120 eyes of 120 patients were included in the present study. The percentage of cultures in which bacterial growth was observed was greater in diabetic patients, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.103. There was a greater trend toward bacterial growth in the conjunctiva of diabetic patients with altered fasting blood glucose. There was no difference in the frequency of bacterial growth on the conjunctiva between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. In Sorocaba, conjunctival bacterial growth was similar to that observed in Rio Branco. The microorganism most frequently detected in the present study was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: There was no difference between diabetic patients with normal or altered glycated hemoglobin levels. The microorganisms found were similar to those found in studies investigating the conjunctival bacterial flora of diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  2. Risk factors associated with hemoglobin levels and nutritional status among Brazilian children attending daycare centers in Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Mariana; Martorell, Reynaldo; Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-03-01

    Like many other developing countries, Brazil has been going a nutritional transition which presence both malnutrition and overweight. Stunting and overweight are the major public health problems in Brazilian children. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of stunting, overweight and anemia in preschool children and examine if those nutritional problems are related; also identify if these nutritional problems have the same risk factors. Data from the "Efficient Daycare Center Project" which include 270 children attending nurseries of eight daycare centers in Sao Paulo city, Brazil were used for this study. Data on height and weight were converted to z-scores using WHO anthro software. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were determined on finger-prick blood samples. The co-occurrence of stunting, overweight and anemia was investigated by contingency tables a log-linear model. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the association of HAZ, WAZ, WHZ and Hb levels with their risk factors. The results showed high prevalence of overweight (22.2%), risk of stunting (22.6%) and anemia (37%). Percent of daycare attendance, age, number of siblings under 5 years old and per capita income are associated with Hb levels. This study provides evidence that Brazil is going through a nutritional transition and suggest that the adoption of public policies to expand and improve services in daycare centers may help to prevent multi-nutritional problems in preschool children.

  3. [Influence of hemoglobin level during early gestation on the development of cognition of pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ren, Ai-guo; Liu, Jian-meng; Ye, Rong-wei; Hong, Shi-xin; Zheng, Jun-chi

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) level during early gestation on the cognitive development of children at 4 - 6 years of age. A total number of 3609 children were randomly selected from all the live birth infants whose mothers participated in a community intervention trial during 1993 - 1996 in 13 counties or cities in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. Hb concentration during early gestation was measured at first prenatal examination and intelligence quotients (IQ), including full-scale, verbal and performance were assessed using Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children in 2000 - 2001 when these children had a mean age of 68 months. Compared with children whose mothers were non-anemic during early gestation, children whose mothers were anemic had a 0.6 point higher mean verbal scale IQ, a 0.9 point higher mean performance IQ and a 0.8 point higher mean full-scale IQ. These differences were not statistically significant when children's gender, age at intelligence test, region, parity and mother's IQ, education level and occupation were adjusted for. When mother-child pairs were divided into 5 sub-groups of every 20 percentiles according to Hb concentration during early gestation, verbal IQ scores of the lowest (Hb development.

  4. Analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on maxillofacial fascial space infection in diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Won; Kim, Moon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the impact of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level on characteristics and prognosis of maxillofacial fascial infection in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 72 patients (35 patients with HbA1c lower than 7.0% and 37 patients with HbA1c higher than 7.0%) diagnosed with maxillofacial fascial space infection and hospitalized for treatment at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Dankook University Hospital (Cheonan, Korea) from January 2005 to February 2014. We compared demographics, parameters of glucoregulation (HbA1c), laboratory parameters of inflammation (white blood cell [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP] count), type and number of involved spaces, type and number of antibiotics, period of hospitalization, number of surgical operations, need for tracheostomy, complications, computed tomography (CT), and microorganisms between the two groups. Results Compared with the well-controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) group (HbA1c maxillofacial fascial infection. Poorly controlled DM with high HbA1c level negatively influences the prognosis of infection. PMID:26568927

  5. A Comparison of Hemoglobin A2 Levels in Untreated and Treated Groups of HIV Patients on ART Including Zidovudine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the level of haemoglobin A2 in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART including zidovudine with untreated HIV patients. Material and Methods. The study was a case control study. A total of 185 patients were included in the study; the case group included 125 HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART including zidovudine and 60 were in the control group who were not receiving ART. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was done and hemoglobin A2 level was observed; value more than 3.5% was considered significant. The Hb A2 percentages of HIV patients were compared with those of control using an unpaired t-test. Results. The mean of Hb A2 in case group was 3.462% (SD 0.675 and in control group it was 2.815% (SD0.246. The higher Hb A2 value was seen in significant number of treated patients than control group (P<0.0001. Conclusion. The clinicians, pathologists, haematologists, and genetic counsellors should be aware of effects of nutritional anaemia and ART on Hb A2 to reduce the chances of misdiagnosis of β-thalassaemia especially in developing countries and for centres for antenatal screening.

  6. Impact of Hemoglobin A1c Levels on Residual Platelet Reactivity and Outcomes After Insertion of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (from the ADAPT-DES Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M.; Dangas, George D.; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    An increasing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level portends an adverse cardiovascular prognosis; however, the association between glycemic control, platelet reactivity, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. We sought to investigate whether ...

  7. First Trimester Maternal Glycated Hemoglobin and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Do Not Predict Third Trimester Glucose Intolerance of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Erica K; Boggess, Kim A; Mathew, Leny; Culhane, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Early pregnancy prediction of third trimester glucose intolerance may identify a population of women whose trajectory toward gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is modifiable. We assessed whether first trimester glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), markers of insulin resistance, predicted third trimester glucose intolerance. Nondiabetic women with singleton pregnancies enrolled in a prospective observational study, 11 0/7 to 14 6/7 weeks. At enrollment, maternal characteristics, medical history, and blood samples were collected for HbA1c and SHBG. Two-step GDM screening was performed, 22 0/7 to 33 6/7 weeks. A 50 g oral glucose tolerance test ≥130 mg/dL defined screen positive, or glucose intolerance. Carpenter-Coustan criteria diagnosed GDM. Means HbA1c and SHBG were compared between glucose-intolerant versus normoglycemic women, and GDM versus no GDM women. We report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of regression analyses. Adjusted models include race, enrollment body mass index, and history of GDM. Among 250 women, 29% were glucose intolerant and 6% had GDM. Among glucose-intolerant women, HbA1c was higher (5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 5.1 ± 0.3, P = .01) and associated with glucose intolerance in unadjusted, but not adjusted, models (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.1; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.7-5.4). Among GDM women, HbA1c was higher (5.4 ± 0.4 vs 5.2 ± 0.3, P = .002) and SHBG was lower (228 ± 72 vs 288 ± 93 mmol/L, P = .02). The HbA1c predicted GDM in unadjusted (OR: 13.2, 95% CI: 2.6-68.0) but not adjusted (aOR: 6.7, 95% CI: 0.8-55.2) models. Although metabolic alterations may well precede third trimester glucose intolerance, neither HbA1c of SHBG remained an independent predictor of glucose intolerance or GDM in adjusted models.

  8. Food security, growth and vitamin A, hemoglobin and zinc levels of preschool children in the northeast of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Queiroz, Daiane de; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora Lins da; Lima, Zilka Nanes

    2014-01-01

    .... Food security was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The nutritional status was evaluated using the weight/height, weight/age, height/age, hemoglobin, serum retinol and serum zinc status...

  9. Effect of etonogestrel implant on serum lipids, liver function tests and hemoglobin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbaz, Berna; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem; Caliskan, Eray; Dilbaz, Serdar; Haberal, Ali

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the possible effects of etonogestrel implant (Implanon, Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Hb levels in a sample of Turkish population. Healthy women of childbearing potential who had applied to our Family Planning Clinic for a contraceptive method and had chosen to have an Implanon insertion after thorough counseling about all family planning methods and screening for eligibility for Implanon use were enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT and Hb levels were tested before and at 3 and 6 months after insertion. Baseline mean parameters were compared with mean parameters at 3 and 6 months for statistical significance using paired-samples t test. Eighty-two women eligible for the study were included. Mean age of the patients was 27.5+/-4.8 years. When compared to the baseline values, there was a statistically significant decrease in the TC (pliver functions and lipid metabolism does not lead to unhealthy alterations. Increase in Hb can be attributed to the high frequency of amenorrhea in patients.

  10. GENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING HEMOGLOBIN F LEVEL IN β-THALASSEMIA/HB E DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangrai, Waraporn; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors influencing Hb F content in adult red blood cells include β-thalassemia genotypes, co-inheritance of α-thalassemia traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping of α- and β-thalassemia and five SNPs in β-globin gene cluster previously identified in genome-wide association studies as being markers of elevated Hb F in β-thalassemia were performed in 81 subjects diagnosed with β-thalassemia/Hb E. Hb F levels are higher (0.9-7.1 g/dl) in subjects (n = 57) with the severe compared to mild β-thalassemia (0.8-2.5 g/ dl) (n = 4) genotypes, and are similarly low (0.7-3.5 g/dl) in those (n = 15) with α-thalassemia co-inheritance. Hb F levels in non-thalassemia controls (n = 150) range from 0 to 0.15 g/dl. The presence of homozygous minor alleles of the 5 SNPs are significant indicators of β-thalassemia/Hb E individuals with high Hb F (> 4 g/dl), independent of their thalassemia genotypes. Given that re-activation of γ-globin genes leads to amelioration of β-thalassemia severity, understanding how genetic factors up-regulate Hb F production may lead to possible therapeutic interventions, genetically or pharmacologically, of this debilitating disease in the not too distant future.

  11. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  12. The effect of proton pump inhibitors on glycated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Oh, Minkyung; Park, Su Min; Kim, You Jeong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyoon; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kwon, Min Jeong; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Soon Hee; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Park, Jeong Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Gastrin increases the growth and neogenesis of the islets of Langerhans. Oral proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase the circulating gastrin level in animals and humans, but the therapeutic benefit of PPIs for diabetes mellitus has not been resolved. We examined whether treatment with a PPI for ≥2 months affected the glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level in patients with type 2 diabetes. The electronic medical records of patients treated at the Busan Paik Hospital in South Korea were examined. The primary outcome measure was the change in A1C before and after PPI treatment for ≥2 months. We also tested if the primary outcome measure was affected by sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, PPI molecule, duration of treatment with PPI or concurrent therapy with other antidiabetes agents. In total, 43 patients (17 men and 26 women) were studied (mean age 63.8 years). Patients were treated with a PPI for a mean of 180 days. The A1C levels before and after treatment were not significantly different (6.86%±1.10% and 6.77%±1.07%, respectively; p=0.406). Metformin monotherapy did not lower A1C levels as compared with a combination therapy including metformin and antidiabetes medication not including metformin. Proton pump inhibitor treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes did not reduce A1C levels. The data of this study were obtained from a retrospective chart review and included a small number of subjects. Furthermore, large randomized controlled studies are needed to define the effect of PPIs for type 2 patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the difference in the cost of health care for diabetic patients: an econometric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Rony; Zarate, Aldo; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ramírez, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Complications increase treatment costs of diabetes mellitus (DM). An adequate metabolic control of the disease could reduce these costs. To evaluate the costs of medical care for a cohort of patients with DM, according to their degree of metabolic compensation. All diabetic patients attended in a regional hospital from 2005 to 2010 were analyzed. A correlational study between costs of individual healthcare and levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), was performed in a series of annual cross-sectional measurements. The study comprised 1,644 diabetic patients. During the study period the average cost of healthcare per patient increased from $878,000 to more than $1,000,000 Chilean pesos (CLP) during the study period. The percentage of patients with HbA1c levels below 7.0% varied between 43.0% and 54.9%. Costs for patients with HbA1c levels between 7 and 8.9% were 1.3 to 1.5 times greater. For the group of patients with HbA1c levels between 9 and 10.9% the costs increased 1.4 to 1.6 times. For patients with HbA1c levels greater than 11.0%, healthcare costs doubled. Healthcare expenditure varied according to metabolic control, which is consistent with international findings. This study was limited by its selected population, incomplete information on health expenditures, and the inclusion of only direct costs to the health system. If all patients would achieve metabolic compensation, the yearly savings would be CLP $308,000,000 (or USD $657,000).

  14. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  15. Serum Uric Acid Levels were Dynamically Coupled with Hemoglobin A1c in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fengjiang; Chang, Baocheng; Yang, Xilin; Wang, Yaogang; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to decipher the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and normal subjects. A total of 2,250 unrelated T2DM patients and 4,420 Han Chinese subjects from a physical examination population were recruited for this study. In T2DM patients SUA levels were negatively correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.109, P = 0.000) and 2 h plasma glucose levels (rs = -0.178, P = 0.000). In the physical examination population, SUA levels were inversely correlated with HbA1c (rs = -0.175, P = 0.000) and FPG (rs = -0.131, P = 0.009) in T2DM patients but positively correlated with HbA1c (rs = 0.040, P = 0.012) and FPG (rs = 0.084, P = 0.000) in normal-glucose subjects. Multivariate analyses showed that HbA1c was significantly negatively associated with HUA both in T2DM patients (OR = 0.872, 95% CI: 0.790~0.963) and in the physical examination T2DM patients (OR = 0.722, 95% CI: 0.539~0.968). Genetic association studies in T2DM patients showed that alleles of two glucose-uric acid transporter genes, ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were significantly associated with SUA levels (P uric acid and glucose in renal tubules might be accounted for these associations.

  16. [Delta⁰-thalassemia by insertion of 27 base pairs in δ-globin gene with decreased hemoglobin A₂ levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Borrachero, Maria Luisa; de la Fuente-Gonzalo, Félix; González, Fernando Ataúlfo; Nieto, Jorge M; Villegas, Ana; Ropero, Paloma

    2015-04-08

    We describe a novel delta-thalassemia mutation causing decreased hemoglobin (Hb) A2 levels associated with Hb Watts, variant Hb resulting from a trinucleotide deletion in Spain. Hb variant analysis was performed by cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary zone electrophoresis. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analyses were used to identify mutations in the δ- and α-globin genes. Abnormal Hb was observed on capillary zone electrophoresis in Z6 and by cation-exchange HPLC a slower peak than HbA was observed at an retention time of 4.19min. This variant Hb is called Hb Watts [α2 74(EF3)Asp->0 or α2 75(EF4)Asp->0; HBA2:c.226_228delGAC]. The decreased HbA2 percentage owes to an insertion of 27nt between nt 83 and 84 of IVS-I of the δ-globin gene. When analyzing a chromatogram, the possibility of the existence of delta-thalassemia or an HbA2 variant should be considered, apart from alfa-, beta-thalassemia and structural haemoglobinopathies. To this end, each of the peaks and their percentages should be considered to allow for correct interpretation and to avoid misdiagnosis as much as possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of malaria and HIV co-infection on hemoglobin levels among pregnant women in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Acquah, Samuel; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2013-03-01

    To assess the burden of maternal malaria and HIV among pregnant women in Ghana and to determine the risk of anemia among women with dual infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 4 hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana. The study group comprised 872 consenting pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics. Venous blood samples were screened for malaria, HIV, and hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between malaria, HIV, and risk of anemia. In all, 34.4% of the study cohort had anemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant women with either malaria (odds ratio 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.77; P=HIV (odds ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.80; P=0.014) had an increased risk of anemia. In adjusted models, pregnant women co-infected with both malaria and HIV displayed twice the risk of anemia. The adjusted odds ratio was 2.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.97; P=0.002). Pregnant women infected with both malaria and HIV are twice as likely to be anemic than women with a single infection or no infection. Measures to control malaria, HIV, and anemia during pregnancy are imperative to improve birth outcomes in this region of Ghana. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  19. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M.Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A.; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHLR200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wildtype VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHLR200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHLR200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc but not Pdk2 was decreased and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1 and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  20. Convergent Evolution of Hemoglobin Function in High-Altitude Andean Waterfowl Involves Limited Parallelism at the Molecular Sequence Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Green, Andy J; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Tubaro, Pablo L; Alza, Luis; Bulgarella, Mariana; Smith, Matthew M; Wilson, Robert E; Fago, Angela; McCracken, Kevin G; Storz, Jay F

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental question in evolutionary genetics concerns the extent to which adaptive phenotypic convergence is attributable to convergent or parallel changes at the molecular sequence level. Here we report a comparative analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) function in eight phylogenetically replicated pairs of high- and low-altitude waterfowl taxa to test for convergence in the oxygenation properties of Hb, and to assess the extent to which convergence in biochemical phenotype is attributable to repeated amino acid replacements. Functional experiments on native Hb variants and protein engineering experiments based on site-directed mutagenesis revealed the phenotypic effects of specific amino acid replacements that were responsible for convergent increases in Hb-O2 affinity in multiple high-altitude taxa. In six of the eight taxon pairs, high-altitude taxa evolved derived increases in Hb-O2 affinity that were caused by a combination of unique replacements, parallel replacements (involving identical-by-state variants with independent mutational origins in different lineages), and collateral replacements (involving shared, identical-by-descent variants derived via introgressive hybridization). In genome scans of nucleotide differentiation involving high- and low-altitude populations of three separate species, function-altering amino acid polymorphisms in the globin genes emerged as highly significant outliers, providing independent evidence for adaptive divergence in Hb function. The experimental results demonstrate that convergent changes in protein function can occur through multiple historical paths, and can involve multiple possible mutations. Most cases of convergence in Hb function did not involve parallel substitutions and most parallel substitutions did not affect Hb-O2 affinity, indicating that the repeatability of phenotypic evolution does not require parallelism at the molecular level.

  1. Effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, retinol status and physical growth levels of primary and middle school students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaoyang; Wei, Xiaoping; Tang, Xianqiang; Jiang, Hongpeng; Fan, Zhen; Yu, Qin; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Li, Tingyu

    2013-01-01

    Lack of protein and vitamin A influences the growth of student in impoverished mountain areas. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of egg and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin, serum retinol and anthropometric indices of 10-18 years old students of a low socioeconomic status. A total number of 288 students from four boarding schools were randomly selected by using cluster sampling method in Chongqing, and they were assigned into supplement group and control group non-randomly. Students in supplement group received a single 200,000 international units vitamin A and 1 egg/day (including weekends) for 6 months. The control group did not receive any supplementation. We measured hemoglobin, serum retinol and height and weight at baseline and after supplementation. The supplementation increased the mean hemoglobin concentration by 7.13 g/L compared with 1.38 g/L in control group (pvitamin A supplementation is an effective, convenient, and practical method to improve the levels of hemoglobin, serum retinol and prevent the deterioration of growth in terms of weight for primary and middle school students from outlying poverty-stricken areas. Our intervention did not have a beneficial effect on linear growth.

  2. Effect of oxygen level on the enhancement of tumor response to radiation by perfluorochemical emulsions or a bovine hemoglobin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, B A; Herman, T S; Hopkins, R E; Menon, K

    1991-09-01

    Attempts to correct tumor hypoxia with oxygen-carrying solutions have used high concentrations of inspired oxygen (FiO2 100% or 95%). In the clinic, however, obtaining such high levels of FiO2 using mask ventilation in older patients or in children may be difficult. Since lower levels of FiO2 had not been previously tested, we examined the antitumor efficacy of FiO2 levels of 65, 85, and 95% breathed for 1 hr prior to and during irradiation used with the concentrated perfluorochemical emulsion F44E, the less concentrated emulsion, Fluosol-DA, or a new preparation consisting of purified bovine hemoglobin solution, PBHS. When tested in mice bearing the Lewis lung carcinoma with 2, 3, or 4 Gy daily for 5 days, daily Fluosol-DA produced only a small increase in the slope of the tumor growth delay versus irradiation alone, when used with 85% FiO2 (dose modifying factor [DMF] 1.3), but produced a DMF of 2.1 with 95% FiO2. Various concentrations of F44E (2, 4, or 8 g PFC/kg) each required a 95% FiO2 for full effect but the 8 g/kg dose had a discernable effect with an FiO2 of 65% and 85% (DMF 1.25 and 1.30, respectively). For PBHS, in contrast, a DMF of 1.6 was observed at 20% FiO2, but surprisingly this increased further to 2.1 with 95% FiO2. Further investigations of PBHS with irradiation demonstrated that daily administration of PBHS (12 ml/kg) 1 hr before single Xray fractions of 5, 10, 15, or 20 Gy with 20% FiO2 resulted in a DMF of 1.6-1.7 in the FSaIIC fibrosarcoma compared with irradiation alone when ascertained by tumor cell excision assay. These results indicate that to achieve maximum antitumor benefit with these oxygen-carrying solutions with radiation therapy, care must be taken to insure that FiO2 levels near 100% are achieved.

  3. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  4. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard; Herrmann, Johannes; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and retinol binding protein (RBP) were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI) was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored. Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%). Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF) significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin. Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children. German Clinical Trials Register

  5. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  6. Change in Hemoglobin Levels due to Anesthesia in Mice: An Important Confounder in Studies on Hematopoietic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Anita; Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analgesic and anesthetic drugs may have an impact on the results achieved from animal experiments. In the study presented here, we try to enlighten whether anesthesia with fentanyl/fluniasone and midazolam (Hypnorm and Dormicum) has an influence on measurements of hemoglobin in mice. In a cross...

  7. Comparison of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis is associated with a slight elevation in glycosylated hemoglobin (lab and chair side kit and that the clinical significance of this difference remains to be determined. This preliminary finding is consistent with earlier reports that chronic periodontitis is associated with elevated blood glucose in adults without diabetes and may increase one′s risk for type-2 diabetes.

  8. The effects of lowering nighttime and breakfast glucose levels with sensor-augmented pump therapy on hemoglobin A1c levels in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maahs, David M; Chase, H Peter; Westfall, Emily; Slover, Robert; Huang, Suiying; Shin, John J; Kaufman, Francine R; Pyle, Laura; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2014-05-01

    This study determined the association of continuous glucose monitoring glucose (CGM-glucose) levels at different times of the day with improvement in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. The potential application of these data is to focus effort to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Data were analyzed from 196 patients with type 1 diabetes who were randomized to receive sensor-augmented pump therapy in the 1-year STAR 3 trial. CGM-glucose values and HbA1c levels from baseline and after 1 year were evaluated to determine associations of improvement in CGM-glucose at different times of the day with longitudinal improvement in HbA1c. Improvement in HbA1c levels after 1 year was related to improvement in mean CGM-glucose levels in daytime (6 a.m.-midnight), overnight (midnight-6 a.m.), and each mealtime period (Pbreakfast meal period was associated with improvement in HbA1c after 1 year, explaining 59% of the HbA1c improvement using the partial R(2) test. Moreover, among those patients who only improved CGM-glucose in the overnight period there was an associated improvement in breakfast meal period CGM-glucose of 26 ± 22 mg/dL (PBreakfast period glucose improvement had the greatest effect on lowering HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. Improving glucose control overnight resulted in subsequent improvement in the breakfast period. Although glucose control should be improved at all times, methods to improve overnight and post-breakfast glucose levels may be of primary importance in improving glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  9. A Predictive Model of Plasma Lamotrigine Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, K; Terao, T; Katayama, Y; Hatano, K; Kodama, K; Shirahama, M; Sakai, A; Hirakawa, H; Mizokami, Y; Shiotsuki, I; Ishii, N; Inoue, Y

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Lamotrigine is one of several mood stabilizers and its effects for the treatment and prevention of depressive episodes, particularly in bipolar disorder, are generally accepted. Although the findings about a therapeutic window of lamotrigine are yet to be determined, it seems important to obtain information on individual pharmacokinetic peculiarities. This study was conducted to formulate the predictive model of plasma lamotrigine levels. Methods: Using the data of 47 patients whose lamotrigine levels, liver function, and renal function were measured, predictive models of lamotrigine levels were formulated by stepwise multiple regression analyses. The predictive power of the models was compared using another dataset of 25 patients. Results: Two models were created using stepwise multiple regression. The first model was: plasma lamotrigine level (μg/mL)=2.308+0.019×lamotrigine dose (mg/day). The second model was: plasma lamotrigine level (μg/mL)=0.08+0.024×lamotrigine dose (mg/day)+4.088×valproate combination (no=0, yes=1). The predictive power of the second model was better than that of the first model. Discussion: The present study proposes a prompt and relatively accurate equation to predict lamotrigine levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Low Levels of Hemoglobin at Admission Are Associated With Increased 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Katrine; Madsen, Christian M; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    in patients with anemia (type of fracture, gender, and comorbidities (Charlson score) slightly attenuated the risk estimate (HR: 1.21, CI: 1.03-1.41, P = .02). CONCLUSION: This study......INTRODUCTION: Previous smaller studies suggest that anemia is a risk factor for mortality in patients with hip fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the correlation between hemoglobin at admission with 30-day mortality following a hip fracture in a large-scale study. PATIENTS...

  11. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... for the prediction of Hb. RESULTS: The strongest predictors of Hb and risk of low Hb were low ferritin (iron supplementation (yes/no). No dietary factors were found to be consistently significant in multivariable models predicting Hb levels, risk of having low Hb, or risk of a decrease...

  12. Acrylamide exposure measured by food frequency questionnaire and hemoglobin adduct levels and prostate cancer risk in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Bälter, Katarina; Adami, Hans-Olov; Grönberg, Henrik; Vikström, Anna C.; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2010-01-01

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during the cooking of many commonly consumed foods. Data are scant on whether dietary acrylamide represents an important cancer risk in humans. We studied the association between acrylamide and prostate cancer risk using two measures of acrylamide exposure: intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin. We also studied the correlation between these two exposure measures. We used data from the population-based case-control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). Dietary data was available for 1499 cases and 1118 controls. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide were measured in blood samples from a subset of 170 cases and 161 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer in high versus low quantiles of acrylamide exposure using logistic regression. The correlation between FFQ acrylamide intake and acrylamide adducts in non-smokers was 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.14–0.35), adjusted for age, region, energy intake, and laboratory batch. Among controls the correlation was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.21–0.48); among cases it was 0.15 (95% CI: 0.00–0.30). The OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide adducts was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.47–1.85, p-value for trend=0.98). For FFQ acrylamide, the OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75–1.27, p trend=0.67). No significant associations were found between acrylamide exposure and risk of prostate cancer by stage, grade, or PSA level. Acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin and FFQ-measured acrylamide intake were moderately correlated. Neither measure of acrylamide exposure – hemoglobin adducts or FFQ – was associated with risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19142870

  13. Parenteral vitamin B12 in macrocytic hemodialysis patients reduced MMA levels but did not change mean red cell volume or hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, V C H; Shalansky, K; Jastrzebski, J; Martyn, A; Li, G; Yeung, C K; Snyder, F; Zalunardo, N

    2011-04-01

    Unexplained macrocytic anemia was common in our hemodialysis (HD) unit. Vitamin B12 requirements may be higher in HD patients; therefore, patients may be deficient despite "normal" serum levels. We studied vitamin B12 status and the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 administration in macrocytic HD patients. A normocytic group was included for comparison. Prospective cohort study of 62 HD patients (34 macrocytic, 28 normocytic) from November 2008 to March 2009. Patients were on stable doses of darbepoetin and iron replete. Vitamin B12 1,000 µg IV was given once weekly for 4 weeks and follow-up was 12 weeks. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) level was used as an indicator of vitamin B12 status. MCV and hemoglobin were also examined for an effect of B12 administration. At baseline: all patients had serum B12 levels > 200 pmol/l; 97% had serum folate levels > 55 nmol/l; there was no difference in serum B12 levels between groups (504 vs. 571 pmol/l, p = 0.18); MMA was higher in the macrocytic group (0.56 vs. 0.48 µmol/l, p = 0.048) and hemoglobin (Hg) was lower (119 vs. 125 g/l, p = 0.03); median darbepoetin dose was equivalent (20 µg/week). Following IV vitamin B12, the macrocytic group had a greater and more sustained reduction in MMA (-0.064 vs. -0.0066 µmol/l/wk, p = 0.004). There was no improvement in hemoglobin (Hg), reticulocyte count or MCV in either group. Median darbepoetin dose was unchanged. IV vitamin B12 led to a sustained decline in MMA levels in macrocytic patients, suggesting functional vitamin B12 deficiency at baseline. However, there were no significant changes in Hg or darbepoetin dose.

  14. Blood levels of toxic metals and rare earth elements commonly found in e-waste may exert subtle effects on hemoglobin concentration in sub-Saharan immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-12-01

    Pollution by heavy metals and more recently by rare earth elements (REE) and other minor elements (ME) has increased due in part to their high use in technological and electronic devices. This contamination can become very relevant in those sites where e-waste is improperly processed, as it is the case in many countries of the African continent. Exposure to some toxic elements has been associated to certain hematological disorders, specifically anemia. In this study, the concentrations of 48 elements (including REE and other ME) were determined by ICP-MS in whole blood samples of sub-Saharan immigrants with anemia (n=63) and without anemia (n=78). We found that the levels of Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Se were significantly higher in the control group than in the anemia group, suggesting that anemia was mainly due to nutritional deficiencies. However, since other authors have suggested that in addition to nutritional deficiency, exposure to some elements may influence hemoglobin levels, we wanted to explore the role of a broad panel of toxic and "emerging" elements in hemoglobin deficiency. We found that the levels of Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Ce, Eu, Er, Ga, La, Nb, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Tl, U and V were higher in anemic participants than in controls. For most of these elements an inverse correlation with hemoglobin concentration was found. Some of them also correlated inversely with blood iron levels, pointing to the possibility that a higher rate of intestinal uptake of these could exist in relation to a nutritional deficiency of iron. However, the higher levels of Pb, and the group of REE and other ME in anemic participants were independent of iron levels, pointing to the possibility that these elements could play a role in the development of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A), Mean Corpuscular Volume, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Cutoff Points in Double Heterozygous Hb E/- -SEA α-Thalassemia-1 Carriers are Dependent on Hemoglobin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckngam, Prapapun; Limweeraprajak, Ektong; Kiewkarnkha, Tiemjan; Tatu, Thanusak

    2017-01-01

    Identifying double heterozygosities in Hb E (HBB: c.79 G>A)/- -SEA (Southeast Asian) (α-thalassemia-1) (α-thal-1) in patients first diagnosed as carrying Hb E is important in thalassemia control. Low Hb E, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) levels have been observed in this double heterozygosity. However, the cutoff points of these parameters have never been systematically established. Here, we analyzed Hb E and red blood cell (RBC) parameters in 372 Hb E patients grouped by Hb levels, by the status of - -SEA and -α3.7 (α-thal-2; rightward) deletions, to establish the cutoff points. Then, the established cutoff points were evaluated in 184 Hb E patients. It was found that the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV, MCH were significantly dependent on the Hb levels. In the group having Hb levels <10.0 g/dL, the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV and MCH were 21.2%, 64.9 fL and 21.0 pg, respectively, and were 25.6%, 72.8 fL and 23.9 pg, respectively, in the group having Hb levels 10.0-11.9 g/dL. Finally, in the group having Hb levels ≥12.0 g/dL, the cutoff points of Hb E, MCV and MCH were 27.1%, 76.7 fL and 25.3 pg, respectively. Thus, to screen for the double heterozygous Hb E/- -SEA anomaly in patients initially diagnosed as carrying Hb E, the Hb levels must be taken into account in choosing the suitable cutoff points of these three parameters.

  16. Predicted airframe noise levels for certification flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A correction is presented for a previously published inconsistency in predicted airframe noise values, which were based on approach velocities lower than those required for FAA certification. New figures are given for the following aircraft: DC-9-30, 727-200, A300-B2, L-1011, DC-10-10, and 747-200B. The new levels average 2.3 dB higher than those calculated for typical approach speeds.

  17. Recovery from Extreme Hemodilution (Hemoglobin Level of 0.6 g/dL) in Cadaveric Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Taro; Ito, Nobuko; Kitamura, Takayuki; Yamada, Yoshitsugu

    2015-05-15

    Decompensated hepatic failure occurred in a patient with a rare blood type. The patient had extreme hemodilution due to massive bleeding during liver transplantation. A shortage of matched and universal donor blood prompted us to transfuse albumin and fresh frozen plasma for intravascular volume resuscitation. The lowest hemoglobin was 0.6 g/dL, accompanied by ST depression and a serum lactate of 100 mg/dL. The accuracy of the measured value of 0.6 g/dL was confirmed. However, the patient recovered from this critical situation after transfusion, and he was eventually discharged from the hospital without significant sequelae. Maintaining normovolemia, administering pure oxygen, ensuring appropriate anesthetic depth, and maintaining minimal inotropic support were essential for this patient's survival during massive bleeding.

  18. Low Levels of Hemoglobin at Admission Are Associated With Increased 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Katrine; Madsen, Christian M; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    in patients with anemia (type of fracture, gender, and comorbidities (Charlson score) slightly attenuated the risk estimate (HR: 1.21, CI: 1.03-1.41, P = .02). CONCLUSION: This study......INTRODUCTION: Previous smaller studies suggest that anemia is a risk factor for mortality in patients with hip fracture. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the correlation between hemoglobin at admission with 30-day mortality following a hip fracture in a large-scale study. PATIENTS...... AND METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2012, all patients with hip fracture (>60 years of age) admitted to Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, were identified from a local hip fracture database. We excluded conservatively treated patients and patients who died preoperatively. RESULTS: Seven thousand four...

  19. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  20. Diagnostic value of hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose levels in coronary artery bypass grafting patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekumit, Hayrettin; Cenal, Ali Riza; Polat, Adil; Uzun, Kemal; Tataroglu, Cenk; Akinci, Esat

    2010-05-01

    Early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes are of utmost importance in preventing diabetic complications and improving short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) measurement, either alone or in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), to detect glycometabolic disturbances among patients undergoing elective on-pump coronary surgery. A total of 166 patients who underwent elective isolated on-pump coronary surgery were included. Hemoglobin A1c and 8-hour FPG measurements were obtained by venous blood sampling on the day before the operation. After 1 month, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all discharged patients without known diabetes. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of diabetes were analyzed for FPG, HbA(1c), and for the combined use of HbA(1c) and FPG, in reference to the tolerance test results. Sixty percent of patients without known diabetes were diagnosed as diabetes or prediabetes with glucose tolerance test. Compared with either test alone, combined use of FPG and HbA(1c) had higher sensitivity and specificity. Positive predictive values for FPG, HbA(1c), and combined use of these two factors were 83.6%, 94%, and 97%, respectively. The combined use had a sensitivity and specificity of 84.4% and 94.1%, respectively. Fasting plasma glucose alone does not seem sufficient for diagnosing approximately half of the patients with dysglycemia. Our results suggest that the use of FPG and HbA(1c) measurements in combination may be a useful strategy to preoperatively identify coronary patients with unknown diabetes. Copyright (c) 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human hemoglobin genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, G.R.; Adams, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: Introduction; The Human Hemoglobins; The Human Globin Genes; Hemoglobin Synthesis and Globin Gene Expression; The Globin Gene Mutations - A. Mechanisms and Classification; The Globin Gene Mutations - B. Their Phenotypes and Clinical Expression; The Genetics of the Human Globin Gene Loci: Formal Genetics and Gene Linkage; The Geographic Distribution of Globin Gene Variation; Labortory Identification, Screening, Education, and Counseling for Abnormal Hemoglobins and Thalassemias; and Approaches to the Treatment of the Hemoglobin Disorders.

  2. CarboxyHemoglobin Formation Due to Transient Exposure to High Level Carbon Monoxide: Experimental Results and an Explanatory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    8217-- -therignq Jt’d•q ,’tatfll n9 the aata neie " ara como•eting ama ’e..e "q -’ýe :•ie, 1 0 a, -ldr•atýcr -ra e ntmient5 r tarnq trs rer eMte or ,nv othef Bo...indirectly estimated from predictive formulae based on other physical characteristics of the subject, e.g. height and weight. The predicted COHb values from

  3. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  4. Effect of smoking during radiotherapy, respiratory insufficiency, and hemoglobin levels on outcome in patients irradiated for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rades, Dirk; Setter, Cornelia; Schild, Steven E; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-07-15

    To investigate the effect of smoking during radiotherapy (RT), respiratory insufficiency before RT, hemoglobin levels during RT, and additional factors on overall survival, locoregional control (LRC), and metastasis-free survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. The following factors were investigated in 181 patients who underwent RT for non-small-cell lung cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, histologic type, grade, T/N stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, surgery, chemotherapy, respiratory insufficiency before RT, pack-years, smoking during RT, and hemoglobin levels during RT. Additionally, in the 129 patients who did not undergo surgery, the effect of the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) (60 Gy) on outcome was investigated. On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.004), lower N stage (p = 0.040), surgery (p = 0.010), and no respiratory insufficiency (p = 0.023). A Karnofsky performance score >70 achieved borderline significance (p = 0.056). Improved LRC was associated with a lower T stage (p = 0.007) and no smoking during RT (p = 0.029). Improved metastasis-free survival was associated with lower T stage (p or =60 Gy was associated with a better outcome than an EQD2 of 60 Gy resulted in better LRC than did an EQD2 of respiratory insufficiency significantly affected LRC or metastasis-free survival in our patient population. Furthermore, our data suggest a dose-effect relationship in those patients who did not undergo surgery.

  5. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  6. Anemia intrahospitalaria y descenso de hemoglobina en pacientes internados Hospital-acquired anemia and decrease of hemoglobin levels in hospitalized patients

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    Carina V. Gianserra

    2011-06-01

    estadía hospitalaria prolongada, la presencia de leucocitosis, la hidratación parenteral y colocación de acceso venoso central fueron factores predictivos de descenso de hemoglobina = 2 g/dl.It is common to observe the development of anemia in hospitalized patients, especially in critical cases. Few studies have evaluated its prevalence and associated factors in patients in the general ward. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associated clinical factors of hospital-acquired anemia and the drop of hemoglobin concentration in hospitalized patients. This is a cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study. A total of 192 consecutive in-patients in the general ward were studied. Associated risk factors to the drop in hemoglobin by = 2g/dl were analyzed; 139 patients (72.4% presented anemia; 89 of them (46.4% had it at admission and 50 (26% developed hospital-acquired anemia, 47 out of 192 showed a drop in hemoglobin = 2 g/dl(24.48%. They also presented lower values of hematocrite and hemoglobin at discharge (p = 0.01, parenteral hydration at a higher volume (p = 0.01, and lengthier hospitalizations (p = 0.0001. In the univariate analysis, the following variables were statistically significant risk factors: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2,02; 1.03-4; p = 0.01, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:3.39; 1.62-7.09; p = 0.0006, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.47; 1.06-6.4; p = 0.01, central venous access (OR; IC95%:10.29; 1.75-108.07; p = 0.003 and hospital-acquired anemia (OR; IC95%: 7.06; 3.41-15.83; p = 0.00000004. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independent predictive factors of the hemoglobin decrease = 2 g/dl: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2.45; 1.14-5,27; p = 0.02, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:5.15; 2.19-12.07; p = 0.0002, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.95; 1.13-7.72; p = 0.02, central venous access (OR; IC95%:8.82; 1.37-56.82; p = 0

  7. Hemoglobin levels and quality of life in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia: the eAQUA study

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    Mouysset JL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Loup Mouysset,1 Beata Freier,2 Joan van den Bosch,3 Charles Briac Levaché,4 Alain Bols,5 Hans Werner Tessen,6 Laura Belton,7 G Chet Bohac,8 Jan-Henrik Terwey,9 Giuseppe Tonini101Department of Medical Oncology, Clinique Rambot Provencale, Aix en Provence, France; 2Clinical Oncology, Wojewodzki Szpital Specjalistyczny, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Internal Medicine/Oncology, Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis locatie Dordwijk, Dordrecht, the Netherlands; 4Radiotherapy Service, Medical Oncology, Polyclinique Francheville, Périgueux, France; 5Central Pharmacy, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge-Oostende AV, Brugge, Belgium; 6Private Oncology Practice. Goslar, Germany; 7LB Biostatistics, London, UK; 8Clinical Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 9Medical Development – Oncology, Amgen (Europe GmbH, Zug, Switzerland; 10Department of Medical Oncology, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Roma, ItalyPurpose: To assess hemoglobin (Hb outcomes and fatigue-related quality-of-life (QoL (electronic assessment in patients with solid tumors and symptomatic chemotherapy-induced anemia receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa (DA or another erythropoiesis-stimulating agent according to European indication.Methods: eAQUA was a Phase IV prospective observational study. The primary outcome (assessed in the primary analysis set [PAS]: patients receiving one or more DA dose who had baseline and week 9 assessments for Hb and QoL was the proportion of patients receiving DA having both Hb increases ≥1 g/dL and improved QoL between baseline and week 9. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue (FACT-F subscale scores were anchored to fatigue visual analog scale scores to determine the minimally important difference for improved QoL. Overall data/data over time are reported for the full analysis set (patients receiving one or more erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose, n=1,158; week 9 data (ie, data relating to the primary and secondary outcomes are reported

  8. The impact of baseline hemoglobin A1c levels prior to initiation of pump therapy on long-term metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Tzadok, Michal; Hirsh, Galit; Boyko, Valentina; Graph-Barel, Chana; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Reichman, Brian

    2010-07-01

    This study was done to identify factors influencing long-term metabolic control in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with an insulin pump. Data were obtained from retrospective chart review of 113 patients (52 males) with T1DM treated with an insulin pump for up to 7 years. Their mean +/- SD age at diagnosis of T1DM was 9.7 +/- 5.1 years, and that at pump therapy initiation was 13.8 +/- 6.1 years. Linear trends and changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels following pump insertion were evaluated according to gender, metabolic control prior to initiation of pump therapy, time from diagnosis of diabetes until pump therapy, age at initiation, and the duration of pump treatment. Mean HbA1c levels of patients with good baseline metabolic control (HbA1c level 9%) control groups (8.1 +/- 0.9% and 8.2 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P metabolic control (P value for trend = 0.004). HbA1c levels of patients with poor baseline metabolic control decreased significantly immediately after pump initiation (9.4 +/- 1.6% vs. 8.0 +/- 1.2%, P = 0.0001) and thereafter remained stable (P value for trend = 0.54). In the multivariable analyses, baseline HbA1c level metabolic control. Early pump treatment had a significant long-term impact on metabolic control.

  9. Hemoglobin Variants in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Raymond A.

    1965-04-22

    Variability among mammalian hemoglobins was observed many years ago (35). The chemical basis for differences among hemoglobins from different species of mammals has been studied by several investigators (5, 11, 18, 48). As well as interspecies differences, hemoglobin variants are frequently found within a species of mammals (2, 3, 7, 16) The inheritance of these intraspecies variants can be studied, and pedigrees indicate that the type of hemoglobin synthesized in an individual is genetically controlled (20). Several of the variant human hemoglobins are f'unctionally deficient (7, 16). Such hemoglobin anomalies are of basic interest to man because of the vital role of hemoglobin for transporting oxygen to all tissues of the body.

  10. Relationship Between Low Hemoglobin Levels and Outcomes After Treatment With Radiation or Chemoradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: Has the Impact of Anemia Been Overstated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Allen, Pamela K.; Klopp, Ann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Meyer, Larissa A. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eifel, Patricia J., E-mail: peifel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous reports have suggested that anemia increases rates of recurrence after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. However, these studies may not have fully corrected for confounding risk factors. Using a well-characterized cohort of cervical cancer patients, we examined the association between anemia and outcomes before and after the introduction of chemoradiation as standard of care. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 2454 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy from 1980 through 2011. Minimum hemoglobin level (Hgb{sub min}) was recorded for 2359 patients (96%). Endpoints included freedom from central recurrence (FFCR), freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: For the entire cohort, hemoglobin concentrations of 9, 10, and 12 g/dL before and during radiation were all significantly associated with FFCR, FFDM, and DSS (all P<.001) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis, only Hgb{sub min} less than 10 g/dL during RT (RT-Hgb{sub <10}) remained significant, and it was correlated with lower DSS (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28) and FFDM (P=.03, HR = 1.33) but not with FFCR. In a subset analysis of patients receiving chemoradiation (n=678), RT-Hgb{sub <10} was associated only with DSS (P=.008, HR = 1.49), not with FFCR or FFDM. In this subgroup, despite an association between RT-Hgb{sub <10} and DSS, the use of transfusion was not correlated with benefit. Conclusions: No evidence was found supporting anemia as an independent predictor of central recurrence in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Less emphasis on correcting anemia in cervical cancer patients may be warranted.

  11. High predictive ability of glycated hemoglobin on comparison with oxidative stress markers in assessment of chronic vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Jyothi M P; D'Souza, Roshni Pamela; Vijin, V F; Shetty, Abhijith; Arunachalam, Cynthia; Pai, Vinitha Ramanath; Shetty, Risha; Faarisa, A

    2016-01-01

    To validate the diagnostic utility of oxidative stress markers along with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) in the assessment of chronic vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in 100 type 2 DM (without complications n = 50, with complications n = 50) and healthy controls (n = 50). Diagnostic potential was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis and their relationships to risk variables were analyzed. MDA, IMA and AOPP were significantly increased in diabetics, both with and without complications. Oxidative stress parameters correlated with fasting blood glucose and HbA1c (independent predictors). Duration of diabetes was an independent predictor for AOPP and MDA. The association of IMA with diabetes duration was lost on multiple regression analysis. Area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity for MDA were 0.795, 84%, 66%; for AOPP, they were 0.762, 82%, 56%; for IMA, they were 0.611, 60%, 52%; and for HbA1c, they were 0.848, 90%, 70%, respectively. MDA and AOPP could be considered better than IMA in the evaluation of diabetes progression, but MDA is more useful as a diagnostic indicator to detect vascular complications. HbA1c measurement is of greater value than the oxidative stress markers in the prediction of vascular complications.

  12. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  13. Comparison of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin in predicting the neurological outcome of acute ischemic stroke: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ying Sung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperglycemia is a known predictor of negative outcomes in stroke. Several glycemic measures, including admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, have been associated with bad neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke, particularly in nondiabetic patients. However, the predictive power of these glycemic measures is yet to be investigated. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 484 patients with acute ischemic stroke from January 2009 to March 2013, and complete records of initial stroke severity, neurological outcomes at three months, and glycemic measures were evaluated. We examined the predictive power of admission random glucose, fasting glucose, and HbA1c for neurological outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and patients with diabetes were performed separately. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed that admission random glucose and fasting glucose were significant predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas HbA1c was not (areas under the ROC curve (AUCs: admission random glucose = 0.564, p = 0.026; fasting glucose = 0.598, p = 0.001; HbA1c = 0.510, p = 0.742. Subgroup analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes revealed that only fasting glucose predicts neurological outcomes in patients with diabetes, and the AUCs of these three glycemic measures did not differ between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the study patients indicated that only age, initial stroke severity, and fasting glucose were independent predictors of poor neurological outcomes, whereas admission random glucose and HbA1c were not (adjusted odds ratio: admission random glucose = 1.002, p = 0.228; fasting glucose = 1.005, p = 0.039; HbA1c = 1.160, p = 0.076. Furthermore, subgroup multivariate logistic regression analyses of nondiabetic patients and those with diabetes indicated that none of the

  14. A common signaling pathway is activated in erythroid cells expressing high levels of fetal hemoglobin: a potential role for cAMP-elevating agents in β-globin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuta T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ikuta,1 Yuichi Kuroyanagi,1 Nadine Odo,1 Siyang Liu21Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USABackground: Although erythroid cells prepared from fetal liver, cord blood, or blood from β-thalassemia patients are known to express fetal hemoglobin at high levels, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously showed that cyclic nucleotides such as cAMP and cGMP induce fetal hemoglobin expression in primary erythroid cells. Here we report that cAMP signaling contributes to high-level fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and β-thalassemia.Methods: The status of the cAMP signaling pathway was investigated using primary erythroid cells prepared from cord blood and the mononuclear cells of patients with β-thalassemia; erythroid cells from adult bone marrow mononuclear cells served as the control.Results: We found that intracellular cAMP levels were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood and β-thalassemia than from adult bone marrow. Protein kinase A activity levels and cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation were higher in erythroid cells from cord blood or β-thalassemia than in adult bone marrow progenitors. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play a role in fetal hemoglobin expression, were not consistently activated in cord blood or β-thalassemia erythroid cells. When cAMP signaling was activated in adult erythroid cells, fetal hemoglobin was induced at high levels and associated with reduced expression of BCL11A, a silencer of the β-globin gene.Conclusion: These results suggest that activated cAMP signaling may be a common mechanism among erythroid cells with high fetal hemoglobin levels, in part because of downregulation of BCL11A. Activation of the cAMP signaling pathway with cAMP-elevating agents may prove to be an important signaling mechanism to

  15. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

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    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  16. Comparison of glycated hemoglobin levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perayil, Jayachandran; Suresh, Neethu; Fenol, Angel; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha; Menon, Saimegha

    2014-12-01

    Only a few studies have examined the association between periodontitis and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in individuals without diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. This comparative study was done on individuals without diabetes who were 35 to 65 years old. Group A consisted of 30 individuals without periodontitis, and group B consisted of 30 individuals with periodontitis. Body mass indices and clinical parameters, including oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) score, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and HbA1c level, of all participants were recorded. All participants received non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing). After 3 months, all participants were reexamined, and clinical parameters and HbA1c levels were evaluated and compared to baseline values. There were significant differences between group A and group B in regard to baseline OHI-S, GI, PD, and HbA1c (P <0.05). There was no clinical attachment loss in group A, either at baseline or after 3 months. At the end of 3 months, group B showed improvement in all clinical parameters (P <0.05) and their HbA1c levels also significantly decreased (P <0.05), although the values never reached those of group A. The HbA1c levels of individuals without diabetes and with periodontitis (group B) were significantly reduced 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy, although they never reached the same levels as those of the individuals without diabetes or periodontitis (group A).

  17. Effects of Endurance Training on Lipid Metabolism and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Streptozotocin-induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats on a High-fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Myoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] Exercise has been recognized as a simple and economical therapeutic modality that effectively benefits patients with diabetes, for instance, increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. However, thus far, no studies have examined the effect of endurance training exercises on type 2 diabetes. Therefore, this study examined the effect of endurance training exercise regimens on body weight, glucose and insulin levels, lipid profiles, and HbA1c levels in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high-fat diet. HbA1c was considered an indicator of glucose control during endurance training. [Methods] A total of 36 rats were included in this study. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ to 2 groups of 12 rats each, and, the remaining 12 rats were classified as the normal group. Biochemical parameters were measured 28 days later, and included: serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin levels. [Results] A significant decrease in serum TC and TG levels, and an increase in HDL cholesterol level were observed in the endurance training group. Moreover, blood glucose and HbA1c levels after 28 days of exercising were significantly lower in the endurance training group than in the control group (pendurance training affects body weight and, lipid profiles, as well as fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels, in STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats on a high- fat diet. We suggest that endurance training exercises may exhibit therapeutic, preventative, and protective effects against diabetes mellitus through improving lipid metabolism, glycemic control, and HbA1c levels.

  18. Ten novel mutations in the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 gene associated with increased fetal hemoglobin levels in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallienne, Alice E.; Dréau, Hélène M.P.; Schuh, Anna; Old, John M.; Henderson, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether mutations in the KLF1 gene are associated with increased Hb F levels in ethnically diverse patients referred to our laboratory for hemoglobinopathy investigation. Functionally effective KLF1 mutations were identified in 11 out of 131 adult samples with an elevated Hb F level (1.5–25.0%). Eleven different mutations were identified, 9 of which were previously unreported. KLF1 mutations were not identified in a matched cohort of 121 samples with normal Hb F levels (<1.0%). A further novel KLF1 mutation was also found in a sickle cell disease patient with a Hb F level of 20.3% who had a particularly mild phenotype. Our results indicate KLF1 mutations could make a significant contribution to Hb F variance in malarial regions where hemogobinopathies are common. All the mutations identified were heterozygous providing further in vivo evidence that a single altered KLF1 allele is sufficient to increase Hb F levels. PMID:22102705

  19. Relationship between malaria incidence and IgG levels to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens in Malian children: impact of hemoglobins S and C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Miura

    Full Text Available Heterozygous hemoglobin (Hb AS (sickle-cell trait and HbAC are hypothesized to protect against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in part by enhancing naturally-acquired immunity to this disease. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared antibody levels to four merozoite antigens from the P. falciparum 3D7 clone (apical membrane antigen 1, AMA1-3D7; merozoite surface protein 1, MSP1-3D7; 175 kDa erythrocyte-binding antigen, EBA175-3D7; and merozoite surface protein 2, MSP2-3D7 in a cohort of 103 HbAA, 73 HbAS and 30 HbAC children aged 3 to 11 years in a malaria-endemic area of Mali. In the 2009 transmission season we found that HbAS, but not HbAC, significantly reduced the risk of malaria compared to HbAA. IgG levels to MSP1 and MSP2 at the start of this transmission season inversely correlated with malaria incidence after adjusting for age and Hb type. However, HbAS children had significantly lower IgG levels to EBA175 and MSP2 compared to HbAA children. On the other hand, HbAC children had similar IgG levels to all four antigens. The parasite growth-inhibitory activity of purified IgG samples did not differ significantly by Hb type. Changes in antigen-specific IgG levels during the 2009 transmission and 2010 dry seasons also did not differ by Hb type, and none of these IgG levels dropped significantly during the dry season. These data suggest that sickle-cell trait does not reduce the risk of malaria by enhancing the acquisition of IgG responses to merozoite antigens.

  20. Spatial predictions at the community level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Amen, Manuela; Rahbek, Carsten; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental goal of ecological research is to understand and model how processes generate patterns so that if conditions change, changes in the patterns can be predicted. Different approaches have been proposed for modelling species assemblage, but their use to predict spatial patterns of species...... richness and other community attributes over a range of spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Different methods emphasize different processes of structuring communities and different goals. In this review, we focus on models that were developed for generating spatially explicit predictions...... of communities, with a particular focus on species richness, composition, relative abundance and related attributes. We first briefly describe the concepts and theories that span the different drivers of species assembly. A combination of abiotic processes and biotic mechanisms are thought to influence...

  1. Therapeutic Hemoglobin Levels after Gene Transfer in β-Thalassemia Mice and in Hematopoietic Cells of β-Thalassemia and Sickle Cells Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Breda; Carla Casu; Sara Gardenghi; Nicoletta Bianchi; Luca Cartegni; Mohandas Narla; Karina Yazdanbakhsh; Marco Musso; Deepa Manwani; Jane Little; Gardner, Lawrence B.; Kleinert, Dorothy A.; Eugenia Prus; Eitan Fibach; Grady, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the feasibility of treating β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) by lentiviral-mediated transfer of the human β-globin gene. However, previous studies have not addressed whether the ability of lentiviral vectors to increase hemoglobin synthesis might vary in different patients.We generated lentiviral vectors carrying the human β-globin gene with and without an ankyrin insulator and compared their ability to induce hemoglobin synthesis in vit...

  2. Diaspirin Cross-Linked Hemoglobin Infusion Did Not Influence Base Deficit and Lactic Acid Levels in Two Clinical Trials of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patient Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    patients after elective repair of abdominal aonic aneurysm . Mil Med. 2004; 169:546-550. 9. Garrioch MA, McClure JH, Wildsmith JA. Haemodynamic...Hill SE, Gottschalk Ll, Grichnik K. Safety and preliminary efficacy of hemoglobin raffimer for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J...Hemolink) in elective coronary artery bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:79-86. 58. Jahr JS, Moallempour M, Lim JC. HBOC-201, hemoglobin

  3. The Hemoglobin Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Gemcitabine and cis-Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan N. Davidov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anemia is observed in various malignancies including non- small cell lung cancer /NSCLC/ and is considered to be a poor prognostic factor. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a correlation between anemia, other clinic- pathological factors and survival in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with Gemcitabine / cis- Platinum- containing chemotherapy. Methods: Seventy eight consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC treated in Department of Chemotherapy, UMHAT - Dr. G. Stranski, Medical University - Pleven between 2006-2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Of those, 27 patients /34, 6%/ had low hemoglobin /HB/ level (<120g/L for men and <110g/L for women prior to start chemotherapy. The HB levels were obtained at the time of their first visit to the hospital. All patients received chemotherapy regimen consists of intravenous administration of Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 day 1 and 8 and cis- Platinum 80mg/m2 day 1 with repetition over 21 days. Survival analysis was evaluated by Kaplan- Meier test. Results: The median survival time for all patients was 9,5 months. The median survival time for patients with low HB levels was 7,6 months versus 11,3 months in patients without anemia /p<0.05/. There was a significant correlation between anemia and clinical stage or performance status /p<0.05/.Conclusions: These results indicate that patients without anemia have significantly higher survival rate. Pretreatment HB level appears to be a useful prognostic indicator for survival in patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with chemotherapy.

  4. Accumulation and persistence of nicotine derived DNA and hemoglobin adducts in mice after multiple administration of {sup 14}C-nicotine at low dose level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Hongli; Zhu, Jiadan; Wang, Haifang; Liu, Yuanfang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Liu, Kexin; Peng, Shixiang [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics

    2004-07-01

    The hypothetic role of nicotine in causing smoking related diseases has not been well established. Based on our early finding of the genotoxicity of nicotine, a sub-chronic study on the accumulation and persistence of nicotine derived DNA and hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in mice following multiple low dose exposures was carried out by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a sophisticated ultrasensitive nuclear method, which facilitates the detection of adduction of DNA and other bio-macromolecules with xenobiotics at human relevant environmental dose levels. Briefly, in this study [N-{sup 14}CH{sub 3}]-nicotine (s.a. 16.2 {mu}Ci/{mu}mol) was administered to mice by gavage once daily at 3.0 {mu}g/kg b.w., which is equivalent to an estimated nicotine dose inhaled by a 70 kg person smoking 5 cigarettes, for 14 consecutive days. Lung DNA, liver DNA and Hb were isolated from tissues and blood samples which were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 15, 17, 21 and 25 days time point, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Climate Prediction Center Darwin Sea Level Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  6. Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang; Meng, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Cai, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. Objective To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. Results We identified 1,760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6 μg/m3 during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1μg/m3) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26 mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. Conclusions This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China. PMID:27148900

  7. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Govus

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure.Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT].Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66].Oral iron supplementation during 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores.

  8. Increased ectodomain shedding of cell adhesion molecule 1 from pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetic pancreata: correlation with hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Inoue

    Full Text Available Pulmonary emphysema and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, both caused by lifestyle factors, frequently concur. Respectively, the diseases affect lung alveolar and pancreatic islet cells, which express cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1, an immunoglobulin superfamily member. Protease-mediated ectodomain shedding of full-length CADM1 produces C-terminal fragments (CTFs with proapoptotic activity. In emphysematous lungs, the CADM1 shedding rate and thus the level of CTFs in alveolar cells increase. In this study, CADM1 expression in islet cells was examined by western blotting. Protein was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of pancreata isolated from patients with T2DM (n = 12 or from patients without pancreatic disease (n = 8 at autopsy. After adjusting for the number of islet cells present in the adjacent section, we found that full-length CADM1 decreased in T2DM islets, while ectodomain shedding increased. Hemoglobin A1c levels, measured when patients were alive, correlated inversely with full-length CADM1 levels (P = 0.041 and positively with ectodomain shedding rates (P = 0.001. In immunofluorescence images of T2DM islet cells, CADM1 was detected in the cytoplasm, but not on the cell membrane. Consistently, when MIN6-m9 mouse beta cells were treated with phorbol ester and trypsin to induce shedding, CADM1 immunostaining was diffuse in the cytoplasm. When a form of CTFs was exogenously expressed in MIN6-m9 cells, it localized diffusely in the cytoplasm and increased the number of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that increased CADM1 ectodomain shedding contributes to blood glucose dysregulation in T2DM by decreasing full-length CADM1 and producing CTFs that accumulate in the cytoplasm and promote apoptosis of beta cells. Thus, this study has identified a molecular alteration shared by pulmonary emphysema and T2DM.

  9. Using decision tree classifier to predict income levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bekena, Sisay Menji

    2017-01-01

    In this study Random Forest Classifier machine learning algorithm is applied to predict income levels of individuals based on attributes including education, marital status, gender, occupation, country and others. Income levels are defined as a binary variable 0 for income

  10. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and improved cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors.......The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors....

  11. Hemoglobin LjGlb1-1 is involved in nodulation and regulates the level of nitric oxide in the Lotus japonicus-Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudome, Mitsutaka; Calvo-Begueria, Laura; Kado, Tomohiro; Osuki, Ken-Ichi; Rubio, Maria Carmen; Murakami, Ei-Ichi; Nagata, Maki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Becana, Manuel; Uchiumi, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Leghemoglobins transport and deliver O2 to the symbiosomes inside legume nodules and are essential for nitrogen fixation. However, the roles of other hemoglobins (Hbs) in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis are unclear. Several Lotus japonicus mutants affecting LjGlb1-1, a non-symbiotic class 1 Hb, have been used to study the function of this protein in symbiosis. Two TILLING alleles with single amino acid substitutions (A102V and E127K) and a LORE1 null allele with a retrotransposon insertion in the 5'-untranslated region (96642) were selected for phenotyping nodulation. Plants of all three mutant lines showed a decrease in long infection threads and nodules, and an increase in incipient infection threads. About 4h after inoculation, the roots of mutant plants exhibited a greater transient accumulation of nitric oxide (NO) than did the wild-type roots; nevertheless, in vitro NO dioxygenase activities of the wild-type, A102V, and E127K proteins were similar, suggesting that the mutated proteins are not fully functional in vivo The expression of LjGlb1-1, but not of the other class 1 Hb of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-2), was affected during infection of wild-type roots, further supporting a specific role for LjGlb1-1. In conclusion, the LjGlb1-1 mutants reveal that this protein is required during rhizobial infection and regulates NO levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Predicted levels of HIV drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambiano, Valentina; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Jordan, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    -term effects. METHODS: The previously validated HIV Synthesis model was calibrated to South Africa. Resistance was modeled at the level of single mutations, transmission potential, persistence, and effect on drug activity. RESULTS: We estimate 652 000 people (90% uncertainty range: 543 000-744 000) are living...... are maintained, in 20 years' time HIV incidence is projected to have declined by 22% (95% confidence interval, CI -23 to -21%), and the number of people carrying NNRTI resistance to be 2.9-fold higher. If enhancements in diagnosis and retention in care occur, and ART is initiated at CD4 cell count less than 500......  cells/μl, HIV incidence is projected to decline by 36% (95% CI: -37 to -36%) and the number of people with NNRTI resistance to be 4.1-fold higher than currently. Prevalence of people with viral load more than 500  copies/ml carrying NRMV is not projected to differ markedly according to future ART...

  13. KLF10 gene expression is associated with high fetal hemoglobin levels and with response to hydroxyurea treatment in β-hemoglobinopathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Joseph; Phylactides, Marios; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Tafrali, Christina; Lederer, Carsten; Felice, Alexander E.; Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Kourakli, Alexandra; Stavrou, Eleana F.; Christou, Soteroula; Hou, Jun; Karkabouna, Sophia; Lappa-Manakou, Christina; Ozgur, Zeliha; van Ijcken, Wilfred; von Lindern, Marieke; Grosveld, Frank G.; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Kleanthous, Marina; Philipsen, Sjaak; Patrinos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production is controlled by many intricate mechanisms that, to date, remain only partly understood. Pharmacogenomic analysis of the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on HbF production was undertaken in a collection of Hellenic β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD)

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies common loci influencing circulating glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Ping; Miljkovic, Iva; Thyagarajan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a stable index of chronic glycemic status and hyperglycemia associated with progressive development of insulin resistance and frank diabetes. It is also associated with premature aging and increased mortality. To uncover novel loci for HbA1c that are associated with...

  15. Profile of glycated-hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamin and cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: A cross sectional study at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praba Ginandjar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled blood glucose, which marked by high level of HbA1c, increases risk of pulmonary TB because of cellular immunity dysfunction. This study aimed to analyze profile of glycated hemoglobin, antioxidant vitamins status and cytokines levels in active pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross sectional study, conducted at Pulmonary Diseases Center Semarang City, Indonesia. Study subject consisted of 62 pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed with positive acid fast bacilli and chest X-ray. ELISA was used to measure IFN-γ and IL-12. Status of antioxidant vitamins was determined by concentration of vitamin A and E using HPLC. Blood glucose control was determined by HbA1c concentration (HbA1c ≥7% is considered as uncontrolled. Results: A significant difference of age between pulmonary tuberculosis patients with normal and uncontrolled blood glucose (p = 0.000 was showed, while all other characteristics (sex, education, occupation did not differ with p = 0.050, 0.280, 0.380 respectively. Mean HbA1c was 7.25 ± 2.70%. Prevalence of uncontrolled glucose among pulmonary TB patients was 29%. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 did not differ according to HbA1c concentration (p = 0.159 and p = 0.965 respectively. Pulmonary tuberculosis patients with uncontrolled blood glucose has higher vitamin E (p = 0.006, while vitamin A did not differ significantly (p = 0.478. Conclusions: This study supports the importance of performing diabetes screening among pulmonary TB patients. Further study needs to be done to determine the feasibility of TB-DM co-management. Keywords: HbA1c, Pulmonary tuberculosis, Vitamin A, Vitamin E

  16. Relationships between acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and allergy-related outcomes in general US population, NHANES 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yu, Dongdong; Lv, Na; Bai, Rongpan; Xu, Chunjing; Chen, Guangdi; Cao, Weiming

    2017-06-01

    Acrylamide-induced immunotoxicity and allergic dermatitis have been reported in animal experiments and clinical reports, respectively. However, epidemiological evidence from the general population is limited. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the associations between acrylamide exposure and allergy-related outcomes in the general US population. A total of 6982 subjects were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (NHANES). Internal exposure was measured by the hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA). Allergy-related outcomes including asthma, hay fever, allergy, itchy rash, sneeze, wheeze and eczema were obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Allergic sensitization was assessed by the total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. The associations of HbAA and HbGA quartiles with allergy-related outcomes were calculated using logistic regression models with multivariable adjustments. Analyses were additionally stratified according to age, gender and serum cotinine levels. When setting quartile 1 of HbAA as reference, the odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of quartile 2 to 4 for eczema were 1.18 (0.79-1.76), 1.14 (0.73-1.78) and 1.58 (1.14-2.18), respectively (ptrend = 0.002). Individuals at the highest quartile of HbGA had significantly elevated likelihoods of itchy rash (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-1.83, ptrend = 0.032) and eczema (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.06-1.97, ptrend = 0.044). The stratification analyses indicated various results in different subgroups. This study indicated significant associations between HbAA and HbGA levels and the likelihoods of allergy-related outcomes in the general US population, depending on age, gender and smoke exposure status. These findings suggested potential public health concerns for the widespread exposure to acrylamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood Pressure Is the Determinant for the Increased Risk for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Subjects with Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is known to be an important vascular complication of diabetes. Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is considered as an important cause of stroke in Asians. We aimed to analyze the risk for ICAS assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in different groups of young Korean subjects divided by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This study included 10,437 participants without history of cardiovascular diseases (81.3% men, mean age 43 years) from a health screening program, in whom TCD ultrasonography was used to detect greater than 50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the SONIA (Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis) trial. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1c levels: HbA1c < 5.7%, 5.7 ≤ HbA1c < 6.5%, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or under medication for diabetes. Among the participants, 3.0% of the subjects had ICAS. The subjects with ICAS tended to have higher mean HbA1c level compared with those without ICAS (5.8 ± .8 versus 5.7 ± .6, P = .063). The proportion of subjects with ICAS significantly increased as the HbA1c increased from the first to the third group (2.8%, 3.0%, 4.6%, P for linear trend = .022). In logistic regression analysis with ICAS as the dependent variable, the group with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% showed significantly increased odds ratio for ICAS with subjects with HbA1c < 5.7% as the reference after adjustment for confounding variables (1.575, 95% confidence interval 1.056-2.347). However, this significance disappeared with inclusion of presence of hypertension in the model. The risk for ICAS assessed by TCD was increased in young Korean subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. However, this significance was attenuated after adjustment for presence of hypertension, suggesting the importance of hypertension in ICAS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ana B.; Herman, Joseph L.; Elphick, Maurice R.; Kober, Kord M.; Janies, Daniel; Linchangco, Gregorio; Semmens, Dean C.; Bailly, Xavier; Vinogradov, Serge N.; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms. Results The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates. Conclusion The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and

  19. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  20. Serum proteomic analysis revealed diagnostic value of hemoglobin for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaohui; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Jiekai; Miao, Min; Li, Youming

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide. The two linked studies presented herein aimed to identify and verify new biomarkers for NAFLD. First, 70 serum samples were analyzed using proteomics approaches to identify potential biomarkers for NAFLD. Second, a total of 6944 initial NAFLD-free subjects were followed up for 3 years to evaluate the predictive value of hemoglobin for NAFLD. In the first study, 20 differentially expressed protein peaks (11 up-regulated and nine down-regulated) were observed in NAFLD patients upon comparison to the controls. With the aid of bioinformatic tools, we established a biomarker pattern for NAFLD with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83%. Further analysis suggested a protein peak to be hemoglobin subunit alpha. In the second study, prospective analysis showed that subjects with higher baseline hemoglobin levels were associated with higher incidence of NAFLD. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that the age, gender, and body mass index adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for subjects with baseline hemoglobin level in quintile 2, 3, 4, and 5 vs. quintile 1 was 1.36 (1.02-1.81), 1.66 (1.23-2.25), 1.76 (1.28-2.41), and 1.83 (1.33-2.53), respectively. Our study showed that serum hemoglobin may have significant predictive value for NAFLD. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor electricity generation in Nigeria is a very serious problem. Accurate prediction of water levels in dams is very important in power planning. Effective power planning helps in ensuring steady supply of electric power to consumers. The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water ...

  2. Groundwater Level Prediction using M5 Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalarajan, Nitha Ayinippully; Mohandas, C.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource, readily available and having high economic value and social benefit. Recently, it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water. During the past two decades, increased rate of extraction and other greedy human actions have resulted in the groundwater crisis, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Under prevailing circumstances, the availability of predicted groundwater levels increase the importance of this valuable resource, as an aid in the planning of groundwater resources. For this purpose, data-driven prediction models are widely used in the present day world. M5 model tree (MT) is a popular soft computing method emerging as a promising method for numeric prediction, producing understandable models. The present study discusses the groundwater level predictions using MT employing only the historical groundwater levels from a groundwater monitoring well. The results showed that MT can be successively used for forecasting groundwater levels.

  3. Enhancement of S-nitrosylation in glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, J; Peiró, C; Cercas, E; Llergo, J L; Sánchez-Ferrer, C F

    2000-04-29

    In this study, we report a novel differential nitric oxide interaction with nonglycosylated and glycosylated hemoglobin. After in vitro incubation of hemoglobin with S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP), S-nitrosoglutathione, or S-nitrosocysteine, S-nitrosylation was significantly higher in human glycosylated hemoglobin purified from diabetic subjects compared to nondiabetic controls. Inversely, spontaneous decomposition was significantly lower for S-nitrosohemoglobin obtained from glycosylated hemoglobin. Bidimensional isoelectric focusing of hemoglobins incubated in vitro with SNAP also revealed a greater interaction of nitric oxide with glycosylated hemoglobin. In addition, a significantly higher level of S-nitrosohemoglobin was found in erythrocyte lysates from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to control rats. We suggest that highly glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic subjects may favor S-nitrosylation, which may in turn impair vascular function, and participate in diabetic microangiopathy. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Amyloid Fibrils from Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Nadishka; Kaur, Manmeet; Nair, Smitha; Malmstrom, Jenny; Goldstone, David; Negron, Leonardo; Gerrard, Juliet A; Domigan, Laura J

    2017-04-11

    Amyloid fibrils are a class of insoluble protein nanofibers that are formed via the self-assembly of a wide range of peptides and proteins. They are increasingly exploited for a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, such as biosensing and drug delivery, as nanowires, hydrogels, and thin films. Amyloid fibrils have been prepared from many proteins, but there has been no definitive characterization of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin to date. Here, nanofiber formation was carried out under denaturing conditions using solutions of apo-hemoglobin extracted from bovine waste blood. A characteristic amyloid fibril morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), with mean fibril dimensions of approximately 5 nm diameter and up to several microns in length. The thioflavin T assay confirmed the presence of β-sheet structures in apo-hemoglobin fibrils, and X-ray fiber diffraction showed the characteristic amyloid cross-β quaternary structure. Apo-hemoglobin nanofibers demonstrated high stability over a range of temperatures (-20 to 80 °C) and pHs (2-10), and were stable in the presence of organic solvents and trypsin, confirming their potential as nanomaterials with versatile applications. This study conclusively demonstrates the formation of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin for the first time, and also introduces a cost-effective method for amyloid fibril manufacture using meat industry by-products.

  5. Amyloid Fibrils from Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadishka Jayawardena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils are a class of insoluble protein nanofibers that are formed via the self-assembly of a wide range of peptides and proteins. They are increasingly exploited for a broad range of applications in bionanotechnology, such as biosensing and drug delivery, as nanowires, hydrogels, and thin films. Amyloid fibrils have been prepared from many proteins, but there has been no definitive characterization of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin to date. Here, nanofiber formation was carried out under denaturing conditions using solutions of apo-hemoglobin extracted from bovine waste blood. A characteristic amyloid fibril morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, with mean fibril dimensions of approximately 5 nm diameter and up to several microns in length. The thioflavin T assay confirmed the presence of β-sheet structures in apo-hemoglobin fibrils, and X-ray fiber diffraction showed the characteristic amyloid cross-β quaternary structure. Apo-hemoglobin nanofibers demonstrated high stability over a range of temperatures (−20 to 80 °C and pHs (2–10, and were stable in the presence of organic solvents and trypsin, confirming their potential as nanomaterials with versatile applications. This study conclusively demonstrates the formation of amyloid fibrils from hemoglobin for the first time, and also introduces a cost-effective method for amyloid fibril manufacture using meat industry by-products.

  6. Comparative Agreement Analysis of Differences in 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, Glycated Albumin, and Glycated Hemoglobin A1c Levels between Fasting and Postprandial States in Steamed Bread Meal Test

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Su; Yufei Wang; Xiaojing Ma; Xingxing He; Lingwen Ying; Junling Tang; Lu Dong; Yuqian Bao; Jian Zhou; Weiping Jia

    2017-01-01

    Background. Our previous study indicated that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels slightly increased after a glucose load; therefore, this study was conducted to explore short-term changes in 1,5-AG levels after a steamed bread meal test (SBMT) and compare the agreement of 1,5-AG, glycated albumin (GA), and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between fasting and postprandial states after an SBMT. Methods. 104 participants were recruited and underwent a 100 g SBMT. Fasting, 30 min, an...

  7. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk prediction for type 2 diabetes using readily available administrative

  8. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an experimental and statistical study on noise level generated during of rock sawing by circular diamond sawblades. Influence of the operating variables and rock properties on the noise level are investigated and analysed. Statistical analyses are then employed and models are built for the prediction of ...

  9. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...

  10. Predicting Students' Homework Environment Management at the Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined empirical models of variables posited to predict students' homework environment management at the secondary school level. The participants were 866 8th graders from 61 classes and 745 11th graders from 46 classes. Most of the variance in homework environment management occurred at the student level, with classmates'…

  11. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins ha...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  13. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort. © 2015 UICC.

  14. Association of hemoglobin levels with blood pressure and hypertension in a large population-based study: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Guk; Rim, John Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association of hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in the full range of Hb concentrations, after adjusting for other hypertension risk factors. The study population consisted of a total of 20,076 subjects (8721 men, 11,355 women) aged ≥20 y who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2008 and 2011. The systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) increased by 2.6mmHg and 3.2mmHg with 1mmol/l increase in the Hb concentration, respectively, after adjusting for age, body mass index, total cholesterol, alcohol drinking, current smoking, mild renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus both in men with Hb concentrations of ≥8.1mmol/l (13.0g/dl) and women with a hemoglobin concentration ≥6.8mmol/l (11.0g/dl). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the Hb concentration showed significant positive association with hypertension independently of other confounding factors both in men and women. Hb concentration was positively associated with SBP and DBP in men with Hb concentrations ≥8.1mmol/l (13.0g/dl) and women with Hb concentrations ≥6.8mmol/l (11.0g/dl) in the general Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Sergunova; E. A. Manchenko; O. Ye. Gudkova

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. ...

  16. Predictive modelling of noise level generated during sawing of rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attempts studying the prediction of cutting performance of circular diamond sawblades in sawing of rocks. Noise is an effect arising in the rock cutting process as well as in other industries where machining and/or processing of materials is conducted. High noise levels not only affect the workers' life, but also contribute rather ...

  17. High oxygen affinity hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, O

    2017-02-01

    High oxygen affinity hemoglobins are responsible for rare and heterogeneous autosomic dominant genetic diseases. They cause pure erythrocytosis, sometimes accountable for hyperviscosity and thrombosis, or hemolysis. Differential diagnoses must be first ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the identification of a decreased P50, and their possible characterization by cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Finally, genetic studies of the responsible globin chain gene will confirm the mutation. The prognosis mainly relies on the P50 decrease rate and on the hemoglobin cooperativity impairment. Disease management should be personalized, and it should primarily depend on smoking cessation and physical activity. Phlebotomy and platelet aggregation inhibitors' prescriptions can be discussed. There is no contraindication to flights, high-altitude conditions, or pregnancy. Nevertheless, blood donation must be prohibited. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Matrix-Metalloproteinases 8 and 9 Levels in the Saliva Are Associated with Increased Hemoglobin A1c in Type 1 Diabetes Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Melanie N; Rodriguez, Henry; Burkhardt, Brant R; Alman, Amy C

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting in the targeted destruction of pancreatic β-cells and permanent loss of insulin production. Proper glucose management results in better clinical outcomes for T1D and provides a strong rationale to identify non-invasive biomarkers indicative or predictive of glycemic control. Therefore, we investigated the association of salivary inflammation with HbA1c in a T1D cohort. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 144 subjects with T1D at the USF Diabetes Center. BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c were recorded during clinical visit. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, -10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MMP-3, -8, and -9 were measured using multiplexing immunoassay analysis. To account for smoking status, salivary cotinine levels were also determined. Multiple linear (HbA1c) and logistic (self-reported gingival condition) regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components and HbA1c and gingival condition (adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and sex; model for HbA1c also adjusted for gingival condition and model for gingival condition also adjusted for HbA1c). PCA components 1 (MMP-8 and MMP-9) and 3 (TNF-α) were significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.28 ±0.14, p = 0.045; β = 0.31 ±0.14, p = 0.029), while PCA component 2 (IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8) was significantly associated with gingival condition (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.09-2.34, p = 0.016). In general, increased salivary inflammatory burden is associated with decreased glycemic control and self-reported gingival condition. The saliva may represent a useful reservoir of novel noninvasive inflammatory biomarkers predictive of the progression and control of T1D.

  20. Hemoglobin: Modification, Crystallization, Polymerization (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sergunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the most significant modifications and transformations of a hemoglobin molecule potentially related to developing a strategy of resuscitation and treatment of lifethreatening forms of anemia. Hemoglobin is one of the wellstudied proteins. The paper reviews the history of hemoglobin studies from 1839 untill present. Methodically, the hemoglobin studies included electrophoresis, spectrophotometric method, Xray diffraction method, atomicforce microscopy. The basic forms of hemoglobin include oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin. Data on protein crystallization and polymerization are discussed. Many forms of hemoglobin have the ability to form crystals or polymers in vitro, some pathological forms can be modified in vivo. The studies of structural features of various hemoglobin forms represent a contemporary task for fundamental researches.

  1. Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth rates: A field test of model predictive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-09-01

    Bird growth rates are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth rates. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth rates in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth rates, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth rate. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth rates. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted growth rates between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth rates, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth rates when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of Hemoglobin and Its Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Insights into the evolution of hemoglobins and their genes are an abundant source of ideas regarding hemoglobin function and regulation of globin gene expression. This article presents the multiple genes and gene families encoding human globins, summarizes major events in the evolution of the hemoglobin gene clusters, and discusses how these studies provide insights into regulation of globin genes. Although the genes in and around the α-like globin gene complex are relatively stable, the β-like globin gene clusters are more dynamic, showing evidence of transposition to a new locus and frequent lineage-specific expansions and deletions. The cis-regulatory modules controlling levels and timing of gene expression are a mix of conserved and lineage-specific DNA, perhaps reflecting evolutionary constraint on core regulatory functions shared broadly in mammals and adaptive fine-tuning in different orders of mammals. PMID:23209182

  3. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...

  4. Predicting ICU survival: A meta-level approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Konstantinos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of separate Intensive Care Unit (ICU status scoring systems vis-à-vis prediction of outcome is not satisfactory. Computer-based predictive modeling techniques may yield good results but their performance has seldom been extensively compared to that of other mature or emerging predictive models. The objective of the present study was twofold: to propose a prototype meta-level predicting approach concerning Intensive Care Unit (ICU survival and to evaluate the effectiveness of typical mining models in this context. Methods Data on 158 men and 46 women, were used retrospectively (75% of the patients survived. We used Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA and Injury Severity Score (ISS values to structure a decision tree (DTM, a neural network (NNM and a logistic regression (LRM model and we evaluated the assessment indicators implementing Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC plot analysis. Results Our findings indicate that regarding the assessment of indicators' capacity there are specific discrete limits that should be taken into account. The Az score ± SE was 0.8773± 0.0376 for the DTM, 0.8061± 0.0427 for the NNM and 0.8204± 0.0376 for the LRM, suggesting that the proposed DTM achieved a near optimal Az score. Conclusion The predicting processes of ICU survival may go "one step forward", by using classic composite assessment indicators as variables.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Matrix-Metalloproteinases 8 and 9 Levels in the Saliva Are Associated with Increased Hemoglobin A1c in Type 1 Diabetes Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N Kuehl

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease resulting in the targeted destruction of pancreatic β-cells and permanent loss of insulin production. Proper glucose management results in better clinical outcomes for T1D and provides a strong rationale to identify non-invasive biomarkers indicative or predictive of glycemic control. Therefore, we investigated the association of salivary inflammation with HbA1c in a T1D cohort.Unstimulated saliva was collected from 144 subjects with T1D at the USF Diabetes Center. BMI, duration of diabetes, and HbA1c were recorded during clinical visit. Levels of interleukin (IL-1β, -6, -8, -10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MMP-3, -8, and -9 were measured using multiplexing immunoassay analysis. To account for smoking status, salivary cotinine levels were also determined.Multiple linear (HbA1c and logistic (self-reported gingival condition regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the Principal Component Analysis (PCA components and HbA1c and gingival condition (adjusted for age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and sex; model for HbA1c also adjusted for gingival condition and model for gingival condition also adjusted for HbA1c. PCA components 1 (MMP-8 and MMP-9 and 3 (TNF-α were significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.28 ±0.14, p = 0.045; β = 0.31 ±0.14, p = 0.029, while PCA component 2 (IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 was significantly associated with gingival condition (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.09-2.34, p = 0.016. In general, increased salivary inflammatory burden is associated with decreased glycemic control and self-reported gingival condition.The saliva may represent a useful reservoir of novel noninvasive inflammatory biomarkers predictive of the progression and control of T1D.

  6. Plant hemoglobins: important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Mur, Luis A J; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2011-12-15

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have a lower oxygen affinity and they facilitate oxygen supply to developing tissues. Symbiotic hemoglobins in nodules have mostly evolved from class 2 hemoglobins. Class 3 hemoglobins are truncated and represent a clade with a very low similarity to class 1 and 2 hemoglobins. They may regulate oxygen delivery at high O(2) concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  8. The Biochemistry of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Benjamin C; Dikshit, Kanak L; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin (VHb) from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of "VHb technology" have generally been of the "black box" variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery) in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with "partner proteins". VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  9. Association of hemoglobin levels, CYP3A5, and NR1I3 gene polymorphisms with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Guo, Feng; Shi, Jinxiu; Zhang, Chenhui; Wang, Zhaowen; Fan, Junwei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. The narrow therapeutic window and individual variability in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics make management of this agent a great challenge. This study was undertaken to determine the association of clinical markers, cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5 (CYP3A5) and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) gene polymorphisms with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. A total of 96 liver transplant patients were enrolled in the study. Tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentration (C/D ratio) and clinical markers were recorded for one month after transplantation. CYP3A5 and NR1I3 gene polymorphisms for both donor and recipient were genotyped. In single variable analysis, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), donor CYP3A5, NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and recipient CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms were associated with log-transformed tacrolimus C/D ratios. Hb, donor CYP3A5, NR1I3 gene polymorphisms and recipient CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms showed association with log-transformed tacrolimus C/D ratios in the final multiple linear regression model. Donor CYP3A5 polymorphisms were the most important variant, accounting for 14.3% of total variation involved in tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. This information could be useful in developing individualized tacrolimus treatment after liver transplantation.

  10. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  11. Factors predictive of topographical accuracy in spine level localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jin W; Rutges, Joost; Marion, Travis; Street, John; Paquette, Scott; Ailon, Tamir; Kwon, Brian K; Dvorak, Marcel; Boyd, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Pre-operative spine level localization by palpation of anatomical landmarks (ribs, spinous processes) in posterior approaches for surgeries from T4 to L2 is often inaccurate. This can lead to ineffective utilization of procedural time, increased radiation dose, potentially longer skin incision and wrong level surgery. Factors affecting topographical accuracy includes body mass index (BMI) of the patient, congenital or acquired deformity and knowledge of topographical anatomy. All patients had the presumed location of their pathology marked on the skin using anatomical landmarks prior to application of the Target Tape® (Vancouver, BC, Canada) and verification using an anterior-posterior radiograph. Potential factors predictive of accurate pre-operative spine level localization such as age, gender, BMI, palpable deformity, pathology related interspinous distance (ISPD) and pathology related skin to spinous process distance were evaluated. A prospective study was performed with 30 consecutive patients undergoing posterior spine surgery (T4 to L2). Accuracy of pathology related spine level localization using anatomical landmarks was only 40%. Pathology related ISPDs of more than 10 mm and palpable deformity was significantly correlated with successful determination of spine levels using anatomical landmarks. This study showed that poor spine level localization using anatomical landmarks was associated with pathology related ISPDs of less than 10 mm. Conversely, patients with palpable spinal deformity have their levels easily localized.

  12. Trema and parasponia hemoglobins reveal convergent evolution of oxygen transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturms, Ryan; Kakar, Smita; Trent, James; Hargrove, Mark S

    2010-05-18

    All plants contain hemoglobins that fall into distinct phylogenetic classes. The subset of plants that carry out symbiotic nitrogen fixation expresses hemoglobins that scavenge and transport oxygen to bacterial symbiotes within root nodules. These "symbiotic" oxygen transport hemoglobins are distinct in structure and function from the nonoxygen transport ("nonsymbiotic") Hbs found in all plants. Hemoglobins found in two closely related plants present a paradox concerning hemoglobin structure and function. Parasponia andersonii is a nitrogen-fixing plant that expresses a symbiotic hemoglobin (ParaHb) characteristic of oxygen transport hemoglobins in having a pentacoordinate ferrous heme iron, moderate oxygen affinity, and a relatively rapid oxygen dissociation rate constant. A close relative that does not fix nitrogen, Trema tomentosa, expresses hemoglobin (TremaHb) sharing 93% amino acid identity to ParaHb, but its phylogeny predicts a typical nonsymbiotic hemoglobin with a hexacoordinate heme iron, high oxygen affinity, and slow oxygen dissociation rate constant. Here we characterize heme coordination and oxygen binding in TremaHb and ParaHb to investigate whether or not two hemoglobins with such high sequence similarity are actually so different in functional behavior. Our results indicate that the two proteins resemble nonsymbiotic hemoglobins in the ferric oxidation state and symbiotic hemoglobins in the ferrous oxidation state. They differ from each other only in oxygen affinity and oxygen dissociation rate constants, two factors key to their different functions. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms for convergent evolution of oxygen transport in different phylogenetic classes of plant hemoglobins.

  13. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tomperi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR and Artificial Neural Network (ANN models. The purpose was to find out which variables affect the amount of residual aluminum and create simple and reliable prediction models which can be used in an early warning system (EWS. Accuracy of ANN and MLR models were compared. The new nonlinear scaling method based on generalized norms and skewness was used to scale all measurement variables to range [−2...+2] before data-analysis and modeling. The effect of data pre-processing was studied by comparing prediction results to ones achieved in an earlier study. Results showed that it is possible to predict the baseline level of residual aluminum in drinking water with a simple model. Variables that affected the most the amount of residual aluminum were among others: raw water temperature, raw water KMnO4 and PAC/KMnO4 (Poly-Aluminum Chloride/Potassium permanganate-ratio. The accuracies of MLR and ANN models were found to be almost the same. Study also showed that data pre-processing affects to the final prediction result.

  14. Ghrelin level negatively predicts quality of life in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P H; Song, Y L; Hsu, C H

    2017-02-01

    A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted to investigate whether ghrelin level in obese women predicts the quality of life (QOL). A total of 307 subjects fulfilled the criteria: (1) age between 20 and 65 years old, (2) body mass index ≥27 kg/m 2 (3) waist circumference ≥80 cm were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to one of the plasma ghrelin level categories according to the quartiles. The median of age and BMI of the 307 obese women were 45 ± 18 years and 29.9 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. The main outcome evaluated is the associations of plasma ghrelin level and QOL, which were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of linear trend test show significant statistical difference in plasma lipoproteins (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholestero and LDL-cholesterol = and levels of obesity-related hormone peptides, including leptin, adiponectin, insulin among quartiles of ghrelin. Multiple liner regression analysis of serum obesity-related hormone peptide level and QOL using stepwise method shows ghrelin concentration was the only predictor of QOL, including PCS-12 level (β = -0.18, p = 0.001), MCS-12 level (β = -0.14, p = 0.009), WHOQOL-BREF scores: physical (β = -0.13, p = 0.03), psychological (β = -0.16, p = 0.007), social (β = -0.21, p =  ghrelin concentration is strongly associated with QOL level among obese women. Hence, ghrelin concentration might be a valuable marker to be monitored in obese women.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid PKR level predicts cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Dumurgier

    Full Text Available The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of the proapoptotic kinase R (PKR and its phosphorylated PKR (pPKR are increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD, but whether CSF PKR concentrations are associated with cognitive decline in AD patients remain unknown. In this study, 41 consecutive patients with AD and 11 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from our Memory Clinic were included. A lumbar puncture was performed during the following month of the clinical diagnosis and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE evaluations were repeated every 6 months during a mean follow-up of 2 years. In AD patients, linear mixed models adjusted for age and sex were used to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MMSE scores and baseline CSF levels of Aβ peptide (Aβ 1-42, Tau, phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau 181, PKR and pPKR. The mean (SD MMSE at baseline was 20.5 (6.1 and MMSE scores declined over the follow-up (-0.12 point/month, standard error [SE] = 0.03. A lower MMSE at baseline was associated with lower levels of CSF Aβ 1-42 and p-Tau 181/Tau ratio. pPKR level was associated with longitudinal MMSE changes over the follow-up, higher pPKR levels being related with an exacerbated cognitive deterioration. Other CSF biomarkers were not associated with MMSE changes over time. In aMCI patients, mean CSF biomarker levels were not different in patients who converted to AD from those who did not convert.These results suggest that at the time of AD diagnosis, a higher level of CSF pPKR can predict a faster rate of cognitive decline.

  16. Theory of mind predicts severity level in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenhout, Michelle; Malcolm-Smith, Susan

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether theory of mind skills can indicate autism spectrum disorder severity. In all, 62 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a developmentally sensitive theory of mind battery. We used intelligence quotient, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) diagnosis and level of support needed as indicators of severity level. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we found three distinct clusters of theory of mind ability: early-developing theory of mind (Cluster 1), false-belief reasoning (Cluster 2) and sophisticated theory of mind understanding (Cluster 3). The clusters corresponded to severe, moderate and mild autism spectrum disorder. As an indicator of level of support needed, cluster grouping predicted the type of school children attended. All Cluster 1 children attended autism-specific schools; Cluster 2 was divided between autism-specific and special needs schools and nearly all Cluster 3 children attended general special needs and mainstream schools. Assessing theory of mind skills can reliably discriminate severity levels within autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Heterogeneity in the properties of burst-forming units of erythroid lineage in sickle cell anemia: DNA synthesis and burst-promoting activity production is related to peripheral hemoglobin F levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croizat, H.; Billett, H.H.; Nagel, R.L. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1990-02-15

    Circulating 14-day erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) from 28 sickle cell anemia (SS) patients with hemoglobin F (HbF) levels ranging from 2% to 16% were studied to determine their sensitivity to ({sup 3}H) thymidine kill and burst-promoting activity (BPA)-like factor production. We find that the proportion of BFU-E sensitive to 3H-dT kill, and hence active in DNA synthesis, was inversely correlated with the percent of peripheral HbF when light density (LD) mononuclear cells were used for plating. Regression analysis showed that the correlation between HbF level and BFU-E kill was highly significant (r = .88; P less than .00003). We confirmed the BPA-like factor(s) production by LD mononuclear cells of SS patients, and found, in addition, that this phenomenon is restricted to the population of SS patients with HbF levels lower than 9%. Circulating BFU-E of patients with high HbF levels are not sensitive to 3H-dT, and their mononuclear cells do not release BPA-like factor. In summary, SS patients exhibit differences in the capacity of their mononuclear cells to produce BPA activity according to their peripheral HbF level, as well as to the DNA synthesis-state of their circulating BFU-E. We conclude that erythroid progenitors differ among SS patients in relation to their peripheral HbF level.

  18. Effect of a beverage fortified with evaporated sugarcane juice on hemoglobin levels in preschool children Efecto de una bebida fortificada con jugo de caña condensado sobre los niveles de hemoglobina en niños preescolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco P. Arcanjo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to measure the effect of consumption of a beverage mixed with a high-iron sweetener (evaporated sugarcane juice known as rapadura on hemoglobin levels in preschool children, and to compare it with the effect of consuming the same beverage sweetened with refined sugar. Research consisted of a 12-week randomized, controlled double-blind trial conducted in 2007 at a state-run school in Sobral, Brazil, among children aged 2-3 years. The study sample was divided into two groups-one consuming cashew juice mixed with 25 g of rapadura and 40 mg of ascorbic acid (per 200-mL serving, and another consuming the same quantity of juice and ascorbic acid sweetened with 25 g of standard refined sugar. A significant statistical increase in hemoglobin was observed in the group consuming the rapadura-fortified beverage. It was therefore concluded that consumption of rapadura increased hemoglobin and thus reduced iron deficiency anemia in preschool children.El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del consumo de una bebida mezclada con un edulcorante de alto contenido en hierro (jugo de caña condensado, conocido como rapadura sobre los niveles de hemoglobina en niños preescolares y compararlo con el efecto de consumir la misma bebida endulzada con azúcar refinada. Se realizó un estudio aleatorizado, controlado y con doble enmascaramiento durante 12 semanas de 2007 en una escuela estatal de Sobral, Brasil. La muestra compuesta por niños de 2 a 3 años se dividió en dos grupos: uno consumió jugo de marañón con 25 g de rapadura y 40 mg de ácido ascórbico (por porción de 200 mL y otro que consumió la misma cantidad de jugo con 25 g de azúcar refinada estándar. Se observó un aumento significativo de la hemoglobina en el grupo que consumió la bebida fortificada con rapadura. Se concluye, por tanto, que el consumo de rapadura elevó los niveles de hemoglobina, con lo que se puede reducir la anemia por deficiencia de hierro

  19. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

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    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    2013. Sample was taken by simple random sampling, obtained 37 students. Measuring of instruments IQ with CFQT, hemoglobin was measured using a Portable Digital Analyzer Easy Touch is a digital gauge Hb, external variable body mass index was meas- ured directly using the parameters height and weight of children. Analysis using Linear Regression. This research showed BMI was not associated with IQ (p value = 0.052. Relationship with the child’s intelligence anemia showed enough relationship (r = 0.491 and a positive pattern, where the higher levels Haemoglobin as the higher IQ score of the child’s. The coefficient of 0.241 explained 24.1 % variation anemia that is good enough to explain the variable IQ. There is a relationship between hemoglobin levels with IQ (p value = 0.002.

  20. Comparative Agreement Analysis of Differences in 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, Glycated Albumin, and Glycated Hemoglobin A1c Levels between Fasting and Postprandial States in Steamed Bread Meal Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our previous study indicated that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG levels slightly increased after a glucose load; therefore, this study was conducted to explore short-term changes in 1,5-AG levels after a steamed bread meal test (SBMT and compare the agreement of 1,5-AG, glycated albumin (GA, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels between fasting and postprandial states after an SBMT. Methods. 104 participants were recruited and underwent a 100 g SBMT. Fasting, 30 min, and 120 min of 1,5-AG, GA, and HbA1c were measured. Results. Levels of 1,5-AG slightly increased from 30 to 120 min after an SBMT (P0.05, and Bland-Altman difference plot showed that 100% of data points for HbA1c30 and HbA1c120 fell within the limits of agreement; 94.2%, 96.2%, 95.2%, and 95.2% of data points for 1,5-AG30, 1,5-AG120, GA30, and GA120 fell within the limits of agreement, respectively. Conclusion. Agreement analyses indicated good stability of 1,5-AG, GA, and HbA1c levels after the SBMT. HbA1c had an optimal stability, which was superior to that of GA or 1,5-AG.

  1. Comparative Agreement Analysis of Differences in 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, Glycated Albumin, and Glycated Hemoglobin A1c Levels between Fasting and Postprandial States in Steamed Bread Meal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hang; Wang, Yufei; Ma, Xiaojing; He, Xingxing; Ying, Lingwen; Tang, Junling; Dong, Lu; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study indicated that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels slightly increased after a glucose load; therefore, this study was conducted to explore short-term changes in 1,5-AG levels after a steamed bread meal test (SBMT) and compare the agreement of 1,5-AG, glycated albumin (GA), and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between fasting and postprandial states after an SBMT. 104 participants were recruited and underwent a 100 g SBMT. Fasting, 30 min, and 120 min of 1,5-AG, GA, and HbA1c were measured. Levels of 1,5-AG slightly increased from 30 to 120 min after an SBMT (P 0.05), and Bland-Altman difference plot showed that 100% of data points for HbA1c30 and HbA1c120 fell within the limits of agreement; 94.2%, 96.2%, 95.2%, and 95.2% of data points for 1,5-AG30, 1,5-AG120, GA30, and GA120 fell within the limits of agreement, respectively. Agreement analyses indicated good stability of 1,5-AG, GA, and HbA1c levels after the SBMT. HbA1c had an optimal stability, which was superior to that of GA or 1,5-AG.

  2. [Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on level of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and glycated hemoglobin A1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tangxia; Zhang, Yanbiao; Zhou, Yun; Wang, Fantao; Wang, Feng

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on clinical periodontal measurements, glycemic control, and level of serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in type 2 diabetes mellitus with chronic periodontitis patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis were selected and classified into well-controlled group[glycated hemoglobin Ac(GHbA1) or = 7.00%, n = 30, DMCP2 group). Thirty systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited as control group (CP group). All subjects underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy. Plaque index(PLI), sulcus bleeding index(SBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth(PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), serum sICAM-1 concentration, and the value of fasting plasma glucose(FPG), GHbAc were recorded at baseline, 1 and 3 months after periodontal treatment. The three study groups showed significant improvements for the levels of PD, SBI, PLI, BOP, and serum sICAM-1 concentration at 1 and 3 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P 0.05). At 3 months after periodontal treatment, GHbA1c levels in DMCP2 group significantly decreased by 1.12% (P 0.05). Non-surgical periodontal treatment can siginificantly improve periodontal health status in patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontitis, reduce the level of serum sICAM-1, and can reduce the level of GHbA1c in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemoglobin levels may be a sign of: Different types of anemia Thalassemia Iron deficiency Liver disease Cancer and other ... Some forms of anemia are mild, while other types of anemia can be serious and even life threatening if ...

  4. Regression and multivariate models for predicting particulate matter concentration level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, Amina; Mohammed, Nurul Izma; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S

    2018-01-01

    The devastating health effects of particulate matter (PM 10 ) exposure by susceptible populace has made it necessary to evaluate PM 10 pollution. Meteorological parameters and seasonal variation increases PM 10 concentration levels, especially in areas that have multiple anthropogenic activities. Hence, stepwise regression (SR), multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) analyses were used to analyse daily average PM 10 concentration levels. The analyses were carried out using daily average PM 10 concentration, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction data from 2006 to 2010. The data was from an industrial air quality monitoring station in Malaysia. The SR analysis established that meteorological parameters had less influence on PM 10 concentration levels having coefficient of determination (R 2 ) result from 23 to 29% based on seasoned and unseasoned analysis. While, the result of the prediction analysis showed that PCR models had a better R 2 result than MLR methods. The results for the analyses based on both seasoned and unseasoned data established that MLR models had R 2 result from 0.50 to 0.60. While, PCR models had R 2 result from 0.66 to 0.89. In addition, the validation analysis using 2016 data also recognised that the PCR model outperformed the MLR model, with the PCR model for the seasoned analysis having the best result. These analyses will aid in achieving sustainable air quality management strategies.

  5. Glycosylated hemoglobin as a forecast factor of progressing of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertseva N.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to propose a mathematical model for prediction of development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus by determining the level of glycosylated hemoglobin - as a factor in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. A survey of 136 patients with type 1 diabetes was performed in the endocrinology department of the OSH «Clinic of the Medical Academy», Dnipro in 2016-2017. Clinical laboratory examination included: determination of the level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, level of blood creatinine, level of albuminuria. The GFR was calculated by the formula CKD-EPI. The obtained results of the study, using methods of correlation and regression analysis, show a clear correlation between the GFR score in patients with diabetes mellitus and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin. Statistical methods of analysis have shown that the level of glycosylated hemoglobin can be considered as an early predictor of development of diabetic nephropathy. The mathematical equation of prognosis for the onset of diabetic nephropathy can be used to determine the prognosis for the development of diabetic nephropathy in diabetes mellitus patients in clinical practice for the timely inclusion of patients with a high prognostic risk in a group requiring more stringent glycemic control.

  6. Lack of Correlation of the Serum 25(OH Vitamin D Levels with the Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and the Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Patients on Oral Antidiabetic Drugs – Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakalov D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from different studies correlating the serum 25(OHD levels with the metabolic and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes patients are still varying. The objective if this study was to describe the correlation between serum 25(OHD levels and some metabolic parameters in Bulgarian type 2 diabetes patients on oral antidiabetic drugs. One hundred type 2 diabetes patients participated - 56 men and 44 women. The mean age and diabetes duration of the women was 59.0 and 9.8 years, of the men - 58.0 and 7.7 years respectively. Complete patient history was taken and physical examination was performed (body weight and height, waist circumference. Body composition was measured on a leg-to-leg body impedance analyzer (TBF-215, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured by electro-hemi-luminescent detection as 25-(ОН D Total (ECLIA, Elecsys 2010, Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland. Glycated hemoglobin A1c was measured on a NycoCard reader (Alere™. Total, HDL-cholesterol (direct and triglycerides were analyzed on a Cobas Integra 400+ analyzer. Correlation analysis was performed on a SPSS 13.0 for Windows platform and included 10 curves. The data were first analyzed for the group as a whole and then separately for men and women as well as in the different vitamin D tertiles. The mean serum 25-OH-vitamin D levels were 23.8 ± 12.1 nmol/l in women and 33.3 ± 20.0 nmol/l in men. We were unable to find any statistically significant correlation between serum 25(OH vitaminand the serum lipids (cholesterol profile and triglycerides. On the contrary, there was a weak correlation with the glycated hemoglobin A1c (cubic model, R2 = 0.178, p = 0.05 and the BMI (inverse model, R2 = 0.101, p = 0.038. The sub-analyses (men versus women or according to tertiles of vitamin D did not produce any additional information. The influence of vitamin D on the parameters of the metabolic control in type 2 diabetes is very weak on an individual level. It

  7. [Beta globin haplotypes in hemoglobin S carriers in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Claudia Liliana; Morales, Olga Lucía; Echeverri, Sandra Johanna; Isaza, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The hemoglobin S (HbS) mutation is accompanied by other mutations in the region of chromosome 11 known as "beta globin cluster". The pattern of combination of these polymorphisms giving rise to the haplotypes that co-inherit the HbS mutation, are called haplotypes bs, and are of great epidemiological and clinical significance. The frequencies of major haplotypes associated with S beta-globin gene was determined in Colombian patients heterozygous for hemoglobin S. As part of the national neonatal screening program at Clínica Colsanitas, located in major cities of Colombia, nearly 1,200 children from different areas of the country were examined for hemoglobinopathies. The sickle cell trait was identified as the most common. S beta-globin gene haplotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzymes in 33 children with AS hemoglobin electrophoretic patterns (carrier state). In addition, electrophoretic patterns of hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin levels and hematologic parameters of each individual were identified. The most frequent haplotypes in Colombia were the Bantú haplotype (36.4 %), followed by Senegal (30.3 %), Benin (21.2 %) and Cameroon (12.1 %) haplotypes. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the AS phenotype in all patients, and fetal hemoglobin levels below 1%. Other hematological parameters were normal in all cases. The HbS haplotypes found more frequently in the sample were of African origin, and their distribution varied according to the place of origin of the individual. The most frequent corresponded to the Bantu haplotype.

  8. Unfavorable inflammatory profile in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels according to the American Diabetes Association criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, T V; Hribal, M L; Perticone, M; Andreozzi, F; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the inflammatory profile of individuals with prediabetes defined by HbA1c levels, according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and to determine the ability of HbA1c to identify individuals with subclinical inflammation independently of the contribution of other metabolic parameters such as fasting, 1- or 2-h post-load glucose (PG) levels. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), fibrinogen, white blood cells (WBC) count and complement C3 (C3) were assessed, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 711 adults. Subjects were stratified into three groups according to their HbA1c levels. Poor agreement existed between HbA1c and 2-h PG criteria for identification of individuals with prediabetes (κ coefficient = 0.300). As compared with subjects having HbA1c <5.7 % (39 mmol/mol), individuals with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4 %, [39-46 mmol/mol]) exhibited a significant increase of the concentration of five inflammatory markers (hsCRP, ESR, fibrinogen, WBC count, C3) as well as of a cluster of inflammatory markers, as measured by an inflammatory score after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, fasting, 1- and 2-h PG levels. In multiple regression models including sex, age, body mass index, smoking habit, fasting, 1- and 2-h PG levels, and HOMA index, HbA1c levels were significant independent contributors to each of the five inflammatory markers examined. These data suggest that HbA1c is a reliable marker of glucose homeostasis, and may identify individuals at increased risk of diabetes with unfavorable inflammatory profile independently from fasting and 2-h PG levels.

  9. Influence Of The Number Of Platelets And Hemoglobin Concentrations In Predicting The Development Of Proteinuria Induced By The Administration Of Bevacizumab

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    Dabanovic Vera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab neutralizes a key stimulation factor in tumour angiogenesis - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The origin of VEGF is related to platelets, and the basic stimulus for its production is hypoxia. By neutralizing VEGF, changes occur in the blood that are manifested at the platelet and haemoglobin levels. Study results indicate that proteinuria is a side effect of bevacizumab treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine the percentages of proteinuria in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer after the administration of bevacizumab. The correlation between the degree of proteinuria and changes in the number of platelets and concentration of haemoglobin in patients, as well as in relation to the age (< 60 i ≥ 60 and gender of the patients, was examined.

  10. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  11. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  12. DNA polymorphisms at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels and pain crises in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettre, Guillaume; Sankaran, Vijay G; Bezerra, Marcos André C; Araújo, Aderson S; Uda, Manuela; Sanna, Serena; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Fernando F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Orkin, Stuart H

    2008-08-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating monogenic blood disorder with a highly variable phenotype characterized by severe pain crises, acute clinical events, and early mortality. Interindividual variation in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is a known and potentially heritable modifier of SCD severity. High HbF levels are correlated with reduced morbidity and mortality. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB loci have been implicated previously in HbF level variation in nonanemic European populations. We recently demonstrated an association between a BCL11A SNP and HbF levels in one SCD cohort [Uda M, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1620-1625]. Here, we genotyped additional BCL11A SNPs, HBS1L-MYB SNPs, and an SNP upstream of (G)gamma-globin (HBG2; the XmnI polymorphism), in two independent SCD cohorts: the African American Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) and an SCD cohort from Brazil. We studied the effect of these SNPs on HbF levels and on a measure of SCD-related morbidity (pain crisis rate). We strongly replicated the association between these SNPs and HbF level variation (in the CSSCD, P values range from 0.04 to 2 x 10(-42)). Together, common SNPs at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin (HBB) loci account for >20% of the variation in HbF levels in SCD patients. We also have shown that HbF-associated SNPs associate with pain crisis rate in SCD patients. These results provide a clear example of inherited common sequence variants modifying the severity of a monogenic disease.

  13. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Hemoglobin A1c Test? A hemoglobin A1c test measures how ...

  14. Food security, growth and vitamin A, hemoglobin and zinc levels of preschool children in the northeast of Brazil/Seguridad alimentaria, crecimiento y niveles de vitamina A, hemoglobina y zinc en ninos preescolares del nordeste de Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; de Queiroz, Daiane; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; da Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora Lins; Lima, Zilka Nanes

    2014-01-01

    .... Food security was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. The nutritional status was evaluated using the weight/ height, weight/age, height/age, hemoglobin, serum retinol and serum zinc status...

  15. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in ... are a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people ...

  16. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  18. Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heu, Franziska; Forster, Clemens; Namer, Barbara; Dragu, Adrian; Lang, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed. PMID:24155546

  19. Tangential Flow Filtration of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoyong; Harris, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Bovine and human hemoglobin (bHb and hHb, respectively) was purified from bovine and human red blood cells (bRBCs and hRBCs, respectively) via tangential flow filtration (TFF) in four successive stages. TFF is a fast and simple method to purify Hb from RBCs using filtration through hollow fiber (HF) membranes. Most of the Hb was retained in stage III (100 kDa HF membrane) and displayed methemoglobin levels less than 1%, yielding final concentrations of 318 and 300 mg/mL for bHb and hHb, respectively. Purified Hb exhibited much lower endotoxin levels than their respective RBCs. The purity of Hb was initially assessed via SDS-PAGE, and showed tiny impurity bands for the stage III retentate. The oxygen affinity (P50), and cooperativity coefficient (n) were regressed from the measured oxygen-RBC/Hb equilibrium curves of RBCs and purified Hb. These results suggest that TFF yielded oxygen affinities of bHb and hHb that are comparable to values in the literature. LC-MS was used to measure the molecular weight of the alpha (α) and beta (β) globin chains of purified Hb. No impurity peaks were present in the HPLC chromatograms of purified Hb. The mass of the molecular ions corresponding to the α and β globin chains agreed well with the calculated theoretical mass of the α-and β-globin chains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HPLC grade Hb can be generated via TFF. In general, this method can be more broadly applied to purify Hb from any source of RBCs. This work is significant, since it outlines a simple method for generating Hb for synthesis and/or formulation of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). PMID:19224583

  20. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  1. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Does Group-Level Commitment Predict Employee Well-Being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    -level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...

  3. [Limits of chromatographic determination of glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) in diabetes mellitus in presence of abnormal hemoglobins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashintseva, L P; Budantseva, T A; Troitskaia, O V; Orlova, E V; Kleshcheva, L V

    2001-07-01

    The content of glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) evaluated by high pressure chromatography on a VARIANT analyzer using Hb A1c software correlated with the mean daily blood glucose level in the majority of diabetics with types 1 and 2 disease and helped evaluate the compensation of diabetes mellitus during the latest 2-3 months of observation. Low Hb A1c values in combination with an extra hemoglobin fraction, unidentified by the software we used, were detected in 3 Russian women suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus, with high blood glucose levels. Application of Hemoglobinopathy software showed an abnormal spectrum of hemoglobin fractions in the blood of all 3 patients: appearance of hemoglobin D paralleled by decrease of Hb A0. The presence of abnormal hemoglobin D in these patients was confirmed by the results of electrophoresis on cellulose acetate films and a negative test for sickle erythrocytes. Abnormal hemoglobins are responsible for discoordination between glucose content and Hb A1c in the blood of diabetics. Measurement of serum fructosamine is recommended for evaluation of diabetes compensation in patients with hemoglobinopathies.

  4. Compound heterozygosity for hemoglobin D and hemoglobin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of compound heterozygous state for hemoglobin (Hb D and HbE who reported to the hospital for fever and incidentally found moderate microcytic hypochromic anemia. Later on they were investigated by capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis. Capillary Hb electrophoresis revealed compound heterozygous state for hemoglobin D and hemoglobin E. On family screening, father of one patient turned out to be HbD trait and mother as HbE trait. Due to unavailability of parents and siblings of other patient, family screening was not possible. Compound or double heterozygous state for HbD and HbE is rare. There are only six published reported cases of such double heterozygous state for HbD and HbE in Southeast Asia. Marriage between third degree relatives, which are more common among Muslims as well as inter caste marriages, common in some states of India have resulted into this compound heterozygous condition. Such double heterozygous case is clinically silent as compared to HbE/beta thalassemia or HbD/beta thalassemia.

  5. Farklı Yemlerle Beslemenin Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’nda Hematokrit ve Hemoglobin Miktarı Üzerine Etkileri / The Effects of Liver Feed on Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Atamanalp, Muhammed; Bayır, Abdulkadir; Sirkecioğlu, A.Necdet; Yanık, Telat; Yılmaz, Mehtap; Cengiz, Mehtap

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET: Bu araştırmada beslenme-kan parametre ilişkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla kontrollü yetiştirme şartlarında tutulan gökkuşağı alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’ nda rasyona karaciğer ilavesinin hematokrit ve hemoglobin değerleri üzerine etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Karaciğerle beslenen balıklarda gerek hemoglobin gerekse hematokrit değerleri, karaciğer + kuru karma yem ve yalnızca kuru karma yemle beslenen gruplara nazaran &...

  6. Haptoglobin halts hemoglobin's havoc

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kato, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    .... In their study reported in this issue of the JCI, Boretti and colleagues used canine and guinea pig models to demonstrate that pharmacological doses of glucocorticoid can increase the plasma levels of haptoglobin (Hp...

  7. Association of subclinical inflammation, glycated hemoglobin and risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurea, Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues; Cerazi, Bruno Gion de Andrade; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Janovsky, Carolina Castro Porto Silva; Conceição, Raquel Dilguerian de Oliveira; Santos, Raul D; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the inter-relation between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin in prediction of risk of obstructive sleep apnea. We included all individuals participating in a check-up program at the Preventive Medicine Center of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in 2014. The Berlin questionnaire for risk of obstructive sleep apnea was used, and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin levels were evaluated. The sample included 7,115 participants (age 43.4±9.6 years, 24.4% women). The Berlin questionnaire showed changes in 434 (6.1%) individuals. This finding was associated with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin levels (pvalores abaixo do critério diagnóstico para diabetes mellitus, está associada de forma independente ao risco para síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono, mesmo após ajuste para obesidade e proteína C-reativa. Estes achados sugerem possível ligação fisiopatológica entre alterações na resistência insulínica e a síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono, que independe da obesidade ou inflamação de baixo grau.

  8. Clinical value of hemoglobin and its association with hepatocyte steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Peng

    2017-07-01

    (OR=0261, P<005, aspartate aminotransferase (OR=0.987, P<0.05, triglyceride (OR=1.690, P<0.05, and uric acid (OR=1006, P<005 were independent influencing factors for hepatocyte steatosis in CHB patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.811-0.893, P<0.01 for BMI, 0.701 (95%CI: 0.662-0.740, P<001 for low-density lipoprotein, 0.694 (95%CI: 0.653-0.734, P<0.01 for triglyceride, 0.689 (95%CI: 0.650-0.728, P<001 for total cholesterol, 0.675 (95%CI: 0.637-0.714, P<0.01 for hemoglobin, 0.654 (95%CI: 0.617-0.691, P<0.01 for age, 0.619 (95%CI: 0.575-0.662, P<0.01 for uric acid, and 0.612 (95%CI: 0.569-0655, P<0.01 for blood glucose. ConclusionCHB patients with a high hemoglobin level tend to develop hepatocyte steatosis, and hemoglobin may be an independent influencing factor for hepatocyte steatosis in CHB patients. A high hemoglobin level has a certain value in predicting hepatocyte steatosis and awaits further research.

  9. Single-Event Transgene Product Levels Predict Levels in Genetically Modified Breeding Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampala, Satyalinga Srinivas; Fast, Brandon J; Richey, Kimberly A; Gao, Zhifang; Hill, Ryan; Wulfkuhle, Bryant; Shan, Guomin; Bradfisch, Greg A; Herman, Rod A

    2017-09-13

    The concentration of transgene products (proteins and double-stranded RNA) in genetically modified (GM) crop tissues is measured to support food, feed, and environmental risk assessments. Measurement of transgene product concentrations in breeding stacks of previously assessed and approved GM events is required by many regulatory authorities to evaluate unexpected transgene interactions that might affect expression. Research was conducted to determine how well concentrations of transgene products in single GM events predict levels in breeding stacks composed of these events. The concentrations of transgene products were compared between GM maize, soybean, and cotton breeding stacks (MON-87427 × MON-89034 × DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 × MON-87411 × DAS-59122-7 × DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2 × DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5 × DAS-24236-5 × SYN-IR102-7 × MON-88913-8 × DAS-81910-7 cotton) and their component single events (MON-87427, MON-89034, DAS-Ø15Ø7-1, MON-87411, DAS-59122-7, and DAS-40278-9 corn, DAS-81419-2, and DAS-44406-6 soybean, and DAS-21023-5, DAS-24236-5, SYN-IR102-7, MON-88913-8, and DAS-81910-7 cotton). Comparisons were made within a crop and transgene product across plant tissue types and were also made across transgene products in each breeding stack for grain/seed. Scatter plots were generated comparing expression in the stacks to their component events, and the percent of variability accounted for by the line of identity (y = x) was calculated (coefficient of identity, I2). Results support transgene concentrations in single events predicting similar concentrations in breeding stacks containing the single events. Therefore, food, feed, and environmental risk assessments based on concentrations of transgene products in single GM events are generally applicable to breeding stacks composed of these events.

  10. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...

  11. To be precise, the details don't matter: On predictive processing, precision, and level of detail of predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwisthout, Johan; Bekkering, Harold; van Rooij, Iris

    2017-03-01

    Many theoretical and empirical contributions to the Predictive Processing account emphasize the important role of precision modulation of prediction errors. Recently it has been proposed that the causal models used in human predictive processing are best formally modeled by categorical probability distributions. Crucially, such distributions assume a well-defined, discrete state space. In this paper we explore the consequences of this formalization. In particular we argue that the level of detail of generative models and predictions modulates prediction error. We show that both increasing the level of detail of the generative models and decreasing the level of detail of the predictions can be suitable mechanisms for lowering prediction errors. Both increase precision, yet come at the price of lowering the amount of information that can be gained by correct predictions. Our theoretical result establishes a key open empirical question to address: How does the brain optimize the trade-off between high precision and information gain when making its predictions? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of preoperative levels of hemoglobin and albumin on the survival of pancreatic carcinoma Impacto de los niveles preoperatorios de hemoglobina y albúmina en la supervivencia del carcinoma de páncreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruiz-Tovar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pancreatic cancer presents the worst survival rates of all neoplasms. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment, but is associated with high complication rates and outcome is bad even in those resected cases. Therefore, candidates amenable for resection must be carefully selected. Identification of prognostic factors preoperatively may help to improve the treatment of these patients, focusing on individually management based on the expected response. Patients and methods: We perform a retrospective study of 59 patients with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma between 1999 and 2003, looking for possible prognostic factors. Results: We analyze 59 patients, 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 63,8 years. All the patients were operated, performing palliative surgery in 32% and tumoral resection in 68%, including pancreaticoduodenectomies in 51% and distal pancreatectomy in 17%. Median global survival was 14 months (Range 1-110. We observed that preoperative levels of hemoglobin under 12 g/dl (p = 0,0006 and serum albumina under 2,8 g/dl (p = 0,021 are associated with worse survival. Conclusion: Preoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumina may be prognostic indicators in pancreatic cancer.Introducción: El cáncer de páncreas presenta la peor tasa de supervivencia de todas las neoplasias. La resección quirúrgica es el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo, pero está grabado con una alta tasa de complicaciones y el pronóstico continúa siendo malo en aquellos casos resecados, por lo que es necesario seleccionar bien a los candidatos. Por ello, la identificación de factores pronósticos de forma preoperatoria podría contribuir a mejorar el tratamiento de estos pacientes orientando hacia pautas más personalizadas en función de la respuesta esperable. Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio retrospectivo de 59 pacientes con diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma de p

  13. Soluble L-selectin levels predict survival in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Nielsen, Ole H; Strøm, Jens

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate serum soluble L-selectin as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with sepsis. DESIGN: A prospective study of mortality in patients with sepsis whose serum levels of sL-selectin were measured on admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and 4 days later. Follow-up data......, and 3 and 12 months after admission. Serum sL-selectin levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. Sepsis nonsurvivors had significantly lower levels than survivors. Efficiency analysis and receiver operation characteristics showed that the ideal cutoff point for s......L-selectin as a test for sepsis survival was 470 ng/ml. The accumulated mortality in patients with subnormal sL-selectin levels on admission was significantly increased. No correlation was found between clinical or paraclinical markers, including SAPS II and sL-selectin, and no relationship to the microbial diagnosis...

  14. Climate Prediction Center Indonesia Sea Level Pressure (1949-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains standardized sea level pressure anomalies over the equatorial Indonesia region...

  15. Climate Prediction Center Tahiti Sea Level Pressure (1951-present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Tahiti sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  16. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  17. Glycoprotein 130 polymorphism predicts soluble glycoprotein 130 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnerth, Anna; Katsaros, Katharina M; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Speidl, Walter S; Kaun, Christoph; Thaler, Kylie; Huber, Kurt; Wojta, Johann; Maurer, Gerald; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; Arnesen, Harald; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key cytokine in inflammatory diseases. It exerts its biological function via binding to a homodimer of its signal transducer glycoprotein 130 (gp130). Soluble gp130 (sgp130) is the natural inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signalling. The aim of this study was to test a possible influence of the gp130 genotype on sgp130 serum levels. In two separate populations, subjects were genotyped for the gp130 polymorphism G148C. Sgp130, IL-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) levels were measured. The OSLO population consisted of 546 male subjects at high risk for CAD. The VIENNA population consisted of 299 male subjects with angiographically proven CAD. In the OSLO population, 124 (22.7%) subjects were hetero- or homozygote for the rare C allele. Individuals carrying the polymorphism had significantly higher levels of sgp130. In a multivariate linear regression model this association remained significant (adjusted p=0.001). In the VIENNA population, 48 (16.1%) subjects were hetero- or homozygote for the rare C allele. Consistent with the former study, sgp130 levels were significantly higher in carriers of the polymorphism compared to wildtype carriers (adjusted p=0.038). In the VIENNA population, sgp130 levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients. In the OSLO population, sgp130 was higher in patients with increased body mass index and in smokers (p<0.05). Sgp130 serum levels are significantly higher in subjects carrying the gp130 polymorphism G148C compared to wildtype carriers. This finding proposes a possible genetical influence on sgp130 levels which may alter individual coping mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low vitamin D levels predict clinical features of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Kristina; Feingold, Jordyn; Antonius, Daniel; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Dracxler, Roberta; Rosedale, Mary; Aujero, Nicole; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond; Malaspina, Dolores

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin D plays crucial roles in neuroprotection and neurodevelopment, and low levels are commonly associated with schizophrenia. We considered if the association was spurious or causal by examining the association of Vitamin D with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging. Vitamin D levels in 22 well-characterized schizophrenia cases were examined with respect to symptoms, cognition, and functioning. LTL was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that 91% (20) had deficient or insufficient Vitamin D levels, which were associated with excitement and grandiosity, social anhedonia, and poverty of speech. Sex-specific analyses showed strong associations of hypovitamintosis D to negative symptoms and decreased premorbid adjustment in males, and to lesser hallucinations and emotional withdrawal, but increased anti-social aggression in females. In females LTL was furthermore associated with Vitamin D levels. This study demonstrates a relationship of low vitamin D levels with increased cellular aging in females. It is also the first study to demonstrate potential sex-specific profiles among schizophrenia cases with hypovitaminosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theory of Mind Predicts Severity Level in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenhout, Michelle; Malcolm-Smith, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether theory of mind skills can indicate autism spectrum disorder severity. In all, 62 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a developmentally sensitive theory of mind battery. We used intelligence quotient, "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) diagnosis and level of support…

  20. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  1. Simple Model of Sickle Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryayev, Andrey; Li, Xiaofei; Gunton, James

    2006-03-01

    A microscopic model is proposed for the interactions between sickle hemoglobin molecules based on information from the protein data bank. A Monte Carlo simulation of a simplified two patch model is carried out, with the goal of understanding fiber formation. A gradual transition from monomers to one dimensional chains is observed as one varies the density of molecules at fixed temperature, somewhat similar to the transition from monomers to polymer fibers in sickle hemoglobin molecules in solution. An observed competition between chain formation and crystallization for the model is also discussed. The results of the simulation of the equation of state are shown to be in excellent agreement with a theory for a model of globular proteins, for the case of two interacting sites.

  2. Utilizing AMPS ability measures to predict level of community dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Brenda K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of utilizing Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) ability measures as evidence for determining level of community dependence. The sample for the study was drawn from existing data from the AMPS International Project database, and consisted of adults from numerous world regions, with varying diagnoses and levels of ability (n=64,466). Findings support using ADL motor and process ability measures as evidence of a client's level of community dependence. When using ADL motor or process ability measures to identify the need for moderate to maximal assistance, the areas under the ROC curves were 0.74 (fair discrimination power) and 0.82 (good discrimination power), respectively. New ADL motor and process cutoff measures demarcating maximum assistance were set at 1.00 logit (sensitivity=0.70, specificity=0.66) and 0.70 logit (sensitivity=0.79, specificity=0.69), respectively. While ADL process ability continues to be the better predictor, the highest accuracy estimates occurred when motor and process decisions matched (n=30,835). For the first time, multiple AMPS cutoff measures, demarcating independent in the community and in need of maximal assistance, have been proposed.

  3. MMP-1 serum levels predict coronary atherosclerosis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiser Maximilian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Myocardial infarction results as a consequence of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with plaque stability largely depending on the lesion forming extracellular matrix components. Lipid enriched non-calcified lesions are considered more instable and rupture prone than calcified lesions. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are extracellular matrix degrading enzymes with plaque destabilisating characteristics which have been implicated in atherogenesis. We therefore hypothesised MMP-1 and MMP-9 serum levels to be associated with non-calcified lesions as determined by CT-angiography in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods 260 patients with typical or atypical chest pain underwent dual-source multi-slice CT-angiography (0.6-mm collimation, 330-ms gantry rotation time to exclude coronary artery stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or non-calcified. Results In multivariable regession analysis, MMP-1 serum levels were associated with total plaque burden (OR: 1.37 (CI: 1.02-1.85; p Conclusion MMP-1 serum levels are associated with total plaque burden but do not allow a specification of plaque morphology.

  4. Lyophilization of Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-16

    CHOL was sourced from EM Sciences. Recombinant Hemoglobin (RHb) was supplied by Somatogen. Sucrose came from EM Science. Lactose was provided by...buffered disaccharide. This took the form of sucrose, lactose , or trehalose. The buffer exchange was achieved using commonly practiced dialysis procedures in...with various excipient mixes. Fills of the 6 ml vials were at 2.5 m each. Formulations were: #1 - NRL formula with 30 mM phosphate, 7.3% saline, and

  5. Precision and accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin measurements during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Eran; Raban, Oded; Bouganim, Tal; Tenenbaum-Gavish, Kinneret; Hod, Moshe

    2012-12-01

    The NBM-200 is a novel device allowing noninvasive hemoglobin measurement. The system is based on occlusion spectroscopy technology in the red/near-infrared range. At the core of this technology is the production of a new bio-physical signal, resulting from temporarily occluding the blood flow in the measurement site. The measurement is performed using an annular, multi-wavelength probe with pneumatically operated cuffs, with which an over-systolic pressure is produced at the finger base. OrSense NBM200 was tested during the years 2011-2012 in a population of pregnant women. Upon receipt of informed consent, two noninvasive Hemoglobin measurements were performed on the right and left thumbs of each subject. Reference hemoglobin values were obtained from venous blood samples drawn at the same time of the noninvasive measurement. Blood Hemoglobin was evaluated on an LH-750 Beckman Coulter counter, acting as the reference "gold standard." A total of 126 data pairs were obtained in the trial from 63 women. The mean error (bias) of the NBM200 readings compared to the reference was 0.1 g/dL and the accuracy, defined as the standard deviation of error, was 0.86 g/dL. A Bland-Altman comparison of the NBM200 versus the Coulter device shows that the 95% limits of agreement is -1.59 to 1.79 g/dL. Our study demonstrates a good correlation between reference blood hemoglobin and noninvasive hemoglobin measurements. The NBM-200 can accurately assess hemoglobin levels, in a noninvasive fashion, during pregnancy.

  6. Fasting Lipoprotein Lipase Protein Levels Can Predict a Postmeal Increment of Triglyceride Levels in Fasting Normohypertriglyceridemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakane, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Although a postprandial increment in triglyceride (TG) levels is considered to be a risk factor for atherogenesis, tests (e.g., fat load) to assess postprandial changes in TG levels cannot be easily applied to clinical practice. Therefore, fasting markers that predict postprandial TG states are needed to be developed. One current candidate is lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protein, a molecule that hydrides TGs. This study investigated whether fasting LPL levels could predict postprandial TG levels. A total of 17 subjects (11 men, 6 women, mean age 52 ± 11 years) with normotriglyceridemia during fasting underwent the meal test. Several fasting parameters, including LPL, were measured for the area under the curve of postprandial TGs (AUC-TG). The subjects' mean fasting TG level was 1.30 mmol/l, and their mean LPL level was 41.6 ng/ml. The subjects' TG levels increased after loading (they peaked after two postprandial hours). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that fasting TG levels were a predictor of the AUC-TG. In addition, fasting LPL mass levels were found to be a predictor of the AUC-TG (β = 0.65, P fasting TG levels. Fasting LPL levels may be useful to predict postprandial TG increment in this population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interpersonal stressors predict ghrelin and leptin levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2014-10-01

    Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Women (n=50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45min after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  9. Prediction of South China sea level using seasonal ARIMA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Flerida Regine; Po, Rodolfo; Montero, Neil; Addawe, Rizavel

    2017-11-01

    Accelerating sea level rise is an indicator of global warming and poses a threat to low-lying places and coastal countries. This study aims to fit a Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model to the time series obtained from the TOPEX and Jason series of satellite radar altimetries of the South China Sea from the year 2008 to 2015. With altimetric measurements taken in a 10-day repeat cycle, monthly averages of the satellite altimetry measurements were taken to compose the data set used in the study. SARIMA models were then tried and fitted to the time series in order to find the best-fit model. Results show that the SARIMA(1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 model best fits the time series and was used to forecast the values for January 2016 to December 2016. The 12-month forecast using SARIMA(1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 shows that the sea level gradually increases from January to September 2016, and decreases until December 2016.

  10. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  11. Multiple Metals Predict Prolactin and Thyrotropin (TSH) Levels in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decreases in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications. PMID:19595304

  12. High altitude genetic adaptation in Tibetans: no role of increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Feng, Tang; Koul, Parvaiz; Amaru, Ricardo; Hussey, Dottie; Lorenzo, Felipe R; RiLi, Ge; Prchal, Josef T

    2014-01-01

    High altitude exerts selective evolutionary pressure primarily due to its hypoxic environment, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. High hemoglobin-oxygen affinity is postulated to be one such adaptive change, which has been reported in Sherpas of the Himalayas. Tibetans have lived on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau for thousands of years and have developed unique phenotypes, such as protection from polycythemia which has been linked to PDH2 mutation, resulting in the downregulation of the HIF pathway. In order to see if Tibetans also developed high hemoglobin-oxygen affinity as a part of their genetic adaptation, we conducted this study assessing hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and their fetal hemoglobin levels in Tibetan subjects from 3 different altitudes. We found normal hemoglobin-oxygen affinity in all subjects, fetal hemoglobin levels were normal in all except one and no hemoglobin variants in any of the subjects. We conclude that increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity or increased fetal hemoglobin are not adaptive phenotypes of the Tibetan highlanders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Heterozygote Hemoglobin G-Coushatta as the Cause of a Falsely Decreased Hemoglobin A1C in an Ion-Exchange HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtoğlu Ayşegül Uğur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is used for the assessment of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The presence of genetic variants of hemoglobin can profoundly affect the accuracy of HbA1c measurement. Here, we report two cases of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta (HBB:c.68A>C variant that interferes in the measurement of HbA1c by a cation-exchange HPLC (CE-HPLC method. HbA1c was measured by a CE-HPLC method in a Tosoh HLC-723 G7 instrument. The HbA1c levels were 2.9% and 4%. These results alerted us to a possible presence of hemoglobinopathy. In the hemoglobin variant analysis, HbA2 levels were detected as 78.3% and 40.7% by HPLC using the short program for the Biorad Variant II. HbA1c levels were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a Siemens Dimension instrument. HbA1c levels were reported as 5.5% and 5.3%. DNA mutation analysis was performed to detect the abnormal hemoglobin variant. Presence of Hemoglobin G-Coushatta variant was detected in the patients. The Hb G-Coushatta variants have an impact on the determination of glycated hemoglobin levels using CEHPLC resulting in a false low value. Therefore, it is necessary to use another measurement method.

  14. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič Miran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  15. [Role of hemoglobin affinity to oxygen in adaptation to hypoxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasiborski, Przemysław Jerzy; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2010-04-01

    One of the basic mechanisms of adapting to hypoxemia is a decrease in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. This process occurs mainly due to the increased synthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in the erythrocytes, as well as through the Bohr effect. Hemoglobin with decreased affinity for oxygen increases the oxygenation of tissues, because it gives up oxygen more easily during microcirculation. In foetal circulation, however, at a partial oxygen pressure (pO2) of 25 mmHg in the umbilical vein, the oxygen carrier is type F hemoglobin which has a high oxygen affinity. The commonly accepted role for hemoglobin F is limited to facilitating diffusion through the placenta. Is fetal life the only moment when haemoglobin F is useful? THE AIM OF STUDY was to create a mathematical model, which would answer the question at what conditions an increase, rather than a decrease, in haemoglobin oxygen affinity is of benefit to the body. Using the kinetics of dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin described by the Hill equation as the basis for further discussion, we created a mathematical model describing the pO2 value in the microcirculatory system and its dependence on arterial blood pO2. The calculations were performed for hemoglobin with low oxygen affinity (adult type) and high-affinity hemoglobin (fetal type). The modelling took into account both physiological and pathological ranges of acid-base equilibrium and tissue oxygen extraction parameters. It was shown that for the physiological range of acid-base equilibrium and the resting level of tissue oxygen extraction parameters, with an arterial blood pO2 of 26.8 mmHg, the higher-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective oxygen carrier. It was also demonstrated that the arterial blood pO2, below which the high-affinity hemoglobin becomes the more effective carrier, is dependent on blood pH and the difference between the arterial and venous oxygen saturation levels. Simulations performed for the pathological

  16. Integrating Non-Tidal Sea Level data from altimetry and tide gauges for coastal sea level prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to integrate Non-Tidal Sea Level (NSL) from the joint TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite altimetry with tide gauge data at the west and north coast of the United Kingdom for coastal sea level prediction. The temporal correlation coefficient between altimetric...... NSLs and tide gauge data reaches a maximum higher than 90% for each gauge. The results show that the multivariate regression approach can efficiently integrate the two types of data in the coastal waters of the area. The Multivariate Regression Model is established by integrating the along-track NSL...... predictions is 4.99cm in the area. The validation of the model using Envisat satellite altimetric data gives a maximum temporal correlation coefficient of 0.96 and a minimum RMSe of 4.39cm between altimetric observations and model predictions, respectively. The model is furthermore used to predict high...

  17. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  18. Haploinsufficiency for the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Borg (Joseph); P. Papadopoulos (Petros); M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); L. Gutiérrez (Laura); G. Grech (Godfrey); P. Fanis (Pavlos); M. Phylactides (Marios); J.H.M. Verkerk (Annemieke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); C.A. Scerri (Christian); W. Cassar (Wilhelmina); R. Galdies (Ruth); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); Z. Özgür (Zeliha); N. Gillemans (Nynke); J. Hou (Jun); M. Bugeja (Marisa); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); A.E. Felice (Alex); G.P. Patrinos (George); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified but others remain elusive. HPFH was found in 10 of 27 members from a

  19. Haploinsufficiency for the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 causes hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Joseph; Papadopoulos, Petros; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Gutiérrez, Laura; Grech, Godfrey; Fanis, Pavlos; Phylactides, Marios; Verkerk, Annemieke J. M. H.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Scerri, Christian A.; Cassar, Wilhelmina; Galdies, Ruth; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Ozgür, Zeliha; Gillemans, Nynke; Hou, Jun; Bugeja, Marisa; Grosveld, Frank G.; von Lindern, Marieke; Felice, Alex E.; Patrinos, George P.; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by persistent high levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Several contributory factors, both genetic and environmental, have been identified but others remain elusive. HPFH was found in 10 of 27 members from a Maltese family. We

  20. Recombinant human erythropoietin and hemoglobin concentration at operation and during the postoperative period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Boesby, S; Wolff, B

    1999-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO), on the perioperative hemoglobin concentration and the use of blood transfusions in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery with a preoperative hemoglobin level

  1. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  2. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Candidate sequence variants and fetal hemoglobin in children with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal hemoglobin level is a heritable complex trait that strongly correlates swith the clinical severity of sickle cell disease. Only few genetic loci have been identified as robustly associated with fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease, primarily adults. The sole approved pharmacologic therapy for this disease is hydroxyurea, with effects largely attributable to induction of fetal hemoglobin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a multi-site observational analysis of children with sickle cell disease, candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with baseline fetal hemoglobin levels in adult sickle cell disease were examined in children at baseline and induced by hydroxyurea therapy. For baseline levels, single marker analysis demonstrated significant association with BCL11A and the beta and epsilon globin loci (HBB and HBE, respectively, with an additive attributable variance from these loci of 23%. Among a subset of children on hydroxyurea, baseline fetal hemoglobin levels explained 33% of the variance in induced levels. The variant in HBE accounted for an additional 13% of the variance in induced levels, while variants in the HBB and BCL11A loci did not contribute beyond baseline levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings clarify the overlap between baseline and hydroxyurea-induced fetal hemoglobin levels in pediatric disease. Studies assessing influences of specific sequence variants in these and other genetic loci in larger populations and in unusual hydroxyurea responders are needed to further understand the maintenance and therapeutic induction of fetal hemoglobin in pediatric sickle cell disease.

  4. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  5. Hemoglobin Cochin-Port-Royal: consequences of the replacement of the beta chain C-terminal by an arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajcman, H; Kilmartin, J V; Najman, A; Labie, D

    1975-08-19

    Hemoglobin Cochin Port-Royal beta 146 (HC3) His yields Arg is the second example in which the beta C-terminal residue is replaced. Owing to the known importance of His beta 146 in the co-operative effects of hemoglobin, the functional properties of this variant were carefully studied. It had a normal Hill coefficient but a reduced alkaline Bohr effect. However, the reduction in Bohr effect is less than the halving predicted from previous mutants and modified hemoglobins.

  6. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  7. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Drew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1 Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2 Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3 Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up

  8. Glycated albumin predicts the risk of mortality in type 2 diabetic patients on hemodialysis: evaluation of a target level for improving survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Keiji; Nishio, Toshiki; Isono, Motohide; Makiishi, Tetsuya; Shikano, Tsutomu; Tomita, Koubin; Nishio, Toshiji; Kanasaki, Masami; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) is considered a more reliable marker than glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for monitoring glycemic control, particularly in diabetic hemodialysis patients. We investigated the associations of GA, HbA1c, and random serum glucose levels with survival, and evaluated possible targets for improving survival in diabetic hemodialysis patients. In this prospective, longitudinal, observational study, we enrolled 90 diabetic hemodialysis patients across six dialysis centers in Japan. The median duration of follow-up was 36.0 months (mean follow-up, 29.8 months; range, 3-36 months). There were 11 deaths during the observation period. GA was a significant predictor for mortality (hazard ratio, 1.143 per 1% increase in GA; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.292; P = 0.033), whereas HbA1c and random glucose levels were not predictors for mortality. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that the cutoff value of GA for predicting the risk of mortality was 25%. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative survival rate was significantly greater in patients with GA ≤ 25% than in patients with GA >25%. GA predicted the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in diabetic hemodialysis patients. Our results suggest that GA ≤ 25% is an appropriate target for improving survival in diabetic hemodialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  9. Two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We discovered that hemoglobin emits high energy Soret fluorescence when two-photon excited by the visible femtosecond light sources. The unique spectral and temporal characteristics of hemoglobin fluorescence were measured by using a time-resolved spectroscopic detection system. The high energy Soret fluorescence of hemoglobin shows the spectral peak at 438 nm with extremely short lifetime. This discovery enables two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to become a potentially powerful t...

  10. Modeling of BN Lifetime Prediction of a System Based on Integrated Multi-Level Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingbin; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Lizhi

    2017-09-15

    Predicting system lifetime is important to ensure safe and reliable operation of products, which requires integrated modeling based on multi-level, multi-sensor information. However, lifetime characteristics of equipment in a system are different and failure mechanisms are inter-coupled, which leads to complex logical correlations and the lack of a uniform lifetime measure. Based on a Bayesian network (BN), a lifetime prediction method for systems that combine multi-level sensor information is proposed. The method considers the correlation between accidental failures and degradation failure mechanisms, and achieves system modeling and lifetime prediction under complex logic correlations. This method is applied in the lifetime prediction of a multi-level solar-powered unmanned system, and the predicted results can provide guidance for the improvement of system reliability and for the maintenance and protection of the system.

  11. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  12. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  13. High level model predictive control for plug-and-play process control with stability guaranty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for designing a stabilizing high level model predictive controller for a hierarchical plug- and-play process is presented. This is achieved by abstracting the lower layers of the controller structure as low order models with uncertainty and by using a robust model predictive...

  14. A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.T.; Plant, N.G.; Thieler, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Parameter optimization using GA in SVM to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Lokesha.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Patil, S.G.

    In the present study, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and hybrid of Genetic Algorithm (GA) with SVM models are developed to predict the damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwaters. Optimal kernel parameters of SVM are determined by using GA...

  16. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system modeling to predict damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, N.; Mandal, S.; Rao, S.; Lokesha

    The Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model is constructed using experimental data set to predict the damage level of berm breakwater. Experimental data for non-reshaped berm breakwater are collected from Marine Structures Laboratory...

  17. Hemoglobin concentration, total hemoglobin mass and plasma volume in patients: implications for anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, J.M.; Plumb, J. O. M.; Clissold, E.; Kumar, S.; Wakeham, D. J.; Schmidt, W.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Richards, T.; Montgomery, H.

    2017-01-01

    In practice, clinicians generally consider anemia (circulating hemoglobin concentration < 120 g.l-1 in non-pregnant females and < 130 g.l-1 in males) as due to impaired hemoglobin synthesis or increased erythrocyte loss or destruction. Rarely is a rise in plasma volume relative to circulating total hemoglobin mass considered as a cause. But does this matter? We explored this issue in patients, using the optimized carbon-monoxide rebreathing method to measure hemoglobin concentration and there...

  18. Rare hemoglobin variants in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorai, A; Moumni, I; Mosbahi, I; Douzi, K; Chaouachi, D; Guemira, F; Abbes, S

    2015-04-01

    During the last 30 years, many studies concerning hemoglobinopathies were realized among Tunisians. More than twenty different thalassemic alleles were detected on the β-globin gene, and less are affecting the α-globin genes. Unusual hemoglobin (Hb) variants other than Hb S, Hb C, and Hb O-arab, which are the most frequent variants in Tunisia, were also detected. Eight Tunisian subjects were studied at phenotypic and molecular levels. Hematological indices and hemoglobin (Hb) pattern were performed by alkaline electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF),and the Hb fractions were quantitated by cation exchange HPLC. On genomic level, coding regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a sequencing of the purified PCR products using the dye terminator method. Seven uncommon Hb variants were detected and described for the first time among Tunisians. HbA2-Tunis [δ46(CD5), Gly → Glu, GGG → GAG] is the newly described δ-chain variant in our laboratory, and some other variants (Hb Constant Spring, G San Jose, and Hb J-Bangkok) are very uncommon in the Mediterranean region. We present here an updated review of the Hb variants detected among Tunisians. Twenty-one rare Hb variants were detected affecting the α1-, α2-, δ-, γ-, and β-globin genes, leading in some cases to a severe phenotype especially when the stability is completely altered. The ethnical history of Tunisia could explain this important variability of the observed rare Hb variants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Validity of Point-of-Care Testing with Mission Plus Hemoglobin in Detecting Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maria Awaluddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-care testing, POCT, was widely used to assess hemoglobin status before proceeding with the confirmation test. Our study aimed to assess the validity of Mission® Plus Hb in detecting hemoglobin levels in a general population compared with a standard laboratory hematology analyser as the gold standard. Methods: Two types of samples, capillary and venous blood, were collected from all respondents by trained nurses. Both blood samples were tested using Mission® Plus while the remaining venous blood in EDTA test tubes was sent to the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 622 respondents participated in this study, 75% of them females. The mean Hb tested from capillary blood using Mission® Plus Hb was 11.80±2.02g/dl. For venous blood, the mean Hb concentrations using Mission® Plus Hb and Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyser were 12.16±1.84g/dl and 13.07±1.87g/dl, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting anemia from venous samples were 98.8% and 73.4% respectively. Positive Predictive Value (PPV was 58.5%, while Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 99.4%. Conclusion: The findings of moderate PPV should alert the programme managers to the importance of a confirmatory test following screening using Mission® Plus Hb.

  20. Mapping of hemoglobin in erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts using two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Jovanić, Svetlana; Drvenica, Ivana T.; Stančić, Ana; Ilić, Vesna; Rabasović, Mihailo D.; Pantelić, Dejan; Jelenković, Branislav; Bugarski, Branko; Krmpot, Aleksandar J.

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes utilization of two photon excitation fluorescence (2PE) microscopy for visualization of the hemoglobin in human and porcine erythrocytes and their empty membranes (i.e., ghosts). High-quality, label- and fixation-free visualization of hemoglobin was achieved at excitation wavelength 730 nm by detecting visible autofluorescence. Localization in the suspension and spatial distribution (i.e., mapping) of residual hemoglobin in erythrocyte ghosts has been resolved by 2PE. Prior to the 2PE mapping, the presence of residual hemoglobin in the bulk suspension of erythrocyte ghosts was confirmed by cyanmethemoglobin assay. 2PE analysis revealed that the distribution of hemoglobin in intact erythrocytes follows the cells' shape. Two types of erythrocytes, human and porcine, characterized with discocyte and echinocyte morphology, respectively, showed significant differences in hemoglobin distribution. The 2PE images have revealed that despite an extensive washing out procedure after gradual hypotonic hemolysis, a certain amount of hemoglobin localized on the intracellular side always remains bound to the membrane and cannot be eliminated. The obtained results open the possibility to use 2PE microscopy to examine hemoglobin distribution in erythrocytes and estimate the purity level of erythrocyte ghosts in biotechnological processes.

  1. Níveis séricos de hemoglobina em adolescentes segundo estágio de maturação sexual Hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Petroli Frutuoso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência constitui etapa de risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva, uma vez que ocorre aumento da necessidade de ferro decorrente do crescimento estatural e da maturação biológica. Estudaram-se 130 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, para verificar os valores de hemoglobina sérica em diferentes fases de maturação sexual. Utilizou-se o método de fotometria para dosar a hemoglobina sérica e realizou-se auto-avaliação do estágio de maturação sexual com base nos critérios de Tanner. Os níveis médios de hemoglobina foram semelhantes entre sexos, bem como entre meninas que menstruavam ou não. O nível médio de hemoglobina foi de 13,3g/dL tanto para os meninos como para as meninas (p=0,64, com desvios-padrão de 1,12 e de 0,83, respectivamente. Entre os adolescentes estudados, 7,7% tinham anemia ferropriva. Recomenda-se atenção ao grupo de adolescentes, devido ao aumento da necessidade de ferro durante o estirão de crescimento, principalmente entre as meninas, aumentando a suscetibilidade à anemia.During adolescence, the risk of development of iron-deficiency anemia is higher because of the growth spurt and the sexual maturation which increase the iron requirement. One hundred and thirty adolescents (males and females were studied, in order to assess the serum hemoglobin values in different sexual maturation stages. The photometric method was used and a self-evaluation of the sexual maturation stage based on Tanner's criteria was applied. The average hemoglobin values were similar for both sexes, as well for girls who had menstruated or not. The average hemoglobin values were 13.3 (s.d. 1.12g/dL for males and 13.3 (s.d. 0.83g/dL for females (p=0.64. Among the studied adolescents, 7.7% had iron-deficiency anemia. Due to the iron requirement increase during the growth spurt, mainly in females, and the higher susceptibility to iron deficiency anemia, special attention to the adolescents is recommended.

  2. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  3. Reduced Levels of Serum Potassium and Plasma Cholinesterase in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning: Possible Predictive Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanur Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: For severe clinical features of OP poisoning, serum [K+] and PChE level are greatly reduced. Hence, these biochemical findings can be proposed as OP poisoning predictive markers. Clinicians and medical toxicologists should consider hypokalemia associated with reduced PChE level as alarming signs of poor prognosis in OP poisoned patients.

  4. GenoExp: a web tool for predicting gene expression levels from single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ohad; Segal, Eran

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the expression level of genes is an important goal. We recently published a study in which we devised a multi-SNP predictive model for gene expression in Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and showed that it can robustly predict the expression of a small number of genes in test individuals. Here, we validate the generality of our models by predicting expression profiles for genes in LCL in an independent study, and extend the pool of predictable genes for which we are able to explain more than 25% of their expression variability to 232 genes across 14 different cell types. As the number of people who obtained their SNP profiles through companies such as 23andMe is rising rapidly, we developed GenoExp, a web-based tool in which users can upload their individual SNP data and obtain predicted expression levels for the set of predictable genes across the 14 different cell types. Our tool thus allows users with biological knowledge to study the possible effects that their set of SNPs might have on these genes and predict their cell-specific expression levels relative to the population average. GenoExp is freely available at http://genie.weizmann.ac.il/pubs/GenoExp/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. How Much Will the Sea Level Rise? Outcome Selection and Subjective Probability in Climate Change Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanchich, Marie; Sirota, Miroslav

    2017-08-17

    We tested whether people focus on extreme outcomes to predict climate change and assessed the gap between the frequency of the predicted outcome and its perceived probability while controlling for climate change beliefs. We also tested 2 cost-effective interventions to reduce the preference for extreme outcomes and the frequency-probability gap by manipulating the probabilistic format: numerical or dual-verbal-numerical. In 4 experiments, participants read a scenario featuring a distribution of sea level rises, selected a sea rise to complete a prediction (e.g., "It is 'unlikely' that the sea level will rise . . . inches") and judged the likelihood of this sea rise occurring. Results showed that people have a preference for predicting extreme climate change outcomes in verbal predictions (59% in Experiments 1-4) and that this preference was not predicted by climate change beliefs. Results also showed an important gap between the predicted outcome frequency and participants' perception of the probability that it would occur. The dual-format reduced the preference for extreme outcomes for low and medium probability predictions but not for high ones, and none of the formats consistently reduced the frequency-probability gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Low sphingosine-1-phosphate plasma levels are predictive for increased mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susen Becker

    Full Text Available The association of circulating sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a bioactive lipid involved in various cellular processes, and related metabolites such as sphinganine-1-phosphate (SA1P and sphingosine (SPH with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease is investigated in the presented study. S1P as a bioactive lipid mediator, is involved in several cellular processes, however, in end-stage liver disease its role is not understood.The study cohort consisted of 95 patients with end-stage liver disease and available information on one-year outcome. The median MELD (Model for end-stage liver disease score was 12.41 (Range 6.43-39.63. The quantification of sphingolipids in citrated plasma specimen was performed after methanolic protein precipitation followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric detection.S1P and SA1P displayed significant correlations with the MELD score. Patients with circulating S1P levels below the lowest tertile (110.68 ng/ml showed the poorest one-year survival rate of only 57.1%, whereas one-year survival rate in patients with S1P plasma levels above 165.67 ng/ml was 93.8%. In a multivariate cox regression analysis including platelet counts, concentrations of hemoglobin and MELD score, S1P remained a significant predictor for three-month and one-year mortality.Low plasma S1P concentrations are highly significantly associated with prognosis in end-stage liver disease. This association is independent of the stage of liver disease. Further studies should be performed to investigate S1P, its role in the pathophysiology of liver diseases and its potential for therapeutic interventions.

  7. Prediction of ship resistance in level ice based on empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Yeob Jeong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical model to predict ship resistance in level ice based on Lindqvist's model is presented. This model assumes that contact between the ship and the ice is a case of symmetrical collision, and two contact cases are considered. Submersion force is calculated via Lindqvist's formula, and the crushing and breaking forces are determined by a concept of energy consideration during ship and ice impact. The effect of the contact coefficient is analyzed in the ice resistance prediction. To validate this model, the predicted results are compared with model test data of USCGC Healy and icebreaker Araon, and full-scale data of the icebreaker KV Svalbard. A relatively good agreement is achieved. As a result, the presented model is recommended for preliminary total resistance prediction in advance of the evaluation of the icebreaking performance of vessels. Keywords: Semi-empirical model, Ship resistance, Level ice, Breaking force, Icebreaking performance

  8. Perubahan kadar hemoglobin akibat terapi kurkuminoid ekstrak rimpang kunyit dibandingkan natrium diklofenak pada penderita osteoartritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Kertia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In general, patients with osteoarthritis require long live treatments, especially anti-infammatory drugs. Non steroidal anti infammatory drugs are mostly follow by some side effects such as dyspepsia and gastrointestinal bleeding. The use of natural medicine for rheumatic diseases have commonly been practiced worldwide. Objectives: To learn the changes of hemoglobin level due to treatment with curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome extract compared to diclofenac sodium as anti-infammatory agent for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Methods: This research is a prospective randomized open end blinded evaluations (PROBE. Patients treated with 30 mg curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome extract or 25 mg diclofenac sodium three times daily for 4 weeks respectively.The hemoglobin level was checked before and after treatment.  Results: A total of 80 patients with knee osteoarthritis participated in this study. There was no signifcant difference in the frequency of sex, educational level, duration of suffering, percentage of co-morbidities in both groups. There was no signifcant different of hemoglobin level before treatment between both treatment group. The hemoglobin level was increase signifcantly in curcuminoid treatment groups while no signifcant change in diclofenac group. Treatment with curcuminoid increasing the hemoglobin level signifcantly compare to diclofenac sodium (p=0.03. Conclusion: Treatment with curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome increasing the hemoglobin level signifcantly compare to diclofenac sodium treatment for osteoarthritis.

  9. Core-Level Modeling and Frequency Prediction for DSP Applications on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs provide a promising technology that can improve performance of many high-performance computing and embedded applications. However, unlike software design tools, the relatively immature state of FPGA tools significantly limits productivity and consequently prevents widespread adoption of the technology. For example, the lengthy design-translate-execute (DTE process often must be iterated to meet the application requirements. Previous works have enabled model-based, design-space exploration to reduce DTE iterations but are limited by a lack of accurate model-based prediction of key design parameters, the most important of which is clock frequency. In this paper, we present a core-level modeling and design (CMD methodology that enables modeling of FPGA applications at an abstract level and yet produces accurate predictions of parameters such as clock frequency, resource utilization (i.e., area, and latency. We evaluate CMD’s prediction methods using several high-performance DSP applications on various families of FPGAs and show an average clock-frequency prediction error of 3.6%, with a worst-case error of 20.4%, compared to the best of existing high-level prediction methods, 13.9% average error with 48.2% worst-case error. We also demonstrate how such prediction enables accurate design-space exploration without coding in a hardware-description language (HDL, significantly reducing the total design time.

  10. Web-based decision support system to predict risk level of long term rice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhlash, Imam; Maulidiyah, Ratna; Sutikno; Setiyono, Budi

    2017-09-01

    Appropriate decision making in risk management of rice production is very important in agricultural planning, especially for Indonesia which is an agricultural country. Good decision would be obtained if the supporting data required are satisfied and using appropriate methods. This study aims to develop a Decision Support System that can be used to predict the risk level of rice production in some districts which are central of rice production in East Java. Web-based decision support system is constructed so that the information can be easily accessed and understood. Components of the system are data management, model management, and user interface. This research uses regression models of OLS and Copula. OLS model used to predict rainfall while Copula model used to predict harvested area. Experimental results show that the models used are successfully predict the harvested area of rice production in some districts which are central of rice production in East Java at any given time based on the conditions and climate of a region. Furthermore, it can predict the amount of rice production with the level of risk. System generates prediction of production risk level in the long term for some districts that can be used as a decision support for the authorities.

  11. The mechanism of formation, structure and physiological relevance of covalent hemoglobin attachment to the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourn, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Michael T; Yusof, Ashril; Metodiev, Metodi V; Cooper, Chris E

    2017-02-01

    Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time. In this study we tested the ability of the natural oxidised form of hemoglobin (methemoglobin) in the presence or absence of the physiological oxidant hydrogen peroxide to initiate membrane binding. The higher the oxidation state of hemoglobin (from Fe(III) to Fe(V)) the more binding was observed, with approximately 50% of this binding requiring reactive sulphydryl groups. The hemoglobin bound was in a high molecular weight complex containing spectrin, ankyrin and band 4.2, which are common to one of the cytoskeletal nodes. Unusually, we showed that hemoglobin bound in this way was redox active and capable of ligand binding. It can initiate lipid peroxidation showing the potential to cause cell damage. In vivo oxidative stress studies using extreme endurance exercise challenges showed an increase in hemoglobin membrane binding, especially in older cells with lower levels of antioxidant enzymes. These are then targeted for destruction. We propose a model where mild oxidative stress initiates the binding of redox active hemoglobin to the membrane. The maximum lifetime of the erythrocyte is thus governed by the redox activity of the cell; from the moment of its release into the circulation the timer is set. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tim; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  13. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  14. Groundwater level prediction by Artificial Neural Network model in Eastern Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Il-Moon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Chang, Sunwoo

    2017-04-01

    The size of rainfall In the Jeju Island (Republic of Korea) is largest in whole country. Due to the rapid recharge of deep aquifers through highly permeable volcanic basalt rock, most streams dry up shortly after rainfall events. For this reason, accurate estimation of hydrologic components is challenging even with conventional watershed hydrologic model. People in this island rely greatly upon the groundwater resources by pumping for agricultural water use. However, local government has to control the maximum use of agricultural groundwater especially in drought period to avoid groundwater depletion. To adapt this status the groundwater level prediction model is developed by using artificial neural network algorithm. The model uses rainfall and groundwater level data for training and calibration by back propagation and then predicts the groundwater level with predicted rainfall data sets made based on the various scenarios applying drought conditions. For the 10 groundwater stations in eastern area, we performed 6 months prediction successfully. These results can be used for monthly groundwater level prediction for severe drought period in this island. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work was supported by a grant (17RDRP-B076272-03) from Infrastructure and transportation technology promotion research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  15. Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0002 Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Betty J. Tsuei, MD; Dennis J. Hanseman, PhD...August 2012 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-2-6B14 5b...measurement of hemoglobin (Hgb) by standard laboratory complete blood count. Point-of-care testing (i.e., iSTAT®) can be a rapid method of evaluating

  16. Serum VEGF levels as predictive marker of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have been reported that angiogenesis suppression may play a role in developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (B-ONJ. According to these evidence we evaluated the role of VEGF as predictive marker of B-ONJ onset. Of the 81 patients, 6 developed B-ONJ following bisphosphonate treatment. These patients showed a strongest decrease in VEGF circulating levels at day 7 and at day 21 after the first administration. These data demonstrated for the first time that the anti-angiogenic properties of bisphosphonates are directly linked to B-ONJ pathogenesis and serum VEGF levels could represent an effective early predictive marker.

  17. Daily sea level prediction at Chiayi coast, Taiwan using extreme learning machine and relevance vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Moslem; Kao, Huan-Chin; Lan, Wen-Hau; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2018-02-01

    The analysis and the prediction of sea level fluctuations are core requirements of marine meteorology and operational oceanography. Estimates of sea level with hours-to-days warning times are especially important for low-lying regions and coastal zone management. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the applicability and capability of extreme learning machine (ELM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) models for predicting sea level variations and compare their performances with powerful machine learning methods, namely, support vector machine (SVM) and radial basis function (RBF) models. The input dataset from the period of January 2004 to May 2011 used in the study was obtained from the Dongshi tide gauge station in Chiayi, Taiwan. Results showed that the ELM and RVM models outperformed the other methods. The performance of the RVM approach was superior in predicting the daily sea level time series given the minimum root mean square error of 34.73 mm and the maximum determination coefficient of 0.93 (R2) during the testing periods. Furthermore, the obtained results were in close agreement with the original tide-gauge data, which indicates that RVM approach is a promising alternative method for time series prediction and could be successfully used for daily sea level forecasts.

  18. Characterization and Expression of the Lucina pectinata Oxygen and Sulfide Binding Hemoglobin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garriga, Juan; Cadilla, Carmen L.

    2016-01-01

    The clam Lucina pectinata lives in sulfide-rich muds and houses intracellular symbiotic bacteria that need to be supplied with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen. This clam possesses three hemoglobins: hemoglobin I (HbI), a sulfide-reactive protein, and hemoglobin II (HbII) and III (HbIII), which are oxygen-reactive. We characterized the complete gene sequence and promoter regions for the oxygen reactive hemoglobins and the partial structure and promoters of the HbI gene from Lucina pectinata. We show that HbI has two mRNA variants, where the 5’end had either a sequence of 96 bp (long variant) or 37 bp (short variant). The gene structure of the oxygen reactive Hbs is defined by having 4-exons/3-introns with conservation of intron location at B12.2 and G7.0 and the presence of pre-coding introns, while the partial gene structure of HbI has the same intron conservation but appears to have a 5-exon/ 4-intron structure. A search for putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) was done with the promoters for HbII, HbIII, HbI short and HbI long. The HbII, HbIII and HbI long promoters showed similar predicted TFBSs. We also characterized MITE-like elements in the HbI and HbII gene promoters and intronic regions that are similar to sequences found in other mollusk genomes. The gene expression levels of the clam Hbs, from sulfide-rich and sulfide-poor environments showed a significant decrease of expression in the symbiont-containing tissue for those clams in a sulfide-poor environment, suggesting that the sulfide concentration may be involved in the regulation of these proteins. Gene expression evaluation of the two HbI mRNA variants indicated that the longer variant is expressed at higher levels than the shorter variant in both environments. PMID:26824233

  19. Consumer Factors Predicting Level of Treatment Response to Illness Management and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-09-14

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

  1. Can Parathormon Levels after Ipsilateral Lobectomy Predict Postoperative Hypocalcemia in Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Fatih; Kirdak, Turkay; Sarkut, Pinar; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Korun, Nusret

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum parathormone (PTH) levels measured after completion of hemithyroidectomy on the first side during total thyroidectomy and the postoperative hypocalcemia. The patients were divided into two groups, as those who demonstrated a decrease in PTH levels measured after completion of hemithyroidectomy of the first side (Group 1, n = 43) and those who did not demonstrate a decrease in PTH levels (Group 2, n = 24). The serum PTH levels were measured just before the incision (PTHi), when the hemithyroidectomy stage had been completed (PTHht), at the end of the operation (PTHtt), and at the postoperative 24th hour (PTH24hr). The serum total calcium (Ca2+) levels were also measured. The median percentage differences in PTHtt levels based on basal PTHi levels of Groups 1 and 2 were -60.6 and -15.7 per cent, respectively, P = 0.001. The frequency of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was higher in Group 1, P levels in Group 1 could predict biochemical hypocalcemia at the postoperative 24th hour. In conclusions, postoperative hypocalcemia is seen more frequent in patients with a decrease of PTHht during total thyroidectomy. A decrease of 10 per cent in PTHht levels measured after ipsilateral lobectomy and a 62 per cent or higher decrease in PTHtt levels measured in the end of the total thyroidectomy could be helpful for prediction of postoperative hypocalcemia in these patients.

  2. Erythropoiesis and Hemoglobin Regulation: A journey from laboratory to disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Esteghamat, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe hematopoietic system provides one of the most attractive systems for studies on development at both levels of molecular characterization and systems biology. Among the single-gene related disorders, hemoglobinopathies ranked on top with the prevalence of 4.83% in the world population (Urbinati et al., 2006). These reasons underlined the need of discovering the mechanisms underlying hemoglobin regulation and erythropoiesis. This thesis describes a journey beginning with an atte...

  3. Concomitant prediction of function and fold at the domain level with GO-based profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the function of newly sequenced proteins is crucial due to the pace at which these raw sequences are being obtained. Almost all resources for predicting protein function assign functional terms to whole chains, and do not distinguish which particular domain is responsible for the allocated function. This is not a limitation of the methodologies themselves but it is due to the fact that in the databases of functional annotations these methods use for transferring functional terms to new proteins, these annotations are done on a whole-chain basis. Nevertheless, domains are the basic evolutionary and often functional units of proteins. In many cases, the domains of a protein chain have distinct molecular functions, independent from each other. For that reason resources with functional annotations at the domain level, as well as methodologies for predicting function for individual domains adapted to these resources are required.We present a methodology for predicting the molecular function of individual domains, based on a previously developed database of functional annotations at the domain level. The approach, which we show outperforms a standard method based on sequence searches in assigning function, concomitantly predicts the structural fold of the domains and can give hints on the functionally important residues associated to the predicted function.

  4. Avaliação semiológica da palidez: concordância entre observadores e comparação com níveis séricos de hemoglobina Clinical evaluation of the paleness: agreement between observers and comparison with hemoglobin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri Maurici da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A palidez é caracterizada pelo descoramento da pele e mucosas, decorrente da pouca quantidade de hemoglobina circulante. OBJETIVO: O objetivo é comparar o grau de palidez, estratificada em cruzes, com os níveis séricos de hemoglobina, e avaliar o grau de concordância entre observadores. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2009, por meio de estudo transversal observacional, os indivíduos com idade superior a 18 anos internados em um hospital no sul do estado de Santa Catarina, para os quais haviam sido solicitadas dosagens de hemoglobina. Os pacientes foram avaliados por dois observadores (médicos e estudantes de medicina quanto à presença e grau de palidez (de ausente a ++++/4 na conjuntiva ocular. O índice de concordância Kappa foi utilizado para avaliar a concordância entre observadores. Foram avaliados 96 pacientes, caucasianos, com idade média de 57,7 anos, sendo 45,8% do gênero masculino e 54,2% do gênero feminino. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre os níveis médios de hemoglobina com a palidez graduada em cruzes não apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa para os profissionais medicos, sendo a diferença significativa para os estudantes de medicina. O índice de concordância Kappa entre os observadores foi baixo. CONCLUSÃO: Esta pesquisa demonstrou que não houve boa concordância entre os observadores na avaliação de palidez estratificada em cruzes, sendo a avaliação mais fidedigna com relação aos níveis séricos de hemoglobina entre os profissionais médicos.INTRODUCTION: Pallor is characterized by discoloring of the skin and mucous membranes due to a reduction in the amount of circulating hemoglobin. The objective of this study was to compare the degree of pallor, stratified using crosses, with hemoglobin levels and to evaluate the correlation between observers. METHOD: From February to April 2009, an observational cross-sectional study was carried out of

  5. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  6. Heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest Causing Polycythemia

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    Vikram M. Raghunathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb Sherwood Forest is a rare high-affinity hemoglobin first described in 1977, arising from an Arg to Thr substitution at codon 104 of the beta chain. This hemoglobin variant has been identified in few individuals and has been associated with a compensatory erythrocytosis in the homozygous state. Prior scarce case reports have noted that heterozygotes for this variant are phenotypically normal. Here we present a patient who was evaluated in our hematology clinic for chronic erythrocytosis and was found to be heterozygous for Hb Sherwood Forest. No other primary or secondary cause of his polycythemia was identified. This is the first described case of heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest causing erythrocytosis.

  7. CASPIAN SEA LEVEL PREDICTION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND EMPIRICAL MODE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Makarenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of using nonlinear modeling for prediction of the Caspian Sea level. Phase space geometry of the of a model can be reconstructed by the embedology methods. Dynamical invariants, such as the Lyapunov exponents, the Kaplan-Yorke dimension, and the prediction horizon were estimated from reconstruction. Fractal and multifractal analyses were carried out for various time intervals of the Caspian Sea level and multifractal spectra were calculated. Then, historical data resolution was improved with the help of fractal approximation. The EMD method was used to reduce noise of the time series. Global nonlinear predictions were made with the help of Artificial Neural Network for combinations of different empirical modes.

  8. Low affinity PEGylated hemoglobin from Trematomus bernacchii, a model for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugation of human and animal hemoglobins with polyethylene glycol has been widely explored as a means to develop blood substitutes, a novel pharmaceutical class to be used in surgery or emergency medicine. However, PEGylation of human hemoglobin led to products with significantly different oxygen binding properties with respect to the unmodified tetramer and high NO dioxygenase reactivity, known causes of toxicity. These recent findings call for the biotechnological development of stable, low-affinity PEGylated hemoglobins with low NO dioxygenase reactivity. Results To investigate the effects of PEGylation on protein structure and function, we compared the PEGylation products of human hemoglobin and Trematomus bernacchii hemoglobin, a natural variant endowed with a remarkably low oxygen affinity and high tetramer stability. We show that extension arm facilitated PEGylation chemistry based on the reaction of T. bernacchii hemoglobin with 2-iminothiolane and maleimido-functionalyzed polyethylene glycol (MW 5000 Da) leads to a tetraPEGylated product, more homogeneous than the corresponding derivative of human hemoglobin. PEGylated T. bernacchii hemoglobin largely retains the low affinity of the unmodified tetramer, with a p50 50 times higher than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Moreover, it is still sensitive to protons and the allosteric effector ATP, indicating the retention of allosteric regulation. It is also 10-fold less reactive towards nitrogen monoxide than PEGylated human hemoglobin. Conclusions These results indicate that PEGylated hemoglobins, provided that a suitable starting hemoglobin variant is chosen, can cover a wide range of oxygen-binding properties, potentially meeting the functional requirements of blood substitutes in terms of oxygen affinity, tetramer stability and NO dioxygenase reactivity. PMID:22185675

  9. A rigid thorax assumption affects model loading predictions at the upper but not lower lumbar levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignasiak, Dominika; Ferguson, Stephen J; Arjmand, Navid

    2016-09-06

    A number of musculoskeletal models of the human spine have been used for predictions of lumbar and muscle forces. However, the predictive power of these models might be limited by a commonly made assumption; thoracic region is represented as a single lumped rigid body. This study hence aims to investigate the impact of such assumption on the predictions of spinal and muscle forces. A validated thoracolumbar spine model was used with a flexible thorax (T1-T12), a completely rigid one or rigid with thoracic posture updated at each analysis step. The simulations of isometric forward flexion up to 80°, with and without a 20kg hand load, were performed, based on the previously measured kinematics. Depending on the simulated task, the rigid model predicted slightly or moderately lower compressive loading than the flexible one. The differences were relatively greater at the upper lumbar levels (average underestimation of 14% at the T12L1 for flexion tasks and of 18% for flexion tasks with hand load) as compared to the lower levels (3% and 8% at the L5S1 for unloaded and loaded tasks, respectively). The rigid model with updated thoracic posture predicted compressive forces similar to those of the rigid model. Predicted muscle forces were, however, very different between the three models. This study indicates that the lumbar spine models with a rigid thorax definition can be used for loading investigations at the lowermost spinal levels. For predictions of upper lumbar spine loading, using models with an articulated thorax is advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Microrheology of Sickle Hemoglobin Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharov, Mikhail N.; Aprelev, Alexey; Turner, Matthew S.; Ferrone, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a rheological disease, yet no quantitative rheological data exist on microscopic samples at physiological concentrations. We have developed a novel method for measuring the microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels, based on magnetically driven compression of 5- to 8-μm-thick emulsions containing hemoglobin droplets ∼80 μm in diameter. Using our method, by observing the expansion of the droplet area as the emulsion is compressed, we were able to resolve changes in thickne...

  11. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rana; Thukral, Anubhav; Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Roy, Ajitesh; Goswami, Soumik; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC) turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover) were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism. PMID:28217494

  12. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  13. Radiomic features predict Ki-67 expression level and survival in lower grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Qian, Zenghui; Xu, Kaibin; Wang, Kai; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Liu, Xing; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the radiomic features associated with Ki-67 expression in lower grade gliomas and assess the prognostic values of these features. Patients with lower grade gliomas (n = 117) were randomly assigned into the training (n = 78) and validation (n = 39) sets. A total of 431 radiological features were extracted from each patient. Differential radiological features between the low and high Ki-67 expression groups were screened by significance analysis of microarrays. Then, generalized linear analysis was performed to select features that could predict the Ki-67 expression level. Predictive efficiencies were further evaluated in the validation set. Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the prognostic values of Ki-67 expression level and Ki-67-related radiological features. A group of nine radiological features were screened for prediction of Ki-67 expression status; these achieved accuracies of 83.3% and 88.6% (areas under the curves, 0.91 and 0.93) in the training and validation sets, respectively. Of these features, only spherical disproportion (SD) was found to be a prognostic factor. Patients in the high SD group exhibited worse outcomes in the whole cohort (overall survival, p level and SD were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study identified a radiomic signature for prediction of Ki-67 expression level as well as a prognostic radiological feature in patients with lower grade gliomas.

  14. Regulation of Motivation: Predicting Students' Homework Motivation Management at the Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    This study examines models of variables posited to predict students' homework motivation management (HMM), based on survey data from 866 8th graders (61 classes) and 745 11th graders (46 classes) in the south-eastern USA. Most of the variance in HMM occurred at the student level, with parent education as the only significant predictor at the class…

  15. Anthropometry and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaki, Alynne Christian Ribeiro; Tinôco, Adelson Luiz Araújo; Mendes, Edmar Lacerda; Andaki Júnior, Roberto; Hills, Andrew P; Amorim, Paulo Roberto S

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of anthropometric measures and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. Cross-sectional study with children from public and private schools. Children underwent an anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical evaluation of serum for determination of TAG, HDL-cholesterol and glucose. Physical activity level was calculated and number of steps per day obtained using a pedometer for seven consecutive days. Viçosa, south-eastern Brazil. Boys and girls (n 187), mean age 9·90 (SD 0·7) years. Conicity index, sum of four skinfolds, physical activity level and number of steps per day were accurate in predicting MetS in boys. Anthropometric indicators were accurate in predicting MetS for girls, specifically BMI, waist circumference measured at the narrowest point and at the level of the umbilicus, four skinfold thickness measures evaluated separately, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, the sum of four skinfolds and body fat percentage. The sum of four skinfolds was the most accurate method in predicting MetS in both genders.

  16. University Students' Early Maladaptive Schemas' Prediction of Their Mindfulness Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, S.Barbaros; Kavakli, Mehmet; Kesici, Sahin; Ak, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine whether university students' early maladaptive schemas predict their mindfulness levels or not. Methods: The study was carried out in the relational screening model. The study group consisted of 293 university students; 237 (80,9%) females and 56 (19,1%) males. "Mindful Attention Awareness Scale…

  17. The Level of Quality of Work Life to Predict Work Alienation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The current research aims to determine the level of elementary school teachers' quality of work life (QWL) to predict work alienation. The study was designed using the relational survey model. The research population consisted of 1096 teachers employed at 25 elementary schools within the city of Van in the academic year 2010- 2011, and 346…

  18. Predicting Patterns of Grammatical Complexity across Language Exam Task Types and Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Staples, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    In the present article, we explore the extent to which previous research on register variation can be used to predict spoken/written task-type variation as well as differences across score levels in the context of a major standardized language exam (TOEFL iBT). Specifically, we carry out two sets of linguistic analyses based on a large corpus of…

  19. Prediction of Reactor Vessel Water Level Using Fuzzy Neural Networks in Severe Accidents due to LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soonho; Kim, Jaehawn; Na, Mangyun [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    When the initial events that may lead to the severe accident such as Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) occurs at a nuclear power plant, it is most important to check the status of the plant conditions by observing the safety-related parameters such as neutron flux, pressurizer pressure, steam generator pressure and water level. In this paper, we propose a method of predicting the water level of coolant in the reactor vessel that directly affect the important events such as the exposure of the reactor core and the damage of reactor vessel by using a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) method. In addition, the data for verifying a proposed model was obtained by simulating the severe accident scenarios for the OPR1000 nuclear power plant using the MAAP4 code. In this paper, a prediction model was developed for predicting the reactor vessel water level using the FNN method. The proposed FNN model was verified based on the simulation data of OPR1000 by using MAAP4 code. As a result of simulation, we could see that the performance of the proposed FNN model is quite satisfactory but some large errors are observed occasionally. If the proposed FNN model is optimized by using a variety of data, it is possible to predict the reactor vessel water level exactly.

  20. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated. Conclusion MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin

  1. Efetividade de diferentes estratégias de intervenção com ferro nos níveis de hemoglobina e ferritina em escolares de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Effectiveness of different iron supplementation strategies on hemoglobin and ferritin levels among schoolchildren in Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Melo dos Santos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou o efeito das intervenções com sulfato ferroso e com ferro bisglicina quelato nas concentrações de hemoglobina e ferritina sérica em escolares de 7-11 anos, de ambos os sexos, de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Foi desenvolvido ensaio clínico-comunitário, randomizado, envolvendo 138 escolares, com níveis de hemoglobina 0,05 na comparação intergrupos. Nenhum impacto foi observado (p > 0,05 nas reservas corporais de ferro. Entretanto, escolares que apresentaram depleção das reservas corporais de ferro ( 0,05 entre os grupos de tratamento. Os resultados confirmam a efetividade das intervenções e ratificam o uso do esquema semanal com sulfato ferroso e com ferro bisglicina quelato no tratamento da deficiência do mineral e da anemia ferropriva.This study evaluated the effectiveness of supplementation with ferrous sulfate and iron bis-glycinate chelate on hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels among schoolchildren (7-11 years of both sexes. A randomized community-based trial including 138 anemic children (hemoglobin 0.05. No effect was observed on body iron for either intervention (p > 0.05. Children with depleted iron stores ( 0.05 was observed. The results confirm the effectiveness of the iron supplementation interventions and corroborate the use of iron salts or ferrous bisglycinate chelate on a weekly basis to overcome iron deficiency and anemia.

  2. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  3. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus—Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredi, Gianluca; Marchesani, Francesco; Milazzo, Lisa; Altomonte, Giovanna; Del Canale, Pietro; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Prisco, Guido; Viappiani, Cristiano; Fago, Angela; Bruno, Stefano; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2017-01-01

    A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years), the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R) and the tense (T) states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks. PMID:29023598

  4. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  5. A simple lead dust fall method predicts children's blood lead level: New evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan

    2017-11-01

    We have measured dust fall accumulation in petri dishes (PDD) collected 6 monthly from inside residences in Sydney urban area, New South Wales, Australia as part of a 5-year longitudinal study to determine environmental associations, including soil. with blood lead (PbB) levels. The Pb loading in the dishes (n = 706) had geometric means (GM) of 24µg/m 2 /30d, a median value of 22µg/m 2 /30d with a range from 0.2 to 11,390µg/m 2 /30d. Observed geometric mean PbB was 2.4µg/dL at ages 2-3 years. Regression analyses showed a statistically significant relationship between predicted PbB and PDD. The predicted PbB values from dust in our study are consistent with similar analyses from the US in which floor dust was collected by wipes. Predicted PbB values from PDD indicate that an increase in PDD of about 100µg/m 2 /30d would increase PbB by about 1.5µg/dL or a doubling PbB at the low levels currently observed in many countries. Predicted PbB values from soil indicate that a change from 0 to 1000mg Pb/kg results in an increase of 1.7µg/dL in PbB, consistent with earlier investigations. Blood Pb levels can be predicted from dust fall accumulation (and soil) in cases where blood sampling is not always possible, especially in young children. Petri dish loading data could provide an alternative or complementary "action level" at about 100µg Pb/m 2 /30 days, similar to the suggested level of about 110µg Pb/m 2 for surface wipes, for use in monitoring activities such as housing rehabilitation, demolition or soil resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-level machine learning prediction of protein–protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zubek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of protein–protein interactions (PPI is the key step in understanding proteins’ biological functions, which are typically context-dependent. Many existing PPI predictors rely on aggregated features from protein sequences, however only a few methods exploit local information about specific residue contacts. In this work we present a two-stage machine learning approach for prediction of protein–protein interactions. We start with the carefully filtered data on protein complexes available for Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Protein Data Bank (PDB database. First, we build linear descriptions of interacting and non-interacting sequence segment pairs based on their inter-residue distances. Secondly, we train machine learning classifiers to predict binary segment interactions for any two short sequence fragments. The final prediction of the protein–protein interaction is done using the 2D matrix representation of all-against-all possible interacting sequence segments of both analysed proteins. The level-I predictor achieves 0.88 AUC for micro-scale, i.e., residue-level prediction. The level-II predictor improves the results further by a more complex learning paradigm. We perform 30-fold macro-scale, i.e., protein-level cross-validation experiment. The level-II predictor using PSIPRED-predicted secondary structure reaches 0.70 precision, 0.68 recall, and 0.70 AUC, whereas other popular methods provide results below 0.6 threshold (recall, precision, AUC. Our results demonstrate that multi-scale sequence features aggregation procedure is able to improve the machine learning results by more than 10% as compared to other sequence representations. Prepared datasets and source code for our experimental pipeline are freely available for download from: http://zubekj.github.io/mlppi/ (open source Python implementation, OS independent.

  7. Prediction of acute multiple sclerosis relapses by transcription levels of peripheral blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or-Bach Rotem

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to predict the spatial frequency of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS would enable physicians to decide when to intervene more aggressively and to plan clinical trials more accurately. Methods In the current study our objective was to determine if subsets of genes can predict the time to the next acute relapse in patients with MS. Data-mining and predictive modeling tools were utilized to analyze a gene-expression dataset of 94 non-treated patients; 62 patients with definite MS and 32 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. The dataset included the expression levels of 10,594 genes and annotated sequences corresponding to 22,215 gene-transcripts that appear in the microarray. Results We designed a two stage predictor. The first stage predictor was based on the expression level of 10 genes, and predicted the time to next relapse with a resolution of 500 days (error rate 0.079, p Conclusion We conclude that gene expression analysis is a valuable tool that can be used in clinical practice to predict future MS disease activity. Similar approach can be also useful for dealing with other autoimmune diseases that characterized by relapsing-remitting nature.

  8. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864....5620 Automated hemoglobin system. (a) Identification. An automated hemoglobin system is a fully... hemoglobin content of human blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60601, Sept...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents... hemoglobin types. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60618, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section... Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A glycosylated hemoglobin assay is a device used to measure the glycosylated hemoglobins (A1a, A1b, and A1c) in a patient's blood by a column chromatographic...

  11. INFRARED SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF SOME FLAVONOIDS WITH HEMOGLOBIN

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bakkialakshmi; Jayoti Roy

    2017-01-01

    Infrared spectra of some flavonoids Rutin & Hesperidin were recorded. Infrared spectra of hemoglobin and hemoglobin with Rutin & with Hesperidin were also recorded. The spectral data of the complexes (Hemoglobin-Rutin and Hemoglobin-Hesperidin) were interpreted as indicating the near position valency band of the carbonyl group in relation to its position in Rutin and Hesperidin.

  12. [Eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure: assessment and development prediction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhu, Li-Qun; Zhang, Si-Wei; Zhang, Pei-Qi; Xu, Min-Lun; Bian, Xin-Min

    2012-11-01

    Based on the 'three critical points' theory of eco-fitness, and by using dynamic weighting and fitting methods, an assessment system for the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was constructed, and, taking Zhangqiu of Shandong Province, East China as a case, the eco-fitness of county-level agricultural leading industry structure was assessed and predicted. Due to the limited agro-ecological resources, the comprehensive eco-fitness index of four kinds of agricultural leading industry in Zhangqiu presented an upward trend from 2005 to 2010, but a downward trend from 2011 to 2015. The eco-fitness indices of oil crops and fruits would be negative in 2015. The applied research in Zhangqiu confirmed the validity of the assessment system constructed for the eco-fitness of county-level agriculture leading industry structure and the rationality of the prediction model.

  13. Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and Sea-Level Rise with the Community Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century sea-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some sea-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based sea-level predictions.

  14. TS mRNA levels can predict pemetrexed and raltitrexed sensitivity in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Shen, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jing; Yu, Lixia; Xie, Li; Wei, Jia; Liu, Baorui; Guan, Wenxian; Qian, Xiaoping

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the relationship between tumor thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA expression levels and raltitrexed/pemetrexed/5-FU sensitivity. We collected freshly removed colorectal tumor specimens from 50 patients. Chemosensitivities to anticancer drugs were evaluated by histoculture drug response assay. We adopted quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for TS mRNA detection and immunohistochemical staining for assessing TS expression in tumor tissues. There is a significant relationship between TS mRNA expression levels and in vitro chemosensitivity of freshly removed colorectal tumor specimens to pemetrexed (P TS mRNA expression levels can predict pemetrexed and raltitrexed sensitivity in colorectal cancer.

  15. Action of pelargonidin on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in diabetic rats: implication for glycation-induced hemoglobin modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moumita; Sen, Subhrojit; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2008-05-23

    Glycation-modified hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a source of enhanced catalytic iron and free radicals causing pathological complications. The present study aims to verify this idea in experimental diabetes. Pelargonidin, an anthocyanidin, has been tested for its antidiabetic potential with emphasis on its role against pathological oxidative stress including hemoglobin-mediated free radical reactions. Male wistar rats were grouped as normal control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic control, normal treated with pelargonidin and diabetic treated with pelargonidin. Pelargonidin-treated rats received one time i.p injection of the flavonoid (3 mg/kg bodyweight). Biochemical parameters were assayed in blood samples of different groups of rats. Liver was used for histological examinations. Pelargonidin treatment normalized elevated blood glucose levels and improved serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. Glucose tolerance test appeared normal after treatment. Decreased serum levels of SOD and catalase, and increased levels of malondialdehyde and fructosamine in diabetic rats were reverted to their respective normal values after pelargonidin administration. Extents of hemoglobin glycation, hemoglobin-mediated iron release, iron-mediated free radical reactions and carbonyl formation in hemoglobin were pronounced in diabetic rats, indicating association between hemoglobin glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes. Pelargonidin counteracts hemoglobin glycation, iron release from the heme protein and iron-mediated oxidative damages, confirming glycated hemoglobin-associated oxidative stress in diabetes.

  16. Benign Cardiac Effects of Hemoglobin H Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Claire; Bowden, Donald K; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Cheng, Ken; Romanelli, Giovanni; Peverill, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin H (HbH) disease is associated with iron overload, but whether this results in serious cardiac or vascular sequelae is unresolved. We identified 39 adult subjects (age 42 ± 12 years, 13 men) with HbH disease who had undergone echocardiography, 27 of whom had also undergone cardiac and liver magnetic resonance assessment of iron loading using T2*-weighted imaging. None of the subjects had a history of heart failure or arrhythmias. There were 13/39 subjects with a ferritin level within the sex-based normal range and only 4/39 had ferritin >1,000 ng/ml. Left ventricular (LV) and left atrial dilatation was common, but LV ejection fraction was normal (≥55%) in all subjects. Age was positively correlated with log ferritin in the 27 nontransfused subjects (r = 0.43) and was inversely correlated with the transmitral E wave and E/A ratio (r = -0.69 and r = -0.79, respectively), but no relation of log ferritin with E or E/A was evident. The peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity was normal in 24/29 subjects for whom this was obtained, and it was no more than mildly elevated in the other 5. None of the tested subjects had an abnormal cardiac T2* reading, but half had evidence of liver iron loading. No myocardial iron loading or serious cardiac or vascular sequelae were identified in this cohort with HbH disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Decomposition of hydroxylamine by hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylinski, D A; Arkowitz, R A; Hollocher, T C

    1987-12-01

    The reaction between hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and human hemoglobin (Hb) at pH 6-8 and the reaction between NH2OH and methemoglobin (Hb+) chiefly at pH 7 were studied under anaerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. In presence of cyanide, which was used to trap Hb+, Hb was oxidized by NH2OH to methemoglobin cyanide with production of about 0.5 mol NH+4/mol of heme oxidized at pH 7. The conversion of Hb to Hb+ was first order in [Hb] (or nearly so) but the pseudo-first-order rate constant was not strictly proportional to [NH2OH]. Thus, the apparent second-order rate constant at pH 7 decreased from about 30 M-1 X s-1 to a limiting value of 11.3 M-1 X s-1 with increasing [NH2OH]. The rate of Hb oxidation was not much affected by cyanide, whereas there was no reaction between NH2OH and carbonmonoxyhemoglobin (HbCO). The pseudo-first-order rate constant for Hb oxidation at 500 microM NH2OH increased from about 0.008 s-1 at pH 6 to 0.02 s-1 at pH 8. The oxidation of Hb by NH2OH terminated prematurely at 75-90% completion at pH 7 and at 30-35% completion at pH 8. Data on the premature termination of reaction fit the titration curve for a group with pK = 7.5-7.7. NH2OH was decomposed by Hb+ to N2, NH+4, and a small amount of N2O in what appears to be a dismutation reaction. Nitrite and hydrazine were not detected, and N2 and NH+4 were produced in nearly equimolar amounts. The dismutation reaction was first order in [Hb+] and [NH2OH] only at low concentrations of reactants and was cleanly inhibited by cyanide. The spectrum of Hb+ remained unchanged during the reaction, except for the gradual formation of some choleglobin-like (green) pigment, whereas in the presence of CO, HbCO was formed. Kinetics are consistent with the view advanced previously by J. S. Colter and J. H. Quastel [1950) Arch. Biochem. 27, 368-389) that the decomposition of NH2OH proceeds by a mechanism involving a Hb/Hb+ cycle (reactions [1] and [2]) in which Hb is oxidized to Hb+ by NH2OH.

  18. Prognocean Plus: the Science-Oriented Sea Level Prediction System as a Tool for Public Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerczyńska, M. G.; Miziński, B.; Niedzielski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The novel real-time system for sea level prediction, known as Prognocean Plus, has been developed as a new generation service available through the Polish supercomputing grid infrastructure. The researchers can access the service at https://prognocean.plgrid.pl/. Although the system is science-oriented, we wish to discuss herein its potentials to enhance ocean management studies carried out routinely by public stakeholders. The system produces the short- and medium-term predictions of global altimetric gridded Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) time series, updated daily. The spatial resolution of the SLA forecasts is 1/4° x 1/4°, while the temporal resolution of prognoses is equal to 1 day. The system computes the predictions of time-variable ocean topography using five data-based models, which are not computationally demanding, enabling us to compare their skillfulness in respect to physically-based approaches commonly used by different sea level prediction systems. However, the aim of the system is not only to compute the predictions for science purposes, but primarily to build a user-oriented platform that serves the prognoses and their statistics to a broader community. Thus, we deliver the SLA forecasts as a rapid service available online. In order to provide potential users with the access to science results the Web Map Service (WMS) for Prognocean Plus is designed. We regularly publish the forecasts, both in the interactive graphical WMS service, available from the browser, as well as through the Web Coverage Service (WCS) standard. The Prognocean Plus system, as an early-response system, may be interesting for public stakeholders. It may be used for marine navigation as well as for climate risk management (delineate areas vulnerable to local sea level rise), marine management (advise offered for offshore activities) and coastal management (early warnings against coastal floodings).

  19. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anubhav

    This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together

  1. DNCON2: Improved protein contact prediction using two-level deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Badri; Hou, Jie; Cheng, Jianlin

    2017-12-08

    Significant improvements in the prediction of protein residue-residue contacts are observed in the recent years. These contacts, predicted using a variety of coevolution-based and machine learning methods, are the key contributors to the recent progress in ab initio protein structure prediction, as demonstrated in the recent CASP experiments. Continuing the development of new methods to reliably predict contact maps is essential to further improve ab initio structure prediction. In this paper we discuss DNCON2, an improved protein contact map predictor based on two-level deep convolutional neural networks. It consists of six convolutional neural networks - the first five predict contacts at 6, 7.5, 8, 8.5, and 10 Å distance thresholds, and the last one uses these five predictions as additional features to predict final contact maps. On the free-modeling datasets in CASP10, 11, and 12 experiments, DNCON2 achieves mean precisions of 35%, 50%, and 53.4%, respectively, higher than 30.6% by MetaPSICOV on CASP10 dataset, 34% by MetaPSICOV on CASP11 dataset, and 46.3% by Raptor-X on CASP12 dataset, when top L/5 long-range contacts are evaluated. We attribute the improved performance of DNCON2 to the inclusion of short- and medium-range contacts into training, two-level approach to prediction, use of the state-of-the-art optimization and activation functions, and a novel deep learning architecture that allows each filter in a convolutional layer to access all the input features of a protein of arbitrary length. The web server of DNCON2 is at http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/dncon2/ where training and testing datasets as well as the predictions for CASP10, 11, and 12 free-modeling datasets can also be downloaded. Its source code is available at https://github.com/multicom-toolbox/DNCON2/. chengji@missouri.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina nos primeiros seis meses de vida: um estudo de seguimento Effect of length of exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in the first six months of life: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Silva de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da duração da amamentação exclusiva e mista sobre os níveis de hemoglobina de lactentes. Trata-se de um estudo de seguimento com seis meses de duração, envolvendo 150 crianças nascidas na maternidade de Mutuípe, Bahia, Brasil. Mensalmente, as crianças eram submetidas ao exame de sangue para avaliação dos níveis de hemoglobina e realizava-se coleta de dados de consumo alimentar. Foram obtidos, ainda, dados obstétricos e sócio-econômicos. Utilizou-se o modelo linear de efeitos mistos para investigar as associações de interesse. Ao final do seguimento, a perda amostral foi de 15,3%, e detectou-se uma prevalência de 71,7% de anemia. Constatou-se um incremento de 0,091g/dL nos níveis de hemoglobina a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno exclusivo (p = 0,031, enquanto, a cada mês de duração de aleitamento materno misto, os níveis de hemoglobina declinaram em 0,097g/dL (p = 0,017. Concluiu-se que as práticas alimentares inadequadas parecem estar diretamente envolvidas na etiologia da deficiência nutricional de ferro nesse período da vida.This six-month follow-up study aimed to assessing the effect of length of both exclusive breastfeeding and mixed feeding on hemoglobin levels in 150 infants born at the Mutuípe maternity facility in Bahia State, Brazil. Blood tests were performed monthly to assess the hemoglobin levels, at which time data were gathered on food intake. Obstetric and socioeconomic data were also collected. The linear mixed effects model was used to investigate the target associations. Loss to follow-up was 15.3%, and anemia prevalence was 71.7%. An increase of 0.091g/dL (p = 0.031 in hemoglobin levels was found for each month of exclusive breastfeeding, while a decrease of 0.097g/dL (p = 0.017 was shown for each month of mixed feeding. In conclusion, inadequate food practices appear to be directly involved in the etiology of iron deficiency anemia during

  3. Efeito da suplementação com acerola nos níveis sangüíneos de vitamina C e de hemoglobina em crianças pré-escolares Supplementation with West Indian cherry and its effects on the blood levels of vitamin C and hemoglobin in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho COSTA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência da deficiência de vitamina C em 104 crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade de creches municipais de João Pessoa, PB, bem como analisar a eficácia da suplementação com acerola. Foram realizadas dosagens de vitamina C sérica e de hemoglobina antes e depois da intervenção. Os resultados iniciais mostraram prevalência de 69,2% de carência de vitamina C (The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency among 104 preschool children, aged 2 to 6 years, enrolled at municipal day-care centers in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil, and to test the efficacy of supplementing their diet with West Indian Cherry. Determinations of serum vitamin C and blood hemoglobin were carried out before and after supplementation. First results showed 69.2% of prevalence of vitamin C deficiency (<0.80 mg/dL and 35.7% of children with hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia (Hb <11.0 mg/dL; these two indicators were found to be associated (p < 0.01. Seventy-two children with low levels of vitamin C were offered, during 35 days, 150 mL of West Indian Cherry juice (mean content 565 mg of ascorbic acid/100 mL. Comparison of vitamin C levels before and after supplementation (0.52 + 0.20 mg/dL and 1.43 + 0.43 mg/dL respectively showed a significant difference (p<0.001. There was also a significant increase on the mean of hemoglobin concentration, which from 11.17+ 1.46 g/dL rose to 12.22 + 1.52 g/dL after the intervention (p<0.001. Considering the results presented here and the availability of the cherries at low cost in the region, this fruit juice should be included in all feeding programs for populations at risk of anemia.

  4. The Clinical Utility of Noninvasive Pulse Co-oximetry Hemoglobin Measurements in Dark Skinned Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan M; Omar, Shahed

    2017-12-11

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of a point-of-care device which measures hemoglobin noninvasively (SpHb) in a group of critically ill participants with dark skin pigmentation. One hundred forty-six adult and pediatric participants from a multidisciplinary intensive care unit had intermittent readings of noninvasive hemoglobin measurements performed at a minimum of 4 hourly intervals. A total of 371 readings were analyzed. Concurrent blood samples were taken to assess hemoglobin levels using point-of-care blood gas analyzer, as well as sent to a central laboratory where hemoglobin was measured using the sodium lauryl sulfate method. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess the agreement between results from the 2 point-of-care devices with the reference standard (laboratory hemoglobin). SpHb exhibited significant bias when compared to laboratory hemoglobin, while blood gas hemoglobin did not. Mean bias for SpHb was +1.64 with limits of agreement of -1.03 to 4.31 compared to blood gas hemoglobin which showed a bias of 0.26 and limits of agreement of -0.84 to 1.37. The magnitude of the bias for SpHb increased with increasing mean hemoglobin levels. Of all the additional study variables assessed for effect on the bias, only Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score in adult patients (P < .0001) and mean arterial blood pressure (P = .001) had an effect. Skin pigmentation did not have any effect on the magnitude of bias. Noninvasive Hemoglobin measurement is a promising tool in dark skinned critically ill patients with low hemoglobin levels, but requires further refinements for it to have clinical usefulness.

  5. Predict the Medicare Functional Classification Level (K-level) using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in people with unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Major, Matthew J; Kaluf, Brian; Balasanov, Yuri; Fatone, Stefania

    2017-05-01

    While Amputee Mobility Predictor scores differ between Medicare Functional Classification Levels (K-level), this does not demonstrate that the Amputee Mobility Predictor can accurately predict K-level. To determine how accurately K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in combination with patient characteristics for persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Prediction. A cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression was built to determine the effect that the Amputee Mobility Predictor, in combination with patient characteristics, had on the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level in 198 people with transtibial or transfemoral amputation. For people assigned to the K2 or K3 level by their clinician, the Amputee Mobility Predictor predicted the clinician-assigned K-level more than 80% of the time. For people assigned to the K1 or K4 level by their clinician, the prediction of clinician-assigned K-level was less accurate. The odds of being in a higher K-level improved with younger age and transfemoral amputation. Ordinal logistic regression can be used to predict the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level using the Amputee Mobility Predictor and patient characteristics. This pilot study highlighted critical method design issues, such as potential predictor variables and sample size requirements for future prospective research. Clinical relevance This pilot study demonstrated that the odds of being assigned a particular K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor score and patient characteristics. While the model seemed sufficiently accurate to predict clinician assignment to the K2 or K3 level, further work is needed in larger and more representative samples, particularly for people with low (K1) and high (K4) levels of mobility, to be confident in the model's predictive value prior to use in clinical practice.

  6. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lun Sun

    Full Text Available The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively, a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05. However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05. The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  7. Short- versus long-term prediction of dementia among subjects with low and high educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Emilie; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Using simple measures of cognition and disability in a prospective community-living cohort of normal elderly persons, the main objectives of our study were to distinguish short- and long-term predictors for dementia according to educational level and to propose a tool for early detection of subjects at high risk of dementia. Data derived from the French cohort study Paquid (Personnes Agées QUID), which included 3777 subjects, older than 65 years of age, who were followed for a 20-year period. The risk of dementia at 3 years and 10 years was estimated by logistic regression for repeated measures combining data from all the 3- and 10-year windows throughout the follow-up. Predictors included disability assessed by the number of dependent items among four instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), four neuropsychological tests, five Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subtests, and four items of subjective memory complaints. Of the 2882 included subjects, the number of IADLs remained a predictor of short- and long-term conversion to dementia for those with low educational level (combined with only one cognitive test) whereas the best predictors for more educated subjects combined subjective memory complaints and memory and executive function tests. The episodic memory subtest was the only predictive MMSE subtest. In the high-education-level group, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the selected models were 0.85 for 3-year prediction and 0.78 for 10-year prediction. Early predictors of dementia are different according to educational level. Among subjects reaching the secondary school level, early detection of those at high risk of dementia is possible with good predictive performance, with a few simple objective and subjective cognitive evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting local malaria exposure using a Lasso-based two-level cross validation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwaye, Bienvenue; Rossi, Fabrice; Fonton, Noël; Garcia, André; Dossou-Gbété, Simplice; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Cottrell, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of local environmental factors to determine the fine-scale heterogeneity of malaria transmission and exposure to the vector. In this work, we compare a classical GLM model with backward selection with different versions of an automatic LASSO-based algorithm with 2-level cross-validation aiming to build a predictive model of the space and time dependent individual exposure to the malaria vector, using entomological and environmental data from a cohort study in Benin. Although the GLM can outperform the LASSO model with appropriate engineering, the best model in terms of predictive power was found to be the LASSO-based model. Our approach can be adapted to different topics and may therefore be helpful to address prediction issues in other health sciences domains.

  9. Optical wavelength selection for portable hemoglobin determination by near-infrared spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Han; Li, Ming; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Dinggao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Linna

    2017-11-01

    Hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose anemia, identify bleeding, and manage red blood cell transfusions. The golden standard method for determining hemoglobin concentration in blood requires reagent. Spectral methods were advantageous at fast and non-reagent measurement. However, model calibration with full spectrum is time-consuming. Moreover, it is necessary to use a few variables considering size and cost of instrumentation, especially for a portable biomedical instrument. This study presents different wavelength selection methods for optical wavelengths for total hemoglobin concentration determination in whole blood. The results showed that modelling using only two wavelengths combination (1143 nm, 1298 nm) can keep on the fine predictability with full spectrum. It appears that the proper selection of optical wavelengths can be more effective than using the whole spectra for determination hemoglobin in whole blood. We also discussed the influence of water absorptivity on the wavelength selection. This research provides valuable references for designing portable NIR instruments determining hemoglobin concentration, and may provide some experience for noninvasive hemoglobin measurement by NIR methods.

  10. Prediction of Disease Case Severity Level To Determine INA CBGs Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitorini, Sukma; Kusumadewi, Sri; Rosita, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Indonesian Case-Based Groups (INA CBGs) is case-mix payment system using software grouper application. INA CBGs consisting of four digits code where the last digits indicating the severity level of disease cases. Severity level influence by secondary diagnosis (complications and co-morbidity) related to resource intensity level. It is medical resources used to treat a hospitalized patient. Objectives of this research is developing decision support system to predict severity level of disease cases and illustrate INA CBGs rate by using data mining decision tree classification model. Primary diagnosis (DU), first secondary diagnosis (DS 1), and second secondary diagnosis (DS 2) are attributes that used as input of severity level. The training process using C4.5 algorithm and the rules will represent in the IF-THEN form. Credibility of the system analyzed through testing process and confusion matrix present the results. Outcome of this research shows that first secondary diagnosis influence significant to form severity level predicting rules from new disease cases and INA CBGs rate illustration.

  11. Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal prediction of global sea level anomalies using an ocean-atmosphere dynamical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Elaine R.; Spillman, Claire M.; Church, John A.; McIntosh, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced warning of extreme sea level events is an invaluable tool for coastal communities, allowing the implementation of management policies and strategies to minimise loss of life and infrastructure damage. This study is an initial attempt to apply a dynamical coupled ocean-atmosphere model to the prediction of seasonal sea level anomalies (SLA) globally for up to 7 months in advance. We assess the ability of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's operational seasonal dynamical forecast system, the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), to predict seasonal SLA, using gridded satellite altimeter observation-based analyses over the period 1993-2010 and model reanalysis over 1981-2010. Hindcasts from POAMA are based on a 33-member ensemble of seasonal forecasts that are initialised once per month for the period 1981-2010. Our results show POAMA demonstrates high skill in the equatorial Pacific basin and consistently exhibits more skill globally than a forecast based on persistence. Model predictability estimates indicate there is scope for improvement in the higher latitudes and in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. Most characteristics of the asymmetric SLA fields generated by El-Nino/La Nina events are well represented by POAMA, although the forecast amplitude weakens with increasing lead-time.

  13. Predicting protein folding pathways at the mesoscopic level based on native interactions between secondary structure elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since experimental determination of protein folding pathways remains difficult, computational techniques are often used to simulate protein folding. Most current techniques to predict protein folding pathways are computationally intensive and are suitable only for small proteins. Results By assuming that the native structure of a protein is known and representing each intermediate conformation as a collection of fully folded structures in which each of them contains a set of interacting secondary structure elements, we show that it is possible to significantly reduce the conformation space while still being able to predict the most energetically favorable folding pathway of large proteins with hundreds of residues at the mesoscopic level, including the pig muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with 416 residues. The model is detailed enough to distinguish between different folding pathways of structurally very similar proteins, including the streptococcal protein G and the peptostreptococcal protein L. The model is also able to recognize the differences between the folding pathways of protein G and its two structurally similar variants NuG1 and NuG2, which are even harder to distinguish. We show that this strategy can produce accurate predictions on many other proteins with experimentally determined intermediate folding states. Conclusion Our technique is efficient enough to predict folding pathways for both large and small proteins at the mesoscopic level. Such a strategy is often the only feasible choice for large proteins. A software program implementing this strategy (SSFold is available at http://faculty.cs.tamu.edu/shsze/ssfold.

  14. The impact of hemoglobin on the efficacy of phototherapy in hyperbilirubinemic infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donneborg, Mette L; Vandborg, Pernille K; Hansen, Bo M

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline...... initial TsB and postnatal age, for each mmol/l increase in hemoglobin, the decrease in TsB was 3.61 μmol/l smaller. In our hemoglobin range, the decrease in TsB is reduced by 28 μmol/l (23%).ConclusionIncreasing hemoglobin levels led to a decrease in the efficacy of phototherapy. Our data provide...... additional support for the conclusion that the transformation of bilirubin to photobilirubins takes place mainly in the superficial capillaries of the skin.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 6 September 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.186....

  15. Estimation of glycated hemoglobin by 2,6-dimethylphenol: Sulphuric acid conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, H M; Pattabiraman, T N

    2001-01-01

    Glycated hemoglobin levels in hemolysate of normal and diabetic patients were determined by the 2,6-dimethylphenol:57.5% sulphuric acid conventional method and the values were 0.39±025 and 0.69±0.21 moles of hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF)/mole of globin, respectively. The mean increase in glycated hemoglobin values in diabetics (1.8fold) was highly significant (psulphuric acid method. The values obtained by former method were about 1.2-1.4 times the values by the phenol:sulphuric acid method. This study indicates that conventional 2,6-dimethylphenol: 57.5% sulphuric acid method is more sensitive for the estimation of glycated hemoglobin than any other method based on the same principle. It is less time consuming, reliable and hence can be employed for the routine laboratory estimation of glycated hemoglobin for the assessment of glycemic control.

  16. Damage level prediction of non-reshaped berm breakwater using ANN, SVM and ANFIS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukomal Mandal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The damage analysis of coastal structure is very important as it involves many design parameters to be considered for the better and safe design of structure. In the present study experimental data for non-reshaped berm breakwater are collected from Marine Structures Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, NITK, Surathkal, India. Soft computing techniques like Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS models are constructed using experimental data sets to predict the damage level of non-reshaped berm breakwater. The experimental data are used to train ANN, SVM and ANFIS models and results are determined in terms of statistical measures like mean square error, root mean square error, correlation coefficient and scatter index. The result shows that soft computing techniques i.e., ANN, SVM and ANFIS can be efficient tools in predicting damage levels of non reshaped berm breakwater.

  17. Clinical effectiveness of hemoglobin spray (Granulox® as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon D. Hunt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobin spray (Granulox® comprises purified hemoglobin and is a novel approach for increasing oxygen availability in the wound bed in diabetic foot ulcer patients. Its mode of action is to bind oxygen from the atmosphere and diffuse it into the wound bed to accelerate wound healing in slow-healing wounds. Patients and methods: Wound healing outcomes, that is, wound size, pain, percentage of slough, and exudate levels, were compared retrospectively to a similar cohort of patients treated over the same period the previous year. The same inclusion and exclusion criteria applied to both groups. Results: All 20 (100% hemoglobin spray-treated patients and 15 (75% control patients experienced some wound healing by week 4, with 5 (25% and 1 (5%, respectively, achieving complete wound closure. At week 4, mean wound size reduction was 63% in the hemoglobin spray group versus 26% for controls, increasing to 95% reduction at week 28 in the hemoglobin spray group versus 63% for controls (p<0.05 at all timepoints. Hemoglobin spray was associated with substantially lower pain scores using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, with 19/19 patients (100% being pain-free from week 12 onwards, compared to 6/18 patients (33% in the control group. At week 28, 2/18 patients (11% in the control group still had pain. Both groups had similar baseline slough levels, but hemoglobin spray-treated wounds had slough completely eliminated after 4 weeks versus 10% mean reduction in the control group (p<0.001. Hemoglobin spray was associated with markedly reduced exudate levels; within 4 weeks, no patients had high exudate levels in the hemoglobin spray group versus 5 in the control group. Conclusion: Standard wound care plus hemoglobin spray results in improvements in wound closure, wound size reduction, pain, slough, and exudate levels compared to control patients for chronic diabetic foot ulcer treatment.

  18. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    of coagulopathy. METHODS:: Prospective study of 75 adult trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center directly from the scene of accident. Patients were selected blinded post hoc from three predefined Injury Severity Score groups (27) and had available blood samples on arrival. We measured activated......BACKGROUND:: Trauma-induced acute coagulopathy predicts a poor outcome. Although its pathophysiology is unclear, severe injury and shock (hypoperfusion) are proposed drivers. This study investigated the association between sympathoadrenal activation (circulating catecholamines) and biomarkers...

  19. Uric Acid Levels Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Adolescents: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Pei, Dee; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; puric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; puric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.

  20. Increased hemoglobin-oxygen affinity ameliorates bleomycin-induced hypoxemia and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xin; Dufu, Kobina; Hutchaleelaha, Athiwat; Xu, Qing; Li, Zhe; Li, Chien-Ming; Patel, Mira P; Vlahakis, Nicholas; Lehrer-Graiwer, Josh; Oksenberg, Donna

    2016-09-01

    Although exertional dyspnea and worsening hypoxia are hallmark clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), no drug currently available could treat them. GBT1118 is a novel orally bioavailable small molecule that binds to hemoglobin and produces a concentration-dependent left shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve with subsequent increase in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and arterial oxygen loading. To assess whether pharmacological modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity could ameliorate hypoxemia associated with lung fibrosis, we evaluated GBT1118 in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of hypoxemia and fibrosis. After pulmonary fibrosis and hypoxemia were induced, GBT1118 was administered for eight consecutive days. Hypoxemia was determined by monitoring arterial oxygen saturation, while the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed by histopathological evaluation and determination of collagen and leukocyte levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We found that hemoglobin modification by GBT1118 had strong antihypoxemic therapeutic effects with improved arterial oxygen saturation to near normal level. Moreover, GBT1118 treatment significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, collagen accumulation, body weight loss, and leukocyte infiltration. This study is the first to suggest the beneficial effects of hemoglobin modification in fibrotic lungs and offers a promising and novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hypoxemia associated with chronic fibrotic lung disorders in human, including IPF. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  1. Stathmin protein level, a potential predictive marker for taxane treatment response in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrica M J Werner

    Full Text Available Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important.

  2. To be precise, the details don't matter: On predictive processing, precision, and level of detail of predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Bekkering, H.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van

    2017-01-01

    Many theoretical and empirical contributions to the Predictive Processing account emphasize the important role of precision modulation of prediction errors. Recently it has been proposed that the causal models used in human predictive processing are best formally modeled by categorical probability

  3. Development of a coupled level set and immersed boundary method for predicting dam break flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. H.; Sheu, Tony W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Dam-break flow over an immersed stationary object is investigated using a coupled level set (LS)/immersed boundary (IB) method developed in Cartesian grids. This approach adopts an improved interface preserving level set method which includes three solution steps and the differential-based interpolation immersed boundary method to treat fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interfaces, respectively. In the first step of this level set method, the level set function ϕ is advected by a pure advection equation. The intermediate step is performed to obtain a new level set value through a new smoothed Heaviside function. In the final solution step, a mass correction term is added to the re-initialization equation to ensure the new level set is a distance function and to conserve the mass bounded by the interface. For accurately calculating the level set value, the four-point upwinding combined compact difference (UCCD) scheme with three-point boundary combined compact difference scheme is applied to approximate the first-order derivative term shown in the level set equation. For the immersed boundary method, application of the artificial momentum forcing term at points in cells consisting of both fluid and solid allows an imposition of velocity condition to account for the presence of solid object. The incompressible Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated using the projection method. Numerical results show that the coupled LS/IB method can not only predict interface accurately but also preserve the mass conservation excellently for the dam-break flow.

  4. Hemoglobin constant spring defined by specific oligonucleotide hybridization and hemoglobin D Punjab (beta 121----Gln) in a Batak Indonesian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, E N; Cai, S P; Kan, Y W; Lie-Injo, L E

    1988-09-01

    A Batak Indonesian from North Sumatra with hemoglobin (Hb) D Punjab (alpha 2 beta 2 121----Gln) and hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CoSp) is described. The 24-year-old man did not have clinical symptoms, and his hematological indices were normal. However, he had a persistent slight elevation of fetal hemoglobin level. His mother and his brother were heterozygous for Hb D Punjab; his father had Hb CoSp trait. A sister did not have any abnormal hemoglobin. To show the exact molecular defect leading to the synthesis of Hb CoSp in this family, genomic DNA from the father was analyzed by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides. Genomic DNA was digested with Sst I and Hind III producing a 1.05-kb fragment from the 3' end segment of the alpha 2-globin gene, including the termination codon. Two nonadecamers were synthesized to serve as probes: one, entirely homologous to the normal 3' end of alpha 2A-globin gene sequence, including the termination codon TAA, the other different from it by a replacement of the T in the termination codon TAA with C, changing it to CAA, the codon for the amino acid glutamine. DNA from normal controls gave a positive signal with the normal alpha 2TAA oligonucleotide probe but negative with the alpha 2 CAA probe. The father of propositus who had Hb CoSp trait gave a positive signal with the normal alpha 2TAA oligonucleotide probe as well as with the alpha 2CAA oligonucleotide probe, showing him to be heterozygous for the alpha 2CAA-globin gene. This result shows that the Hb CoSp in the Batak family is indeed due to a replacement of T by C in the TAA termination codon of the alpha 2-globin gene changing it to CAA the condon for glutamine. This explains the resulting readthrough of the untranslated sequence of the mRNA.

  5. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Higher triglyceride level predicts hyperuricemia: A prospective study of 6-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Wei, Fengjiang; Chen, Chen; Cai, Chunyou; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Ning; Tian, Jianli; Shi, Wentao; Zhang, Miaomiao; Zang, Yong; Song, Jiani; He, Yukun; Feng, Jiayi; Zhou, Qianqian; Li, Mengyan; Bai, Pufei; Feng, Shuzhi; Li, Wei-Dong

    2017-11-07

    Despite abundant evidence indicating that higher triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased risks of hyperuricemia (HUA), it is unclear whether TG levels can independently predict the incidence of HUA. The aim of the study was to investigate whether TG is an independent risk factor of HUA in a cohort study. We explored the relationship between TG levels and HUA in a dynamic cohort established in 2009. During the 6 years of follow-up, 5442 subjects without HUA were studied. We divided subjects into 4 groups based on baseline TG levels and used the Cox hazard regression model to estimate HUA risk by TG quartile, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis compared the risk of HUA incidence among individuals in each TG quartile. The incidence of HUA in this cohort was 25.9%. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HUA in the second, third, and fourth TG quartiles, compared with the first quartile, were 1.19 (1.01-1.40), 1.33 (1.13-1.57), and 1.62 (1.37-1.92), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that higher TG levels predicted higher incidences of HUA in a dose-dependent relationship. Stratification analyses showed that the association between TG levels and the presence of HUA was more pronounced in individuals aged <50 years, of obese, with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate, and with hypertension. Our findings suggest that TG level is a significant and independent risk factor for HUA. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation and prediction of gene expression level from amino acid and dipeptide composition of its protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Joon H

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of papers have been published on analysis of microarray data with particular emphasis on normalization of data, detection of differentially expressed genes, clustering of genes and regulatory network. On other hand there are only few studies on relation between expression level and composition of nucleotide/protein sequence, using expression data. There is a need to understand why particular genes/proteins express more in particular conditions. In this study, we analyze 3468 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained from Holstege et al., (1998 to understand the relationship between expression level and amino acid composition. Results We compute the correlation between expression of a gene and amino acid composition of its protein. It was observed that some residues (like Ala, Gly, Arg and Val have significant positive correlation (r > 0.20 and some other residues (Like Asp, Leu, Asn and Ser have negative correlation (r Conclusion There is a correlation between gene expression and amino acid composition that can be used to predict the expression level of genes up to a certain extent. A web server based on the above strategy has been developed for calculating the correlation between amino acid composition and gene expression and prediction of expression level http://kiwi.postech.ac.kr/raghava/lgepred/. This server will allow users to study the evolution from expression data.

  8. A Bayesian network to predict vulnerability to sea-level rise: data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    During the 21st century, sea-level rise is projected to have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, development, and infrastructure. Consequently, there has been an increased focus on developing modeling or other analytical approaches to evaluate potential impacts to inform coastal management. This report provides the data that were used to develop and evaluate the performance of a Bayesian network designed to predict long-term shoreline change due to sea-level rise. The data include local rates of relative sea-level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline-change rate compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal Vulnerability Index for the U.S. Atlantic coast. In this project, the Bayesian network is used to define relationships among driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal responses. Using this information, the Bayesian network is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline change in response to different future sea-level-rise scenarios.

  9. IS HEMOGLOBIN E GENE WIDELY SPREAD IN THE STATE OF MADHYA PRADESH IN CENTRAL INDIA? EVIDENCE FROM FIVE TYPICAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Balgir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell inherited hemoglobin anomalies are commonly encountered in the central region of India. These cause a public health concern due to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and fetal loss in the backward, underprivileged, and vulnerable people. Purpose: To report five typical families of hemoglobin E disorders identified for the first time in the state of Madhya Pradesh from central India. Methods: Out of a total of 445 couples/families (excluding the present study with 1526 persons (848 males and 678 females referred from a tertiary hospital in central India for investigations of anemia/hemoglobinopathies during the period from March 2010 to February 2014, we came across five typical rare couples/families of hemoglobin E disorders worthy of detailed investigations. Laboratory investigations were carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control from time to time. Results: For the first time, we have encountered nine cases of heterozygous hemoglobin E trait, two members with hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia (double heterozygosity, two cases of sickle cell-hemoglobin E disease (double heterozygosity, and none with homozygous hemoglobin E. Cases  of hemoglobin E trait, hemoglobin E-β-thalassemia, sickle cell-β-thalassemia and sickle cell-E disease showed moderate to severe anemia, and target cells, and reduced values of red cell indices like RBC, Hb level, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC, representing abnormal hematological profile and clinical manifestations before blood transfusion. Conclusions: Double heterozygosity for hemoglobinopathies such as occurrence of β-thalassemia mutation with structurally abnormal hemoglobins (Hb S and Hb E is a rare entity, but occurs with severe clinical manifestations only in those areas or communities where these are highly prevalent, testifying the migrations and genetic admixture. Distribution of hemoglobin E and β-thalassemia in different districts of Madhya Pradesh

  10. Low free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in men with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Ignacio F; Rojas, Pablo A; DeWolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether total testosterone and free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in a cohort of men with prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS). Total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were determined at the time the men began the AS protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and a chi-squared test to compare groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using univariate logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were generated to determine the investigated testosterone thresholds. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time to disease reclassification. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis. A total of 154 men were included in the AS cohort, of whom 54 (35%) progressed to active treatment. Men who had disease reclassification had significantly lower free testosterone levels than those who were not reclassified (0.75 vs 1.02 ng/dL, P = 0.03). Men with free testosterone levels free testosterone levels ≥0.45 (P = 0.032). Free testosterone levels free testosterone and family history of PCa were independent predictors of disease reclassification. Free testosterone levels were lower in men with PCa who had reclassification during AS. Men with moderately severe reductions in free testosterone level are at increased risk of disease reclassification. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  11. First-Trimester Serum Acylcarnitine Levels to Predict Preeclampsia: A Metabolomics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. H. Koster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To expand the search for preeclampsia (PE metabolomics biomarkers through the analysis of acylcarnitines in first-trimester maternal serum. Methods. This was a nested case-control study using serum from pregnant women, drawn between 8 and 14 weeks of gestational age. Metabolites were measured using an UPLC-MS/MS based method. Concentrations were compared between controls (n=500 and early-onset- (EO- PE (n=68 or late-onset- (LO- PE (n=99 women. Metabolites with a false discovery rate <10% for both EO-PE and LO-PE were selected and added to prediction models based on maternal characteristics (MC, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and previously established biomarkers (PAPPA, PLGF, and taurine. Results. Twelve metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE women and controls, with effect levels between −18% and 29%. For LO-PE, 11 metabolites were significantly different with effect sizes between −8% and 24%. Nine metabolites were significantly different for both comparisons. The best prediction model for EO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, taurine, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.784. The best prediction model for LO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.700. Conclusion. This study identified stearoylcarnitine as a novel metabolomics biomarker for EO-PE and LO-PE. Nevertheless, metabolomics-based assays for predicting PE are not yet suitable for clinical implementation.

  12. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  13. Endocan Levels in Peripheral Blood Predict Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the prognostic significance of endocan, compared with procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP,white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils (N, and clinical severity scores in patients with ARDS. Methods. A total of 42 patients with ARDS were initially enrolled, and there were 20 nonsurvivors and 22 survivors based on hospital mortality. Plasma levels of biomarkers were measured and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II was calculated on day 1 after the patient met the defining criteria of ARDS. Results. Endocan levels significantly correlated with the APACHE II score in the ARDS group (r=0.676, P=0.000, n=42. Of 42 individuals with ARDS, 20 were dead, and endocan was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (median (IQR 5.01 (2.98–8.44 versus 3.01 (2.36–4.36 ng/mL, P=0.017. According to the results of the ROC-curve analysis and COX proportional hazards models, endocan can predict mortality of ARDS independently with a hazard ratio of 1.374 (95% CI, 1.150–1.641 and an area of receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC of 0.715 (P=0.017. Moreover, endocan can predict the multiple-organ dysfunction of ARDS. Conclusion. Endocan is a promising biomarker to predict the disease severity and mortality in patients with ARDS.

  14. Predicting metabolic rate during level and uphill outdoor walking using a low-cost GPS receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Dumond, Rémy; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Lavenu, Audrey; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of using speed and grade data obtained from a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver to estimate metabolic rate (MR) during level and uphill outdoor walking. Thirty young, healthy adults performed randomized outdoor walking for 6-min periods at 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 km/h and on three different grades: 1) level walking, 2) uphill walking on a 3.7% mean grade, and 3) uphill walking on a 10.8% mean grade. The reference MR [metabolic equivalents (METs) and oxygen uptake (V̇o2)] values were obtained using a portable metabolic system. The speed and grade were obtained using a low-cost GPS receiver (1-Hz recording). The GPS grade (Δ altitude/distance walked) was calculated using both uncorrected GPS altitude data and GPS altitude data corrected with map projection software. The accuracy of predictions using reference speed and grade (actual[SPEED/GRADE]) data was high [R(2) = 0.85, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 0.68 MET]. The accuracy decreased when GPS speed and uncorrected grade (GPS[UNCORRECTED]) data were used, although it remained substantial (R(2) = 0.66, RMSE = 1.00 MET). The accuracy was greatly improved when the GPS speed and corrected grade (GPS[CORRECTED]) data were used (R(2) = 0.82, RMSE = 0.79 MET). Published predictive equations for walking MR were also cross-validated using actual or GPS speed and grade data when appropriate. The prediction accuracy was very close when either actual[SPEED/GRADE] values or GPS[CORRECTED] values (for level and uphill combined) or GPS speed values (for level walking only) were used. These results offer promising research and clinical applications related to the assessment of energy expenditure during free-living walking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Steady-state plant model to predict hydrogen levels in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  16. Anti-ApoA-1 IgG serum levels predict worse poststroke outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Federico; Satta, Nathalie; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Virzi, Julien; Burger, Fabienne; Roth, Aline; Roversi, Gloria; Tamborino, Carmine; Casetta, Ilaria; Seraceni, Silva; Trentini, Alessandro; Padroni, Marina; Dallegri, Franco; Lalive, Patrice H; Mach, François; Fainardi, Enrico; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-1 (anti-ApoA-1 IgG) were shown to predict major adverse cardiovascular events and promote atherogenesis. However, their potential relationship with clinical disability and ischaemic lesion volume after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) remains unexplored. We included n = 76 patients admitted for AIS and we investigated whether baseline serum anti-ApoA-1 IgG levels could predict (i) AIS-induced clinical disability [assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], and (ii) AIS-related ischaemic lesion volume [assessed by Computed Tomography (CT)]. We also evaluated the possible pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic effects of anti-ApoA-1 IgG on human astrocytoma cell line (U251) using flow cytometry. High levels of anti-ApoA-1 IgG were retrieved in 15·8% (12/76) of patients. Increased baseline levels of anti-ApoA-1 IgG were independently correlated with worse mRS [β = 0·364; P = 0·002; adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1·05 (95% CI 1·01-1·09); P = 0·017] and CT-assessed ischaemic lesion volume [β = 0·333; P IgG. Incubating human astrocytoma cells with anti-ApoA-1 IgG dose dependently induced necrosis and apoptosis of U251 cells in vitro. Anti-ApoA-1 IgG serum levels at AIS onset are associated with poorer clinical recovery and worse brain lesion volume 3 months after AIS. These observations could be partly explained by the deleterious effect of anti-ApoA-1 IgG on human brain cell survival in vitro and may have clinical implication in the prediction of poor outcome in AIS. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Steady-State Plant Model to Predict Hydroden Levels in Power Plant Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cable, Robert; Newmarker, Marc

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Acciona Energy North America developed a full-plant steady-state computational model that estimates levels of hydrogen in parabolic trough power plant components. The model estimated dissolved hydrogen concentrations in the circulating heat transfer fluid (HTF), and corresponding partial pressures within each component. Additionally for collector field receivers, the model estimated hydrogen pressure in the receiver annuli. The model was developed to estimate long-term equilibrium hydrogen levels in power plant components, and to predict the benefit of hydrogen mitigation strategies for commercial power plants. Specifically, the model predicted reductions in hydrogen levels within the circulating HTF that result from purging hydrogen from the power plant expansion tanks at a specified target rate. Our model predicted hydrogen partial pressures from 8.3 mbar to 9.6 mbar in the power plant components when no mitigation treatment was employed at the expansion tanks. Hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli were 8.3 to 8.4 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.001 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.001 mbar to 0.02 mbar. When hydrogen partial pressure was reduced to 0.3 mbar in the expansion tanks, hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli fell to a range of 0.25 mbar to 0.28 mbar. Our results show that controlling hydrogen partial pressure in the expansion tanks allows us to reduce and maintain hydrogen pressures in the receiver annuli to any practical level.

  18. The Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein (CIRP Level in Peripheral Blood Predicts Sepsis Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Zhou

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a lethal and complex clinical syndrome caused by infection or suspected infection. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP is a widely distributed cold-shock protein that plays a proinflammatory role in sepsis and that may induce organ damage. However, clinical studies regarding the use of CIRP for the prognostic evaluation of sepsis are lacking. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prognostic significance of peripheral blood concentrations of CIRP in sepsis. Sepsis was assessed using several common measures, including the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score; the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score; the lactate, serum creatinine, and procalcitonin (PCT levels; the white blood cell (WBC count; and the neutrophil ratio (N%.Sixty-nine adult patients with sepsis were enrolled in this study. According to the mortality data from the hospital, 38 patients were survivors, and 31 were nonsurvivors. The plasma levels of the biomarkers were measured and the APACHE II and SOFA scores were calculated within 24 hours of patient enrollment into our study. The CIRP level was measured via ELISA.The plasma level of CIRP was significantly higher in the nonsurvivors than in the survivors (median (IQR 4.99 (2.37-30.17 ng/mL and 1.68 (1.41-13.90 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.013. The correlations of the CIRP level with the APACHE II score (r = 0.248, p = 0.040, n = 69, the SOFA score (r = 0.323, p = 0.007, n = 69, the serum creatinine level (r = 0.316, p = 0.008, n = 69, and the PCT level (r = 0.282, p = 0.019, n = 69 were significant. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC for the CIRP level was 0.674 (p = 0.013. According to Cox proportional hazards models, the CIRP level independently predicts sepsis mortality. When the CIRP level in the peripheral blood increased by 10 ng/mL, the mortality risk increased by 1.05-fold (p = 0.012. Thus

  19. Does plasma copeptin level at admission predict final infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Vijai; Beig, Jahangir Rashid; Tramboo, Nisar A; Rasool, Roohi; Choh, Nasir A; Bashir, Shazia; Rather, Hilal A; Lone, Ajaz A

    2016-09-15

    Copeptin is a novel biomarker of potential diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma copeptin levels at admission and final infarct size in STEMI patients. This observational study was conducted in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical sciences, Srinagar, for a period of 1year. 60 patients with STEMI admitted within 24h of symptom onset were included in the study. Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined by ELISA from blood samples drawn at the time of admission. Infarct size was estimated on cardiac MRI after 5-14days of admission, in successfully reperfused patients. Correlations between plasma copeptin levels, infarct size and various clinico-hemodynamic variables were studied. Plasma copeptin concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with MRI determined infarct size (r=0.957; p≤0.0001). Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with anterior wall infarction (p≤0.0001), longer symptom duration (p=0.018), advanced Killip class (p≤0.0001), higher body mass index (p=0.019) and extensive coronary artery disease (p≤0.0001). On multivariate analysis, copeptin levels at admission independently predicted final infarct size, irrespective of the clinico-hemodynamic profile of patients or mode of reperfusion (p≤0.0001). The only independent predictor of copeptin level was symptom duration (p=0.018). Copeptin level at admission predicts final infarct size in STEMI patients. Further evidence is however needed before implementation of this biomarker into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Basal HIF-1a expression levels are not predictive for radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, D.; Multhoff, G. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz Center Munich, CCG - Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich (Germany). German Research Center for Environmental Health - Inst. of Pathology; Bayer, C.; Emmerich, K.; Molls, M.; Vaupel, P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Pneumology

    2012-04-15

    High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a in tumors are reported to be associated with tumor progression and resistance to therapy. To examine the impact of HIF-1a on radioresistance under normoxia, the sensitivity towards irradiation was measured in human tumor cell lines that differ significantly in their basal HIF-1a levels. HIF-1a levels were quantified in lysates of H1339, EPLC-272H, A549, SAS, XF354, FaDu, BHY, and CX- tumor cell lines by ELISA. Protein levels of HIF-1a, HIF-2a, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and GAPDH were assessed by Western blot analysis. Knock-down experiments were performed using HIF-1a siRNA. Clonogenic survival after irradiation was determined by the colony forming assay. According to their basal HIF-1a status, the tumor cell lines were divided into low (SAS, XF354, FaDu, A549, CX-), intermediate (EPLC-272H, BHY), and high (H1339) HIF-1a expressors. The functionality of the high basal HIF-1a expression in H1339 cells was proven by reduced CA IX expression after knocking-down HIF-1a. Linear regression analysis revealed no correlation between basal HIF-1a levels and the survival fraction at either 2 or 4 Gy in all tumor cell lines investigated. Our data suggest that basal HIF-1a levels in human tumor cell lines do not predict their radiosensitivity under normoxia. (orig.)

  1. Social and Built Environmental Correlates of Predicted Blood Lead Levels in the Flint Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Richard Casey; LaChance, Jenny; Hanna-Attisha, Mona

    2017-05-01

    To highlight contextual factors tied to increased blood lead level (BLL) risk following the lead-in-water contamination in Flint, Michigan. Using geocoded BLL data collected in 2013 and 2015 and areal interpolation, we predicted BLLs at every residential parcel in the city. We then spatially joined social and built environmental variables to link the parcels with neighborhood-level factors that may influence BLLs. When we compared levels before and during the water crisis, we saw the highest estimates of predicted BLLs during the water crisis and the greatest changes in BLLs in neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes (μ = 2.30 µg/dL; Δ = 0.45 µg/dL), oldest house age (μ = 2.22 µg/dL; Δ = 0.37 µg/dL), and poorest average neighborhood housing condition (μ = 2.18 µg/dL; Δ = 0.44 µg/dL). Key social and built environmental variables correlate with BLL; such information can continue to guide response by prioritizing older, deteriorating neighborhoods with the longest water residence time in pipes.

  2. A boosting approach for adapting the sparsity of risk prediction signatures based on different molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyar, Murat; Schumacher, Martin; Binder, Harald

    2014-06-01

    Risk prediction models can link high-dimensional molecular measurements, such as DNA methylation, to clinical endpoints. For biological interpretation, often a sparse fit is desirable. Different molecular aggregation levels, such as considering DNA methylation at the CpG, gene, or chromosome level, might demand different degrees of sparsity. Hence, model building and estimation techniques should be able to adapt their sparsity according to the setting. Additionally, underestimation of coefficients, which is a typical problem of sparse techniques, should also be addressed. We propose a comprehensive approach, based on a boosting technique that allows a flexible adaptation of model sparsity and addresses these problems in an integrative way. The main motivation is to have an automatic sparsity adaptation. In a simulation study, we show that this approach reduces underestimation in sparse settings and selects more adequate model sizes than the corresponding non-adaptive boosting technique in non-sparse settings. Using different aggregation levels of DNA methylation data from a study in kidney carcinoma patients, we illustrate how automatically selected values of the sparsity tuning parameter can reflect the underlying structure of the data. In addition to that, prediction performance and variable selection stability is compared to the non-adaptive boosting approach.

  3. A Comparison of Sales Response Predictions From Demand Models Applied to Store-Level versus Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Rick L.; Currim, Imran S.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    In order to generate sales promotion response predictions, marketing analysts estimate demand models using either disaggregated (consumer-level) or aggregated (store-level) scanner data. Comparison of predictions from these demand models is complicated by the fact that models may accommodate

  4. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  5. Hemoglobin: A Nitric-Oxide Dioxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Gardner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the hemoglobin superfamily efficiently catalyze nitric-oxide dioxygenation, and when paired with native electron donors, function as NO dioxygenases (NODs. Indeed, the NOD function has emerged as a more common and ancient function than the well-known role in O2 transport-storage. Novel hemoglobins possessing a NOD function continue to be discovered in diverse life forms. Unique hemoglobin structures evolved, in part, for catalysis with different electron donors. The mechanism of NOD catalysis by representative single domain hemoglobins and multidomain flavohemoglobin occurs through a multistep mechanism involving O2 migration to the heme pocket, O2 binding-reduction, NO migration, radical-radical coupling, O-atom rearrangement, nitrate release, and heme iron re-reduction. Unraveling the physiological functions of multiple NODs with varying expression in organisms and the complexity of NO as both a poison and signaling molecule remain grand challenges for the NO field. NOD knockout organisms and cells expressing recombinant NODs are helping to advance our understanding of NO actions in microbial infection, plant senescence, cancer, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and tissue O2 homeostasis. NOD inhibitors are being pursued for therapeutic applications as antibiotics and antitumor agents. Transgenic NOD-expressing plants, fish, algae, and microbes are being developed for agriculture, aquaculture, and industry.

  6. (Jacq) Benth (Mimosaceae) root: Hemoglobin polymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: All the solvent-partitioned fractions of C. portoricensis showed a high percentage inhibition of hemoglobin polymerization at 5 mg/mL with the ethyl acetate fraction showing the highest percentage inhibition of 98.97 ± 1.62 % The pooled chromatographic fraction C3 containing two compounds (Rf value: 0.71, 0.83); ...

  7. Relationships between hemoglobin A and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-12

    May 12, 2011 ... Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding. 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia.

  8. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  9. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  10. Insulin-induced lipid binding to hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasevic, N; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D; Niketic, [No Value; Nikolic, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under hypoglycemic conditions, concomitant hyperinsulinism causes an apparent modification of hemoglobin (Hb) which is manifested by its a aggregation (Niketic et al.. Clin. Chim. Acia 197 (1991) 47). In the present work the causes and mechanisms underlying this Hb modification were Studied.

  11. The microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Mikhail N; Aprelev, Alexey; Turner, Matthew S; Ferrone, Frank A

    2010-08-09

    Sickle cell disease is a rheological disease, yet no quantitative rheological data exist on microscopic samples at physiological concentrations. We have developed a novel method for measuring the microrheology of sickle hemoglobin gels, based on magnetically driven compression of 5- to 8-microm-thick emulsions containing hemoglobin droplets approximately 80 microm in diameter. Using our method, by observing the expansion of the droplet area as the emulsion is compressed, we were able to resolve changes in thickness of a few nanometers with temporal resolution of milliseconds. Gels were formed at various initial concentrations and temperatures and with different internal domain structure. All behaved as Hookean springs with Young's modulus from 300 to 1500 kPa for gels with polymerized hemoglobin concentration from 6 g/dl to 12 g/dl. For uniform, multidomain gels, Young's modulus mainly depended on the terminal concentration of the gel rather than the conditions of formation. A simple model reproduced the quadratic dependence of the Young's modulus on the concentration of polymerized hemoglobin. Partially desaturated samples also displayed quadratic concentration dependence but with a smaller proportionality coefficient, as did samples that were desaturated in steps; such samples were significantly less rigid than gels formed all at once. The magnitude of the Young's modulus provides quantitative support for the dominant models of sickle pathophysiology. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  13. Hemoglobin D-Punjab: origin, distribution and laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane de Souza Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses hemoglobin D-Punjab, also known as hemoglobin D-Los Angeles, one of the most common hemoglobin variants worldwide. It is derived from a point mutation in the beta-globin gene (HBB: c.364G>C; rs33946267 prevalent in the Punjab region, North-western Indian. Hemoglobin D-Punjab can be inherited in heterozygosis with hemoglobin A causing no clinical or hematological alterations, or in homozygosis, the rarest form of inheritance, a condition that is commonly not related to clinical symptomatology. Moreover, this variant can exist in association with other hemoglobinopathies, such as thalassemias; the most noticeable clinical alterations occur when hemoglobin D-Punjab is associated to hemoglobin S. The clinical manifestations of this association can be similar to homozygosis for hemoglobin S. Although hemoglobin D-Punjab is a common variant globally with clinical importance especially in cases of double heterozygosis, hemoglobin S/D-Punjab is still understudied. In Brazil, for example, hemoglobin D-Punjab is the third most common hemoglobin variant. Thus, this paper summarizes information about the origin, geographic distribution, characterization and occurrence of hemoglobin D-Punjab haplotypes to try to improve our knowledge of this variant. Moreover, a list of the main techniques used in its identification is provided emphasizing the importance of complementary molecular analysis for accurate diagnosis.

  14. The predictive value of cortisol levels on 2-year course of depression in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabia, Fatima M; Rhebergen, Didi; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders in older persons are associated with an altered functioning of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis. In adults, a lower cortisol awakening response is a predictor of a worse prognosis of depression, but to date longitudinal studies in older depressed persons are lacking. We hypothesised that a lower cortisol awakening response is also associated with poorer course of depression in later life. Data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). Participants with a 6-month Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), who provided 2-year follow-up data, were included (n=246). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between diurnal cortisol levels and depressive status at 2-year follow-up. Both lower (OR=3.54; 95% CI=1.59-7.89) and higher evening cortisol levels (OR=2.41; 95% CI=1.09-5.35) at baseline were associated with poorer prognosis of MDD. Low dexamethasone suppression was associated with poorer course (OR=2.37; 95% CI=1.09-5.16), but failed to reach significance after additional adjustment for severity and chronicity of MDD (OR=1.98; 95% CI=0.89-4.42). Cortisol awakening response was not significantly associated with course. Since smoking has a great impact on cortisol levels, we conducted post-hoc analyses including non-smokers only, indicating that lower evening cortisol levels (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.31-6.13) predicted unfavourable course. This first longitudinal study on cortisol and prognosis of depression in older persons demonstrates that in particular lower evening cortisol levels may predict poorer course in MDD. This finding may have clinical implications. Evening cortisol values may serve as a marker to identify persons at risk for an unfavourable course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strength and Comprehensiveness of District School Wellness Policies Predict Policy Implementation at the School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn E; Falbe, Jennifer; Novak, Sarah A.; Wharton, Christopher; Long, Michael; O'Connell, Meghan L.; Fiore, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2006, all local education agencies in the United States participating in federal school meal programs were required to establish school wellness policies. The aim of this study was to document the strength and comprehensiveness of one state's written district policies using a quantitative coding tool, and test whether the strength and comprehensiveness of the written policy predicted school level implementation and practices. Methods School wellness policies from 151 Connecticut districts were evaluated using a quantitative coding system. In each district, school principal surveys were collected before and after the writing and expected implementation of wellness policies. Socio-demographic variables were assessed for each district, including enrollment, population density, political climate, racial composition and socio-economic status. Changes in school-level policy implementation before and after the federal wellness policy requirement were compared across districts by wellness policy strength, and policies were compared based on district-level demographic factors. Results Statewide, fuller implementation of nutrition and physical activity policies at the school level was reported after adoption of written policies in 2006. Districts with stronger, more comprehensive policies were more successful in implementing those policies at the school level. Some socio-demographic characteristics predicted the strength of wellness policies; larger, urban districts and districts with a greater ratio of registered Democrats to Republicans wrote stronger policies. Conclusions Written school wellness policies have the potential to promote significant improvements in the school environment. Future regulation of school wellness policies should focus on the importance of writing strong and comprehensive policies. PMID:22568461

  16. Mass Spectra and Ion Collision Cross Sections of Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Douglas, D. J.

    2011-02-01

    Mass spectra of commercially obtained hemoglobin (Hb) show higher levels of monomer and dimer ions, heme-deficient dimer ions, and apo-monomer ions than hemoglobin freshly prepared from blood. This has previously been attributed to oxidation of commercial Hb. Further, it has been reported that that dimer ions from commercial bovine Hb have lower collision cross sections than low charge state monomer ions. To investigate these effects further, we have recorded mass spectra of fresh human Hb, commercial human and bovine Hb, fresh human Hb oxidized with H2O2, lyophilized fresh human Hb, fresh human Hb both lyophilized and chemically oxidized, and commercial human Hb oxidized with H2O2. Masses of α-monomer ions of all hemoglobins agree with the masses expected from the sequences within 3 Da or better. Mass spectra of the β chains of commercial Hb and oxidized fresh human Hb show a peak or shoulder on the high mass side, consistent with oxidation of the protein. Both commercial proteins and oxidized fresh human Hb produce heme-deficient dimers with masses 32 Da greater than expected and higher levels of monomer and dimer ions than fresh Hb. Lyophilization or oxidation of Hb both produce higher levels of monomer and dimer ions in mass spectra. Fresh human Hb, commercial human Hb, commercial bovine Hb, and oxidized commercial human Hb all give dimer ions with cross sections greater than monomer ions. Thus, neither oxidation of Hb or the difference in sequence between human and bovine Hb make substantial differences to cross sections of ions.

  17. Predicting habitat distribution to conserve seagrass threatened by sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, M. I.; Baldock, T.; Brown, C. J.; Callaghan, D. P.; Golshani, A.; Hamylton, S.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Leon, J. X.; Lovelock, C. E.; Lyons, M. B.; O'Brien, K.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) over the 21st century will cause significant redistribution of valuable coastal habitats. Seagrasses form extensive and highly productive meadows in shallow coastal seas support high biodiversity, including economically valuable and threatened species. Predictive habitat models can inform local management actions that will be required to conserve seagrass faced with multiple stressors. We developed novel modelling approaches, based on extensive field data sets, to examine the effects of sea level rise and other stressors on two representative seagrass habitats in Australia. First, we modelled interactive effects of SLR, water clarity and adjacent land use on estuarine seagrass meadows in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland. The extent of suitable seagrass habitat was predicted to decline by 17% by 2100 due to SLR alone, but losses were predicted to be significantly reduced through improvements in water quality (Fig 1a) and by allowing space for seagrass migration with inundation. The rate of sedimentation in seagrass strongly affected the area of suitable habitat for seagrass in sea level rise scenarios (Fig 1b). Further research to understand spatial, temporal and environmental variability of sediment accretion in seagrass is required. Second, we modelled changes in wave energy distribution due to predicted SLR in a linked coral reef and seagrass ecosystem at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Scenarios where the water depth over the coral reef deepened due to SLR and minimal reef accretion, resulted in larger waves propagating shoreward, changing the existing hydrodynamic conditions sufficiently to reduce area of suitable habitat for seagrass. In a scenario where accretion of the coral reef was severely compromised (e.g. warming, acidification, overfishing), the probability of the presence of seagrass declined significantly. Management to maintain coral health will therefore also benefit seagrasses subject to SLR in reef environments. Further

  18. Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  19. Serum uric acid level predicts adverse outcomes after myocardial revascularization or cardiac valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Davide; Bini, Matteo; Camaiora, Umberto; Castiglioni, Paolo; Moderato, Luca; Bosi, Davide; Geroldi, Simone; Ugolotti, Pietro T; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Brambilla, Valerio; Coruzzi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Background High levels of serum uric acid have been associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prognostic role of serum uric acid levels in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial revascularization and/or cardiac valve surgery. Design We performed an observational prospective cohort study. Methods The study included 1440 patients with available serum uric acid levels, prospectively followed for 50 ± 17 months. Mean age was 67 ± 11 years; 781 patients (54%) underwent myocardial revascularization, 474 (33%) cardiac valve surgery and 185 (13%) valve-plus-coronary artery by-pass graft surgery. The primary endpoints were overall and cardiovascular mortality while secondary end-points were combined major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Results Serum uric acid level mean values were 286 ± 95 µmol/l and elevated serum uric acid levels (≥360 µmol/l or 6 mg/dl) were found in 275 patients (19%). Overall mortality (hazard ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.0; p uric acid levels, even after adjustment for age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate, atrial fibrillation and medical therapy. Moreover, strong positive correlations between serum uric acid level and probability of overall mortality ( p uric acid levels predict mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization and/or cardiac valve surgery even after the adjustment for age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate and medical therapy.

  20. Predictive factors for metal ion levels in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin; Waldstein, Wenzel; Weber, Michael; Boettner, Friedrich

    2018-02-01

    Although metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hip resurfacings (HR) have similar bearing surfaces and comparable wear rates, metal ion levels and risk of failure are higher for MoM-THA. The mechanism behind the increased metal ion levels in large head MoM-THA is not completely understood. The current study aims to identify predictive factors for increased metal ion levels in unilateral and bilateral large head MoM-THA. 99 Birmingham modular MoM-THA in 87 patients with metal ion levels at least 36 months after index procedure were analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 61.3 months (range 37-108) and the relationship of the following variables (gender, age, BMI, follow-up time, UCLA Activity Score, cup inclination, femoral head size, bilateral surgery) on metal ion levels were analyzed with multivariate regression models. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that bilateral MoM-THA surgery (p MoM-THA (p = 0.004) were positively correlated with chromium levels. Positive independent predictors for the cobalt-chromium ratio in the multivariate analysis were overall follow-up time (p = 0.004), bilateral MoM-THA (p MoM-THA, increased patient activity levels and female gender are associated with increased chromium levels. Patients with larger component size, longer follow-up time and bilateral MoM-THAs have an increased cobalt-chromium ratio. These patients might be at increased risk for adverse local soft tissue reactions secondary to corrosion. Continuous close monitoring is recommended and bearing-surface change should be discussed if local tissue reactions occur.

  1. Combining classification and time series modeling for improved water level prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Boergens, Eva; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    2017-04-01

    Obtaining accurate water level estimates is one of the primary goals when processing altimetry data. This can, however, be challenging over inland water due to land contamination in the received signal, which may result in noisy and potentially erroneous water level estimates. The shape of the waveform contains information regarding the quality and in some degree also the surface type of the received signal. Hence, by considering various features of the waveform we can classify the waveforms according to their shape. The waveform class information is not used as a criterium for discarding problematic data but simply used as an additional information when predicting the water level with a robust state-space model. In the model, we estimate a different data variance for each class. Hence, we expect that water levels obtained from complex waveform classes will tend to have a higher variance compared to classes with more simple water returns. The additional data variance information is expected to aid the construction of the final time series. Her we investigate the effect of a class defined data variance in the construction of time series for inland water. We use Cryosat-2 data to estimate water levels for selected lakes and compare with in-situ data when possible.

  2. Inter-comparison of time series models of lake levels predicted by several modeling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, R.; Ghorbani, M. A.; Naghipour, L.; Jothiprakash, V.; Fathima, T. A.; Fazelifard, M. H.

    2014-04-01

    Five modeling strategies are employed to analyze water level time series of six lakes with different physical characteristics such as shape, size, altitude and range of variations. The models comprise chaos theory, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) - treated for seasonality and hence SARIMA, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Gene Expression Programming (GEP) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). Each is formulated on a different premise with different underlying assumptions. Chaos theory is elaborated in a greater detail as it is customary to identify the existence of chaotic signals by a number of techniques (e.g. average mutual information and false nearest neighbors) and future values are predicted using the Nonlinear Local Prediction (NLP) technique. This paper takes a critical view of past inter-comparison studies seeking a superior performance, against which it is reported that (i) the performances of all five modeling strategies vary from good to poor, hampering the recommendation of a clear-cut predictive model; (ii) the performances of the datasets of two cases are consistently better with all five modeling strategies; (iii) in other cases, their performances are poor but the results can still be fit-for-purpose; (iv) the simultaneous good performances of NLP and SARIMA pull their underlying assumptions to different ends, which cannot be reconciled. A number of arguments are presented including the culture of pluralism, according to which the various modeling strategies facilitate an insight into the data from different vantages.

  3. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin content of whole blood for the detection of anemia. This generic device category does not include automated hemoglobin systems. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60622, Sept. 12...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hemoglobin types as an aid in the diagnosis of anemia or erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass) due to a hemoglobin abnormality. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60620, Sept...

  5. High osteopontin levels predict long-term outcome after STEMI and primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Mette; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein, has recently been found to be an important player in cardiovascular diseases and to be implicated in a variety of acute as well as chronic inflammatory processes, including atherosclerosis. This study investigates the association...... centre between September 2006 and December 2008. Plasma OPN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 27 months (interquartile range: 22-33) and endpoints were all-cause mortality, re-infarction and heart failure. Even when adjusted for all......: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.047) for the combined endpoint. Importantly, OPN interacted with the predictive power of hsCRP, and the combination of high OPN levels and high hsCRP levels (>3 mg/l) were significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 2.32; CI: 1.51-3.58; p ...

  6. A State-Space Approach to Optimal Level-Crossing Prediction for Linear Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In many complex engineered systems, the ability to give an alarm prior to impending critical events is of great importance. These critical events may have varying degrees of severity, and in fact they may occur during normal system operation. In this article, we investigate approximations to theoretically optimal methods of designing alarm systems for the prediction of level-crossings by a zero-mean stationary linear dynamic system driven by Gaussian noise. An optimal alarm system is designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. This work introduces the use of Kalman filtering in tandem with the optimal level-crossing problem. It is shown that there is a negligible loss in overall accuracy when using approximations to the theoretically optimal predictor, at the advantage of greatly reduced computational complexity. I

  7. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  8. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  9. Evaluation of hemoglobin performance in the assessment of iron stores in feto-maternal pairs in a high-risk population: receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; García-Arellano, Gisela; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; González-Llano, Óscar; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2015-01-01

    By applying receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the objective of this study was to see whether hemoglobin levels reflect body iron stores in a group of pregnant women at term who, by using serum ferritin as the reference test, had a high pre-test probability of having iron deficiency anemia. Likewise, we evaluated the ability of hemoglobin and maternal serum ferritin levels to predict iron deficiency anemia in newborns. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were measured in 187 pregnant women at term belonging to a group with a high pre-test probability of iron deficiency anemia and their newborns. Women with Hb characteristic curve analysis was applied to select the cut-off points that better reflected iron stores. The Hb cut-off point selected by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in women was <11.5g/dL (sensitivity: 60.82, specificity: 53.33%, Youden Index: 0.450). Most of the newborns had normal Hb which precluded this analysis. Maternal Hb <11.0g/dL was the cut-off point that best reflected iron deficiency anemia in newborns (sensitivity: 55.88%, specificity: 57.24%, Youden Index: 0.217). The best cut-off point of maternal serum ferritin to reflect empty iron stores in newborns was <6.0μg/L (sensitivity: 76.47%, specificity: 31.58%, Youden Index: 0.200). Hemoglobin concentration performed poorly to detect iron deficiency anemia in women at term with high risk for iron deficiency and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Can available mathematical models predict serum digoxin levels in Thai patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiratham-Opas, J; Kanjanavanit, R; Wongcharoen, W; Punyawudho, B; Arunmanakul, P; Amaritakomol, A; Topaiboon, P; Gunaparn, S; Phrommintikul, A

    2018-01-24

    Digoxin is commonly prescribed for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Due to digoxin's narrow therapeutic range, monitoring the serum digoxin concentration (SDC) is important. However, the SDC measurement is not widely available. Equations using clinical parameters can be employed to estimate the SDC but have never been studied in the Thai population. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the correlation between the measured SDC and predicted digoxin level using 2 commonly used equations: the Konishi equation and the Koup and Jusko equation. This report describes prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at Chiang Mai University. One hundred and fourteen patients were recruited in the study. All of the patients were diagnosed as having HFrEF, AF or both and had been receiving digoxin for at least 4 weeks. The SDC of each patient was measured at steady state and assigned to one of 3 groups according to the classifications of the Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial: in the therapeutic range, over the therapeutic range and in the suboptimal range. There were significant correlations between the measured and predicted SDCs using both the Konishi equation and the Koup and Jusko equation, which had correlation coefficients (R) of 0.69 and 0.31 (P SDC that was over the therapeutic range. None of the readmitted patients had ventricular arrhythmia. The Konishi equation yielded better predictions of the SDC, especially in the subgroup of HFrEF patients. Furthermore, the prediction of SDCs in the over the therapeutic range using this equation was superior to that of the Koup and Jusko equation. With further validation in a larger population, this equation should facilitate the detection of patients who are over the therapeutic range in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  12. Developing methods to assess and predict the population level effects of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, J.M.; Springman, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies--assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants--moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  13. Developing methods to assess and predict the population and community level effects of environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, John M.; Springman, Kathrine R.

    2007-01-01

    The field of ecological toxicity seems largely to have drifted away from what its title implies—assessing and predicting the ecological consequences of environmental contaminants—moving instead toward an emphasis on individual effects and physiologic case studies. This paper elucidates how a relatively new ecological methodology, interaction assessment (INTASS), could be useful in addressing the field's initial goals. Specifically, INTASS is a model platform and methodology, applicable across a broad array of taxa and habitat types, that can be used to construct population dynamics models from field data. Information on environmental contaminants and multiple stressors can be incorporated into these models in a form that bypasses the problems inherent in assessing uptake, chemical interactions in the environment, and synergistic effects in the organism. INTASS can, therefore, be used to evaluate the effects of contaminants and other stressors at the population level and to predict how changes in stressor levels or composition of contaminant mixtures, as well as various mitigation measures, might affect population dynamics.

  14. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56 had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05 compared with the NIDA group (n = 38 and control group (n = 46. Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for

  15. An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Sea Level Prediction Considering Tide-Generating Forces and Oceanic Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lin Hsien-Kuo Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system for predicting sea level considering tide-generating forces and oceanic thermal expansion assuming a model of sea level dependence on sea surface temperature. The proposed model named TGFT-FN (Tide-Generating Forces considering sea surface Temperature and Fuzzy Neuro-network system is applied to predict tides at five tide gauge sites located in Taiwan and has the root mean square of error of about 7.3 - 15.0 cm. The capability of TGFT-FN model is superior in sea level prediction than the previous TGF-NN model developed by Chang and Lin (2006 that considers the tide-generating forces only. The TGFT-FN model is employed to train and predict the sea level of Hua-Lien station, and is also appropriate for the same prediction at the tide gauge sites next to Hua-Lien station.

  16. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karagülle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. METHODS: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin<