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Sample records for hemoglobin concentration hematocrit

  1. Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system.

    Jopling, Jeffery; Henry, Erick; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Christensen, Robert D

    2009-02-01

    "Reference ranges" are developed when it is impossible or inappropriate to establish "normal ranges" by drawing blood on healthy normal volunteers. Reference ranges for the hematocrit and the blood hemoglobin concentration of newborn infants have previously been reported from relatively small sample sizes by using measurement methods that now are considered outmoded. We sought to develop reference ranges for hematocrit and hemoglobin during the neonatal period (28 days) by using very large sample sizes and modern hematology analyzers, accounting for gestational and postnatal age and gender. Data were assembled from a multihospital health care system after exclusion of patients with a high likelihood of an abnormal value and those who were receiving blood transfusions. During the interval from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, the hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased approximately linearly. For every week advance in gestational age, the hematocrit increased by 0.64% and the hemoglobin concentration increased by 0.21 g/dL. No difference was seen on the basis of gender. During the 4-hour interval after birth, hematocrit/hemoglobin values of late preterm and term neonates (35-42 weeks' gestation) increased by 3.6% +/- 0.5% (mean +/- SD), those of neonates of 29 to 34 weeks' gestation remained unchanged, and those of hematocrit/hemoglobin occurred. The figures presented herein describe reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period, accounting for gestational and postnatal age.

  2. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice

    Rousdhy, H.; Pierotti, T.; Polverelli, M.

    1969-01-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [fr

  3. Maternal hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values may affect fetus development by influencing placental angiogenesis.

    Stangret, Aleksandra; Wnuk, Anna; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Pyzlak, Michał; Szukiewicz, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are crucial for maintaining proper placental perfusion and optimal fetal development. Among other physical and chemical factors, hypoxia is known to stimulate angiogenic processes. Preplacental type of hypoxia is often associated with maternal anemia and is thought to enhance vascularization within the fetoplacental unit. The goal of this study was to establish the correlation between the local expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) receptors (flt-1, flk-1) with maternal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Ht) values and the infant birthweight. In total, 43 specimens of term placentas obtained from normal course pregnancies delivered at term were included in the study. The expression of flt-1 and flk-1 receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Vascular/extravascular tissular index (V/EVTI) was measured by assessing a total vascular area. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation were used to compare the various parameters and their differences between the groups. Among the patients with low Hb concentration, nearly 2-fold greater expression of the flt-1 receptor was positively correlated with infants birthweight (p = 0.028). Increased placental vascular density (increased flt-1 expression), during a physiological course of gestation, may be an adaptive response to lowered maternal Hb concentration and Ht values encountered during pregnancy.

  4. [Noninvasive detection of hematocrit and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels by Vis-NIR spectroscopy].

    Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Lu, Xiao-Zuo; Li, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) and mean hemoglobin concentration(MCHC) play a very important role in preventing cardiovascular disease and anemia. A method was developed on the basis of spectroscopy to detect HCT and MCHC non-invasively and accurately. The anatomical study showed that the blood rheology abnormalities and blood viscosity's changes can cause the changes of tongue, so there is a certain correlation between tongue and blood components. Reflectance spectrums from the tongue tips of 240 volunteers were collected, then the tongue pictures were captured and the biochemical analysis results were recorded at the same time. The 240 samples were separated into two parts: calibration sample and test sample. Spectra were then subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to develop mathematics models for predicting HCT levels. The correlation between the data and prediction of HCT and MCHC yielded calibration samples value of 0.998 and 0.938. HCT and MCHC levels of test samples predicted by this model from Visible-Near infrared spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.979 and 0.883 with an average relative error of prediction of 1.65% and 1.88%, a root mean square error of prediction of 4.066 and 4.139. From the experiment results we can see that the model which was built before can better predict the HCT and MCHC, and the results also showed that spectrometry method may provide a promising approach to the noninvasive measurement of human HCT and MCHC with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  5. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

    Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    We aimed to investigate the accuracy of certain laboratory examinations obtained by the ABG analyzer (ROCHE AVL OMNI S) as compared to hospital central laboratory (CL). We prospectively collected data obtained from the same arterial blood sample regarding hematocrit, hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium. ABG analyzer results were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) compared to CL values thus values between the two methods are not interchangeable. The mean bias for Hb, Na + and K + were within accepted by US Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (USCLIA) differences (cut-off points) but not for Ht. In 8.0%, 17.5%, 37.5% and 56.0% of Hb, Na + , K + and Ht measurements respectively and 29.75% in sum the differences were over the USCLIA accepted limits. ABG analyzer significantly underestimate the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + , compared to CL and almost 30% of all examined parameters were beyond USCLIA accepted biases. ABG analyzer significantly underestimates the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + compared to CL and almost 30% for all examined parameters are beyond USCLIA accepted biases. These data do not support widespread or even careful use of POCT for making diagnostic and treatment decisions until technology improves and results in improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antithrombin activity, platelet count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value determined immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy women.

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Takahiro; Koyama, Takahiro; Akaishi, Rina; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Takeda, Masamitsu; Nishida, Ryutaro; Araki, Naoto; Minakami, Hisanori

    2012-08-01

    To determine the normal reference values for antithrombin (AT) activity, platelet count (Plt), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and hematocrit value (Ht) immediately before vaginal delivery among healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and to determine association of these blood parameters with fetal growth. A complete blood count was performed and the AT activity was examined in 300 consecutive women admitted to hospital at > or = gestational week 36 for labor pains and/or the rupture of fetal membranes. All the women were normotensive and had singleton pregnancies, and none of the women had proteinuria, a weekly weight gain > or = 0.5 kg, or other specific complications upon admission. All the women attempted a vaginal delivery. The medians (5th-95th percentile) were 90% (71-110%) for AT activity, 234x10(9)/L (150-337x10(9)/L) for Plt, 11.0 g/dL (9.5-12.8 g/dL) for Hb, and 34.0% (30.4-38.6%) for Ht. Women with an Hb value of > or = the median (11.0 g/dL) gave birth to significantly smaller infants than their counterparts. A considerable number of healthy women exhibit a reduced AT activity and/or platelet count immediately before delivery. Hemoconcentration evidenced by a raised Hb value adversely effects on infant growth. Our data may be helpful when considering the normal ranges of these blood parameters for healthy parturient women.

  7. Radioprotective properties of some heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds against changes in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in x-irradiated mice; Proprietes radioprotectrices de certains composes heterocycliques azotes sur les variations du taux d'hemoglobine et de la valeur hematocrite chez la souris irradiee

    Rousdhy, H; Pierotti, T; Polverelli, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Radioprotective properties of imidazole and benzimidazole have been proved in previous works. In this study, authors try to demonstrate radioprotective action of these compounds in comparison with cysteamine upon the hematopoietic system after lethal X-irradiation. Results show: no drastic variations of hematologic constants (hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value) after intraperitoneal injection of radioprotective compounds apart certain apparent reactions with the heterocyclic compounds; the better radioprotective action of benzimidazole. Twenty five days after irradiation, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of radio protected mice return to normal values. (author) [French] Les proprietes radioprotectrices de l'imidazole et du benzimidazole ayant ete demontrees dans de precedents travaux, les auteurs se sont attaches a etudier l'action de ces produits sur le systeme hematopofetique en comparaison avec celle de la cysteamine, apres une irradiation a dose letale. A l'aide des criteres choisis, les resultats demontrent: qu'en dehors de certaines reactions apparentes, succedant a l'injection intraperitoneale des heterocycles azotes, les constantes hematologiques (taux d'hemoglobine et valeur hematocrite) ne sont que legerement modifiees; la superiorite du benzimidazole sur les autres produits utilises. Enfin, le vingt-cinquieme jour apres irradiation, les souris protegees par les heterocycles azotes ont un taux d'hemoglobine et une valeur hematocrite tout a fait normaux. (auteur)

  8. Effect of hemolysis and free hemoglobin on optical hematocrit measurements in the extracorporeal circulation.

    Paluszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Kellner, Josef; Elshehabi, Morad; Schneditz, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Clinically significant hemolysis is a rare but serious problem in dialysis. Because hemolysis affects red blood cell count and optical density of plasma it has been speculated whether techniques used for online blood volume monitoring would be useful to detect hemolysis. In this study the influence of free hemoglobin on hematocrit and relative blood volume changes measured by optical means (CritLine, HemaMetrics, Kaysville, UT) were examined using an in vitro model with bovine blood. Free hemoglobin solutions were added in steps to circulating whole blood at baseline hematocrits covering a range from 30% to 60% and at blood flows of approximately 200 and 400 ml/min. The free hemoglobin concentration reached was in the range of 2 to 3 g/dl. The presence of free hemoglobin led to a relative increase in hematocrit in the range of 0.3% per 0.1 g of free hemoglobin per dl (+3% dl/g). As an increase in hematocrit is interpreted as a decrease in blood volume, this change referred to an apparent decrease in relative blood volume in the same order of magnitude (-3% dl/g). Effects were more pronounced at low baseline hematocrit. Thus, although optical hematocrit readings are affected by the presence of free hemoglobin the changes at levels associated with clinical symptoms appear to be too small to be accurately detected in the in vivo situation where the hematocrit and the resulting optical signal is affected by various physiological processes and therefore much noisier.

  9. Is Routine Ordering of Both Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Justifiable?

    Addison, David J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to assess the value of routine simultaneous hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations, paired determinations in the following groups were studied: (1) 360 consecutive pairs from the hematology laboratory, (2) 95 pairs on general medical patients, (3) 43 pairs on 10 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and (4) 62 pairs on 10 patients with burns. These values were plotted on scatter diagrams. In the 560 pairs only three disparate determinations were found. It is concluded that, in most clinical situations, determination of the hemoglobin or the hematocrit as a screening procedure provides as much useful information as the simultaneous determination of both. PMID:5296947

  10. Myth or reality : Hematocrit and hemoglobin differ in trauma

    Nijboer, Johanna M. M.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; ten Duis, Hendrik-Jan; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Estimating blood loss in trauma patients usually involves the determination of hematocrit (Ht) or hemoglobin (Hb). However, in trauma patients, a poorly substantiated habit exists to determine both Ht and Hb in assessing acute blood loss. This suggests that Ht and Hb provide different

  11. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  12. Substitution of Fingertip Blood for Venous Blood in the Measurement of Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Following Exercise

    Fahey, Thomas D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results from comparative testing indicate that fingertip blood is a valid indicator of antecubital venous hematocrit (hct) and hemoglobin (hgb), and that hct ratios determined on the Coulter counter are comparable to those found by the microhematocrit method. (MB)

  13. Hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and derived parameters for diagnosing anemia in elderly males

    Khan, Z.; Nawaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is one of the most common micronutrient deficiency in our community. Nutritional anaemias are caused when there is an inadequate body store of a specific nutrient needed for hemoglobin synthesis. The most common nutrient deficiency is of iron. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on the healthy elderly male, aged >= 40 and 77 years (n=60) volunteers in order to assess their blood parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) for the diagnosis of anemia. The demographic results showed mean values (50.10+-8.79) years for age, 66-68 +- 1.95 inches for height , 71.43 +- 6.43 kg body weight, 98.34+-0.48 degree F body temperature, 124 +- 8.67 systolic blood pressure, 82.17 +- 4.15 diastolic pressure while, The pulse rate was found to be 74.63 +- 7.02/minute. Similarly, mean values for lean body weight (LBW) found to be 49.9+-2.89, ideal body weight (IBW) 60.9 +- 4.49, body surface area (BSA) was 1.8 +- 0.1 m2 whereas, body mass index (BMI) showed mean value 24.9 +- 2.6 kg/m2. More so, overall mean Hb found to be 13.60 g/dl, RBC 4.6 mill/mm3, HCT/PCV 43%, MCV 92.95fl, MCH 29.42 pg and MCHC was found to be 31.73 g/dl. The normal range of Hb for men was 13-17 g/dl and 31.67% of the subjects participated in the study was considered to be anemic showing less Hb than normal range. The volunteers were suggested to improve the dietary habits and to take iron supplements in order to overcome the iron deficiency anemia. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 864.8165 - Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement. 864.8165 Section 864.8165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864...

  15. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease

  16. Hemoglobin and hematocrit at the end of hemodialysis: a better way to adjust erythropoietin dose?

    Rangel, Erika B; Andreoli, Maria Claudia; Matos, Ana Cristina C; Guimarães-Souza, Nadia K; Mallet, Ana Cláudia; Carneiro, Fabiana D; Santos, Bento C

    2010-04-01

    A severe disadvantage of administration of recombinant human erythropoietin to hemodialysis patients has been reported. A significant correlation has been shown with hemoglobin values determined online by use of the blood volume monitor (BVM) and by laboratory measurement. Online hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured by use of the BVM during hemodialysis session. Data were analyzed by t test and statistical significance was defined as a P of hemoglobin and hematocrit from 11.6 +/- 1.9 to 13.9 +/- 2.4 g/dL (17.4 +/- 7.1%, P = 0.02) and from 34.4 +/- 6.8 to 42 +/- 8.3% (20.6 +/- 8.8%, P = 0.022), respectively, were observed from the beginning to the end of dialysis. We hypothesize that a new strategy for adjusting erythropoietin dose may be based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values evaluated at the end of hemodialysis, when patients are no longer hypervolemic. Inadvertent high levels of hemoglobin could be one explanation why patients present higher rates of cardiovascular and access-related events, especially when monitored online by use of the BVM to achieve the dry weight.

  17. Do blood tests cause anemia in hospitalized patients? The effect of diagnostic phlebotomy on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.

    Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Bagai, Akshay; Ebidia, Albert; Detsky, Allan S; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether phlebotomy contributes to changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in hospitalized general internal medicine patients. Retrospective cohort study. General internal medicine inpatient service at a tertiary care hospital. All adult patients discharged from the Toronto General Hospital's internal medicine service between January 1 and June 30, 2001. A total of 989 hospitalizations were reviewed and 404 hospitalizations were included in our analysis. Mean (SD) hemoglobin and hematocrit changes during hospitalization were 7.9 (12.6) g/L (Phemoglobin and hematocrit were predicted by the volume of phlebotomy, length of hospital stay, admission hemoglobin/hematocrit value, age, Charlson comorbidity index, and admission intravascular volume status. The volume of phlebotomy remained a strong predictor of drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit after adjusting for other predictors using multivariate analysis (Phemoglobin and hematocrit of 7.0 g/L and 1.9%, respectively. Phlebotomy is highly associated with changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for patients admitted to an internal medicine service and can contribute to anemia. This anemia, in turn, may have significant consequences, especially for patients with cardiorespiratory diseases. Knowing the expected changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit due to diagnostic phlebotomy will help guide when to investigate anemia in hospitalized patients.

  18. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Nonhuman Apes at Moderate Altitudes: A Comparison with Humans.

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wilfong, DeeAnn

    2016-12-01

    Mortola, Jacopo P. and DeeAnn Wilfong. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of nonhuman apes at moderate altitudes: a comparison with humans. High Alt Med Biol. 17:323-335, 2016.-We asked to what extent the hematologic response (increase in hematocrit [Hct] and in blood hemoglobin concentration [Hb]) of humans to altitude hypoxia was shared by our closest relatives, the nonhuman apes. Data were collected from 29 specimens of 7 species of apes at 2073 m altitude (barometric pressure Pb = 598 mm Hg); additional data originated from apes located at a lower altitude (1493 m, Pb = 639 mm Hg). The human altitude profiles of Hct and Hb between sea level and 3000 m were constructed from a compilation of literature sources that (all combined) comprised data sets of 10,000-12,000 subjects for each gender. These human data were binned for 0-250 m altitude (sea level) and for each 500 m of progressively higher altitudes. Values of Hb and Hct of both men and women were significantly higher than at sea level at the 1500 bin (1250-1750 m); hence, the altitude threshold for the human hematological responses must be between 1000 and 1500 m. In the nonhuman apes, no increase in Hct or Hb was apparent at 1500 m; at 2000 m, the increase was significant only for the Hb of females. At either altitude in the group of nonhuman apes, the increase in Hct was much less than in humans, and that of Hb was significantly less at 1500 m. We conclude that lack of, or minimal, hematopoietic response to moderate altitude can occur in mammalian species that are not genetically adapted to high altitudes. Polycythemia is not a common response to altitude hypoxia and, at least at moderate altitudes, the degree of the human response may represent the exception among apes rather than the rule.

  19. Point of care hematocrit and hemoglobin in cardiac surgery: a review.

    Myers, Gerard J; Browne, Joe

    2007-05-01

    The use of point-of-care blood gas analyzers in cardiac surgery has been on the increase over the past decade. The availability of these analyzers in the operating room and post-operative intensive care units eliminates the time delays to transport samples to the main laboratory and reduces the amount of blood sampled to measure such parameters as electrolytes, blood gases, lactates, glucose and hemoglobin/hematocrit. Point-of-care analyzers also lead to faster and more reliable clinical decisions while the patient is still on the heart lung machine. Point-of-care devices were designed to provide safe, appropriate and consistent care of those patients in need of rapid acid/base balance and electrolyte management in the clinical setting. As a result, clinicians rely on their values to make decisions regarding ventilation, acid/base management, transfusion and glucose management. Therefore, accuracy and reliability are an absolute must for these bedside analyzers in both the cardiac operating room and the post-op intensive care units. Clinicians have a choice of two types of technology to measure hemoglobin/hematocrit during bypass, which subsequently determines their patient's level of hemodilution, as well as their transfusion threshold. All modern point-of-care blood gas analyzers measure hematocrit using a technology called conductivity, while other similar devices measure hemoglobin using a technology called co-oximetry. The two methods are analyzed and compared in this review. The literature indicates that using conductivity to measure hematocrit during and after cardiac surgery could produce inaccurate results when hematocrits are less than 30%, and, therefore, result in unnecessary homologous red cell transfusions in some patients. These inaccuracies are influenced by several factors that are common and unique to cardiopulmonary bypass, and will also be reviewed here. It appears that the only accurate, consistent and reliable method to determine hemodilution

  20. The effect of hematocrit and hemoglobin on the risk of ischemic heart disease: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Zhong, Y; Lin, S L; Schooling, C M

    2016-10-01

    Hematocrit and hemoglobin affect viscosity, and have been considered as risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD), although observations are inconsistent; randomized controlled trials targeting hematocrit or hemoglobin have not been definitive. To clarify their role, the risk of IHD was assessed according to genetically determined hematocrit and hemoglobin. We applied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly determining hematocrit and hemoglobin, from a genome wide association study, to a large case (64,746) control (130,681) study of coronary artery disease, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D, to obtain unconfounded estimates using instrumental variable analysis by combining the Wald estimators for each SNP taking into account any correlation between SNPs using weighted generalized linear regression. Hematocrit was positively associated with IHD, odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per %, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.11, before and after excluding SNPs from gene regions directly functionally relevant to IHD. However, hematocrit was not associated with IHD (OR 0.99, 0.94 to 1.04) after also excluding SNPs associated with lipids at genome wide significance. Hemoglobin was not associated with IHD (OR 1.06 per g/dL, 0.97 to 1.15) which was similar (OR 1.02, 0.94 to 1.11) after excluding SNPs from gene regions directly functionally relevant to IHD. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with IHD after also excluding SNPs associated with lipids at genome wide significance (OR 0.86, 0.78 to 0.94). In conclusion, hematocrit shares genetic determinants with IHD, but whether the genes contribute to IHD via hematocrit or other mechanisms is not entirely clear. Higher Hemoglobin is unlikely to cause IHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy and childhood lung function and asthma. The Generation R Study.

    Pereira de Jesus, Sabrina M C B; den Dekker, Herman T; de Jongste, Johan C; Reiss, Irwin K; Steegers, Eric A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2018-02-01

    To examine the associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy with childhood lung function and asthma, and whether adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition modify the associations. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3672 subjects, we measured maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in early pregnancy, and lung function by spirometry and current asthma by questionnaire at age 10 years. Higher maternal hematocrit levels, both continuously and categorized into clinical cut-offs, were associated with lower forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF 75 ) in children (Z-score (95%CI): -0.04 (-0.07, -0.01), per increase of 1 SDS in hematocrit level; Z-score (95%CI) difference: -0.11 (-0.20, -0.03) compared with normal hematocrit levels, respectively), taking lifestyle and socio-economic factors into account. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition did not modify the results. No associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit with current asthma were observed. Higher maternal hematocrit levels during pregnancy are associated with lower childhood lung function but not with risk of asthma. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition do not modify these associations. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow: the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study.

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (mean age 57 ± 10 years) with available data on magnetic resonance angiography to measure parenchymal CBF. Mean (SD) parenchymal CBF at baseline was 52.3 (9.8) mL/min/100 mL and decreased with 1.5 (11.0) mL/min/100 mL after on average 3.9 years of follow-up. Linear regression analyses showed that greater hemoglobin and hematocrit values were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and more decline in parenchymal CBF over time, independent of cardiovascular risk factors, use of antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, or diuretics, and brain measures: adjusted mean differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) in decline in parenchymal CBF between patients in the lower and upper quartiles of hemoglobin and hematocrit were -2.48 (95% CI -3.70 to -1.25) and -3.69 (95% CI -5.45 to -1.94) mL/min/100 mL. Higher hemoglobin and hematocrit were associated with lower baseline parenchymal CBF and a greater decline in parenchymal CBF over time, possibly as a result of physiological compensating mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRITE CHANGES DURING UNCOMPLICATED ANESTHESIA: GENERAL ANESTHESIA AND LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    KH NAGHIBI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite of vital role of blood and it"s components as an only curable treatment, it"s transfusion is accompanied by many complications. In the other way, the most important adverse effects of anemia is decrease in oxygen supply to the tissues. Therefore, it is essential to determine those patients need to blood transfusion and exact hemoglobine and hematocrite level which transfusion become necessary. Recent studies show that during general anesthesia due to vasodilation in the level of microcirculation and passage of many red blood cells from microcirculation there is a decreasing in hemoglobine level measured in peripheral veins which named plasma skimming. So, during sampling of hemoglobine and hematocrite from peripheral veins, there is a pseudodecrease in Hb and HCT levels. In this study we want to determine this decrease in Hb and HeT. Methods. Study was done in 182 patients with ASA 1 and 2 undergoing general or local anesthesia for cataract surgery. Duration of nill per os (NPO, preoperotive and intraoperative intravenous fluid administration were simillar in two groups. A sample of blood for preoperative evaluation and another one immediately after operation achevied and compared with each other. Results. There was not significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in two groups preoperotive. But postoperative, there was a significant differences between mean Hb and HCT in general anesthesia vs local anesthesia (P < 0.01. This decrease in Hb and HCT was orderly 0.91 ± 1.14 gr/dl for Hb and 2.862±3.6 percent for Hct. Discussion. In determining of Hb and HCT immediately after general anesthesia, there is some pseudo decrease due to plasma skimming that must be appreciated.

  4. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care capillary whole blood hematocrit and hemoglobin: Comparison to the Siemens RAPIDLab 1200, Sysmex XE5000, and manual spun hematocrit.

    Rudolf, Joseph; Douglass, Joseph; Baron, Jason; Lewandrowski, Kent

    2015-06-15

    Conductivity based point-of-care hematocrit with calculated hemoglobin devices serves an important role in clinical scenarios where time sensitive transfusion decisions are necessary. However, questions about the appropriateness of conductivity based assays in certain patient populations (patients on cardiopulmonary bypass and those receiving high volumes of intravenous fluids or autologous blood transfusions) have been raised. The clinical suitability of POC devices for these applications necessitates that they be accurate and that the results are interchangeable with central laboratory methods. We performed hematocrit and hemoglobin analysis on 225 clinical samples using the i-STAT instrument, a standard reference method for hematocrit (manual spun) and other common methods on both cardiopulmonary bypass and non-cardiopulmonary bypass patients. The i-STAT hematocrit and hemoglobin showed close agreement to comparison methods with minimal bias. Median test results were not clinically or statistically different between those measured on the i-STAT and those measured using the manual spun hematocrit reference method (p=0.4085, Wilcoxon signed rank test) or the Sysmex photometric hemoglobin method (p=0.2728, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The results on the i-STAT were statistically different from those obtained on the Sysmex for hematocrit (phemoglobin (phematocrit and hemoglobin performs well when compared to the hematocrit reference method and other common methods for both hematocrit and hemoglobin. Some differences between non-reference methods may be observed, but these were not considered clinically significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy and childhood lung function and asthma. The Generation R Study

    Pereira de Jesus, S.M.C.B. (Sabrina M. C. B.); H.T. den Dekker (Herman); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); L. Duijts (Liesbeth)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To examine the associations of maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels during pregnancy with childhood lung function and asthma, and whether adverse pregnancy outcomes and atopic predisposition modify the associations. Methods: In a population-based prospective cohort study

  6. Relationship of hemoglobin and hematocrit to systolic function in advanced heart failure.

    Guglin, Maya; Darbinyan, Nellie

    2012-01-01

    The dataset from the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial provides a rare opportunity to evaluate the whole spectrum of associations of hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) in heart failure (HF). In that trial, subjective and objective data were recorded at multiple time points when HB and HCT were also measured. We investigated the relationship between anemia and ventricular systolic function. A limited access dataset from the ESCAPE trial, provided by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, was analyzed. Linear regression analysis, correlation coefficients and Student's t test were utilized. Besides the known association of anemia with poor prognosis, more severe symptoms, decreased functional capacity and impaired kidney function, we found a significant and very consistent inverse correlation between HB and HCT and ventricular contractility. Both left ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular fractional area change improved with a decrease in HB and vice versa. We hypothesize that this effect can result from a change in viscosity, which decreases with a decrease in HCT, and may facilitate adaptation of the heart to a volume overload state accompanied by hemodilution. In HF, anemia is associated with poor prognosis and functional impairment, but also with mildly improved systolic function. It may represent an adaptive reaction to congestion. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  8. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the prediction of complicated Crohn's disease behavior--a cohort study.

    Rieder, Florian; Paul, Gisela; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Schleder, Stephan; Wolf, Alexandra; Kamm, Florian; Dirmeier, Andrea; Strauch, Ulrike; Obermeier, Florian; Lopez, Rocio; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Rogler, Gerhard; Klebl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Markers that predict the occurrence of a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can permit a more aggressive therapeutic regimen for patients at risk. The aim of this cohort study was to test the blood levels of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) for the prediction of complicated CD behavior and CD related surgery in an adult patient population. Blood samples of 62 CD patients of the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease-network "Kompetenznetz CED" were tested for the levels of Hgb and Hct prior to the occurrence of complicated disease behavior or CD related surgery. The relation of these markers and clinical events was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and adjusted COX-proportional hazard regression models. The median follow-up time was 55.8 months. Of the 62 CD patients without any previous complication or surgery 34% developed a complication and/or underwent CD related surgery. Low Hgb or Hct levels were independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of the first complication or CD related surgery. This was true for early as well as late occurring complications. Stable low Hgb or Hct during serial follow-up measurements had a higher frequency of complications compared to patients with a stable normal Hgb or Hct, respectively. Determination of Hgb or Hct in complication and surgery naïve CD patients might serve as an additional tool for the prediction of complicated disease behavior.

  9. Changes of hemoglobin and hematocrit in elderly patients receiving lower joint arthroplasty without allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Yiqin; Wu, Haishan; Wu, Yuli; Qian, Qirong; Zhao, Hui; Zhu, Yunli; Fu, Peiliang

    2015-01-05

    It has rarely been reported about the changes of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in elderly patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the changes of Hb and Hct after TKA or THA in elderly patients, and analyze its relationship with sex and type of arthroplasty. This is a prospective cohort study, including 107 patients receiving TKA or THA without allogeneic blood transfusion. There were 54 males and 53 females, with a mean age of 69.42 years. Levels of Hb and Hct were examined preoperatively and during the 6 months follow-up after operation. Levels of Hb and Hct decreased postoperatively and reached their minimum points on postoperative day 4. Thereafter, Hb and Hct recovered to their preoperative levels within 6-12 weeks. No significant differences in the levels of Hb and Hct were noticed between different sexes. THA patients showed significantly greater drop in Hb and Hct than TKA patients in the first 4 days postoperatively (P < 0.05). Levels of Hb and Hct decreased during the first 4 days after arthroplasty and gradually returned to their normal levels within 6-12 weeks postoperatively. THA may be associated with higher postoperative blood loss than TKA.

  10. Lack of utility of repeat monitoring of hemoglobin and hematocrit following blunt solid organ injury in children.

    Acker, Shannon N; Petrun, Branden; Partrick, David A; Roosevelt, Genie E; Bensard, Denis D

    2015-12-01

    Current management protocols for children with blunt solid organ injury to the liver and spleen call for serial monitoring of the child's hemoglobin and hematocrit every 6, 12, or 24 hours, depending on the injury grade. We hypothesized that children who require emergent intervention in the form of laparotomy, angioembolization, or packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion because of bleeding from a solid organ injury will have changes in their vital signs that alert the clinician to the need for intervention, making scheduled laboratory evaluation unnecessary. We performed a retrospective review of all children admitted to either of two pediatric trauma centers following blunt trauma with any grade liver or spleen injury from January 2009 to December 2013. Data evaluated include a need for intervention, indication for intervention, and timing of intervention. A total of 245 children were admitted with blunt liver or spleen injury. Six patients (2.5%) underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy for hypotension a median of 4 hours after injury (range, 2-4 hours), four of who required splenectomy. No child required laparotomy for delayed bleeding from a solid organ injury. One child (0.4%) underwent angioembolization for blunt splenic injury. Forty-one children (16.7%) received a PRBC transfusion during hospitalization, 32 of whom did not undergo laparotomy or angioembolization. Children who underwent an intervention had a lower nadir hematocrit (median, 22.9 vs. 32.8; p hematocrit (median, 35.5 vs. 16 hours; p hemoglobin and hematocrit monitoring (median, 20 vs. 5; p hemoglobin and hematocrit values may not be necessary. Retrospective study with no negative criteria, prognostic study, level III.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRIT IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY AND THE INCIDENCE OF PREECLAMPSIA

    Fateme parooei , Mahmood Anbari, Morteza Salarzaei *

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy and childbirth are among the most important events in every woman’s life. Although pregnancy is not a disease and is a physiological and natural process, it may be followed with complications, and pregnancy cares can prevent the incidence of many problems. Methods: In this review article, the databases Medline, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were thoroughly searched to identify the relationship between hemoglobin and hematocrit in the first trimester of p...

  12. The Effect of Growing Rod Treatment on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in Early-onset Scoliosis.

    Barrett, Kody K; Lee, Christopher; Myung, Karen; Johnston, Charles; Shah, Suken A; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Skaggs, David L

    2016-09-01

    This study examines preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in a group of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients and the effect of distraction-based growing rods (GRs) on these levels. Children with EOS are at risk for respiratory insufficiency and chronic hypoxemia. Increased Hgb and Hct levels have been identified as surrogate markers for chronic hypoxemia. A study of patients who underwent VEPTR surgery showed a significant decrease in Hgb levels following surgery. Data were retrospectively collected on 66 EOS patients without confounding respiratory issues or oxygen dependence who were treated with GRs at 5 institutions. Average age at initial surgery was 5.5 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (average 3.7 y). Preoperative and postoperative Hgb and Hct levels were converted to Z-scores based on age-adjusted mean blood indices and were compared using a paired t test. The prevalence of elevated Hgb and Hct levels (Z-score >2) preoperatively was 15% (10/66) and 19% (12/64), respectively. The average Hgb Z-score decreased from 0.20 to -0.31 (P=0.005) 6 to 24 months following surgery and the Hct Z-score decreased from 0.31 to -0.28 (P=0.002) 6 to 24 months following surgery. Following distraction-based GR treatment of children with EOS there was a significant decrease in both their Hgb and Hct. This is a physiological marker of decreased hypoxemia and improved pulmonary function. Level III-therapeutic study.

  13. The difference between fingerstick and venous hemoglobin and hematocrit varies by sex and iron stores.

    Cable, Ritchard G; Steele, Whitney R; Melmed, Russell S; Johnson, Bryce; Mast, Alan E; Carey, Patricia M; Kiss, Joseph E; Kleinman, Steven H; Wright, David J

    2012-05-01

    Fingerstick blood samples are used to estimate donor venous hemoglobin (Hb). Fingerstick Hb or hematocrit (Hct) was determined routinely for 2425 selected donors at six blood centers, along with venous Hb. Using sex and measures of iron status including absent iron stores (AIS; ferritin < 12 ng/mL), linear regression models were developed to predict venous Hb from fingerstick. Across all subjects, fingerstick Hb was higher than venous Hb in the higher part of the clinical range, but lower in the lower part of the range. The relationship varied by sex and iron status. Across centers, a female donor had on average a venous Hb result 0.5 to 0.8 g/dL lower than a male donor with the same fingerstick Hb and iron status. Similarly, a donor with AIS had on average a venous Hb result 0.3 to 1.1 g/dL lower than an iron-replete donor with the same fingerstick value and sex. An iron-replete male donor with a fingerstick result at the cutoff (Hb 12.5 g/dL) had an acceptable expected venous Hb (12.8 to 13.8 g/dL). A female donor with AIS with a fingerstick result at the cutoff had an expected venous Hb below 12.5 g/dL (11.7 to 12.4 g/dL). Of females with AIS, 40.2% donated blood when their venous Hb was less than 12.5 g/dL. Fingerstick is considered a useful estimator of venous Hb. However, in some donor groups, particularly female donors with AIS, fingerstick overestimates venous Hb at the donation cutoff. This significant limitation should be considered in setting donor fingerstick Hb or Hct requirements. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  14. Pretreatment Hematocrit Is Superior to Hemoglobin as a Prognostic Factor for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Chen, Bo; Dai, Danian; Tang, Hailin; Ai, Xiaohong; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhiyan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Anemia usually refers to low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Previous studies indicated that anemia negatively influence the survival in various cancers. Hematocrit (HCT) is the volume percentage of red blood cells in blood, which could indicate anemia in both individuals and populations. This study compared the value of HCT with that of Hb for predicting outcomes of patients who underwent treatment for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). A retrospective study of 293 triple negative breast cancer patients, accepting treatment from January 2004 to December 2009 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, was conducted. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were used to calculate disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The cut-off value of HCT was 35.9% determined by X-tile software analysis. The cut-off value of Hb was 12.0 g/dl based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In univariate analysis, low HCT and low Hb were both significantly associated with decreased DFS and OS. In multivariate analysis, HCT (HR: 0.570; 95% CI: 0.331-0.981, P = 0.042 for DFS; HR: 0.456; 95% CI: 0.256-0.813, P = 0.008 for OS) was still identified as independent predictor of outcome, but not Hb. Pretreatment low HCT is independently associated with poor prognosis in TNBC patients. However, HCT was found to be superior to Hb in terms of predicting breast cancer mortality. In the future, large-scale prospective studies or validation studies are needed to verify our findings.

  15. HEMOGLOBIN AND HEMATOCRIT DURING AN 8 DAY MOUNTAINBIKE RACE: A FIELD STUDY

    Katharina C. Wirnitzer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that mountainbike (MTB marathon and ultraendurance events also as MTB stage races have become very popular during the last decade knowledge is sparse about the effects on hematological system due to prolonged strenuous exercise. Endurance trained athletes generally show an increased blood volume mainly due to plasma volume (PV expansion, which already exerts after a few days of prolonged exercise, accompanied by lower hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels. On a short term basis dehydration caused by prolonged exertive exercise leads to enhanced concentrations of Hb and Hct due to decreased PV. In contrast to acute exercise it has been well documented as a long term adaptation that regular endurance training over long term periods or repeated bouts of strenuous exercise, e. g. repetitive cycling races or cycling stage races over several consecutive days, lead to a fall in both Hb and Hct levels due to a progressive enlargement in particular in PV. Changes in hematological parameters are known to considerably influence physical performance, especially in aerobic endurance sports such as mountainbiking. An increase in PV normally results in enhanced aerobic performance due to reduced blood viscosity, thereby optimized microcirculation and improved oxygen delivery capacity to the working muscle (Schumacher et. al., 2000. Hematological parameters Hb and Hct are highly sensible to acute effects. The effects of prolonged exercise on hematological status are mainly dependent on total load (mode and duration of exercise, as well as thermal stress (temperature and humidity and fluid intake (FI (Convertino, 1991; Fellmann et. al., 1999; Neumayr et. al., 2002; Sawka et. al., 2000; Schumacher et. al., 2000. The Transalp Challenge (TAC is one of the hardest MTB marathon races in the world (besides Cape Epic/SA and Transrockies/USA, covering eight consecutive stages. The key data of TAC 2004 are: 22. 500 m (altitude difference, 662 km

  16. Point-of-Care Hemoglobin/Hematocrit Testing: Comparison of Methodology and Technology.

    Maslow, Andrew; Bert, Arthur; Singh, Arun; Sweeney, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Point-of-care (POC) testing allows rapid assessment of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) values. This study compared 3 POC testing devices--the Radical-7 pulse oximeter (Radical-7, Neuchȃtel, Switzerland), the i-STAT (Abbott Point of Care, Princeton, NJ), and the GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory, Bedford, MA)--to the hospital reference device, the UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA) in cardiac surgery patients. Prospective study. Tertiary care cardiovascular center. Twenty-four consecutive elective adult cardiac surgery patients. Hgb and Hct values were measured using 3 POC devices (the Radical-7, i-STAT, and GEM 4000) and a reference laboratory device (UniCel DxH 800). Data were collected simultaneously before surgery, after heparin administration, after heparin reversal with protamine, and after sternal closure. Data were analyzed using bias analyses. POC testing data were compared with that of the reference laboratory device. Hgb levels ranged from 6.8 to 15.1 g/dL, and Hct levels ranged from 20.1% to 43.8%. The overall mean bias was lowest with the i-STAT (Hct, 0.22%; Hgb 0.05 g/dL) compared with the GEM 4000 (Hct, 2.15%; Hgb, 0.63 g/dL) and the Radical-7 (Hgb 1.16 g/dL). The range of data for the i-STAT and Radical-7 was larger than that with the GEM 4000, and the pattern or slopes changed significantly with the i-STAT and Radical-7, whereas that of the GEM 4000 remained relatively stable. The GEM 4000 demonstrated a consistent overestimation of laboratory data, which tended to improve after bypass and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. The i-STAT bias changed from overestimation to underestimation, the latter in the post-cardiopulmonary bypass period and at lower Hct/Hgb levels. By contrast, the Radical-7 biases increased during the surgical procedure and in the lower ranges of Hgb. Important clinical differences and limitations were found among the 3 POC testing devices that should caution clinicians from relying on these data as sole determinants of

  17. [Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the level of hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count as an activity index in ulcerative colitis].

    Ibarra-Rodríguez, J Jesús; Santiago-Luna, Ernesto; Velázquez-Ramírez, Gabriela Abigail; López-Ramírez, María Karina Lizbeth; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease characterized by relapsing and remitting non-infectious inflammation of the colorectal mucosa. Its heterogeneity makes assessment of the disease's activity a prerequisite for a rational choice of therapy. We aimed to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets to develop a simplified activity index of UC. Sixty patients with UC were included and submitted to measurements of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets, as well as sigmoidoscopy and biopsy. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values were correlated with the reported degree of activity in the biopsy. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine differences between groups, and Pearson and Spearman rank tests were used to correlate each parameter with the degree of activity. A p value hemoglobin level was 51% and 100% for hematocrit, respectively, 51% and 100% for hematocrit, and 84% and 100% for platelet counts. Spearman's correlation for hemoglobin was r = -0.866 (p hematocrit r = -0.864 (p Hemoglobin and hematocrit are useful to catalog the degree of activity of UC when it is severe. Platelet count may be a marker of severity at any time, due to its high sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic test.

  18. Hemoglobin to Hematocrit Ratio: The Strongest Predictor of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Worrall, Douglas; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Wells, Lawrence

    2016-03-01

    Femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD) often progresses to femoral head collapse, requiring total hip arthroplasty. However, this treatment has a limited durability and patients with SCD have higher rates of complications, requiring multiple revision operations. Identifying risk factors linked to ON in SCD can facilitate earlier precollapse diagnosis and surgical treatment aimed at preservation of the native hip joint. Fifty-nine children treated at our institution between January 2001 and April 2012 with SCD and ON, as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging or radiographic imaging, were compared with age-matched and sickle cell phenotype-matched (SS, SC, Sβ, Sβ) controls with no evidence of ON. Two sided t-tests assuming unequal variances determined statistically risk factors and threshold values were assigned to calculate odds ratios. Systolic blood pressure (P=1.2×10, OR=3.68), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0084, OR=1.41), weight in the SCD-SS population (P=0.04, OR=1.85), and hemoglobin (Hb) in the SCD-SS population (P=0.036, OR=2.56) were elevated in cases. Curiously, dividing the Hb by the hematocrit to serve as a clinical proxy for the mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC) produced an excellent predictor of ON (P=2.06×10, OR=5.17), which was especially pronounced in the SCD-SS subpopulation (P=2.28×10, OR=8.65). Among children with SCD, the overall prevalence of ON was 9% (59/658) and the phenotype with the highest prevalence of ON was Sβ thalassemia with an ON prevalence of 11.1%. There was no observed correlation between ON and height, body mass index, cholesterol, mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit, or glucocorticoid use. These data support a novel clinical marker, the MCHC proxy, as the strongest predictor of ON in children with SCD. High-risk children should receive hip magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose early ON and facilitate interventions focused on hip preservation, forestalling, or possibly preventing

  19. The risk factors of perioperative hemoglobin and hematocrit drop after intramedullary nailing treatment for intertrochanteric fracture patients.

    Wang, Jun; Wei, Jie; Wang, Manyi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors associated with the hemoglobin and hematocrit drops in the early postoperative period for intertrochanteric fracture patients with intramedullary nailing treatment. From January 2003 to December 2013, 634 intertrochanteric fracture patients with complete information were recruited into the study. Their age, gender, operating time, medical diseases, blood routine examination at admission and postoperative first day, and the days between the trauma and operation were recorded. The hemoglobin (HGB) change of patients (75 years) (P = 0.039). Meanwhile, the change of hematocrit (HCT) level of patients (75 years), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.062). The gender had no significant influence on HCT and HGB. The HGB and HCT change of patients with diabetes (ΔHCT, 8.47 ± 3.36 %; ΔHGB, 29.19 ± 13.10 g/l) were statistically greater than that of patients without diabetes (ΔHCT, 5.52 ± 3.84 %; ΔHGB, 19.81 ± 14.68 g/l) (P = 0.006, P = 0.022). The hypertension and coronary heart disease had no significant influence on the change of HCT and HGB levels. The operation time had a significant influence on the change of HCT and HGB. The ΔHCT and ΔHGB in the group for which the time was more than 48 h between the trauma and operation were greater than that in the group with less than 48 h between the trauma and operation but not significantly different (ΔHCT, P = 0.672; ΔHGB, P = 0.66). The factors of age, medical disease such as diabetes, operation time, and time between the trauma and operation may be associated with the change of perioperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for intertrochanteric fracture patients after intramedullary nailing treatment in the early postoperative period.

  20. Hematocrit and Serum Hemoglobin Do Not Influence Values in Computed Tomography Perfusion of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Karwacki, Grzegorz Marek; Benz, Matthias Richard; Tyndall, Anthony Joseph; Ulmer, Stephan

    There is a correlation between both serum hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) and attenuation values of vessels in noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT), which could influence calculated perfusion maps in CT perfusion. We retrospectively included 45 patients, who presented with acute new neurological symptoms and underwent NECT and CT perfusion (128-row multi detector scanner, coverage: 6.9 cm craniocaudally; 80 kV; 200 mAs; temporal resolution: 2 seconds using 40 mL Ultravist 370 at a flow rate of 5 mL/s) on admission and a follow-up MRI within 1 week of admission. Hematocrit, HGB, and attenuation values did not differ between patients with stroke and controls. A statistically significant correlation was found between HCT and HGB and attenuation values in the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery on NECT (P Hematocrit and HGB do not influence calculated perfusion maps. There is no need for HCT/HGB-adjusted cerebral blood volume thresholds in stroke patients.

  1. Point-of-care blood gases, electrolytes, chemistries, hemoglobin, and hematocrit measurement in venous samples from pet rabbits.

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care testing is an attractive option in rabbit medicine, because it permits rapid analysis of a panel of electrolytes, chemistries, blood gases, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, requiring only 65 μL of blood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a portable clinical analyzer for measurement of pH, partial pressure of CO2, Na, chloride, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in healthy and diseased rabbits. Blood samples obtained from 30 pet rabbits were analyzed immediately after collection by the portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and immediately thereafter (time <20 sec) by a reference analyzer. Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to compare the results. Limits of agreement were wide for all the variables studied, with the exception of pH. Most variables presented significant proportional and/or constant bias. The current study provides sufficient evidence that the PCA presents reliability for pH, although its low agreement with a reference analyzer for the other variables does not support their interchangeability. Limits of agreement provided for each variable allow researchers to evaluate if the PCA is reliable enough for their scope. To the authors' knowledge, the present is the first report evaluating a PCA in the rabbit.

  2. Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian

    2011-10-01

    Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.

  3. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  4. Effect of scaling and root planing on erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in patients with chronic periodontal disease.

    Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Grover, Vishakha; Grover, Deepak; Kaur, Aaswin

    2012-01-01

    Anemia of chronic disease, a cytokine-mediated anemia, is a frequent complication of many chronic inflammatory conditions. The present clinical trial was aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic periodontal disease on erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and the changes produced in these parameters after the provision of periodontal therapy. 40 systemically healthy non-smoker male subjects in the age group of 25 to 50 years suffering with chronic periodontal disease were selected and categorized into 2 groups. Group A was categorized as chronic generalized gingivitis, and Group B was categorized as chronic generalized periodontitis on the basis of clinical findings. The clinical parameters Gingival Index (GI), Probing Pock et Depth (PPD) and Relative Attachment Level (RAL) and laboratory blood investigations viz erythrocyte count (EC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and red cell indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC) were recorded at baseline. Complete oral prophylaxis was performed for all patients. Patients were recalled after 3 weeks and 3 months. The clinical and hematological parameters were re-evaluated to analyze the changes after provision of phase I therapy. The mean values of EC, Hb and HCT were significantly lower in Group B in comparison to Group A, and showed a significantly greater increase at 3 months of observation. However, the values of MCV, MCH and MCHC showed a non significant change during the same observation period in both the groups. Lower values of EC, Hb and HCT in Group B showed that mild anemia is associated with chronic generalized periodontitis, which tends to improve after provision of periodontal therapy. Minimal changes in MCV, MCH and MCHC indicated that the lower values are not due to any vitamin and mineral deficiencies, but secondary to the chronic inflammatory changes associated with chronic periodontal disease.

  5. The effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Zen Rahfiludin, M; Ginandjar, Praba

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection in humans can relapse and is associated with iron deficiency. The immune response plays an important role in preventing relapse. In this study we analyzed the effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with P. vivax malaria. We measured immune response by examining interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Subjects were divided into either treatment or control groups. The treatment group received daily zinc and vitamin C supplementation for 45 days. Compliance with supplement consumption was recorded weekly. After 45 days of supplementation, IFN-gamma and IL-1 levels were remeasured. All study subjects in both groups had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The hemoglobin levels increased only in the supplementation group (p=0.011), while hematocrit levels increased in both the supplementation (p=0.001) and control (p=0.023) groups. IFN-gamma decreased slightly in the supplementation group, but the change was not significant (p=0.688). IL-10 increased slightly in both the supplementation and the control groups, but the change were not significant (p=0.421 and p=0.556, respectively), suggesting the elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were unrelated to immune response.

  6. Retrospective review of hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels with occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents.

    Fullmer, Amber C; Miller, Rickey

    2009-09-01

    No data exists that directly compares hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between cancer patients with and without occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). To determine the association of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels with the occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with ESAs. A retrospective case-control study approved by the Institutional Review Board was conducted on cancer patients billed for epoetin or darbepoetin between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2007. Cases were defined as patients billed for thrombosis while controls were defined as patients not billed for thrombosis. Sixteen patients had an occurrence of thrombosis (cases) and were matched to 16 patients that did not have an occurrence of thrombosis (controls) based on age, sex, and cancer type. The mean peak hemoglobin levels for cases and controls were 12.6 +/- 1.2 g/dL versus 12.6 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p = 0.9). The mean peak hematocrit levels for cases and controls were 37.3 +/- 3.8% versus 37.9 +/- 4.3% (p = 0.8). For the 16/586 (2.7%) patients with thrombosis, the mean hemoglobin and hematocrit at time of thrombosis were 9.6 +/- 1.0 g/dL and 28.9 +/- 3.1%. A significant identifiable risk factor for thrombosis between the cases and controls was history of thrombosis 31.3% versus 0% (p = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in peak hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between patients with thrombosis and those without thrombosis. Further study is warranted to determine if these levels are true risk factors for thrombosis.

  7. The health-related quality of life was not improved by targeting higher hemoglobin in the Normal Hematocrit Trial.

    Coyne, Daniel W

    2012-07-01

    The Normal Hematocrit Trial (NHT) was the largest trial of epoetin randomizing 1265 hemodialysis patients with cardiac disease to lower (9-11 g/dl) or higher (13-15 g/dl) hemoglobin (Hgb), hypothesizing that higher Hgb would reduce mortality, and improve survival and quality of life. The trial was terminated early, and a 1998 publication reported that targeting higher hematocrit levels led to an insignificant increase in the primary end points (death or myocardial infarct), or risk ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-1.90, but the P-value was not given, and all-cause death risk was not reported. A higher target reportedly did not increase hospitalization rates, but did significantly improve the 'physical function' domain of quality of life. Comparing the 1996 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-filed clinical trial report to the 1998 publication, however, found several discrepancies. Among these, the 1998 article reported interim trial results with only the adjusted CI but did not state that the unadjusted CIs were 99.912th percentile, and despite being a secondary end point, reported only the association of achieved Hgb with higher quality of life score. Randomization to the higher target had actually increased the risk for the primary end point (risk ratio 1.28, 95% CI=1.06-1.56; P=0.0112; 99.92% CI=0.92-1.78), the risk of death (risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI=1.04-1.54), non-access thrombotic events (P=0.041), and hospitalization rate (P=0.04), while 'physical function' did not improve (P=0.88). Hence, disclosure of these results in the 1998 publication or access to the FDA-filed report on the NHT in the late 1990s would likely have led to earlier concerns about epoetin safety and greater doubts about its benefits.

  8. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of hemoglobin or hematocrit level on dural sinus density using unenhanced computed tomography.

    Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Ick

    2013-01-01

    To identify the relationship between hemoglobin (Hgb) or hematocrit (Hct) level and dural sinus density using unenhanced computed tomography (UECT). Patients who were performed UECT and had records of a complete blood count within 24 hours from UECT were included (n=122). We measured the Hounsfield unit (HU) of the dural sinus at the right sigmoid sinus, left sigmoid sinus and 2 points of the superior sagittal sinus. Quantitative measurement of dural sinus density using the circle regions of interest (ROI) method was calculated as average ROI values at 3 or 4 points. Simple regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between mean HU and Hgb or mean HU and Hct. The mean densities of the dural sinuses ranged from 24.67 to 53.67 HU (mean, 43.28 HU). There was a strong correlation between mean density and Hgb level (r=0.832) and between mean density and Hct level (r=0.840). Dural sinus density on UECT is closely related to Hgb and Hct levels. Therefore, the Hgb or Hct levels can be used to determine whether the dural sinus density is within the normal range or pathological conditions such as venous thrombosis.

  10. Respons of Erythrocytes, Hematocrit and Hemoglobin River Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) Combination Fed Guava Leaves (Psidium Guajava) and Bitter (Andrographis Paniculata Ness)

    Susanti, Mesi; Lukystiowati, Iesje; Syawal, Henni

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted from April-June 2013 in the Laboratory of Aquaculture and Fish Diseases and Parasites Laboratory Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Riau. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of erythrocytes, hematocrit, and blood hemoglobin river catfish (Mystus nemurus) fed a combination of guava leaves and bitter infected with the bacterium A. hydrophila. This study used 5 treatments of: negative control (without any solution guava, bitter and...

  11. 70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count.

    Ercan, Serif; Calışkan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected.

  12. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  14. Determinação de eletrólitos, gases sanguíneos, osmolalidade, hematócrito, hemoglobina, base titulável e anion gap no sangue venoso de equinos destreinados submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante Determination of electrolytes, hemogasometry, osmalility, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in detrained equines submitted a maximum and submaximum exercise on treadmill

    M.A.G. Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações nos eletrólitos, nos gases sanguíneos, na osmolalidade, no hematócrito, na hemoglobina, nas bases tituláveis e no anion gap no sangue venoso de 11 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe, destreinados, submetidos a exercício máximo e submáximo em esteira rolante. Esses animais passaram por período de três dias de adaptação à esteira rolante e posteriormente realizaram dois exercícios testes, um de curta e outro de longa duração. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue venoso antes, imediatamente após e 30 minutos após o término dos exercícios. Após a realização do exercício máximo, observou-se diminuição significativa no pHv, na PvCO2, no HCO3, na cBase além de elevação no AG. Detectou-se também aumento do K+, do Ht e da Hb. Ao final do exercício submáximo, constatou-se somente aumento significativo no pHv, na cBase, na SatvO2 e na PvO2. Conclui-se que os equinos submetidos a exercício máximo desenvolveram acidose metabólica e alcalose respiratória compensatória, hipercalemia e aumento nos valores de hematócrito e hemoglobina. No exercício submáximo, os animais apresentaram alcalose metabólica hipoclorêmica e não ocorreram alterações no equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico.Changes in electrolytes, blood gas, osmolality, hematocrit, hemoglobin, base concentration, and anion gap in 11 detrained Arabian horses during exercise on a high-speed treadmill were investigated. After a period of three days of adaptation on the rolling mat, the animals were submitted to two exercises: one of short (maximum and other of long duration (submaximum. Venous blood samples were obtained right before, and 30 minutes after the exercise. After the maximum exercise, it was observed a significative decrease in pHv, PvCO2, HCO3, and cBase and an increase in AG. It was also observed hypercalemia and increase in Ht and Hb. At the final of the submaximum exercise, it was observed significative increase in pH, c

  15. [Differences between observed and estimated by hematocrit hemoglobin and its relevance in the diagnosis of anemia among coastal population in Venezuela: analysis of the second national study of human growth and development (SENACREDH)].

    Flores-Torres, Jessica; Echeverría-Ortega, María; Arria-Bohorquez, Melissa; Hidalgo, Glida; Albano-Ramos, Carlos; Sanz, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the differences between the observed hemoglobin levels and those estimated based on hematocrit in the context of the 2nd National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Venezuelan Population (SENACREDH). 6,004 individuals were chosen by a probabilistic multistage cluster sampling representing 7,286,781 inhabitants from North Central Coastal area (Vargas, Carabobo, Capital District, Aragua and Miranda). Means of observed and estimated hemoglobin (hematocrit/3) were compared, using t test for related samples and linear regression. Mean difference between the values of observed and estimated hemoglobin was -0.3446 ±0.0002 (phemoglobin values. Regression models of hemoglobin on hematocrit showed an r2=0,87. In order to correct the estimation, we propose a new formula for calculating hemoglobin based on haematocrit values: estimated hemoglobin=(Haematocrit/3.135)+ 0.257. There is an overestimation of hemoglobin levels from hematocrit levels and therefore an underestimation of the prevalence of anemia; however, a high positive correlation between them was found, allowing modeling for achieving a better estimation of the hemoglobin from the hematocrit value.

  16. Modification of postnatal hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after gamma radiation in utero by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    Goyal, P.K.; Kumar, S.; Dev, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were irradiated with oamma radiation at post-conception days 14.5, 16.25 and 18.25. Hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of the male offsprings were found to be below normal during the early postnatal development. The value became normal from 4 week onwards. However these values were found to be significantly elevated in the early postnatal development of the male offsprings of the mice which were administered MPG before irradiation. The possible radioprotective mechanism of MPG is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  17. Small angle X-ray scattering on concentrated hemoglobin solutions

    Zinke, M.; Damaschun, G.; Mueller, J.J.; Ruckpaul, K.

    1978-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to determine the intermolecular structure and interaction potentials in oxi-and deoxi-hemoglobin solutions. The pair correlation function obtained by the ZERNICKE-PRINS equation characterizes the intermolecular structure of the hemoglobin molecules. The intermolecular structure is concentration dependent. The hemoglobin molecules have a 'short range order structure' with a range of about 4 molecule diameters at 324 g/l. The potential functions of the hemoglobin-hemoglobin interaction have been determined on the basis of fluid theories. Except for the deoxi-hemoglobin solution having the concentration 370 g/l, the pair interaction consists in a short repulsion and a weak short-range attraction against kT. The potential minimum is between 1.2 - 1.5 nm above the greatest hemoglobin diameter. (author)

  18. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  19. Autologus normovolemic and hypervolemic hemodilution during surgery using 6% dextran 70 and lactated ringer solution: impact on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin and hematocrite (A preliminary study

    Ruswan Dachlan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous normovolemic hemodilution (ANH is one of the methods to conserve blood donor (homologous. The decrease in hemoglobin (Hb due to bleeding in major surgery will be minimized and the hematocrite (Hct will be adjusted accordingly by this method. However, due to its impractical clinical application, another simpler hemodilution method is used, i.e. hypervolemic hemodilution (HHD, using 6% dextran 70 and lactated Ringer solutions. The aim of this randomized comparative study was to investigate the impacts of both hemodilution methods (ANH and HHD on mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrite (Hct in anesthetized patients undergoing major surgery. Fourteen (14 women fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into 2 groups. Seven (7 women received ANH and seven (7 women received HHD method. There were significant statistical differences (P<0.05 between ANH and HHD groups in MAP and Hct after 1 minute (86.3±9.1 vs. 99.1±6.4 on MAP and (27.3±1.7 vs. 31.5±4.4 on Hct and after 20 minutes (87.7±7.3 vs. 98.3±6.8 on MAP and (27.4± 1.7 vs. 3.6±4.8 on Hct post-hemodilution respectively. There was no difference in HR and Hb. No statistical difference between the four parameters tested after 120 minutes post-hemodilution. It may be concluded that both methods worth to be used in clinical setting although further studies are required. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:246-50Keyword: Acute normovolenic hemodilution, acute hypervolemic hemodilution, dextran 70, lactated ringer solution, microsirculation

  20. Point-of-Care Versus Central Laboratory Measurements of Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Glucose, Bicarbonate and Electrolytes: A Prospective Observational Study in Critically Ill Patients.

    Jérôme Allardet-Servent

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of abnormal biological values using point-of-care (POC testing allows clinicians to promptly initiate therapy; however, there are concerns regarding the reliability of POC measurements. We investigated the agreement between the latest generation blood gas analyzer and central laboratory measurements of electrolytes, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose.314 paired samples were collected prospectively from 51 critically ill patients. All samples were drawn simultaneously in the morning from an arterial line. BD Vacutainer tubes were analyzed in the central laboratory using Beckman Coulter analyzers (AU 5800 and DxH 800. BD Preset 3 ml heparinized-syringes were analyzed immediately in the ICU using the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system. We used CLIA proficiency testing criteria to define acceptable analytical performance and interchangeability.Biases, limits of agreement (±1.96 SD and coefficients of correlation were respectively: 1.3 (-2.2 to 4.8 mmol/L, r = 0.936 for sodium; 0.2 (-0.2 to 0.6 mmol/L, r = 0.944 for potassium; -0.9 (-3.7 to 2 mmol/L, r = 0.967 for chloride; 0.8 (-1.9 to 3.4 mmol/L, r = 0.968 for bicarbonate; -11 (-30 to 9 mg/dL, r = 0.972 for glucose; -0.8 (-1.4 to -0.2 g/dL, r = 0.985 for hemoglobin; and -1.1 (-2.9 to 0.7%, r = 0.981 for hematocrit. All differences were below CLIA cut-off values, except for hemoglobin.Compared to central Laboratory analyzers, the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system satisfied the CLIA criteria of interchangeability for all tested parameters, except for hemoglobin. These results are warranted for our own procedures and devices. Bearing these restrictions, we recommend clinicians to initiate an appropriate therapy based on POC testing without awaiting a control measurement.

  1. Point-of-Care Versus Central Laboratory Measurements of Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Glucose, Bicarbonate and Electrolytes: A Prospective Observational Study in Critically Ill Patients.

    Allardet-Servent, Jérôme; Lebsir, Melissa; Dubroca, Christian; Fabrigoule, Martine; Jordana, Sylvie; Signouret, Thomas; Castanier, Matthias; Thomas, Guillemette; Soundaravelou, Rettinavelou; Lepidi, Anne; Delapierre, Laurence; Penaranda, Guillaume; Halfon, Philippe; Seghboyan, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Rapid detection of abnormal biological values using point-of-care (POC) testing allows clinicians to promptly initiate therapy; however, there are concerns regarding the reliability of POC measurements. We investigated the agreement between the latest generation blood gas analyzer and central laboratory measurements of electrolytes, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and glucose. 314 paired samples were collected prospectively from 51 critically ill patients. All samples were drawn simultaneously in the morning from an arterial line. BD Vacutainer tubes were analyzed in the central laboratory using Beckman Coulter analyzers (AU 5800 and DxH 800). BD Preset 3 ml heparinized-syringes were analyzed immediately in the ICU using the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system. We used CLIA proficiency testing criteria to define acceptable analytical performance and interchangeability. Biases, limits of agreement (±1.96 SD) and coefficients of correlation were respectively: 1.3 (-2.2 to 4.8 mmol/L, r = 0.936) for sodium; 0.2 (-0.2 to 0.6 mmol/L, r = 0.944) for potassium; -0.9 (-3.7 to 2 mmol/L, r = 0.967) for chloride; 0.8 (-1.9 to 3.4 mmol/L, r = 0.968) for bicarbonate; -11 (-30 to 9 mg/dL, r = 0.972) for glucose; -0.8 (-1.4 to -0.2 g/dL, r = 0.985) for hemoglobin; and -1.1 (-2.9 to 0.7%, r = 0.981) for hematocrit. All differences were below CLIA cut-off values, except for hemoglobin. Compared to central Laboratory analyzers, the POC Siemens RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas system satisfied the CLIA criteria of interchangeability for all tested parameters, except for hemoglobin. These results are warranted for our own procedures and devices. Bearing these restrictions, we recommend clinicians to initiate an appropriate therapy based on POC testing without awaiting a control measurement.

  2. Preoperative Hematocrit Concentration and the Risk of Stroke in Patients Undergoing Isolated Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting

    Khaled M. Musallam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Identification and management of risk factors for stroke following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG could potentially lower the risk of such serious morbidity. Methods. We retrieved data for 30-day stroke incidence and perioperative variables for patients undergoing isolated CABG and used multivariate logistic regression to assess the adjusted effect of preoperative hematocrit concentration on stroke incidence. Results. In 2,313 patients (mean age 65.9 years, 73.6% men, 43 (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5 developed stroke within 30 days following CABG (74.4% within 6 days. After adjustment for a priori defined potential confounders, each 1% drop in preoperative hematocrit concentration was associated with 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01–1.13 increased odds for stroke (men, OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.16; women, OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.91–1.16. The predicted probability of stroke for descending preoperative hematocrit concentration exceeded 2% for values <37% (<37% for men (adjusted OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.08–5.26 and <38% for women (adjusted OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 0.53–11.98, with a steeper probability increase noted in men. The association between lower preoperative hematocrit concentration and stroke was evident irrespective of intraoperative transfusion use. Conclusion. Screening and management of patients with low preoperative hematocrit concentration may alter postoperative stroke risk in patients undergoing isolated CABG.

  3. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça; Lilian Ferreira Muniz; Ilma Kruze Grande de Arruda; Alcides da Silva Diniz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels cons...

  4. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  5. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  6. [BEHAVIOR OF HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION, HEMATOCRIT AND OXYGEN SATURATION IN COLOMBIAN UNIVERSITY POPULATION AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES].

    Trompetero González, Andrea Catalina; Cristancho Mejía, Edgar; Benavides Pinzón, William Fernando; Serrato Roa, Mauricio; Landinez Macias, María Paula; Rojas, Joel

    2015-11-01

    the development of this research is base on the growing interest in understanding the adaptations to chronic hipoxia mainly in the range of intermediate altitudes (1 500-3 000 m.s.n.m) and the need to establish parameters of normality in the variables [Hb], Hct and SO2 for diagnostic and characterization of the population purposes. to analyze the behavior of the [Hb], Hct and SaO2 at different intermediate altitudes (970 m.s.n.m, 1 520 m.s.n.m, 1 728 m.s.n.m, 1 923 m.s.n.m, 2 180 m.s.n.m and 2 600 m.s.n.m) in order to contribute to the knowledge of the high altitude physiology and the clinical field to support the diagnosis of anemia. clinically healthy subjects with low levels of physical activity and food consumption report containing iron. Total of 264 participants of both genders between 18 and 30 years. The blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein and the earlobe and analyzed in a radiometer. A non-parametric statistical analysis was performed. with increasing of altitude, [Hb] and Hct values were increased while the SO2 decreased. Men showed higher values than women in [Hb] and Hct, related to lower values of SO2 than women. a threshold variable was not found, perhaps because of the small distance between the altitudes. The values reported were similar but not identical to other studies. This difference could be explained by genetic diversity among populations. this study allows for the first values of characterization of the study population. All altitudes were above the cutoff for the diagnosis of anemia ([Hb] 12 g/dl). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of hematocrit/hemoglobin ratios in subjects with alpha-thalassemia, with subjects having chronic kidney disease and normal subjects.

    Insiripong, Somchai; Supattarobol, Tanarat; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee

    2013-07-04

    The ratio of hematocrit (Hct) to hemoglobin (Hb) in the people with normal red blood cell (RBC) morphology is generally three to one. We studied Hct/Hb ratios among patients with alpha-thalassemias (Hb H, H-CS, AEBart, AEBart-CS, EFBart and EFBart-CS diseases) diagnosed by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared them with normal subjects and with patients having anemia due to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Hct and Hb levels were derived by automated analyzer. The means +/- SD of the Hct/Hb ratios were 3.5 +/- 0.2 (range 3.3 - 4.1), 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.9 - 3.2) and 3.0 +/- 0.1 (range 2.8 - 3.2) in the alpha-thalassemia, normal and CKD groups, respectively. The mean Hct/Hb ratio in subjects with alpha-thalassemia was higher than the mean in normal subjects and in those with CKD. The Hct/Hb ratios for each genotype of the alpha-thalassemia were not different from each other. The underlying mechanisms for the higher Hct/Hb ratio among those with alpha-thalassemia are theorized to be less density and/or more hydration of a-thalassemia RBCs, more entrapment of plasma in the spun RBC, the high percent of nucleated RBC and WBC interference. A ratio of 3.5 +/- 0.2 may be helpful in cases of moderate anemia when typing only shows Hb A and E, to consider investigation for alpha-thalassemia, or in cases of alpha-thalassemia with acute blood loss, if the Hct is less than 35%, in the decision to transfuse.

  8. Relationship between the degree of property damage and changes in red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin among victims of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake.

    Omote, Shizuko; Kato, Miho; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Ichimori, Akie; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Tsukasaki, Keiko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Noto Peninsula Earthquake on various hematologic parameters. We studied the relationships between the degree of property damage and changes in red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Ht) among residents before and after the March 2007 Noto Peninsula Earthquake. A total of 5,563 residents of Wajima City who were not receiving oral treatment for anemia and who had received basic health screenings for fiscal years (FYs) 2006 and 2007, before and after the earthquake. We analyzed changes in their RBCs, Hb, and Ht levels by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), level of property damage, and evaluation standards. RBCs, Hb, and Ht for FY2007 showed a trend of decreasing values compared to FY2006 in both male and female subjects. RBCs and Hb significantly decreased in females aged between 65 and 74 years who experienced total property damage, and Ht significantly increased for those younger than 65 years who experienced the same level of damage. In addition, significant differences by degree of property damage and FY2007/FY2006 ratio were seen only among subjects with a BMI ratio <1. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between reduction of RBCs or Hb and increasing age in females; however, no significant relationship to property damage was found. No significant relationships were found for males. A significant association between property damage and changes in RBCs, Hb, and Ht was not found in this population of residents who experienced the Noto Peninsula Earthquake.

  9. PROFILE OF HEMATOCRIT LEVEL CAPTURED BY DIGITAL HEMATOCRIT TEST

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dengue fever is a disease caused by Dengue virus which is transmitted via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vector. This Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF case in Indonesia tend to rise from year to year caused by delayed detection and inadequate handling. The laboratory parameter of hematocrite had regularly been performed using invasive method by taking the blood from the patient. This method is still not been able to monitor patients with DHF by repetitive and accurate measurament. This research project aims is to perform a digital hematocrit test (DHT with non-invasive accurate sensors. Digital Hematocrit Test (DHT is needed to presenting fast, exact, economical and accurate detection methods of hematocrit level. Measureable magnitude by the instrumentation is non-absorb intensity electromagnetic waves 560 nm emitted by transmitter captured by receiver. Signal captured by the receiver then converted into electrical signal. The electrical signal from receiver was the levels of hemoglobin. Levels of hemoglobin then converted to hematocrit. Hematokrit is three times the level of hemoglobin. Technology of hematocrit monitoring is aimed to control DHF patient clinical symptoms continuously and acquisitively.

  10. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...

  11. Simultaneous, noninvasive, in vivo, continuous monitoring of hematocrit, vascular volume, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pulse rate and breathing rate in humans and other animal models using a single light source

    Dent, Paul; Tun, Sai Han; Fillioe, Seth; Deng, Bin; Satalin, Josh; Nieman, Gary; Wilcox, Kailyn; Searles, Quinn; Narsipur, Sri; Peterson, Charles M.; Goodisman, Jerry; Mostrom, James; Steinmann, Richard; Chaiken, J.

    2018-02-01

    We previously reported a new algorithm "PV[O]H" for continuous, noninvasive, in vivo monitoring of hematocrit changes in blood and have since shown its utility for monitoring in humans during 1) hemodialysis, 2) orthostatic perturbations and 3) during blood loss and fluid replacement in a rat model. We now show that the algorithm is sensitive to changes in hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We document the phenomenology of the effect and explain the effect using new results obtained from humans and rat models. The oxygen sensitivity derives from the differential absorption of autofluorescence originating in the static tissues by oxy and deoxy hemoglobin. Using this approach we show how to perform simultaneous, noninvasive, in vivo, continuous monitoring of hematocrit, vascular volume, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pulse rate and breathing rate in mammals using a single light source. We suspect that monitoring of changes in this suite of vital signs can be provided with improved time response, sensitivity and precision compared to existing methodologies. Initial results also offer a more detailed glimpse into the systemic oxygen transport in the circulatory system of humans.

  12. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  13. Naphthalene biomarkers and relationship with hemoglobin and hematocrit in White, Black, and Hispanic adults: results from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Sudakin, Daniel L; Smit, Ellen; Cardenas, Andres; Harding, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Naphthalene is an important contaminant in indoor and outdoor air. Acute overexposure can have toxic effects, resulting in hemolysis. There have been no studies evaluating the impact of environmental exposure on red blood cell indices. We examined 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalene urinary metabolites (NAP1 and NAP2) in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican-American adults in the USA and their relationship with hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT). Using the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, weighted generalized linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between Hb (in grams per deciliter) and HCT (in percent) with NAP1 and NAP2 (per 100,000 ng/L). Beta coefficients ± SE are reported. NAP1 and NAP2 were highest in non-Hispanic Blacks, followed by non-Hispanic Whites, and lowest in Mexican-American adults. There was a positive association between NAP1 and Hb (0.39 ± 0.11, p = 0.0034) and HCT (1.14 ± 0.28, p = 0.0009) after adjusting for age, gender, race, education, and smoking. Stratified analysis by smoking showed similar results with the association being stronger for smokers (Hb 0.63 ± 0.23, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.79, p = 0.09) than nonsmokers (Hb 0.34 ± 0.14, p = 0.03; HCT 1.08 ± 0.42, p = 0.02). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic blacks (Hb 0.54 ± 0.20, p = 0.02; HCT 1.43 ± 0.55, p = 0.02) than for non-Hispanic whites (Hb 0.37 ± 0.18, p = 0.06; HCT 1.20 ± 0.51, p = 0.03) and was not significant for Mexican-Americans (Hb 0.30 ± 1.7, p = 0.10; HCT 0.99 ± 0.52, p = 0.08). NAP2 was not significantly associated with Hb or HCT. The observed disparity in NAP1 and NAP2 levels by race/ethnicity is consistent with published literature. The origin of these differences in exposure is unclear but may reflect differences in environmental exposure as well as genetic susceptibility. The

  14. Hemoglobin

    1993-03-08

    affinity, which is less at low levels of hemoglobin saturation, increases markedly as fractional saturation increases. Thus, high affinity for 02 at... diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), and carbon dioxide (Co 2). Since they are linked to 02 binding, they are called oxygen-linked effectors. The oxygen...hemoglobin molecule because of the negative charge of the ions. 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate is a molecule formed during the breakdown of sugar in normal human

  15. The impact of low hemoglobin levels and transfusion on critical care patients with severe ischemic stroke: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of HemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Kellert, L; Schrader, F; Ringleb, P; Steiner, T; Bösel, J

    2014-04-01

    Optimal management of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in neurologic intensive care unit (NICU) patients has not been determined yet. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of anemia and transfusion activity in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. A retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, and outcome data of patients with severe acute ischemic stroke treated on our NICU between 2004 and 2011 was performed. Of 109 patients, 97.2% developed anemia and 33% received RBCT. Significant correlations were found between NICU length of stay (NICU LOS) and lowest (nadir) Hb (correlation coefficient, -0.42, P hematocrit (Hct; -0.43, P < .001), and Hct decrease (0.51, P < .001). Duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was strongly associated with both nadir Hb (-0.41, P < .001) and decrease (0.42, P < .001) and nadir Hct (-0.43, P < .001) and decrease (0.40, P < .001). Red blood cell transfusion correlated with NICU LOS (0.33, P < .001) and with duration of MV (0.40, P < .001). None of these hematologic parameters correlated with in-hospital mortality or 90-day outcome. The linear regression model showed number of RBCT (0.29, P = .008), nadir Hb (-0.18, P = .049), Hb decrease (0.33, P < .001), nadir Hct (-0.18, P = .03), and Hct decrease (0.29, P < .001) to be independent predictors of NICU LOS. Duration of MV was also independently predicted by number of RBC transfusions (0.29, P < .001), nadir Hb (-0.20, P = .02), Hb decrease (0.25, P = .002), nadir Hct (-0.21, P = .015), and Hct decrease (0.26, P < .001). Low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels as well as RBCT activity are associated with prolonged NICU stay and duration of MV but not with mortality or long-term outcome. Our findings do not justify using a more aggressive transfusion practice at present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study

    Petrova, Irina Y.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Yuriy Y.; Brecht, Hans-Peter F.; Svensen, Christer H.; Olsson, Joel; Deyo, Donald J.; Prough, Donald S.

    2005-07-01

    The optoacoustic technique is noninvasive, has high spatial resolution, and potentially can be used to measure the total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) continuously and accurately. We performed in vitro measurements in blood and in vivo tests in healthy volunteers. Our clinical protocol included rapid infusion of intravenous saline to simulate rapid change in the [THb] during fluid therapy or surgery. Optoacoustic measurements were made from the wrist area overlying the radial artery for more than 1 h. The amplitude of the optoacoustic signal generated in the radial artery closely followed the [THb] measured directly in concurrently collected blood samples.

  17. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values are higher and prevalence of anemia is lower in the post-folic acid fortification period than in the pre-folic acid fortification period in US adults.

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    It is not known whether the improved folate status from mandatory folic acid fortification had any impact on indexes and prevalence of anemias in the United States. We investigated trends in indexes and prevalence of anemia and macrocytosis with a focus on comparison of prefortification data with postfortification data. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and prevalences and likelihood of anemia and macrocytosis were determined for 26,596 adults examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-2004. From 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, hemoglobin modestly but significantly improved from 15.1 to 15.4 g/dL (approximately 2.0%; P 60 y) men (from 91.6 to 92.4; P = 0.0105) and in women (from 90.7 to 91.4; P = 0.0141). Only in women was the prevalence of anemia significantly lower in 1999-2004 than in 1988-1994 (27.9% reduction; P = 0.0005). The odds of having anemia in the postfortification period relative to the prefortification period was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.75; P hemoglobin and the decreased prevalence of anemia from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, especially in women, may be attributable to improved folate status, increased vitamin/mineral supplements use, and other unknown causes after the initiation of folic acid fortification. The cause of increased MCV in men, and in older persons of both sexes, warrants further investigation.

  18. Hair cortisol concentration and glycated hemoglobin in African American adults.

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Dubois, Susan K; Maslowsky, Julie; Laudenslager, Mark L; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans have higher diabetes prevalence compared to Whites. They also have elevated cortisol levels - indicating possible HPA axis dysregulation - which may raise blood glucose as part of the biological response to physiological and psychosocial stress. Little is known about chronic cortisol levels in African Americans, and even less about the role of chronically elevated cortisol in type 2 diabetes development in this racial group. We used analysis of cortisol in hair to examine associations of long-term (∼3months) cortisol levels with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a group of African American adults. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the relationship of hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with HbA1c. Participants were 61 community-dwelling African American adults (85% female; mean age 54.30 years). The first 3cm of scalp-near hair were analyzed for cortisol and DHEA concentration using enzyme-linked immunoassay analysis. Glycated hemoglobin was assessed, and regression analyses predicting HbA1c from hair cortisol and DHEA were performed in the full sample and in a subsample of participants (n=20) meeting the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Disease (NIDDK) criteria for type 2 diabetes (HbA1c≥6.5%). In the full sample, HbA1c increased with hair cortisol level (β=0.22, p=0.04, f(2)=0.10), independent of age, sex, chronic health conditions, diabetes medication use, exercise, and depressive symptoms. In the subsample of participants with an HbA1c≥6.5%, hair cortisol was also positively related to HbA1c (β=0.45, p=0.04, f(2)=0.32), independent of diabetes medication use. Glycated hemoglobin was unrelated to hair DHEA in both the full sample and HbA1c≥6.5% subsample. Long-term HPA axis dysregulation in the form of elevated hair cortisol is associated with elevated HbA1c in African American adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation of Oxygenated Hemoglobin Concentration and Psychophysical Amount on Speech Recognition

    Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    The subjective understanding on oral language understanding task is quantitatively evaluated by the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by the near-infrared spectroscopy. The English listening comprehension test wihch consists of two difficulty level was executed by 4 subjects during the measurement. A significant correlation was found between the subjective understanding and the fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration.

  20. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentration in radiotherapy for cancer of supraglottic larynx

    Tarnawski, Rafal; Skladowski, Krzysztof; Maciejewski, Boguslaw

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the estimation of correlations between hemoglobin concentration either before or after radiotherapy and local tumor control probability for laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 847 cases of laryngeal supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiation alone was performed using maximum likelihood estimations, and step-wise logistic regression. All patients were in good initial performance status (Karnofsky index >70). The minimum follow-up time was 3 years. Results: Logistic regression showed that the hemoglobin concentration after radiotherapy is an important prognostic factor. There was a very strong correlation between hemoglobin concentration and tumor local control probability. Hemoglobin concentration at the beginning of radiotherapy does not correlate with treatment outcome, but any decrease of hemoglobin during therapy is a strong prognostic factor for treatment failure. Conclusions: Although regression models with many variables may be instable, the present results suggest that hemoglobin concentration after treatment is at least as important as overall treatment time. It was not possible to find out whether the low concentration of hemoglobin is an independent cause of low TCP or whether it reflects other mechanisms that may influence both hemoglobin level and the TCP

  1. A Microplate Assay for the Determination of Hemoglobin Concentration

    Frenchik, Michael D; McFaul, Steve J; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2004-01-01

    ... (NaOH), and converts all hemoglobin species, including COHb, to AHD within 5 min. Both protocols are carried out in cuvettes, and are, therefore, time intensive and difficult to manage when many samples are quantified. This impedes acquisition of triplicate values for each sample necessary to improve accuracy and determine statistical significance.

  2. The hematocrit paradox--how does blood doping really work?

    Böning, D; Maassen, N; Pries, A

    2011-04-01

    The wide-spread assumption that doping with erythropoietin or blood transfusion is only effective by increasing arterial blood O2 content because of rising hematocrit is not self-evident. "Natural blood dopers" (horses, dogs) increase both hematocrit and circulating blood volume during exercise by releasing stored erythrocytes from the spleen. Improvement of aerobic performance by augmenting hemoglobin concentration may be expected until the optimal hematocrit is reached; above this value maximal cardiac output declines due to the steep increase of blood viscosity. Therefore an enlarged blood oxygen content might only be useful if the normal hematocrit of man during exercise is suboptimal. However, recent studies suggest that cardiac power rises after erythropoietin allowing an unchanged cardiac output in spite of increased viscosity. Other factors underlying improved performance after blood doping might be: augmented diffusion capacity for oxygen in lungs and tissues, increased percentage of young red cells with good functional properties (after erythropoietin), increased buffer capacity, increase of blood volume, vasoconstriction, reduced damage by radicals, mood improvement by cerebral effects of erythropoietin. Also the importance of placebo is unknown since double-blind studies are rare. It is suggested that blood doping has multifactorial effects not restricted to the increase in arterial oxygen content. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children[U+05F3]s Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear...... and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended. © 2014 Elsevier Inc....

  4. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  5. Hemoglobin concentration determination based on near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra

    Zhang, Linna; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method has been proved to be more effective than single point spectroscopy method in the experiment to predict the concentration of the Intralipid diluted solutions. However, Intralipid diluted solution is simple, cannot be the representative of turbid liquids. Blood is a natural and meaningful turbid liquid, more complicate. Hemoglobin is the major constituent of the whole blood. And hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose many diseases. In this paper, near infrared spatially resolved transmission spectra (NIRSRTS) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were used to predict the hemoglobin concentration of human blood. The results showed the prediction ability for hemoglobin concentration of the proposed method is better than single point transmission spectroscopy method. This paper demonstrated the feasibility of the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for practical liquid composition analysis. This research provided a new thinking of practical turbid liquid composition analysis.

  6. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  7. Influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the result of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    He Beiwa; Zhang Guofen; Zhao Yutian; Wang Zhenwu; Xu Min; Hu Yulin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration on the radiotherapy result of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From January 1989 to December 1998, 304 patients with pathologically confirmed NPC received radical radiation. There were 209 males and 95 females. The ages ranged from 16 to 77 years with a median of 42. All patients were irradiated by 60 Co or 6 MV external beam with a total dose of 64 - 76 Gy for the primary tumor and 46 - 77 Gy for the cervical lymph nodes. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration for all patients was measured before, during and after radiotherapy. These patients were divided into three groups according to the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration before radiotherapy: anemia ( 160 g/L), and into two groups according to the change in the peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration during radiotherapy as increased and decreased groups. Results: All patients were followed with a follow-up rate of 90.5%. The peripheral blood hemoglobin concentration had a significant effect on the survival of NPC patients. Its decrease or increase during radiotherapy affected the survival and local control rates of NPC patients. Conclusions: The change of peripheral hemoglobin concentration affecting the oxygen content in the blood, can influence the local control and survival rates of NPC patients. Increase results in higher survival

  8. Hemoglobin Concentration and Risk of Incident Stroke in Community-Living Adults.

    Panwar, Bhupesh; Judd, Suzanne E; Warnock, David G; McClellan, William M; Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2016-08-01

    In previous observational studies, hemoglobin concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, these studies were limited by a relatively low number of stroke events, making it difficult to determine whether the association of hemoglobin and stroke differed by demographic or clinical factors. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots, we examined the association of baseline hemoglobin concentrations with incident stroke in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. A total of 518 participants developed stroke over a mean 7±2 years of follow-up. There was a statistically significant interaction between hemoglobin and sex (P=0.05) on the risk of incident stroke. In Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, there was no association of baseline hemoglobin concentration with incident stroke in men, whereas in women, the lowest (14.0 g/dL) quartiles of hemoglobin were associated with higher risk of stroke when compared with the second quartile (12.4-13.2 g/dL; quartile 1: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.31; quartile 2: referent; quartile 3: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.38; quartile 4: hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35). Similar results were observed in models stratified by hemoglobin and sex and when hemoglobin was modeled as a continuous variable using restricted quadratic spline regression. Lower and higher hemoglobin concentrations were associated with a higher risk of incident stroke in women. No such associations were found in men. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Genetic hemoglobin disorders rather than iron deficiency are a major predictor of hemoglobin concentration in women of reproductive age in rural prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne; Devlin, Angela M; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is common in Cambodian women. Potential causes include micronutrient deficiencies, genetic hemoglobin disorders, inflammation, and disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with anemia (low hemoglobin concentration) in rural Cambodian women (18-45 y) and to investigate the relations between hemoglobin disorders and other iron biomarkers. Blood samples were obtained from 450 women. A complete blood count was conducted, and serum and plasma were analyzed for ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), folate, vitamin B-12, retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP). Hemoglobin electrophoresis and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence and type of genetic hemoglobin disorders. Overall, 54% of women had a genetic hemoglobin disorder, which included 25 different genotypes (most commonly, hemoglobin E variants and α(3.7)-thalassemia). Of the 420 nonpregnant women, 29.5% had anemia (hemoglobin 8.3 mg/L), hemoglobin disorders, respectively. There was no biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency (RBP 5 mg/L) and 26% (AGP >1 g/L) of nonpregnant women, respectively. By using an adjusted linear regression model, the strongest predictors of hemoglobin concentration were hemoglobin E homozygous disorder and pregnancy status. Other predictors were 2 other heterozygous traits (hemoglobin E and Constant Spring), parity, RBP, log ferritin, and vitamin B-12. Multiple biomarkers for anemia and iron deficiency were significantly influenced by the presence of hemoglobin disorders, hence reducing their diagnostic sensitivity. Further investigation of the unexpectedly low prevalence of IDA in Cambodian women is warranted. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  11. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  12. The Relationship Between Preoperative Hemoglobin Concentration, Use of Hospital Resources, and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery.

    Hallward, George; Balani, Nikhail; McCorkell, Stuart; Roxburgh, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative anemia is an established risk factor associated with adverse perioperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. However, limited information exists regarding the relationship between preoperative hemoglobin concentration and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate how outcomes are affected by preoperative hemoglobin concentration in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective, observational cohort study. A single-center tertiary referral hospital. The study comprised 1,972 adult patients undergoing elective and nonelective cardiac surgery. The independent relationship of preoperative hemoglobin concentration was explored on blood transfusion rates, return to the operating room for bleeding and/or cardiac tamponade, postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay, and mortality. The overall prevalence of anemia was 32% (629/1,972 patients). For every 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), blood transfusion requirements were reduced by 11%, 8%, and 3% for red blood cell units, platelet pools, and fresh frozen plasma units, respectively (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.87-0.91], 0.92 [0.88-0.97], and 0.97 [0.96-0.99]). For each 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), the probability (over time) of discharge from the ICU and hospital increased (adjusted hazard ratio estimates 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and 1.12 [1.12-1.16], respectively). A lower preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased use of hospital resources after cardiac surgery. Each g/dL unit fall in preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased blood transfusion requirements and increased postoperative ICU and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  14. Diferencias entre la hemoglobina observada y estimada por hematocrito y su importancia en el diagnóstico de anemia en población costera venezolana: análisis del segundo estudio nacional de crecimiento y desarrollo humano (SENACREDH Differences between observed and estimated by hematocrit hemoglobin and its relevance in the diagnosis of anemia among coastal population in Venezuela: analysis of the second national study of human growth and development (SENACREDH

    Jessica Flores-Torres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las diferencias entre el valor de hemoglobina observada y el valor estimado a partir del hematocrito en el marco del Segundo Estudio Nacional de Crecimiento y Desarrollo Humano de la Población Venezolana (SENACREDH en el eje centro norte costero del país. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de un muestreo probabilístico multietápico por conglomerados se seleccionó un total de 6004 sujetos que representan 7 286 781 habitantes del eje Centro Norte Costero (Vargas, Carabobo, Distrito Capital, Aragua y Miranda. Se compararon medias de la hemoglobina observada y hemoglobina estimada (hematocrito/3, usando la prueba t para muestras relacionadas. Se realizaron regresiones lineales entre hemoglobina observada y hematocrito. Resultados. Se observó que el promedio de las diferencias entre la asignadas a la hemoglobina observada y la estimada por el hematocrito fue de -0,3446 ± 0,0002 (pObjectives. To evaluate the differences between the observed hemoglobin levels and those estimated based on hematocrit in the context of the 2nd National Study of Human Growth and Development of the Venezuelan Population (SENACREDH. Materials and methods. 6,004 individuals were chosen by a probabilistic multistage cluster sampling representing 7,286,781 inhabitants from North Central Coastal area (Vargas, Carabobo, Capital District, Aragua and Miranda. Means of observed and estimated hemoglobin (hematocrit/3 were compared, using t test for related samples and linear regression. Results. Mean difference between the values of observed and estimated hemoglobin was -0.3446 ±0.0002 (p<0.001; significantly overestimating the hemoglobin values. Regression models of hemoglobin on hematocrit showed an r2=0,87. In order to correct the estimation, we propose a new formula for calculating hemoglobin based on haematocrit values: estimated hemoglobin=(Haematocrit/3.135+ 0.257. Conclusions: There is an overestimation of hemoglobin levels from hematocrit levels and

  15. Correlation of maternal factors and hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy Shiraz 2006

    Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a serious condition, contributing to maternal mortality, morbidity and fetal morbidity and its prevalence varies between 35-100% in developing countries. This investigation is conducted to survey the correlation of maternal factors and the changes in hemoglobin in pregnant women. Method: In this study, 108 healthy pregnant women with gestational age of 10 to 14 weeks, chosen by cluster random sampling were included. The women were followed in three visits: at the end of the first, second and third trimester. In addition, correlation of Hb concentration with maternal factors including BMI, age parity, hyperemesis, gestational age, pregnancy interval and weight gain was investigated. Results: There was no significant correlation between BMI, parity, pregnancy interval, severe nausea and vomiting and also maternal age with hemoglobin level during pregnancy. Moreover, Multiple regression models showed that adequate maternal weight gain (P<0.009 and high hemoglobin (p<0.0001 in the first trimester were positive predictors and late iron supplementation was negative predictor of hemoglobin in pregnancy (P<0.006. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that adequate maternal weight gain, high hemoglobin in the first trimester and also late iron supplementation could be as predictors in clinical settings in this query.

  16. Comparative and quantitative determination of total hemoglobin concentration in normal and psoriatic patients

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Mahesar, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanmethaemoglobin technique is now recommended as the standard method by International Committee for Standardization in Hematology and British Standards Institution 1966. The hemoglobin is treated with reagent containing potassium ferricyanide, Potassium cyanide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ferricyanide forms methamoglobin which is converted to cyanmethaemoglobin by the cyanide. The average values of hemoglobin, percent determined from the blood samples of normal and psoriatic (n=44) males and (n=35) females were 15.0, 12.7, 13.6 and 11.2 g/100ml. The decrease in hemoglobin concentration could be due to anemia resulting during the cell proliferation epidermis in inflammatory state and Keratolytic disorder which take place in psoriasis. (author)

  17. Lower Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated with Retinal Ischemia and the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Traveset, Alicia; Rubinat, Esther; Ortega, Emilio; Alcubierre, Nuria; Vazquez, Beatriz; Hernández, Marta; Jurjo, Carmen; Espinet, Ramon; Ezpeleta, Juan Antonio; Mauricio, Didac

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the association of blood oxygen-transport capacity variables with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal ischemia, and macular oedema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Cross-sectional, case-control study (N = 312) with T2DM: 153 individuals with DR and 159 individuals with no DR. Participants were classified according to the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Hematological variables were collected by standardized methods. Three logistic models were adjusted to ascertain the association between hematologic variables with the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Results. Individuals with severe DR showed significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte levels compared with those with mild disease and in individuals with retinal ischemia and macular oedema compared with those without these disorders. Hemoglobin was the only factor that showed a significant inverse association with the severity of DR [beta-coefficient = -0.52, P value = 0.003] and retinal ischemia [beta-coefficient = -0.49, P value = 0.001]. Lower erythrocyte level showed a marginally significant association with macular oedema [beta-coefficient = -0.86, P value = 0.055]. Conclusions. In patients with DR, low blood oxygen-transport capacity was associated with more severe DR and the presence of retinal ischemia. Low hemoglobin levels may have a key role in the development and progression of DR.

  18. Lower Hemoglobin Concentration Is Associated with Retinal Ischemia and the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Traveset, Alicia; Rubinat, Esther; Ortega, Emilio; Alcubierre, Nuria; Vazquez, Beatriz; Hernández, Marta; Jurjo, Carmen; Espinet, Ramon; Ezpeleta, Juan Antonio; Mauricio, Didac

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To assess the association of blood oxygen-transport capacity variables with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinal ischemia, and macular oedema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Cross-sectional, case-control study (N = 312) with T2DM: 153 individuals with DR and 159 individuals with no DR. Participants were classified according to the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Hematological variables were collected by standardized methods. Three logistic models were adjusted to ascertain the association between hematologic variables with the severity of DR and the presence of retinal ischemia or macular oedema. Results. Individuals with severe DR showed significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, and erythrocyte levels compared with those with mild disease and in individuals with retinal ischemia and macular oedema compared with those without these disorders. Hemoglobin was the only factor that showed a significant inverse association with the severity of DR [beta-coefficient = −0.52, P value = 0.003] and retinal ischemia [beta-coefficient = −0.49, P value = 0.001]. Lower erythrocyte level showed a marginally significant association with macular oedema [beta-coefficient = −0.86, P value = 0.055]. Conclusions. In patients with DR, low blood oxygen-transport capacity was associated with more severe DR and the presence of retinal ischemia. Low hemoglobin levels may have a key role in the development and progression of DR. PMID:27200379

  19. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  20. Validation of NIRS in measuring tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation on ex vivo and isolated limb models

    Xu, Xiaorong; Zhu, Wen; Padival, Vikram; Xia, Mengna; Cheng, Xuefeng; Bush, Robin; Christenson, Linda; Chan, Tim; Doherty, Tim; Iatridis, Angelo

    2003-07-01

    Photonify"s tissue spectrometer uses Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for real-time, noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation [SO2] of biological tissues. The technology was validated by a series of ex vivo and animal studies. In the ex vivo experiment, a close loop blood circulation system was built, precisely controlling the oxygen saturation and the hemoglobin concentration of a liquid phantom. Photonify"s tissue spectrometer was placed on the surface of the liquid phantom for real time measurement and compared with a gas analyzer, considered the gold standard to measure oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. In the animal experiment, the right hind limb of each dog accepted onto the study was surgically removed. The limb was kept viable by connecting the femoral vein and artery to a blood-primed extracorporeal circuit. Different concentrations of hemoglobin were obtained by adding designated amount of saline solution into the perfusion circuit. Photonify"s tissue spectrometers measured oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration at various locations on the limb and compared with gas analyzer results. The test results demonstrated that Photonify"s tissue spectrometers were able to detect the relative changes in tissue oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration with a high linear correlation compared to the gas analyzer

  1. Treatment of β-Thalassemia/Hemoglobin E with Antioxidant Cocktails Results in Decreased Oxidative Stress, Increased Hemoglobin Concentration, and Improvement of the Hypercoagulable State

    Orn-uma Yanpanitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the antioxidant treatment for thalassemia have reported variable outcomes. However, treatment of thalassemia with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidants and an iron chelator has not been studied. This study investigated the effects of antioxidant cocktails for the treatment of β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (HbE, which is the most common form of β-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Sixty patients were divided into two groups receiving N-acetylcysteine, deferiprone, and either curcuminoids (CUR or vitamin E (Vit-E, and their hematological parameters, iron load, oxidative stress, and blood coagulation potential were evaluated. Patients were classified as responders if they showed the improvements of the markers of iron load and oxidative stress, otherwise as nonresponders. During treatment, the responders in both groups had significantly decreased iron load, oxidative stress, and coagulation potential and significantly increased antioxidant capacity and hemoglobin concentration. The significantly maximum increase (P<0.01 in hemoglobin concentration was 11% at month 4 in CUR group responders and 10% at month 10 in Vit-E group responders. In conclusion, the two antioxidant cocktails can improve anemia, iron overload, oxidative stress, and hypercoagulable state in β-thalassemia/HbE.

  2. National Trends in Hemoglobin Concentration and Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese School-Aged Children, 1995-2010.

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette

    2017-04-01

    To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiosensitization by hematocrit manipulation

    Hirst, D.G.; Hazlehurst, J.L.; Brown, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors show that tumors in mice adapt to anemia in a rather complex manner. Radiosensitivity may be lower, higher or equal to normal depending on when the anemia is induced prior to irradiation. The authors study these changes in radiosensitivity which occur during a period of anemia followed by the restoration of the hematocrit. When mice were made anemic immediately before irradiation, their tumors were very resistant, but the resistance was lost over the following 24 hrs even though the anemia was maintained. If mice which had been anemic for 24 hrs were retransfused to normal levels with red blood cells immediately before irradiation, their tumors were considerably more sensitive than normal. As the interval between retransfusion and irradiation was increased, sensitization was rapidly lost so that by 24 hrs sensitivity was the same as that of control tumors. They attribute this loss of sensitization to rapid tumor growth in response to a restored oxygen supply so that new hypoxic cells are created. The implications of this for the treatment of the anemic patient are discussed

  4. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  5. Ganho de peso, hemoglobina e hematócrito de ratos recebendo dieta de Quissamã, RJ, com ou sem suplemento alimentar alternativo Weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit of rats receiving the Quissamã's diet with or without an alternative food supplement

    Gilson Teles Boaventura

    2003-09-01

    days. Blood was collected on the last day for biochemical analysis. The CGFS showed a significant weight loss (p< 0.05 compared with all the other groups and significantly higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels compared with the other Control Groups. The QG presented the highest hemoglobin level and the QGFS showed the highest hematocrit level among all the Quissamã Groups. The supplementation of Quissamã's Diet was not relevant in this experiment.

  6. Determination of the thermodynamic state of concentrated hemoglobin solutions by means of small angle X-ray scattering

    Zinke, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exemplified by hemoglobin, the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of the dissolved macromolecular system could be determined solely from the small angle X-ray scattering of concentrated macromolecular solutions via the intermolecular structure of the dissolved macromolecules and their intermolecular potentials. From the scattering experiment on concentrated Hb solutions the concentration dependence of the following properties of the dissolved Hb system were determined: fluctuation, isothermic compressibility, internal energy, surface tension, and osmotic pressure. (author)

  7. The Prognostic Value of Hemoglobin Concentration in Postoperative Radiotherapy of 835 Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Suwinski, Rafal; Idasiak, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (pRT). Methods and Materials: The records of 835 patients who underwent pRT between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. Most patients (526 of 835 patients; 63%) were in advanced clinical stages (T3-T4) and 371 of 835 patients (44%) were node positive. Total laryngectomy had been performed in 676 of 835 patients (81%). Median Hb concentration before (Hb0) and after pRT (Hb1) was the same (13.3 g/dl). However, individual differences between Hb1 and Hb0 (dHb) varied within a broad range (-8.8; 5.0 g/dl). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with dHb greater than 0 had significantly improved 5-year LRC compared with those with dHb of 0 or less (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.01). Conversely, when categorized, neither Hb0 nor Hb1 had a significant influence on LRC. In multivariate analysis, dHb remained a prognostic factor for LRC (p = 0.01) among the other variables, which included overall radiation treatment time and nodal status. None of the Hb-related variables significantly influenced metastases-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Individual change in Hb concentration during the course of pRT (dHb) rather than Hb level before or after pRT appeared as an independent prognostic factor for LRC in this set of patients

  8. The effect of a standardized protocol for iron supplementation to blood donors low in hemoglobin concentration.

    Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.

  9. Effect of neonatal hemoglobin concentration on long-term outcome of infants affected by fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Kadooka, Mizuho; Kato, Hiromi; Kato, Akihiko; Ibara, Satoshi; Minakami, Hisanori; Maruyama, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can cause severe morbidity. However, perinatal risk factors for long-term poor outcome due to FMH have not been extensively studied. To determine which FMH infants are likely to have neurological sequelae. A single-center retrospective observational study. Perinatal factors, including demographic characteristics, Kleihauer-Betke test, blood gas analysis, and neonatal blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), were analyzed in association with long-term outcomes. All 18 neonates referred to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Kagoshima City Hospital and diagnosed with FMH during a 15-year study period. All had a neonatal [Hb] neonates tested had Kleihauer-Betke test result >4.0%. Poor long-term outcome was defined as any of the following determined at 12 month old or more: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy. Nine of the 18 neonates exhibited poor outcomes. Among demographic characteristics and blood variables compared between two groups with poor and favorable outcomes, significant differences were observed in [Hb] (3.6±1.4 vs. 5.4±1.1g/dL, P=0.01), pH (7.09±0.11 vs. 7.25±0.13, P=0.02) and base deficits (17.5±5.4 vs. 10.4±6.0mmol/L, P=0.02) in neonatal blood, and a number of infants with [Hb]≤4.5g/dL (78%[7/9] vs. 22%[2/9], P=0.03), respectively. The base deficit in neonatal arterial blood increased significantly with decreasing neonatal [Hb]. Severe anemia causing severe base deficit is associated with neurological sequelae in FMH infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.

    Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds.

  11. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults...

  12. A near infrared instrument to monitor relative hemoglobin concentrations of human bone tissue in vitro and in vivo

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Khambatta, Faram; Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Thomas, John C.; Clark, Jillian M.; Marshall, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A continuous wave near infrared instrument has been developed to monitor in vivo changes in the hemoglobin concentration of the trabecular compartment of human bone. The transmitter uses only two laser diodes of wavelengths 685 and 830 nm, and the receiver uses a single silicon photodiode operating in the photovoltaic mode. The functioning of the instrument and the depth of penetration of the near infrared signals was determined in vitro using tissue-equivalent phantoms. The instrument achieves a depth of penetration of approximately 2 cm for an optode separation of 4 cm and, therefore, has the capacity to interrogate the trabecular compartment of human bone. The functioning of the instrument was tested in vivo to evaluate the relative oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of the proximal tibial bone of apparently healthy, normal weight, adult subjects in response to a 3 min on, 5 min off, vascular occlusion protocol. The traces of the relative Hb and HbO2 concentrations obtained were reproducible in controlled conditions. The instrument is relatively simple and flexible, and offers an inexpensive platform for further studies to obtain normative data for healthy cohorts, and to evaluate disease-specific performance characteristics for cohorts with vasculopathies of bone.

  13. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy.

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation ( SO 2 ) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise. In extra-cerebral tissue, an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin ( HbR ) and a decrease in SO 2 were observed while only cerebral HbR increased at high intensity exercise. Results in extra-cerebral tissue are consistent with thermoregulatory mechanisms to dissipate excess heat through skin blood flow, while cerebral changes are in agreement with cerebral blood flow ( CBF ) redistribution mechanisms to meet oxygen demand in activated regions during exercise. No significant difference was observed in oxy- ( HbO 2 ) and total hemoglobin ( HbT ). In addition HbO 2 , HbR and HbT increased with subject's peak power output (equivalent to the maximum oxygen volume consumption; VO 2 peak) supporting previous observations of increased total mass of red blood cells in trained individuals. Our results also revealed known gender differences with higher hemoglobin in men. Our approach in quantifying both extra-cerebral and cerebral absolute hemoglobin during exercise may help to better interpret past and future continuous-wave NIRS studies that are prone to extra-cerebral contamination and allow a better understanding of acute cerebral changes due to physical exercise.

  14. Farklı Yemlerle Beslemenin Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’nda Hematokrit ve Hemoglobin Miktarı Üzerine Etkileri / The Effects of Liver Feed on Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Atamanalp, Muhammed; Bayır, Abdulkadir; Sirkecioğlu, A. Necdet; Yanık, Telat; Yılmaz, Mehtap; Cengiz, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    ÖZET: Bu araştırmada beslenme-kan parametre ilişkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla kontrollü yetiştirme şartlarında tutulan gökkuşağı alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’ nda rasyona karaciğer ilavesinin hematokrit ve hemoglobin değerleri üzerine etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Karaciğerle beslenen balıklarda gerek hemoglobin gerekse hematokrit değerleri, karaciğer + kuru karma yem ve yalnızca kuru karma yemle beslenen gruplara nazaran &...

  15. PROFILE OF HEMATOCRIT LEVEL CAPTURED BY DIGITAL HEMATOCRIT TEST

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Sardjono, Tri Arif

    2015-01-01

    The dengue fever is a disease caused by Dengue virus which is transmitted via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vector. This Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) case in Indonesia tend to rise from year to year caused by delayed detection and inadequate handling. The laboratory parameter of hematocrite had regularly been performed using invasive method by taking the blood from the patient. This method is still not been able to monitor patients with DHF by repetitive and accurate measurament. This...

  16. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  17. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  18. Relationship between Sucralose Consumption and Serum Concentration of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Complications

    María del Carmen Cortés-López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available People who live with diabetes consume sucralose to control their blood glucose, but there is a controversy about this topic. To evaluate the relationship between sucralose consumption and serum concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin in people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without complications. Cross-sectional study. Universe of 27 214 people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without complications, users of a primary care unit from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in the state of Jalisco, Mexico. Simple probabilistic sample, n = 194 (p = 0,05. Propositive sampling. Selection criteria: adults of any gender and education level who agreed to participate. Variables: sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and dietary. Data collection instruments: Sociodemographic questionnaire, Tanita Fitscan© 585 scale, Tanita Fitscan© HR-200 stadiometer, Body Flex© tape-measure, Slim Guide© plicometer, Afinion© AS100 analyzer, and Frequency of Food Consumption Questionnaire. Information sources: clinical files and Mexican System of Equivalent Foods. Analysis: descriptive and inferential statistics (p ≤ 0,05. 194 people. Mean age 60,23 ± 11,16, interval 28-93 years. 56,2% females and 43,8% males. Difference between glycosilated hemoglobin means: sucralose consumers 7,5% ± 1,7%, no sucralose consumers 8,1% ± 2,1% (p < 0,01. Association force “sucralose consumption/high glycosilated hemoglobin concentration” OR = 1,42 (CI95% 0,63, 3,21. Lineal correlation “quarterly sucralose consumption/serum concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin” ρ = -0,754 (R2 = 0,0057, p = 0,333. This results were partially consistent to the pre-existing literature. Studies with representative stratified samples and control of dietary variables are required for better results.

  19. The initial decrease in effective peritoneal surface area is not caused by an increase in hematocrit

    Struijk, D. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Koomen, G. C.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Hoek, F. J.; Arisz, L.

    1993-01-01

    The possible relationship between initial changes in functional characteristics of the peritoneal membrane in time and hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (Ht) was analyzed as part of a prospective longitudinal study. The patients were investigated twice: the first time within 3 months after the start of

  20. Prediction model for high glycated hemoglobin concentration among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Lee Bai-Chin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to construct a prediction model to identify subjects with high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels by incorporating anthropometric, lifestyle, clinical, and biochemical information in a large cross-sectional ethnic Chinese population in Taiwan from a health checkup center. Methods The prediction model was derived from multivariate logistic regression, and we evaluated the performance of the model in identifying the cases with high HbA1c levels (> = 7.0%. In total 17,773 participants (age > = 30 years were recruited and 323 participants (1.8% had high HbA1c levels. The study population was divided randomly into two parts, with 80% as the derivation data and 20% as the validation data. Results The point-based clinical model, including age (maximal 8 points, sex (1 point, family history (3 points, body mass index (2 points, waist circumference (4 points, and systolic blood pressure (3 points reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.723 (95% confidence interval, 0.677- 0.769 in the validation data. Adding biochemical measures such as triglycerides and HDL cholesterol improved the prediction power (AUC, 0.770 [0.723 - 0.817], P = Conclusions A prediction model was constructed for the prevalent risk of high HbA1c, which could be useful in identifying high risk subjects for diabetes among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan.

  1. Spectral filtering modulation method for estimation of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation based on a single fluorescence emission spectrum in tissue phantoms.

    Liu, Quan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue are important biomarkers that are useful in both research and clinical diagnostics of a wide variety of diseases such as cancer. The authors aim to develop simple ratiometric method based on the spectral filtering modulation (SFM) of fluorescence spectra to estimate the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in tissue using only a single fluorescence emission spectrum, which will eliminate the need of diffuse reflectance measurements and prolonged data processing as required by most current methods, thus enabling rapid clinical measurements. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, the total hemoglobin concentration is determined by comparing a ratio of fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths to a calibration curve. The second step is to estimate oxygen saturation by comparing a double ratio that involves three emission wavelengths to another calibration curve that is a function of oxygen saturation for known total hemoglobin concentration. Theoretical derivation shows that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentrations and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation for the chosen fiber-optic probe geometry. Experiments on synthetic fluorescent tissue phantoms, which included hemoglobin with both constant and varying oxygenation as the absorber, polystyrene spheres as scatterers, and flavin adenine dinucleotide as the fluorophore, were carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. Tissue phantom experiments confirm that the ratio in the first step is linearly proportional to the total hemoglobin concentration and the double ratio in the second step is related to both total hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin oxygenation. Furthermore, the relations between the two ratios and the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygenation are insensitive

  2. Correlation between CT and MRI findings of chronic subdural hematomas, and total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations in hematomas

    Tane, Kazuyuki [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The authors investigated the correlation between the neuroradiological findings (computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image) of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) and the fractions in those hematomas (hemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), and methemoglobin (met-Hb)). Thirty-three patients with a total of forty lesions were chosenas subjects, all with CSDH showing almost homogenous findings in CT scans and MR images. The density in the patients' CT scans was divided into high density, iso-density and low density. The intensity in their MR images was also divided into high intensity, isointensity and low intensity, and the correlation of these to the Hb, oxy-Hb and met-Hb concentrations calculated from the absorption spectrum of the hematoma sampled during the operation was examined. The CT findings were highly correlated to the Hb and oxy-Hb, concentrations and the CT scans of the hematomas with an Hb concentration above 9.4 g/dl all showed high density. The T1-weighted MR image and met-Hb concentration also showed a high correlation, and the images of the hematomas with a met-Hb concentration above 0.4 g/dl all showed high intensity. These results indicated that the fraction in the content of CSDH was predictable from the image findings. To obtain prior knowledge of the content of a hematoma seemed extremely useful for the clucidation of the pathogenesis of CSDH and for deciding its therapeutic policy. (author)

  3. Correlation between CT and MRI findings of chronic subdural hematomas, and total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations in hematomas

    Tane, Kazuyuki

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the correlation between the neuroradiological findings (computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image) of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) and the fractions in those hematomas (hemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), and methemoglobin (met-Hb)). Thirty-three patients with a total of forty lesions were chosenas subjects, all with CSDH showing almost homogenous findings in CT scans and MR images. The density in the patients' CT scans was divided into high density, iso-density and low density. The intensity in their MR images was also divided into high intensity, isointensity and low intensity, and the correlation of these to the Hb, oxy-Hb and met-Hb concentrations calculated from the absorption spectrum of the hematoma sampled during the operation was examined. The CT findings were highly correlated to the Hb and oxy-Hb, concentrations and the CT scans of the hematomas with an Hb concentration above 9.4 g/dl all showed high density. The T1-weighted MR image and met-Hb concentration also showed a high correlation, and the images of the hematomas with a met-Hb concentration above 0.4 g/dl all showed high intensity. These results indicated that the fraction in the content of CSDH was predictable from the image findings. To obtain prior knowledge of the content of a hematoma seemed extremely useful for the clucidation of the pathogenesis of CSDH and for deciding its therapeutic policy. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    Jie Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56 had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05 compared with the NIDA group (n = 38 and control group (n = 46. Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for

  5. The effect of oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients on hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin response among nonpregnant Cambodian women of reproductive age: a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled supplementation trial.

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Barker, Mikaela K; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Houghton, Lisa A; Prak, Sophonneary; Hou, Kroeun; Chai, Tze Lin; Stormer, Ame; Ly, Sokhoing; Devenish, Robyn; Oberkanins, Christian; Pühringer, Helene; Harding, Kimberly B; De-Regil, Luz M; Kraemer, Klaus; Green, Tim J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of anemia among nonpregnant Cambodian women, current reports suggest that iron deficiency (ID) prevalence is low. If true, iron supplementation will not be an effective anemia reduction strategy. Objective: We measured the effect of daily oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients (MMNs) on hemoglobin concentration in nonpregnant Cambodian women screened as anemic. Design: In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized trial, nonpregnant women (aged 18-45 y) with hemoglobin concentrations ≤117 g/L (capillary blood) were recruited from 26 villages in Kampong Chhnang province and randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of iron (60 mg; Fe group), MMNs (14 other micronutrients; MMN group), iron plus MMNs (Fe+MMN group), or placebo capsules. A 2 × 2 factorial intention-to-treat analysis with the use of a generalized mixed-effects model was used to assess the effects of iron and MMNs and the interaction between these factors. Results: In July 2015, 809 women were recruited and 760 (94%) completed the trial. Baseline anemia prevalence was 58% (venous blood). Mean (95% CI) hemoglobin concentrations at 12 wk in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups were 121 (120, 121), 116 (116, 117), 123 (122, 123), and 116 (116, 117) g/L, with no iron × MMN interaction ( P = 0.66). Mean (95% CI) increases in hemoglobin were 5.6 g/L (3.8, 7.4 g/L) ( P < 0.001) among women who received iron ( n = 407) and 1.2 g/L (-0.6, 3.0 g/L) ( P = 0.18) among women who received MMNs ( n = 407). The predicted proportions (95% CIs) of women with a hemoglobin response (≥10 g/L at 12 wk) were 19% (14%, 24%), 9% (5%, 12%), 30% (24%, 35%), and 5% (2%, 9%) in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusions: Daily iron supplementation for 12 wk increased hemoglobin in nonpregnant Cambodian women; however, MMNs did not confer additional significant benefit. Overall, ∼24% of women who received iron responded after 12 wk; even fewer would be

  6. Hemoglobin (image)

    Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called ... exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individual's hemoglobin value can indicate defects in the normal balance ...

  7. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: In elderly Danes, reference intervals for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are derived from younger population groups. The aim was to examine reference intervals for Hb and cut-off limits for anemia by application of criteria for normality to a representative population of 80...

  8. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  9. Hematocrit Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hematocrittest.html Hematocrit Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hematocrit Test? A hematocrit test is a type of blood ...

  10. Significance of Initial Maternal Hemoglobin Concentration during Pregnancy in Birth Weight and Preterm Delivery in Sri Lanka

    Athambawa, Mohamed Razmy

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Anemia in pregnant women continues to be a major health problem in many developing countries such as Sri Lanka and more than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin (Hb) concentration levels indicative of anemia. Anemia diagnosed early in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery where as in some studies the association between anemia and outcomes is in reversed direction especially at the last stage of pregnancy. LBW and preterm delivery are closely associated with foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development and chronic diseases later in life. The provision of iron supplements to pregnant women throughout the pregnancy period is one of the most widely practiced public health measures in Sri Lanka. However the supplementation of routine iron during pregnancy, regardless of whether the mother is anemic, has been debated extensively. In this study 3,867 pregnant women in Sri Lanka were followed to find the significance of initial maternal Hb concentration during pregnancy in birth weight and preterm delivery. The relative risks were estimated using linear logistic models. Among the mothers observed 1.1 % and 16 % were in severe anemic and anemic conditions respectively. The average birth weight of 2454.7 g was observed for the severe anemic mothers which was 522.3 g significantly less compare to the average birth weight given by the rests of the mothers (P 125 g/L) level of initial maternal Hb concentration. Severe anemic mothers had significantly very less weight gain of 6.30 Kg (P < 0.001) and had 3.0 – 8.1 fold higher relative risk of preterm delivery compare to the mothers with normal initial Hb concentration. No significant differences in weight gain and risk of preterm delivery were observed among the mothers with normal initial Hb concentration, anemic and excess initial Hb concentration (P = 0.176, 0148) This study provides substantial

  11. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample ...

    lower cut-off of 33% or hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of. 11 gram% was ... venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). Enugu ..... and emphasis was placed on the importance of good nutrition.

  12. Randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot to increase hemoglobin concentration in anemic, rural Cambodian women.

    Rappaport, Aviva I; Whitfield, Kyly C; Chapman, Gwen E; Yada, Rickey Y; Kheang, Khin Meng; Louise, Jennie; Summerlee, Alastair J; Armstrong, Gavin R; Green, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Background: Anemia affects 45% of women of childbearing age in Cambodia. Iron supplementation is recommended in populations in which anemia prevalence is high. However, there are issues of cost, distribution, and adherence. A potential alternative is a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot, which, when added to the cooking pot, leaches iron into the fluid in which it is prepared. Objective: We sought to determine whether there was a difference in hemoglobin concentrations in rural Cambodian anemic women (aged 18-49 y) who cooked with the iron ingot or consumed a daily iron supplement compared with a control after 1 y. Design: In Preah Vihear, 340 women with mild or moderate anemia were randomly assigned to 1 ) an iron-ingot group, 2 ) an iron-supplement (18 mg/d) group, or 3 ) a nonplacebo control group. A venous blood sample was taken at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants. Results: Anemia prevalence was 44% with the use of a portable hemoglobinometer during screening. At baseline, prevalence of iron deficiency was 9% on the basis of a low serum ferritin concentration. There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin concentrations between the iron-ingot group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 118 g/L; P = 0.850) or iron-supplement group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L; P = 0.998) compared with the control group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L) at 12 mo. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the iron-supplement group (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 64, 82 μg/L; P = 0.002) than in the control group at 6 mo; however, this significance was not maintained at 12 mo (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 58, 91 μg/L; P = 0.176). Conclusions: Neither the iron ingot nor iron supplements increased hemoglobin concentrations in this population at 6 or 12 mo. We do not recommend the use of the fish-shaped iron ingot in Cambodia or in countries where the prevalence

  13. Effect of age on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume and hemoglobin to exercise in Jeju crossbreed horses

    Ok-Deuk Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the on heart rate, blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume (PCV and hemoglobin (Hb response after conducting exercise in endurance horses. Methods A total of 20 healthy 3–9-years-old Jeju crossbreed mares (5.95 ± 2.24 year of age and 312.65 ± 13.59 kg of weight currently participating the endurance competition were used. The field tests selected for the experiment was gallop (approximately 8.3 m/s along the selected 2.5 km course (a natural forest trail, not artificial road; a closed loop course. The horses were divided into three groups according to their age; 3–4 years of age (G1, 3.29 ± 0.49 year, 6–7 years of age (G2, 6.42 ± 0.53, and 8–9 years of age (G3, 8.50 ± 0.55. The measurements times for the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV, and Hb analysis were conducted before exercise (T0, shortly after exercise (T1, 15 min after exercise (T2, and 30 min after exercise (T3, respectively. Data was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for repeated measures with times and groups. Results The results of the comparison depending on the passage of rest time after exercise suggest that the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of three groups at T2 significantly decreased compared to T1 (p < 0.001. PCV of the G2 and G3 groups were significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (p < 0.01. Hb values at G2 (p < 0.01 and G3 (p < 0.001 groups were significantly decreased at T2 as compared to T1. However, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, PCV and Hb level at T1 showed no difference in the comparison of horses from different age groups with the exception of G3 group in terms of heart rate. Conclusion The physiologic and hematological responses of horses during recovery time after 2,500 m exercise with gallop were no significant difference among the groups. These data are useful as a response evaluation method for

  14. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  15. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  16. Evaluation of light scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue based on diffuse reflectance signals at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin

    Yokokawa, Takumi; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a method to evaluate light-scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in human skin tissue through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using the reflectance signals acquired at isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin (420, 450, 500, and 585 nm). In the proposed method, Monte Carlo simulation-based empirical formulas are used to specify the scattering parameters of skin tissue, such as the scattering amplitude a and the scattering power b, as well as the concentration of melanin C m and the total blood concentration C tb. The use of isosbestic wavelengths of hemoglobin enables the values of C m, C tb, a, and b to be estimated independently of the oxygenation of hemoglobin. The spectrum of the reduced scattering coefficient is reconstructed from the scattering parameters. Experiments using in vivo human skin tissues were performed to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method for evaluating the changes in scattering properties and chromophore concentrations in skin tissue. The experimental results revealed that light scattering is significantly reduced by the application of a glycerol solution, which indicates an optical clearing effect due to osmotic dehydration and the matching of the refractive indices of scatterers in the epidermis.

  17. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within......- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) CVs for healthy women. In addition, the index of individuality, prediction intervals, and power calculations were derived....

  18. Analyzing prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange spectrum in patients with major depressive disorder combined with anxiety and obsession through near-infrared spectroscopy

    刘晓敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exploring the characteristics of prefrontal cortex activation in patients of major depressive disorder(MDD)combined with anxiety and obsession through functional near-infrared spectroscopy(fN IRS).Methods Prefrontal cortex hemoglobin concentration exchange of30 MDD patients combined with anxiety and obsession was detected by fN IRS under voice fluency task(VFT),then psychological assessment was made using Hanmilton Depression Scale(HAMD),Hamilton Anxiety Scale

  19. The Effect of High-Flux Hemodialysis on Hemoglobin Concentrations in Patients with CKD: Results of the MINOXIS Study

    Schneider, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; Krane, Vera; Krieter, Detlef H.; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schneider, Markus P.; Wanner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis treatment induces markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which could affect hemoglobin levels and the response to erythropoietin use. This study sought to determine whether high-flux dialysis would help improve markers of renal anemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress compared with low-flux dialysis. Design, settings, participants, & measurements In a prospective, controlled study, 221 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis and receiving darbepoetin-alfa treatment (mean age, 66 years; 55% male) from 19 centers were screened in a 20-week run-in period of low-flux hemodialysis with a synthetic dialysis membrane. Thereafter, 166 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive a synthetic high-flux membrane or to continue on low-flux dialysis for 52 weeks. Data on myeloperoxidase, oxidized LDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the Malnutrition Inflammation Score were collected at baseline and after 52 weeks; routine laboratory data, such as hemoglobin, ferritin, and albumin, and the use of darbepoetin-alfa, were also measured in the run-in period. Results After 52 weeks, the low-flux and the high-flux groups did not differ with respect to hemoglobin (mean ± SD, 11.7±0.9 g/dl versus 11.7±1.1 g/dl; P=0.62) or use of darbepoetin-alfa (mean dosage ± SD, 29.8±24.8 μg/wk versus 26.0±31.1 μg/wk; P=0.85). Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, or nutritional status also did not differ between groups. Conclusion Over 1 year, high-flux dialysis had no superior effects on hemoglobin levels or markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and nutritional status. These data do not support the hypothesis that enhanced convective toxin removal would improve patient outcome. PMID:22096040

  20. Evaluation of Hematocrit Influence on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Based on ISO 15197:2013: Comparison of a Novel System With Five Systems With Different Hematocrit Ranges.

    Hattemer, Andrew; Wardat, Sami

    2018-03-01

    ISO 15197:2013 recommends testing procedures and acceptance criteria for the evaluation of influence quantities such as hematocrit on measurement results with systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). In this study, hematocrit influence was evaluated for a novel SMBG system (system A) and five other systems with different hematocrit ranges based on ISO 15197:2013. Test procedures were performed with one test strip lot for each system. Each system was tested within the hematocrit range indicated in the manufacturer's labeling (system A: 10-65%, B: 15-65%, C: 20-60%, D: 35-60%, E: 30-60%, F: 30-55%). According to ISO 15197:2013, clause 6.4.2, venous blood samples were used for the evaluation of hematocrit influence. The evaluation was performed for three glucose concentration categories (30-50 mg/dL, 96-144 mg/dL, and 280-420 mg/dL). For each glucose concentration category, at least five different hematocrit levels were investigated. The novel system A and systems B, E, and F complied with the tested lot with the defined criteria and showed ≤10 mg/dL and ≤10% difference between the test sample and the respective control sample with a hematocrit value of 42% ± 2% for BG concentrations 10% difference at glucose concentrations ≥100 mg/dL. Remarkable hematocrit influence within the labeled hematocrit range was obtained in two systems with the tested reagent system lot. Adequate SMBG systems should be carefully chosen by patients and their health care professionals, particularly for patients with increased and decreased hematocrit values.

  1. Fish hemoglobins

    Souza,P.C. de; Bonilla-Rodriguez,G.O.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta) and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemica...

  2. A method comparison study between two hemoglobinometer models (Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+) to measure hemoglobin concentrations and estimate anemia prevalence among women in Preah Vihear, Cambodia.

    Rappaport, A I; Karakochuk, C D; Whitfield, K C; Kheang, K M; Green, T J

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is often measured in global health and nutrition surveys to determine anemia prevalence using a portable hemoglobinometer such as the Hemocue® Hb 201+. More recently, a newer model was released (Hemocue Hb 301) utilizing slightly different methods to measure Hb as compared to the older model. The objective was to measure bias and concordance between Hb concentrations using the Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+ models in a rural field setting. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured using one finger prick of blood (approximately 10 μL) from 175 Cambodian women (18-49 years) using three Hemocue Hb 201+ and three Hb 301 machines. Bias and concordance were measured and plotted. Overall, mean ± SD Hb concentration was 116 ± 13 g/L using the Hb 201+ and 118 ± 12 g/L using the Hb 301; and anemia prevalence (Hb < 120 g/L) was 58% (n = 102) and 58% (n = 101), respectively. Overall bias ± SD was 2.0 ± 10.5 g/L and concordance (95% CI) was 0.63 (0.54, 0.72). Despite the 2 g/L bias detected between models, anemia prevalence was very similar in both models. The two models measured anemia prevalence comparably in this population of women in rural Cambodia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group ( n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor ( p iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia was 27.2 pg, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. The cut-off values for

  4. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    2011-08-17

    ...] Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and... Donors.'' The purpose of this public workshop is to discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact on donor safety and blood availability, and potential...

  5. Fish hemoglobins

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  6. An Innovative Simple Technique of Blood Conservation in Adult Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot and Severely Raised Hemoglobin

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients...

  7. Hemoglobin C disease

    Clinical hemoglobin C ... Hemoglobin C is an abnormal type of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. It is ... Americans. You are more likely to have hemoglobin C disease if someone in your family has had ...

  8. Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Meurrens, Julie; Steiner, Thomas; Ponette, Jonathan; Janssen, Hans Antonius; Ramaekers, Monique; Wehrlin, Jon Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Deldicque, Louise

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the impact of three whole blood donations on endurance capacity and hematological parameters and to determine the duration to fully recover initial endurance capacity and hematological parameters after each donation. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects were randomly divided in a donation (n = 16) and a placebo (n = 8) group. Each of the three donations was interspersed by 3 months, and the recovery of endurance capacity and hematological parameters was monitored up to 1 month after donation. Maximal power output, peak oxygen consumption, and hemoglobin mass decreased (p donation with a maximal decrease of 4, 10, and 7%, respectively. Hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, ferritin, and red blood cell count (RBC), all key hematological parameters for oxygen transport, were lowered by a single donation (p donations (p donation was 11% for hematocrit, 10% for hemoglobin concentration, 50% for ferritin, and 12% for RBC (p donation group. Maximal, but not submaximal, endurance capacity was altered after blood donation in moderately trained people and the expected increase in capacity after multiple maximal exercise tests was not present when repeating whole blood donations.

  9. Variation in the hematocrit of the rat after gamma irradiation

    Marble, G.; Breuil, L.; Berthelet, J.

    1966-01-01

    Statistical analysis of hematocrit measurement results has been carried out for twenty batches of rats with a view to studying the variation in the hematocrit as a function of the irradiation dose during the first four days after this irradiation. A significant increase in the hematocrit has been observed on the third day for 750 and 1000 rads and on the fourth day for 1000 rads only. (authors) [fr

  10. Determination Of Ph Including Hemoglobin Correction

    Maynard, John D.; Hendee, Shonn P.; Rohrscheib, Mark R.; Nunez, David; Alam, M. Kathleen; Franke, James E.; Kemeny, Gabor J.

    2005-09-13

    Methods and apparatuses of determining the pH of a sample. A method can comprise determining an infrared spectrum of the sample, and determining the hemoglobin concentration of the sample. The hemoglobin concentration and the infrared spectrum can then be used to determine the pH of the sample. In some embodiments, the hemoglobin concentration can be used to select an model relating infrared spectra to pH that is applicable at the determined hemoglobin concentration. In other embodiments, a model relating hemoglobin concentration and infrared spectra to pH can be used. An apparatus according to the present invention can comprise an illumination system, adapted to supply radiation to a sample; a collection system, adapted to collect radiation expressed from the sample responsive to the incident radiation; and an analysis system, adapted to relate information about the incident radiation, the expressed radiation, and the hemoglobin concentration of the sample to pH.

  11. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin.

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  12. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  13. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  14. The Effect of Red Fruit's (Pandanus conoideus Extract to Eritrocytes, Hemoglobin, PCV and TPP Concentrations of Mice (Mus musculus Infected by Toxoplasma gondii

    Anis Dwi Utami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasites caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The red fruit’s extract contains tocopherol and betacarotene as antioxidant and it can repair the bodies immune system. This research was aimed to study the effect of red fruit’s extract to erithrocytes, hemoglobine, the values of PCV and TPP concentration of mice infected with T. gondii, so that the red fruit extract can be used as alternative herbal medicine for eliminating Toxoplasmosis. 15 of Balb/C mice, male, three months, 30 gr of body weight were used as experimental animals. The mice were then devided into three groups. Group I was a control, group II  was tachyzoite infected and group III was tachyzoite infected and given red fruit’s extract. Group III given red fruit’s extract on first day with 0,53 g/kg BW/mice/day. Mice in group II and III were infected by injection Toxoplasma gondii tachyziote 1x103 a mice intraperitoneally. The blood sample was taken from five mice in each group at 7th and 12th day pass through cantus medialis. The blood was examinated in Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. Data were analyzed by using Factorial 2 x 3. The result showed no significant difference (P>0,05 in hemoglobin, and PCV’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite. The TPP’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite was significantly difference (P<0,05.

  15. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit measuring...

  16. Time-resolved absorption and hemoglobin concentration difference maps: a method to retrieve depth-related information on cerebral hemodynamics.

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renée; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-12-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical methods have been applied to detect hemodynamic changes induced by cerebral activity. We describe a near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) reconstruction free method which allows retrieving depth-related information on absorption variations. Variations in the absorption coefficient of tissues have been computed over the duration of the whole experiment, but also over each temporal step of the time-resolved optical signal, using the microscopic Beer-Lambert law.Finite element simulations show that time-resolved computation of the absorption difference as a function of the propagation time of detected photons is sensitive to the depth profile of optical absorption variations. Differences in deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin concentrations can also be calculated from multi-wavelength measurements. Experimental validations of the simulated results have been obtained for resin phantoms. They confirm that time-resolved computation of the absorption differences exhibited completely different behaviours, depending on whether these variations occurred deeply or superficially. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus was measured over the motor cortex and compared to experiments involving Valsalva manoeuvres. Functional maps were also calculated for the hemodynamic response induced by finger tapping movements.

  17. Correction for the Hematocrit Bias in Dried Blood Spot Analysis Using a Nondestructive, Single-Wavelength Reflectance-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method.

    Capiau, Sara; Wilk, Leah S; De Kesel, Pieter M M; Aalders, Maurice C G; Stove, Christophe P

    2018-02-06

    The hematocrit (Hct) effect is one of the most important hurdles currently preventing more widespread implementation of quantitative dried blood spot (DBS) analysis in a routine context. Indeed, the Hct may affect both the accuracy of DBS methods as well as the interpretation of DBS-based results. We previously developed a method to determine the Hct of a DBS based on its hemoglobin content using noncontact diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Despite the ease with which the analysis can be performed (i.e., mere scanning of the DBS) and the good results that were obtained, the method did require a complicated algorithm to derive the total hemoglobin content from the DBS's reflectance spectrum. As the total hemoglobin was calculated as the sum of oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome, the three main hemoglobin derivatives formed in DBS upon aging, the reflectance spectrum needed to be unmixed to determine the quantity of each of these derivatives. We now simplified the method by only using the reflectance at a single wavelength, located at a quasi-isosbestic point in the reflectance curve. At this wavelength, assuming 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the aging reaction, the reflectance is insensitive to the hemoglobin degradation and only scales with the total amount of hemoglobin and, hence, the Hct. This simplified method was successfully validated. At each quality control level as well as at the limits of quantitation (i.e., 0.20 and 0.67) bias, intra- and interday imprecision were within 10%. Method reproducibility was excellent based on incurred sample reanalysis and surpassed the reproducibility of the original method. Furthermore, the influence of the volume spotted, the measurement location within the spot, as well as storage time and temperature were evaluated, showing no relevant impact of these parameters. Application to 233 patient samples revealed a good correlation between the Hct determined on whole blood and the predicted Hct determined on venous DBS. The

  18. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Pblood are seen regularly in normal...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8...

  19. Plasma volume methodology: Evans blue, hemoglobin-hematocrit, and mass density transformations

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring absolute levels and changes in plasma volume are presented along with derivations of pertinent equations. Reduction in variability of the Evans blue dye dilution technique using chromatographic column purification suggests that the day-to-day variability in the plasma volume in humans is less than + or - 20 m1. Mass density determination using the mechanical-oscillator technique provides a method for measuring vascular fluid shifts continuously for assessing the density of the filtrate, and for quantifying movements of protein across microvascular walls. Equations for the calculation of volume and density of shifted fluid are presented.

  20. Histogram analysis for smartphone-based rapid hematocrit determination

    Jalal, Uddin M.; Kim, Sang C.; Shim, Joon S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel and rapid analysis technique using histogram has been proposed for the colorimetric quantification of blood hematocrits. A smartphone-based “Histogram” app for the detection of hematocrits has been developed integrating the smartphone embedded camera with a microfluidic chip via a custom-made optical platform. The developed histogram analysis shows its effectiveness in the automatic detection of sample channel including auto-calibration and can analyze the single-channel as well as multi-channel images. Furthermore, the analyzing method is advantageous to the quantification of blood-hematocrit both in the equal and varying optical conditions. The rapid determination of blood hematocrits carries enormous information regarding physiological disorders, and the use of such reproducible, cost-effective, and standard techniques may effectively help with the diagnosis and prevention of a number of human diseases. PMID:28717569

  1. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  2. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  3. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Pedro Cabrales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Cabrales1, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez2,3, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez3,4, Martha Rodríguez-Morán5, Marcos Intaglietta4, Fernando Guerrero-Romero51La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Hospital Regional No. 1, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 3Faculty of Medicine and Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 5Biomedical Research Unit, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. MexicoObjective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05, when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05.Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be

  4. Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population

    Osama Kunwer Naveed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the major complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and also increases morbidity and mortality. Anemia in patients with CKD can be due to two major reasons; iron deficiency or erythropoietin insufficiency. Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESAs administration is the mainstay in treating anemia if the patient is iron sufficient. However, higher doses of ESAs have been associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We conducted this study to see how much erythropoietin is required in our setting in iron sufficient patients to maintain hemoglobin(Hb  level and the effect of dialysis frequency on ESA doses.  Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology at Ziauddin University Hospital. Patients’ charts were reviewed for Hb levels and doses of ESA to maintain Hb between 10-12 mg/dl. Patients were excluded if they had iron deficiency, malignancy, were on immunosuppressive agents, had renal transplant, and with Hb >12 mg/dl or <10 mg/dl and their ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin concentration, frequency of hemodialysis and ESA dosage were monitored. We also compared these variables between patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly with those undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. A total of 105 patients were analyzed. 24 were excluded as they did not match the inclusion criteria. 81 patients were included in the study. 36 (44.4% were males and 45 (55.6% were females. Mean age of the patient was 56.47 ± 11.72 years. The average dose of ESA was 106.91 ± 61.47 for patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly and 183.94 ± 116.71 for patients undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. Significant difference was found to exist between dosage of patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis versus twice weekly dialysis(p=<0.001.  Our study has limitations

  5. Effect of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants

    Younkin, D.P.; Reivich, M.; Jaggi, J.L.; Obrist, W.D.; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hematocrit and systolic blood pressure on cerebral blood flow were measured in 15 stable, low birth weight babies. CBF was measured with a modification of the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) clearance technique, which uses an intravenous bolus of 133 Xe, an external chest detector to estimate arterial 133 Xe concentration, eight external cranial detectors to measure cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves, and a two-compartmental analysis of the cephalic 133 Xe clearance curves to estimate CBF. There was a significant inverse correlation between hematocrit and CBF, presumably due to alterations in arterial oxygen content and blood viscosity. Newborn CBF varied independently of systolic blood pressure between 60 and 84 mm Hg, suggesting an intact cerebrovascular autoregulatory mechanism. These results indicate that at least two of the factors that affect newborn animal CBF are operational in human newborns and may have important clinical implications

  6. Prognostic value of hemoglobin concentrations in patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with combined radio-chemotherapy and surgery

    Wagner, W.; Hermann, R.; Koch, O.; Hartlapp, J.; Krech, R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Hemoglobin levels are currently the focus of interest as prognostic factors in patients with head and neck cancer. Most published clinical trials have confirmed hemoglobin to process a significant influence on survival in patients treated with radiotherapy. In our study we have investigated the prognostic value of hemoglobin in a combined modality schedule. Patients and Methods: Forty-three patients with advanced head and neck tumors were treated with combined radiochemotherapy. The therapy comprised 2 courses of induction chemotherapy with ifosfamide (1,500 mg/m 2 , day 1 to 5) and cisplatin (60 mg/m 2 , day 5) followed by hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy with a total dose of only 30 Gy. Surgery involved tumor resection and neck dissection. Results: The 1-year overall survival rate and the 2-year survival rate were 79% and 56%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year recurrence-free survival rates were 68% and 49%, respectively. Prognostic factors with an impact on survival were seen in tumor size (T3 vs T4, p=0.0088), response to radio-chemotherapy at the primary site (no vital tumor rest vs vital tumor rest, p=0.045), response to lymph node radio-chemotherapy (no vital tumor cells vs vital tumor cells, p=0.013) and level of hemoglobin after radio-chemotherapy (Hb≥11.5 g/dl vs [de

  7. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia density on hemoglobin concentrations among full-term, normal birth weight children in western Kenya, IV. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project

    McElroy, P. D.; ter Kuile, F. O.; Lal, A. A.; Bloland, P. B.; Hawley, W. A.; Oloo, A. J.; Monto, A. S.; Meshnick, S. R.; Nahlen, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The relative importance of acute high-density versus persistent low-density Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anemia remains unclear. The Asembo Bay Cohort Project in western Kenya collected monthly hemoglobin (Hb) and parasitologic

  8. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants.

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced bymaternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [solubl...

  9. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIF-exposed infants

    Background: Infant iron status at birth is influenced by maternal iron status during pregnancy; however there are few data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. Objective: We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin (Hb...

  10. Sun-dried cowpeas and amaranth leaves recipe improves β-carotene and retinol levels in serum and hemoglobin concentration among preschool children.

    Nawiri, Mildred P; Nyambaka, Hudson; Murungi, Jane I

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia are major challenges among children and expecting and lactating mothers in developing countries. Intervention with locally available dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) is more sustainable to eradicate VAD, being cost-effective and readily adaptable to local communities. DGLV contain high levels of iron and β-carotene (BC) and therefore useful in fighting VAD and anemia. Since DGLVs are season-dependent sun-drying enables their availability during low seasons. However, their contribution to the bioavailability of BC and the improvement of hemoglobin are not well understood. The study therefore investigated the effect of consuming cooked recipe consisting of sun-dried amaranth and cowpea leaves on the levels of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin in preschool children from Machakos District, a semiarid region in Kenya. Vegetables were purchased from local vegetable market, with some sun-dried in an open shade. Levels of BC and retinol in serum and BC in fresh and processed vegetables were determined by a HPLC method and hemoglobin using a portable Hemocue Analyzer. All-trans-BC levels in uncooked fresh cowpea and amaranth leaves were 806.0 μg/g and 599.0 μg/g dry matter, respectively, while the dehydration and cooking processes retained the β-carotene levels at over 60 %. Consumption of the dehydrated vegetables significantly improved both serum BC and retinol levels (p < 0.05), while the baseline hemoglobin levels improved by 4.6 %. The study has shown that intervention with locally available sun-dried vegetables improves the bioavailability of BC, retinol, and hemoglobin levels among preschool children.

  11. Evaluation of point-of-care analyzers' ability to reduce bias in conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Teerenstra, S.; Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Gunnewiek, J.K.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Most point-of-care testing analyzers use the conductivity method to measure hematocrit (hct). During open-heart surgery, blood-conductivity is influenced by shifts in electrolyte and colloid concentrations caused by infusion media used, and this may lead to considerable bias in the hct measurement.

  12. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients at normal hematocrits.

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1997-12-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) values were measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations at normal hematocrit values using three methods: gravimetric, blood-corrected gravimetric, and optical. The lungs were kept in zone 3 conditions and subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 10.24 +/- 0.27 (SE) cmH2O. The resulting Kfc (ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung wt-1) measured with the gravimetric technique was 0.420 +/- 0.017, which was statistically different from the Kfc measured by the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.273 +/- 0.018) or the product of the reflection coefficient (sigmaf) and Kfc measured optically (0. 272 +/- 0.018). The optical method involved the use of a Cellco filter cartridge to separate red blood cells from plasma, which allowed measurement of the concentration of the tracer in plasma at normal hematocrits (34 +/- 1.5). The permeability-surface area product was measured using radioactive multiple indicator-dilution methods before, during, and after venous pressure elevations. Results showed that the surface area of the lung did not change significantly during the measurement of Kfc. These studies suggest that sigmafKfc can be measured optically at normal hematocrits, that this measurement is not influenced by blood volume changes that occur during the measurement, and that the optical sigmafKfc agrees with the Kfc obtained via the blood-corrected gravimetric method.

  13. Hematocrit correction does not improve glucose monitor accuracy in the assessment of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Wang, Li; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell J; Thomaz, Michele; Blatz, Susan; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Fusch, Christoph; Balion, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    The lack of accuracy of point of care (POC) glucose monitors has limited their use in the diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia. Hematocrit plays an important role in explaining discordant results. The objective of this study was to to assess the effect of hematocrit on the diagnostic performance of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro (PXP) and Nova StatStrip (StatStrip) monitors in neonates. All blood samples ordered for laboratory glucose measurement were analyzed using the PXP and StatStrip and compared with the laboratory analyzer (ABL 800 Blood Gas analyzer [ABL]). Acceptable error targets were ±15% for glucose monitoring and ±5% for diagnosis. A total of 307 samples from 176 neonates were analyzed. Overall, 90% of StatStrip and 75% of PXP values met the 15% error limit and 45% of StatStrip and 32% of PXP values met the 5% error limit. At glucose concentrations ≤4 mmol/L, 83% of StatStrip and 79% of PXP values met the 15% error limit, while 37% of StatStrip and 38% of PXP values met the 5% error limit. Hematocrit explained 7.4% of the difference between the PXP and ABL whereas it accounted for only 0.09% of the difference between the StatStrip and ABL. The ROC analysis showed the screening cut point with the best performance for identifying neonatal hypoglycemia was 3.2 mmol/L for StatStrip and 3.3 mmol/L for PXP. Despite a negligible hematocrit effect for the StatStrip, it did not achieve recommended error limits. The StatStrip and PXP glucose monitors remain suitable only for neonatal hypoglycemia screening with confirmation required from a laboratory analyzer.

  14. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hematocrit, anemia, and arm preference for blood sample collection ...

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Regular review of hematocrit (HCT) and anemia patterns in pregnancy is necessary in our environment. Aim: The aim was to determine the average HCT, prevalence, and pattern of anemia, as well the arm ...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5600 - Automated hematocrit instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hematocrit instrument. 864.5600 Section 864.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  17. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  18. The Hemoglobin E Thalassemias

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Weatherall, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Hemoglobin E (HbE) is an extremely common structural hemoglobin variant that occurs at high frequencies throughout many Asian countries. It is a β-hemoglobin variant, which is produced at a slightly reduced rate and hence has the phenotype of a mild form of β thalassemia. Its interactions with different forms of α thalassemia result in a wide variety of clinical disorders, whereas its coinheritance with β thalassemia, a condition called hemoglobin E β thalassemia, is by far the most common severe form of β thalassemia in Asia and, globally, comprises approximately 50% of the clinically severe β-thalassemia disorders. PMID:22908199

  19. Assessment of pack injection cells and the relationship between hematocrit of pack cells and the increase in hematocrit in patients with thalassemia

    Fekri K; Kasiri K; Jalil T; Ganji F

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: The amount of injected blood in patients with thalassemia is of particular importance and the blood amount is calculated based on the exact volume of pack cell as well as their hematocrit. The aim of this study was to evaluate pack cells and the factors affecting on the amount of their hematocrit and their association with increase in hematocrit after blood injection. Methods: This is descriptive-analytical study. Characteristics including age, size, type of anticoagu...

  20. An innovative simple technique of blood conservation in adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot and severely raised hemoglobin.

    Neema, Praveen Kumar; Manikandan, Sethuraman; Rathod, Ramesh Chandra

    2007-12-01

    The adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot often present with high hemoglobin levels. High hemoglobin and hematocrit on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are associated with increased hemolysis, plasma free hemoglobin, renal dysfunction or failure, postoperative bleeding, exploration for bleeding, and increased requirement of allogeneic blood and blood products. Despite the presence of high hemoglobin and its association with adverse outcome, blood conservation is rarely practiced in these patients because of the fear of possible hemodynamic instability, and hypoxemic spell. We describe an innovative, simple technique of blood conservation for adult patients of tetralogy of Fallot with severely raised hemoglobin. With this technique, hemoglobin can be normalized on CPB; moreover, there is no fear of hypoxemic spell or hemodynamic instability. Furthermore, the blood conserved is readily available for transfusion in the perioperative period, if needed.

  1. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  2. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  3. Phylogeny of Echinoderm Hemoglobins.

    Ana B Christensen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic information has revealed that neuroglobin and cytoglobin are the two principal lineages of vertebrate hemoglobins, with the latter encompassing the familiar myoglobin and α-globin/β-globin tetramer hemoglobin, and several minor groups. In contrast, very little is known about hemoglobins in echinoderms, a phylum of exclusively marine organisms closely related to vertebrates, beyond the presence of coelomic hemoglobins in sea cucumbers and brittle stars. We identified about 50 hemoglobins in sea urchin, starfish and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, and used Bayesian inference to carry out a molecular phylogenetic analysis of their relationship to vertebrate sequences, specifically, to assess the hypothesis that the neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages are also present in echinoderms.The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus encodes several hemoglobins, including a unique chimeric 14-domain globin, 2 androglobin isoforms and a unique single androglobin domain protein. Other strongylocentrotid genomes appear to have similar repertoires of globin genes. We carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses of 52 hemoglobins identified in sea urchin, brittle star and sea cucumber genomes and transcriptomes, using different multiple sequence alignment methods coupled with Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches. The results demonstrate that there are two major globin lineages in echinoderms, which are related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages. Furthermore, the brittle star and sea cucumber coelomic hemoglobins appear to have evolved independently from the cytoglobin lineage, similar to the evolution of erythroid oxygen binding globins in cyclostomes and vertebrates.The presence of echinoderm globins related to the vertebrate neuroglobin and cytoglobin lineages suggests that the split between neuroglobins and cytoglobins occurred in the deuterostome ancestor shared by echinoderms and vertebrates.

  4. Transverse water relaxation in whole blood and erythrocytes at 3T, 7T, 9.4T, 11.7T and 16.4T; determination of intracellular hemoglobin and extracellular albumin relaxivities.

    Grgac, Ksenija; Li, Wenbo; Huang, Alan; Qin, Qin; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2017-05-01

    Blood is a physiological substance with multiple water compartments, which contain water-binding proteins such as hemoglobin in erythrocytes and albumin in plasma. Knowing the water transverse (R 2 ) relaxation rates from these different blood compartments is a prerequisite for quantifying the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect. Here, we report the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) based transverse (R 2CPMG ) relaxation rates of water in bovine blood samples circulated in a perfusion system at physiological temperature in order to mimic blood perfusion in humans. R 2CPMG values of blood plasma, lysed packed erythrocytes, lysed plasma/erythrocyte mixtures, and whole blood at 3 T, 7 T, 9.4 T, 11.7 T and 16.4 T were measured as a function of hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration, oxygenation, and CPMG inter-echo spacing (τ cp ). R 2CPMG in lysed cells showed a small τ cp dependence, attributed to the water exchange rate between free and hemoglobin-bound water to be much faster than τ cp . This was contrary to the tangential dependence in whole blood, where a much slower exchange between cells and blood plasma applies. Whole blood data were fitted as a function of τ cp using a general tangential correlation time model applicable for exchange as well as diffusion contributions to R 2CPMG , and the intercept R 20blood at infinitely short τ cp was determined. The R 20blood values at different hematocrit and the R 2CPMG values of lysed erythrocyte/plasma mixtures at different hemoglobin concentration were used to determine the relaxivity of hemoglobin inside the erythrocyte (r 2Hb ) and albumin (r 2Alb ) in plasma. The r 2Hb values obtained from lysed erythrocytes and whole blood were comparable at full oxygenation. However, while r 2Hb determined from lysed cells showed a linear dependence on oxygenation, this dependence became quadratic in whole blood. This possibly suggests an additional relaxation effect inside intact cells, perhaps due to hemoglobin

  5. Plant hemoglobins: Important players at the crossroads between oxygen and nitric oxide

    Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim; Mur, Luis A J

    2011-01-01

    Plant hemoglobins constitute a diverse group of hemeproteins and evolutionarily belong to three different classes. Class 1 hemoglobins possess an extremely high affinity to oxygen and their main function consists in scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) at very low oxygen levels. Class 2 hemoglobins have...... at high O2 concentrations. Depending on their physical properties, hemoglobins belong either to hexacoordinate non-symbiotic or pentacoordinate symbiotic groups. Plant hemoglobins are plausible targets for improving resistance to multiple stresses....

  6. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  7. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in patients with sickle cell anemia and recurrent leg ulcers.

    Philippe Connes

    Full Text Available Leg ulcer is a disabling complication in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA but the exact pathophysiological mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the hematological and hemorheological alterations associated with recurrent leg ulcers. Sixty-two SCA patients who never experienced leg ulcers (ULC- and 13 SCA patients with a positive history of recurrent leg ulcers (ULC+--with no leg ulcers at the time of the study--were recruited. All patients were in steady state condition. Blood was sampled to perform hematological, biochemical (hemolytic markers and hemorheological analyses (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability and aggregation properties. The hematocrit-to-viscosity ratio (HVR, which reflects the red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency, was calculated for each subject. Patients from the ULC+ group were older than patients from the ULC- group. Anemia (red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels was more pronounced in the ULC+ group. Lactate dehydrogenase level was higher in the ULC+ group than in the ULC- group. Neither blood viscosity, nor RBC aggregation properties differed between the two groups. HVR was lower and RBC deformability tended to be reduced in the ULC+ group. Our study confirmed increased hemolytic rate and anemia in SCA patients with leg ulcers recurrence. Furthermore, our data suggest that although systemic blood viscosity is not a major factor involved in the pathophysiology of this complication, decreased red blood cell oxygen transport efficiency (i.e., low hematocrit/viscosity ratio may play a role.

  9. Delivery of iron-fortified yoghurt, through a dairy value chain program, increases hemoglobin concentration among children 24 to 59 months old in Northern Senegal: A cluster-randomized control trial.

    Le Port, Agnes; Bernard, Tanguy; Hidrobo, Melissa; Birba, Ousmane; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to enhance the nutritional impact of agriculture. Value chain approaches, which use supply chains to add value (usually economic) to products as they move from producers to consumers, can be used to increase access to nutritious foods and improve nutritional status. This study tested whether a dairy value chain could be used to distribute a micronutrient-fortified yoghurt (MNFY) (conditional upon the producer supplying a minimum amount of cow milk/day) to improve hemoglobin and reduce anemia among preschool children in a remote area in Northern Senegal. A cluster randomized control trial was used to compare 204 children (24 to 59 months of age at baseline) from households who received the MNFY coupled to a behavior change communication (BCC) campaign focusing on anemia prevention to 245 children from a control group (receiving BCC only) after one year. Randomization was done at the level of the family concession (households from the same family) (n = 321). Eligible households had a child of the target age and were willing to deliver milk to the dairy factory. Changes in anemia and hemoglobin between groups were assessed using mixed regression models. Anemia prevalence was very high at baseline (80%) and dropped to close to 60% at endline, with no differences between intervention groups. Hemoglobin increased by 0.55 g/dL, 95%CI (0.27; 0.84) more in the intervention compared to the control group after one year, in models that controlled for potentially confounding factors. The impact was greater (0.72 g/dL, 95%CI (0.34; 1.12)) for boys, compared to girls (0.38 g/dL, 95%CI (-0.03; 0.80)). The dairy value chain was a successful strategy to distribute MNFY among pastoralists in Northern Senegal, and increase Hb concentrations among their children. This study is one of the first proofs of concept showing that a nutrition-sensitive agriculture value chain approach can contribute to improved child nutrition in a remote pastoralist

  10. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  11. Blood glucose meters employing dynamic electrochemistry are stable against hematocrit interference in a laboratory setting.

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60-90, 130-160, and 280-320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Blood Glucose Meters Employing Dynamic Electrochemistry Are Stable against Hematocrit Interference in a Laboratory Setting

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B.; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Methods Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60–90, 130–160, and 280–320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Results Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). Conclusions In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. PMID:24351179

  13. Interaction of thyroid hormone and hemoglobin: nature of the interaction and effect of hemoglobin on thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    Davis, P.J.; Yoshida, K.; Schoenl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Gel filtration of human erythrocyte (RBC) lysate incubated with labeled thyroxine (Tu) or triiodothyronine (Tt) revealed co-elution of a major iodothyronine-binding fraction (R-2) and hemoglobin. Solutions of purified human hemoglobin and Tt also showed co-elution of hormone and hemoglobin. Because hematin and protoporphyrin were shown to bind labeled Tt, the oxygen-binding site on hemoglobin was excluded as the site of iodothyronine-hemoglobin interaction. Analysis of hormone binding by heme and globin moieties showed Tt binding to be limited to the heme fraction. Addition of excess unlabeled Tt to hemoglobin or heme incubated with labeled Tt indicated 75% to 90% of hormone binding was poorly dissociable. These observations suggested that the presence of hemoglobin in RBC lysate or in serum could influence the measurement of Tu and Tt by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Subsequent studies of the addition to serum of human hemoglobin revealed a significant reduction in Tt and Tu detectable by RIA in the presence of this protein. The effect was influenced by the concentration of hemoglobin and by duration and temperature of incubations of hemoglobin and serum prior to RIA

  14. Study of methyl bromide reactivity with human and mouse hemoglobin

    A study has been carried out on in-vitro reactivity of human and mouse hemoglobin spectrophotometrically at physiological pH, using different protein to reagent ratios. Hemoglobin side chains were modified with different concentrations of methyl bromide on agro-soil fumigant. To ascertain if the site of alkylation was the ...

  15. Rheological Variations among Nigerians with Different Hemoglobin ...

    Some Hemorheological determinants such as whole blood viscosity (WBV) and plasma viscosity (PV) and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration (PFC) were measured with standard methods. We recorded a relatively unchanged whole blood viscosities in subjects with various hemoglobin genotypes (AA, AS and SS; P>0.05, ...

  16. Determination of Human Hemoglobin Derivatives.

    Attia, Atef M M; Ibrahim, Fatma A A; Abd El-Latif, Noha A; Aziz, Samir W; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A; Elalfy, Mohsen S

    2015-01-01

    The levels of the inactive hemoglobin (Hb) pigments [such as methemoglobin (metHb), carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) and sulfohemoglobin (SHb)] and the active Hb [in the oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) form] as well as the blood Hb concentration in healthy non pregnant female volunteers were determined using a newly developed multi-component spectrophotometric method. The results of this method revealed values of SHb% in the range (0.0727-0.370%), metHb% (0.43-1.0%), HbCO% (0.4-1.52%) and oxyHb% (97.06-98.62%). Furthermore, the results of this method revealed values of blood Hb concentration in the range (12.608-15.777 g/dL). The method is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible.

  17. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  18. Reference intervals for hemoglobin and hematocrit in a low-risk pregnancy cohort: implications of racial differences.

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Palomba, Stefano; Costantine, Maged M; Falbo, Angela I; Harirah, Hassan M; Saade, George R; La Sala, Giovanni B

    2018-03-23

    As anemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, we sought to define the mean and the fifth percentile of Hb and Ht using a contemporary multiethnic large cohort of low-risk pregnancies, and assess potential racial differences. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on women who delivered between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2013 in Reggio Emilia County, Italy. Linear mixed effects models were used to describe changes in mean Hb and Ht, while quantile regression with matrix-design bootstrap defined changes in the fifth percentile of Hb and Ht, controlling for race, maternal age, smoking, and pregnancy number. We analyzed 23,657 hemograms from 7318 pregnancies and 6870 women. Multivariate analysis showed that when compared to Caucasians', African women's mean Hb and Ht were respectively 0.24 (95%CI 0.3-0.17) g/dl and 0.7 (95%CI 0.8-0.5) % lower, while Asian mothers' were 0.11 (95%CI 0.19-0.03) g/dl and 0.3 (95%CI 0.5-0.1) % inferior. Similarly, both African and Asian women had lower fifth Ht percentiles (-1, 95%CI -1.3 to -0.6, and -0.4, 95%CI -0.7 to -0.04) than Caucasians, while African mothers also had lower fifth Hb percentile (0.3, 95%CI 0.5-0.1). The fifth percentile for Hb and Ht were, respectively, 11.3 (95%CI 11-11.5) g/dl and 32.8 (95%CI 32.3-33.4) % in the first trimester, 10.4 (95%CI 10.1-10.6) g/dl and 30.2 (95%CI 29.6-30.8) % in the second trimester, 10.1 (95%CI 9.8-10.3) g/dl and 30.6 (95%CI 30-31.1) % in the third trimester. We provided contemporary references to define anemia in pregnancy, and we confirmed that even in pregnancy, African and Asian women have lower Hb and Ht than Caucasian. Racial and population-specific references may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  19. Smoky indoor cooking fires are associated with elevated hemoglobin concentration in iron-deficient women Asocian el fuego con humo para cocinar dentro de la vivienda con concentraciones elevadas de hemoglobina en mujeres con deficiencia de hierro

    Lynnette M. Neufeld

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Indoor air pollution from the burning of such biomass fuels as wood and agricultural waste is associated with a higher risk of a number of respiratory problems. The effect on other health outcomes, such as fetal growth, has not yet been adequately documented. The objective of this study was to determine whether, among women who burn biomass fuels for cooking indoors, the use of "smoky" fires is associated with elevated hemoglobin concentration in comparison to women using "smokeless" stoves, that is, stoves that are designed to reduce indoor air pollution. This research was conducted as part of a series of preliminary studies to determine the feasibility and potential health benefits of a randomized stove intervention to reduce indoor air pollution from the burning of biomass fuels for cooking. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in rural highland communities of Guatemala from March to August 1994. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin and ferritin. All the women studied burned biomass fuels and cooked indoors, and none of the women was pregnant. Eighty-nine indigenous women using smokeless stoves (designated as the not-exposed group and 185 indigenous women from the same communities using smoky fires (the exposed group were studied. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between exposure (smokeless stove or smoky fire and hemoglobin concentration, with adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: No effect of exposure (smokeless stove or smoky fire on hemoglobin concentration was found in univariate or multivariate analyses. In routine post hoc analysis to determine whether hemoglobin elevation is observed in some particular subgroup, we found that the use of a smoky fire was associated with a 5.2 g/L elevation in hemoglobin concentration among women with low ferritin stores (P OBJETIVO: La contaminación del ambiente doméstico por la

  20. Comparison between hemoglobin and packed cell volume among young male and female students from a Medical College of Islamabad, Pakistan

    Zia, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)

  1. Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs

    Ildiko Barabasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic efficacy and safety evaluation of erythrocyte concentrate used in dogs 1Ildikó BARABÁSI, 1Cristina ȘTEFǍNUȚ, 1Laurenţ OGNEAN 1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400037, Manastur street, no.3-5, Cluj-Napoca, Romania *Corresponding author: lognean@yahoo.com   Keywords: dogs, erythrocyte concentrate, hematocrit, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, transfusion therapy Introduction: The minimum dose of whole blood products as well as erythrocyte concentrate has been under a lot of debate, new equations for calculating the optimal dose being made up from a large variety of hematologists (Kisielewicz et al 2014; Helm and Knottenbelt, 2010; Gibson, 2007. Aim: The therapeutical efficacy of erythrocyte concentrates in dogs with different types of anemia by measuring the hematocrit level 6 hours after the transfusion and a complete blood count 5 days post-transfusion therapy. Materials and methods: Blood tests were performed with ADIVA hematological analyzer; the 6 hour post-transfusion hematocrit was determined by a micro hematocrit. On admission every patient received a routine blood test that included 40 hematological parameters and 21 biochemical parameters. In addition, a detailed examination of the blood smears was also performed by the ADIVA hematological analyzer with 26 parameters that mostly referred to red blood cell and white blood cell morphology. Blood typing was done using the RapidVet quick test kit. Patients received only type specific blood and to limit transfusion reaction occurrences, in addition, a crossmatch test was performed before every transfusion. Statistical analysis was accomplished with GraphPadInStat 3.0 and the graphical depiction of the obtained results was made using the Origin 8.5. graphics program. Results: Statistical analysis reveal that the total red blood cell count underwent very significant changes (p=0.0052 as well as the hemoglobin (p=0.0085. The hematocrit

  2. Distortion of calculated whole-body hematocrit during lower-body immersion in water.

    Knight, D R; Santoro, T; Bondi, K R

    1986-11-01

    We found a difference between the venous hematocrits of immersed and nonimmersed arms during immersion of the lower body in cold water but not during a comparable exposure to warm water. Fourteen healthy men were exposed to three different experimental conditions: arm immersion, body immersion, and control. The men always sat upright while both upper extremities hung vertically at their sides. During arm immersion, one forearm was completely immersed for 30 min in either cold water (28 degrees C, n = 7) or warm water (38 degrees C, n = 7). This cold-warm water protocol was repeated on separate days for exposure to the remaining conditions of body immersion (immersion of 1 forearm and all tissues below the xiphoid process) and control (no immersion). Blood samples were simultaneously drawn from cannulated veins in both antecubital fossae. Hematocrit difference (Hct diff) was measured by subtracting the nonimmersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct dry) from the immersed forearm's hematocrit (Hct wet). Hct diff was approximately zero when the men were exposed to the control condition and body immersion in warm water. In the remaining conditions, Hct wet dropped below Hct dry (P less than 0.01, 3-way analysis of variance). The decrements of Hct diff showed there were differences between venous hematocrits in immersed and nonimmersed regions of the body, indicating that changes of the whole-body hematocrit cannot be calculated from a large-vessel hematocrit soon after immersing the lower body in cold water.

  3. Margination of Fluorescent Polylactic Acid–Polyaspartamide based Nanoparticles in Microcapillaries In Vitro: the Effect of Hematocrit and Pressure

    Emanuela Fabiola Craparo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen the emergence of vascular-targeted drug delivery systems as a promising approach for the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this field, one of the major challenges is carrier margination propensity (i.e., particle migration from blood flow to vessel walls; indeed, binding of these particles to targeted cells and tissues is only possible if there is direct carrier–wall interaction. Here, a microfluidic system mimicking the hydrodynamic conditions of human microcirculation in vitro is used to investigate the effect of red blood cells (RBCs on a carrier margination in relation to RBC concentration (hematocrit and pressure drop. As model drug carriers, fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FNPs were chosen, which were obtained by using as starting material a pegylated polylactic acid–polyaspartamide copolymer. The latter was synthesized by derivatization of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA with Rhodamine (RhB, polylactic acid (PLA and then poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG chains. It was found that the carrier concentration near the wall increases with increasing pressure drop, independently of RBC concentration, and that the tendency for FNP margination decreases with increasing hematocrit. This work highlights the importance of taking into account RBC–drug carrier interactions and physiological conditions in microcirculation when planning a drug delivery strategy based on systemically administered carriers.

  4. Concurrent measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants.

    Bellik, Yuva; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, a multitude of analytical methods for measuring antioxidant activity of plant extracts has been developed. However, when using methods to determine hemoglobin released from human erythrocytes treated with ginger extracts, we found hemoglobin concentrations were significantly higher than in untreated control samples. This suggests in the presence of antioxidants that measuring hemoglobin alone is not sufficient to determine hemolysis. We show concurrent measurement of erythrocyte concentration and hemoglobin is essential in such assays, and describe a new protocol based on simultaneous measurement of cellular turbidity and hemoglobin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients.

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  6. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting.

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Idriss, Ali; May, Juergen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2011-04-21

    In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin). Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p < 0.001). The Bland and Altman's limit of agreement was -0.389 - 0.644 g/dl with the mean difference being 0.127 (95% CI: 0.102-0.153) and a non-significant difference in variability between the two measurements (p = 0.843). After adjusting to assess the effect of other possible confounders such as sex, age and category of person, there was no

  7. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  8. Heme Iron Concentrate and Iron Sulfate Added to Chocolate Biscuits: Effects on Hematological Indices of Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Quintero-Gutiérrez, Adrián Guillermo; González-Rosendo, Guillermina; Pozo, Javier Polo; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Food fortification is one of the most effective strategies for increasing iron intake in the population. A simple blind trial was conducted to compare the effect of 2 forms of iron fortification and assess the changes in hemoglobin and iron status indices among preschool children from rural communities. Hemoglobin was evaluated in 47 children aged 3-6 years old. For 72 days (10-week period), children ate Nito biscuits. Thirteen pupils with elevated hemoglobin levels were assigned to the biscuit control group, and pupils with hemoglobin equal to 13.5 mg/dL or less were randomly allocated to consume fortified biscuits with a heme iron concentrate (n = 15) or iron sulfate (n = 19). Changes in hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, and other hematological indices were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements. Except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (+1.27 ± 2.25 g/dL), hematological indices increased significantly across the study: Mean corpuscular volume (+2.2 ± 1.0 f/dL), red blood cells (+0.30 ± 0.37 M/μL), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+1.8 ± 1.74 pg), hemoglobin (+1.68 ± 0.91 g/dL), hematocrit (+3.43% ± 3.03%), and plasma ferritin (+18.38 ± 22.1 μg/L) were all p effect of the iron-fortified chocolate biscuits in the hemoglobin levels was higher than the control group (+1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL) but no difference was found between consumers of fortified biscuits with heme iron concentrate or iron sulfate (+1.9 ± 0.2 g/dL and +2.0 ± 0.2 g/dL, respectively). Heme iron concentrate and iron sulfate were equally effective in increasing Hb levels and hematological indices. Processed foods were shown to be an effective, valuable, and admissible intervention to prevent anemia in preschool children.

  9. Effect of testosterone administration on lead induced zincprotoporphyrin in blood concentration in castrated male rabbits

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of testosterone propionate on the concentration of zincprotoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) of castrated lead treated rabbits was investigated. The experimental design allowed comparison of the relative ZPP increase (RZI) in testosterone treated and non testosterone treated rabbits. Testosterone was administered by subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days directly prior to the lead exposure, which was performed by subcutaneous injection of 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight, three times a week for 7 weeks. No effect was found on the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) and on the increase of body weight during the experiment. But the increase of RZI in the non testosterone treated rabbits was significantly steeper and earlier than in the testosterone treated group. The possible consequences of the findings had been further commented on.

  10. The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range

    Zhernovaya, O; Tuchin, V; Sydoruk, O; Douplik, A

    2011-01-01

    Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l -1 . This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l -1 . The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

  11. Hemoglobin estimation by the HemoCue® portable hemoglobin photometer in a resource poor setting

    Idriss Ali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource poor settings where automated hematology analyzers are not available, the Cyanmethemoglobin method is often used. This method though cheaper, takes more time. In blood donations, the semi-quantitative gravimetric copper sulfate method which is very easy and inexpensive may be used but does not provide an acceptable degree of accuracy. The HemoCue® hemoglobin photometer has been used for these purposes. This study was conducted to generate data to support or refute its use as a point-of-care device for hemoglobin estimation in mobile blood donations and critical care areas in health facilities. Method EDTA blood was collected from study participants drawn from five groups: pre-school children, school children, pregnant women, non-pregnant women and men. Blood collected was immediately processed to estimate the hemoglobin concentration using three different methods (HemoCue®, Sysmex KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Agreement between the test methods was assessed by the method of Bland and Altman. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to determine the within subject variability of measured hemoglobin. Results Of 398 subjects, 42% were males with the overall mean age being 19.4 years. The overall mean hemoglobin as estimated by each method was 10.4 g/dl for HemoCue, 10.3 g/dl for Sysmex KX21N and 10.3 g/dl for Cyanmethemoglobin. Pairwise analysis revealed that the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method was higher than that measured by the KX21N and Cyanmethemoglobin. Comparing the hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue to Cyanmethemoglobin, the concordance correlation coefficient was 0.995 (95% CI: 0.994-0.996, p Conclusion Hemoglobin determined by the HemoCue method is comparable to that determined by the other methods. The HemoCue photometer is therefore recommended for use as on-the-spot device for determining hemoglobin in resource poor setting.

  12. Perbedaan Kadar Hemoglobin dan Hematokrit Bayi Baru Lahir Akibat Perbedaan Waktu Penjepitan Tali Pusat

    Nuriah Arma

    2016-01-01

    delayed 3 minute its can increase the volume red blood cells about 58%. The objective of this study was to prove the difference of hemoglobin and hematocrit level between 3 minutes and 1 minute cord clamping.  Experimental research was conducted with post-test only control group design of 36 newborns. Data were analyzed by t-test. The result of this study showed that the mean of hemoglobin and hematocrit level in 3 minutes of clamp are higher  than 1 minute of clamp.There was a significant difference of hemoglobin level between 3 minutes cord clamping group and 1 minute cord clamping group with p value is 0.004. There was also a significant difference of hematocrit level between 3 minutes cord clamping group and 1 minute cord clamping group with p value is 0.001. The conclusion is the hemoglobin and hematocrit level are better in cord clamping delayed in 3 minutes after birth than clamping in 1 minute after birth. Keywords: hemoglobin, hematocrit, cord clamping

  13. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  14. Prevalence of Anemia and Hemoglobin Disorders Among School Children in Myanmar.

    Wah, Saw Thu; Yi, Yoon Shwe; Khin, Aye Aye; Plabplueng, Chotiros; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in the population of Myanmar and hypochromic microcytic anemia (HMA) is predominant. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and causes of HMA among school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 children from Thanlyin and Insein Townships, Yangon Region, Myanmar. Complete blood count (CBC) and blood film morphology was examined on venous blood samples. Hypochromic microcytic anemia cases were subsequently analyzed for serum ferritin and cellulose acetate hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. The prevalence of anemia was 46.4%; 27.6% had mild, while 18.8% had moderate anemia, and no case of severe anemia was detected. The mean Hb concentration was 11.7 ± 0.9 g/dL. The younger age group (8-11 years) had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia than the older age group (12-15 years) (p = 0.029). Blood film morphology revealed a 50.6% red blood cell (RBC) disorder; HMA was the most common type (70.2%). Out of 85 children with HMA, three children (3.5%) had iron deficiency and all had comorbidity with Hb AE (β A /β E ) (Hb E trait). Hemoglobin electrophoresis illustrated that Hb AA (β A /β A ) (31, 36.5%) and Hb AE (β A /β E ) trait (31, 36.5%) were the most common types followed by β-thalassemia (β-thal) trait (19, 22.3%) and Hb EE (β E /β E ) (homozygous Hb E; HBB: c.79G>A) (three, 3.5%). Hematocrit [or packed cell volume (PCV)], mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), showed a significant difference between Hb AE, Hb EE and β-thal trait (p = 0.029, 0.023, 0.015 and 0.01, respectively). Our findings will provide valuable information for the management of anemia in the Myanmar school-age population.

  15. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  16. Dietary nucleotide supplementation raises erythrocyte 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in neonatal rats.

    Scopesi, F; Verkeste, C M; Paola, D; Gazzolo, D; Pronzato, M A; Bruschettini, P L; Marinari, U M

    1999-03-01

    The present study was designed to test if dietary intake of nucleotides increases erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in neonatal rats. To this end, rat pups were fed a nucleotide-supplemented formula (S, n = 14) from d 9 until d 16 after birth. The results were compared with those obtained from a group of breast-fed pups (C, n = 14) and a group of pups artificially fed with nucleotide-free formula (NS, n = 14). Neonatal weight, 2,3-DPG concentration, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were determined before the experiment (d 9) and after 7 d of treatment (d 16). In all groups, 2,3-DPG concentration was greater at d 16 than d 9, and the increase was greater in the S group than in the NS group. Alterations in neonatal weight, Hct and Hb concentration did not differ among the groups. On d 16 the 2, 3-DPG/Hb ratio, reflecting the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, was significantly higher in the C and S groups than in the NS group. We conclude that in neonatal rats, dietary nucleotides increase erythrocyte 2,3-DPG concentration. Studies need to be conducted in humans to assess the effect of this increase on both neonatal peripheral hemodynamics and metabolism in this species.

  17. Hematocrit as a simple method to predict and manage ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in assisted reproduction

    Taswin Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to analyze the hematocrit levels in cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS, syndrome occurring during in-vitro fertilization (IVF, and study its role as a prognostic indicator. Subjects and Methods: Two years data of 66 women at high risk for developing OHSS was analyzed. Twenty-seven women who developed OHSS were further analyzed based on their hematocrit levels on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU and the day of embryo transfer (ET to see if there was a prognostic trend. Results: Of the total 225 IVF cases, 66 were deemed high risk for developing OHSS. Twenty-seven of these developed OHSS (40.9%. Of these 27, 21 (77.8% had a hematocrit >35% on the day of OPU. The mean hematocrit in women developing OHSS on the day of OPU was 37.39% (standard deviation [SD] 2.66 as against 35.97% (2.80 in those not developing OHSS. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.043. On the day of ET, 23/27 (85.8% who developed OHSS had a hematocrit of >35%. The mean hematocrit was 39.29% (SD 3.85 in those who developed OHSS as against 34.7% (2.88 in those who did not. This difference (4.85 was statistically significant (P 35%. Those who required cancellation of ET had a hematocrit of >35% on the day of ET or showed a significant increase of 3% from OPU to ET.

  18. The Reaction of Oxy Hemoglobin with Nitrite

    Hathazi, Denisa; Scurtu, Florina; Bischin, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The autocatalytic reaction between nitrite and the oxy form of globins involves free radicals. For myoglobin (Mb), an initial binding of nitrite to the iron-coordinated oxygen molecule was proposed; the resulting ferrous-peroxynitrate species was not detected, but its decay product, the high...... to a simple kinetic model involving a transient met-aqua form, in contrast to the ferryl detected in the case of Mb in a similar reaction sequence. These data are in line with a previous observation of a transient accumulation of ferryl Hb under auto-catalytic conditions at much lower concentrations......-peroxynitrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support this latter assignment. The reaction allows for differentiating between the reactivities of various chemically modified hemoglobins, including candidates for blood substitutes. Polymerization of hemoglobin slows the nitrite-induced oxidation, in sharp...

  19. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory properties of blood and hemoglobin solutions from the piranha

    Wood, S.C.; Weber, Roy E.; Powers, D.

    1979-01-01

    1. Respiratory properties of piranha blood are distinguished from those of other fish primarily by the high CO2 buffering capacity (?HCO3/-?pH= 19.6mmol/l for oxygenated blood and 39.1 mmol/l for deoxygenated blood). 2. The concentration of nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) and the half-saturation t......) lowered the oxygen affinity of purified hemoglobin solutions, accounting for the size-dependent correlation ofP50 and NTP concentration in whole blood. 5. While similar in concentration in red cells, GTP is more potent than ATP as an allosteric modifier of hemoglobin function....

  1. A nanocluster-based fluorescent sensor for sensitive hemoglobin detection.

    Yang, Dongqin; Meng, Huijie; Tu, Yifeng; Yan, Jilin

    2017-08-01

    In this report, a fluorescence sensor for sensitive detection of hemoglobin was developed. Gold nanoclusters were first synthesized with bovine serum albumin. It was found that both hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin could weakly quench the fluorescence from the gold nanoclusters, but when these two were applied onto the nanolcusters simultaneously, a much improved quenching was resulted. This enhancing effect was proved to come from the catalytic generation of hydroxyl radical by hemoglobin. Under an optimized condition, the quenching linearly related to the concentration of hemoglobin in the range of 1-250nM, and a limit of detection as low as 0.36nM could be obtained. This provided a sensitive means for the quantification of Hb. The sensor was then successfully applied for blood analyses with simple sample pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower versus Higher Hemoglobin Threshold for Transfusion in Septic Shock

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. METHODS: In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care...... unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay...... were similar in the two intervention groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion...

  3. Structure and stability of human hemoglobin microparticles prepared with a double emulsion technique.

    Cedrati, N; Bonneaux, F; Labrude, P; Maincent, P

    1997-09-01

    Hemoglobin solutions can be used as blood substitutes but they present some disadvantages often due to their rapid removal from the bloodstream after injection. A possible way of overcoming this problem is to trap hemoglobin inside particles. This study deals with the preparation, structure and stability of poly(lactic acid) and ethylcellulose microparticles containing human hemoglobin obtained with a double emulsion technique. We investigated the manufacturing process of these particles in order to increase the encapsulation ratio of hemoglobin. For this purpose, some parameters involved in the procedure were optimized, such as hemoglobin concentration and duration of stirring: hemoglobin loading increases with its concentration in the preparation and well-defined stirring time avoids a leakage of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin concentration, surfactant concentration i.e. poly(vinylic alcohol), amounts of polymer and solvent (methylene chloride), duration and speed of stirring. The microparticles were prepared with satisfactory yields (60 to 73%). They were spherical and their mean size was lower than 200 microns. The functional properties of entrapped hemoglobin were studied. The encapsulation did not alter hemoglobin and the oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin remained unmodified (P50 about 13.9 mm Hg in a Bis-Tris buffer pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C). Moreover, only low levels of methemoglobin could be detected (less than 3%). Besides, about 90% of encapsulated hemoglobin could be released from microparticles, with a speed related to the internal structure of the particles. The prepared microparticles were stored during one month at +4 degrees C. No degradation of the particle structure occurred and the functional properties of hemoglobin were preserved. These particles could provide a potential source of oxygen in the field of biotechnologies but any application for a transfusional purpose would first require a drastic reduction in particle size.

  4. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  5. Fall in hematocrit per 1000 parasites cleared from peripheral blood: a simple method for estimating drug-related fall in hematocrit after treatment of malaria infections.

    Gbotosho, Grace Olusola; Okuboyejo, Titilope; Happi, Christian Tientcha; Sowunmi, Akintunde

    2014-01-01

    A simple method to estimate antimalarial drug-related fall in hematocrit (FIH) after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the field is described. The method involves numeric estimation of the relative difference in hematocrit at baseline (pretreatment) and the first 1 or 2 days after treatment begun as numerator and the corresponding relative difference in parasitemia as the denominator, and expressing it per 1000 parasites cleared from peripheral blood. Using the method showed that FIH/1000 parasites cleared from peripheral blood (cpb) at 24 or 48 hours were similar in artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine-treated children (0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.052-0.138 vs 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.069-0.139%; P = 0.75) FIH/1000 parasites cpb in patients with higher parasitemias were significantly (P 1000 parasites cpb were similar in anemic and nonanemic children. Estimation of FIH/1000 parasites cpb is simple, allows estimation of relatively conserved hematocrit during treatment, and can be used in both observational studies and clinical trials involving antimalarial drugs.

  6. Hematocrit is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in men but not in women.

    Irace, Concetta; Ciamei, Monica; Crivaro, Andrea; Fiaschi, Elio; Madia, Angela; Cortese, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2003-06-01

    It is known that blood and plasma viscosities are associated with clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, though evidence is not conclusive particularly in women. To verify whether hematocrit and blood and plasma viscosities are independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis and whether their measurement can improve the definition of the global coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Eight hundred and ninety-two participants in a cardiovascular disease prevention campaign were examined with regard to conventional CHD risk factors (age, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, cigarette smoking and diabetes), hematocrit and blood and plasma viscosities. According to the degree of carotid atherosclerosis, investigated by echo-Doppler, participants were divided in three groups: those without atherosclerosis, those with a low degree of atherosclerosis and those with a high degree of atherosclerosis. In men, age, blood pressure, intima-media thickness (IMT), hematocrit (47.4+/-3.7%, 47.8+/-3.7%, 48.4+/-3.7%, Pviscosity (4.69+/-0.51 cP, 4.77+/-0.55 cP, 4.82+/-0.51 cP, P=0.05) increased with increasing degree of carotid atherosclerosis. In women, age, blood pressure, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IMT and plasma viscosity (1.42+/-0.12 cP, 1.44+/-0.11 cP, 1.46+/-0.13 cP, Pviscosity was no longer different in the three groups. In discriminant analysis, hematocrit, among the hemorheological variables investigated, was independently associated with carotid score in men (F=3.66, Pviscosities were significantly associated with carotid score in women. These findings suggest that in men, both hematocrit and blood viscosity are related to carotid atherosclerosis but hematocrit would appear to have an independent effect over and above that mediated by viscosity.

  7. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  8. Hemoglobin C, S-C, and E Diseases

    ... quickly than others, resulting in chronic anemia. Hemoglobin C disease Hemoglobin C disease occurs mostly in blacks. ... a common complication of hemoglobin C disease. Hemoglobin S-C disease Hemoglobin S-C disease occurs in people who ...

  9. Active Smoking and Hematocrit and Fasting Circulating Erythropoietin Concentrations in the General Population

    Eisenga, Michele F.; Kieneker, Lyanne M.; Touw, Daan J.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Meer, Peter; Huls, Gerwin; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Cigarette smoking continues to be one of the major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among many adverse health effects, smoking can induce erythrocytosis, which is commonly believed to result from elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Currently, however, this notion

  10. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  11. Operative risk and preoperative hematocrit in bypass graft surgery: Role of gender and blood transfusion.

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Massimiano, Paul S; Spiegelstein, Dan; Shuman, Deborah J; Pritchard, Graciela; Halpin, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The association between lower preoperative hematocrit (Hct) and risk for morbidity/mortality after cardiac surgery is well established. We examined whether the impact of low preoperative Hct on outcome is modified by blood transfusion and operative risk in women and men undergoing nonemergent CABG surgery. Patients having nonemergent, first-time, isolated CABG were included (N=2757). Logistic regressions assessed effect of hematocrit on major perioperative morbidity/mortality separately by males (n=2232) and females (n=525). Mean age was 63.2±10.1years, preoperative hematocrit was 38.9±4.8%, and STS risk score was 1.3±1.8%. Blood transfusion was more likely in female patients (26% vs. 12%, Ptransfusion in males and females, whereas older age (OR=1.03, P=0.017) also predicted transfusion in females. Major morbidity was also more likely in female patients (12% vs. 7%, Pblood transfusion was the only predictive factor for major morbidity in females (OR=4.56, Pblood transfusion (OR=9.22, Pblood transfusion and major morbidities after nonemergent CABG. Traditional factors that have been found to predict outcomes, such as hematocrit and STS risk, were related only to major morbidity in male patients. However, blood transfusion negatively impacted major outcome after nonemergent CABG surgery across all STS risk levels in both genders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innocent Cardiac Murmur in Puppies : Prevalence, Correlation with Hematocrit, and Auscultation Characteristics

    Szatmári, V; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of innocent cardiac murmurs in clinically healthy puppies, to investigate a possible correlation between the presence of an innocent murmur and hematocrit, and to describe the auscultation characteristics of innocent murmurs.

  13. Elevated capillary tube hematocrit reflects degradation of endothelial cell glycocalyx by oxidized LDL

    Constantinescu, A. A.; Vink, H.; Spaan, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans and plasma proteins bound to the endothelial cell glycocalyx are essential for vascular function, but at the same time, they lower capillary tube hematocrit by reducing capillary volume available to flowing blood. Because oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) reduce the effective

  14. A Novel, Nondestructive, Dried Blood Spot-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method Using Noncontact Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Capiau, S.; Wilk, L.S.; Aalders, M.C.G.; Stove, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is recognized as a valuable alternative sampling strategy both in research and in clinical routine. Although many advantages are associated with DBS sampling, its more widespread use is hampered by several issues, of which the hematocrit effect on DBS-based

  15. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  16. Hemoglobin Wayne Trait with Incidental Polycythemia.

    Ambelil, Manju; Nguyen, Nghia; Dasgupta, Amitava; Risin, Semyon; Wahed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, caused by mutations in the globin genes, are one of the most common inherited disorders. Many of the hemoglobin variants can be identified by hemoglobin analysis using conventional electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography; however hemoglobin DNA analysis may be necessary in other cases for confirmation. Here, we report a case of a rare alpha chain hemoglobin variant, hemoglobin Wayne, in a 47-year-old man who presented with secondary polycythemia. Capillary zone electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography revealed a significant amount of a hemoglobin variant, which was further confirmed by hemoglobin DNA sequencing as hemoglobin Wayne. Since the patient was not homozygous for hemoglobin Wayne, which is associated with secondary polycythemia, the laboratory diagnosis in this case was critical in ruling out hemoglobinopathy as the etiology of his polycythemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  18. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis...... and rhabdomyolysis), specific high capacity scavenging systems have evolved in the mammalian organism. Two major systems, which essentially function in a similar way by means of a circulating latent plasma carrier protein that upon ligand binding is recognized by a receptor, are represented by a) the hemoglobin...

  19. Placental morphology at different maternal hemoglobin levels: a histopathological study

    Kiran, N.; Zubair, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the histopathological parameters of the placenta like weight, infarct and syncytial knots, at different maternal hemoglobin levels, in both qualitative and quantitative manner. Study design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from December 2011 to November 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 75 placentas were included, that were collected from full term mothers at the time of childbirth. Placental weight was taken without umbilical cord and gross placental infarcts were noted. Samples of placental tissue were taken and stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E). Microscopic study was done to evaluate placental infarcts and syncytial knots. Results: Mean placental weight at normal and low maternal hemoglobin was 581.67 ± 83.97g and 482.58 ± 104.74g respectively. Gross placental infarcts were found in all cases having low maternal hemoglobin concentration (60% cases). Syncytial knots were found in all placentas but they were considerably more at decreasing levels of maternal hemoglobin (19.79 ± 5.22). Conclusion: The present study showed decrease in placental weight, increase in placental infarcts and syncytial knot hyperplasia at low maternal hemoglobin concentration, displaying adaptive alterations. (author)

  20. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  1. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  2. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  3. Modeling hemoglobin at optical frequency using the unconditionally stable fundamental ADI-FDTD method.

    Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong

    2011-04-12

    This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.

  4. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  5. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the ...

  6. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    ... Why Are Hemoglobin A1c Tests Done? When a child has diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels are followed to see how well medicines are working. If a child with diabetes has a high hemoglobin A1c level, it may ...

  7. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  8. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having...... traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P ... diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant...

  9. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-07

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  10. Reduction in serum sphingosine 1-phosphate concentration in malaria.

    Chuchard Punsawad

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin which is involved in the endothelial permeability and inflammation. Although the plasma S1P concentration is reportedly decreased in patients with cerebral malaria, the role of S1P in malaria is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of malaria on circulating S1P concentration and its relationship with clinical data in malaria patients. Serum S1P levels were measured in 29 patients with P. vivax, 30 patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum, and 13 patients with complicated P. falciparum malaria on admission and on day 7, compared with healthy subjects (n = 18 as control group. The lowest level of serum S1P concentration was found in the complicated P. falciparum malaria group, compared with P. vivax, uncomplicated P. falciparum patients and healthy controls (all p < 0.001. In addition, serum S1P level was positively correlated with platelet count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in malaria patients. In conclusions, low levels of S1P are associated with the severity of malaria, and are correlated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. These findings highlight a role of S1P in the severity of malaria and support the use of S1P and its analogue as a novel adjuvant therapy for malaria complications.

  11. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from par...

  12. Hemoglobin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hemoglobintest.html Hemoglobin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Hemoglobin Test? A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin ...

  13. Critical hematocrit and oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Ploetze, K; Matschke, K; Jung, F

    2010-12-01

    In cardiac surgery the substitution of lost blood volume by plasma substitutes is a common therapeutical approach. None of the currently available blood substitutes has a sufficient oxygen transport capacity. This can limit the functional integrity of the myocardium known as highly oxygen consumptive. The study was aimed to get information about the minimal hematocrit, also known as critical hematocrit (cHct), which guarantees a stable and adequate oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium (pO2). In adult female pigs (n=7) the hematocrit was reduced by isovolemic blood dilution with an intravenous infusion of isotonic 4% gelatine polysuccinate solution, The substituted blood volume ranged between 3000ml and 7780ml (mean: 5254±1672ml). In all animals the pO2 of the myocardium of the beating heart and of the resting skeletal muscle increased until blood dilution resulted in a Hct decrease down to 15%. Further blood dilution resulted in a decrease of the pO2. Only after the Hct was <10% the pO2 was lower than before blood dilution and accompanied by a lethal ischemia of the myocardium. These data indicate a cHct of about 10% in the pig animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple diagnosis based on photoplethysmography: hematocrit, SpO2, pulse, and respiration

    Yoon, Gilwon; Lee, Jong Y.; Jeon, Kye Jin; Park, Kun-Kook; Yeo, Hyung S.; Hwang, Hyun T.; Kim, Hong S.; Hwang, In-Duk

    2002-09-01

    Photo-plethysmography measures pulsatile blood flow in real-time and non-invasively. One of widely known applications of PPG is the measurement of saturated oxygen in arterial blood(SpO2). In our work, using several wavelengths more than those used in a pulse oximeter, an algorithm and instrument have been developed to measure hematocrit, saturated oxygen, pulse and respiratory rates simultaneously. To predict hematocrit, a dedicated algorithm is developed based on scattering of RBC and a protocol for detecting outlier signals is used to increase accuracy and reliability. Digital filtering techniques are used to extract respiratory rate signals. Utilization of wavelengths under 1000nm and a multi-wavelength LED array chip and digital-oriented electronics enable us to make a compact device. Our preliminary clinical trials show that the achieved percent errors are +/-8.2% for hematocrit when tested with 594 persons, R2 for SpO2 fitting is 0.99985 when tested with a Bi-Tek pulse oximeter simulator and the SpO2 error for in vivo test is +/-2.5% over the range of 75~100%. The error of pulse rates is less than +/-5%. We obtained a positive predictive value of 96% for respiratory rates in qualitative analysis.

  15. Hemoglobin Function in Stored Blood.

    1974-08-01

    States during 1973. Several advantages over ACA) are important. Blood stored in CPD maintains higher ./ levels of 2,3-DPG (2,3- diphosphoglycerate ) and a...survival and ATP levels in stored blood is explained by the several functions of ATP which are necessary for cell viability. However, ATP levels do...not correlate with oxygen affinity during storage. Levels of 2,3-DPG determine oxygen affinity and thus hemoglobin function. (12,13) When normal levels

  16. U-shaped curve for risk associated with maternal hemoglobin, iron status, or iron supplementation.

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Oaks, Brietta M

    2017-12-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and excess can lead to impaired health status. There is substantial evidence of a U-shaped curve between the risk of adverse birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy; however, it is unclear whether those relations are attributable to conditions of low and high iron status or to other mechanisms. We summarized current evidence from human studies regarding the association between birth outcomes and maternal hemoglobin concentrations or iron status. We also reviewed effects of iron supplementation on birth outcomes among women at low risk of ID and the potential mechanisms for adverse effects of high iron status during pregnancy. Overall, we confirmed a U-shaped curve for the risk of adverse birth outcomes with maternal hemoglobin concentrations, but the relations differ by trimester. For low hemoglobin concentrations, the link with adverse outcomes is more evident when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in early pregnancy. These relations generally became weaker or nonexistent when hemoglobin concentrations are measured in the second or third trimesters. Associations between high hemoglobin concentration and adverse birth outcomes are evident in all 3 trimesters but evidence is mixed. There is less evidence for the associations between maternal iron status and adverse birth outcomes. Most studies used serum ferritin (SF) concentrations as the indicator of iron status, which makes the interpretation of results challenging because SF concentrations increase in response to inflammation or infection. The effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy may depend on initial iron status. There are several mechanisms through which high iron status during pregnancy may have adverse effects on birth outcomes, including oxidative stress, increased blood viscosity, and impaired systemic response to inflammation and infection. Research is needed to understand the biological processes that underlie the U-shaped curves

  17. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  18. Effect of some high consumption spices on hemoglobin glycation.

    Naderi, G H; Dinani, Narges J; Asgary, S; Taher, M; Nikkhoo, N; Boshtam, M

    2014-01-01

    Formation of glycation products is major factor responsible in complications of diabetes. Worldwide trend is toward the use of natural additives in reducing the complications of diseases. Therefore, there is a growing interest in natural antiglycation found in plants. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antiglycation from the point of view of safety. This study investigated the ability of some of the spices to inhibit glycation process in a hemoglobin/glucose model system and compared their potency with each other. For this subject the best concentration and time to incubate glucose with hemoglobin was investigated. Then the glycosylation degree of hemoglobin in the presence of extracts by the three concentrations 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml was measured colorimetrically at 520 nm. Results represent that some of extracts such as wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper have inhibitory effects on hemoglobin glycation. But some of the extracts such as anise and saffron have not only inhibitory effects but also aggravated this event and have proglycation properties. In accordance with the results obtained we can conclude that wild caraway, turmeric, cardamom and black pepper especially wild caraway extracts are potent antiglycation agents, which can be of great value in the preventive glycation-associated complications in diabetes.

  19. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  20. Nitric Oxide in Plants: The Roles of Ascorbate and Hemoglobin

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Hargrove, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Ascorbic acid and hemoglobins have been linked to nitric oxide metabolism in plants. It has been hypothesized that ascorbic acid directly reduces plant hemoglobin in support of NO scavenging, producing nitrate and monodehydroascorbate. In this scenario, monodehydroascorbate reductase uses NADH to reduce monodehydroascorbate back to ascorbate to sustain the cycle. To test this hypothesis, rates of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin reduction by ascorbate were measured directly, in the presence and absence of purified rice monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. Solution NO scavenging was also measured methodically in the presence and absence of rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin and monodehydroascorbate reductase, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, in an effort to gauge the likelihood of these proteins affecting NO metabolism in plant tissues. Our results indicate that ascorbic acid slowly reduces rice nonsymbiotic hemoglobin at a rate identical to myoglobin reduction. The product of the reaction is monodehydroascorbate, which can be efficiently reduced back to ascorbate in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase and NADH. However, our NO scavenging results suggest that the direct reduction of plant hemoglobin by ascorbic acid is unlikely to serve as a significant factor in NO metabolism, even in the presence of monodehydroascorbate reductase. Finally, the possibility that the direct reaction of nitrite/nitrous acid and ascorbic acid produces NO was measured at various pH values mimicking hypoxic plant cells. Our results suggest that this reaction is a likely source of NO as the plant cell pH drops below 7, and as nitrite concentrations rise to mM levels during hypoxia. PMID:24376554

  1. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. Action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

    Vanuxem, D.; Weiller, P.J.; Guillot, C.; Grimaud, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have studied the action of carbon monoxide on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen by measuring P50 in whole blood and in stripped hemoglobin before and after exposition of blood samples from heavy smokers and polycythemic patients with high levels of HbCO to hyperbaric oxygen (2.2 ata). The concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate was normal although P50 was significantly lowered, not only in whole blood but also in stripped hemoglobin. Hyperbaric oxygen normalized P50 by removing CO radicals from stripped hemoglobin. This may indicate that CO radicals exert a direct action on the hemoglobin molecule, at least at the HbCO levels studied in this work.

  4. Hemoglobin Variants: Biochemical Properties and Clinical Correlates

    Thom, Christopher S.; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    Diseases affecting hemoglobin synthesis and function are extremely common worldwide. More than 1000 naturally occurring human hemoglobin variants with single amino acid substitutions throughout the molecule have been discovered, mainly through their clinical and/or laboratory manifestations. These variants alter hemoglobin structure and biochemical properties with physiological effects ranging from insignificant to severe. Studies of these mutations in patients and in the laboratory have produced a wealth of information on hemoglobin biochemistry and biology with significant implications for hematology practice. More generally, landmark studies of hemoglobin performed over the past 60 years have established important paradigms for the disciplines of structural biology, genetics, biochemistry, and medicine. Here we review the major classes of hemoglobin variants, emphasizing general concepts and illustrative examples. PMID:23388674

  5. Pretreatment hemoglobin in early stage glottic cancer: red flag or red herring?

    Tucker, J. Curtis; Hixson, William C.; Kim, Robert Y.; Smith, Judy W.; Mayo, Matthew S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of pretreatment hemoglobin levels on the recurrence rate of patients with early stage glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Between May 1972 and December 1992, one hundred three patients with stage I or II glottic carcinoma were treated with definitive radiotherapy. The records were reviewed and analyzed for the effects of pretreatment hemoglobin and hematocrit, stage, dose per fraction (180 vs 200 cGy), treatment interruptions, and differentiation of the tumor. The majority of stage I patients were treated to a total dose of 64 to 66 Gy, and stage II patients were treated to 68 to 70 Gy. Mean and median follow up were 85 and 75 months, respectively. Results: With mean follow up of 85 months, the recurrence rate for patients with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL was 33.3%, and patients with hemoglobin >13 g/dL was 20% (p 0.19). For stage I (n = 84), the recurrence rate with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL was 26% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.51). For stage II patients (n = 19) with hemoglobin ≤13 g/dL and >13 g/dL, the recurrence rate was 50% and 36%, respectively (p = 0.66). Using a Fisher's exact test, the only variables showing a statistically significant prognosis for recurrence were treatment interruption and stage. The recurrence rate with a treatment interruption was 40% compared with 15% if there was no interruption (p 0.0039). The recurrence rate for stage I was 19%, and for stage II was 42% (p = 0.067). Other factors showed no significant increase in recurrence; dose per fraction (p = 0.421), grade of differentiation (p = 0.740). Conclusion: While pretreatment hemoglobin levels below 13 g/dL do not significantly affect the recurrence rates for T1N0 and T2N0 glottic carcinomas, treatment interruptions are a significant factor in the failure of these patients

  6. Regulation of hemoglobin AIc formation in human erythrocytes in vitro. Effects of physiologic factors other than glucose.

    Smith, R J; Koenig, R J; Binnerts, A; Soeldner, J S; Aoki, T T

    1982-01-01

    The formation of hemoglobin AIc was studied in intact human erythrocytes in vitro. Satisfactory methods were developed for maintaining erythrocytes under physiologic conditions for greater than 8 d with less than 10% hemolysis. Hemoglobin AIc levels were determined chromatographically on erythrocyte hemolysates after removal of reversible components by incubation for 6 h at 37 degree C. Hemoglobin AIc concentration was found to increase linearly with time during 8 d of incubation. The rate of...

  7. Haptoglobin concentrations in free-range and temporarily captive juvenile steller sea lions.

    Thomton, Jamie D; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2007-04-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver that circulates at elevated concentrations in response to tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection, and trauma. As part of a larger study, sera Hp concentrations were measured in temporarily captive (n = 21) and free-range (n = 38) western stock juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) sampled from 2003 to 2006. Baseline Hp concentration at time of capture was 133.3 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. Temporarily captive animals exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in Hp concentrations during the first 4 wk of captivity, followed by a return to entry levels by week 5. Haptoglobin levels were not influenced by age, season, or parasite load. There was a significant positive correlation between Hp concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and globulin levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation to red blood cell count and hematocrit (P < 0.001 for both). There was no correlation between Hp levels and platelet count (P = 0.095) or hemoglobin (P = 0.457). Routine blubber biopsies collected under gas anesthesia did not produce a measurable Hp response. One animal with a large abscess had an Hp spike of 1,006.0 mg/dl that returned to entry levels after treatment. In conclusion, serum Hp levels correlate to the stable clinical health status observed during captivity, with moderate Hp response during capture and initial acclimation to captivity and acute response to inflammation and infection.

  8. Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin

    Sheng Xu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K to sodium (Na ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.

  9. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  10. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  11. The effects of erythrocyte deformability upon hematocrit assessed by the conductance method

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Oshige, Ikuya; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of centrifugation and conductance methods for the estimation of cell volume fraction (φ) was performed to examine whether the strong forces exerted upon erythrocytes during centrifugation affect their volume, and the results are discussed in terms of erythrocyte deformability. Rabbit erythrocytes of four shapes (spherocytes, echinocytes, stomatocyte-like enlarged erythrocytes and discocytes) were prepared by controlling the pH of the suspending media. The packed cell volumes of the suspensions were measured by standard hematocrit determination methods using centrifugation in capillary tubes. Simultaneously, the same suspensions and their supernatants were used in dielectric spectroscopy measurements, and the low-frequency limits of their conductivities were used for the numerical estimation of φ. The hematocrit values of spherocytes and echinocytes were markedly less than the volume fractions obtained by the conductance method. Namely, the centrifugation reduced the cell volume. For enlarged erythrocytes and discocytes, however, the reduction of cell volume was not observed. These findings showed that φ obtained by the centrifugation method can be greatly affected by the deformability of the cells, but the level of the effect depends on the cell types. Consequently, φ obtained by the centrifugation method should be carefully interpreted.

  12. The effects of erythrocyte deformability upon hematocrit assessed by the conductance method

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Oshige, Ikuya; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2009-04-21

    A comparative study of centrifugation and conductance methods for the estimation of cell volume fraction ({phi}) was performed to examine whether the strong forces exerted upon erythrocytes during centrifugation affect their volume, and the results are discussed in terms of erythrocyte deformability. Rabbit erythrocytes of four shapes (spherocytes, echinocytes, stomatocyte-like enlarged erythrocytes and discocytes) were prepared by controlling the pH of the suspending media. The packed cell volumes of the suspensions were measured by standard hematocrit determination methods using centrifugation in capillary tubes. Simultaneously, the same suspensions and their supernatants were used in dielectric spectroscopy measurements, and the low-frequency limits of their conductivities were used for the numerical estimation of {phi}. The hematocrit values of spherocytes and echinocytes were markedly less than the volume fractions obtained by the conductance method. Namely, the centrifugation reduced the cell volume. For enlarged erythrocytes and discocytes, however, the reduction of cell volume was not observed. These findings showed that {phi} obtained by the centrifugation method can be greatly affected by the deformability of the cells, but the level of the effect depends on the cell types. Consequently, {phi} obtained by the centrifugation method should be carefully interpreted.

  13. The impact of hemoglobin on the efficacy of phototherapy in hyperbilirubinemic infants

    Donneborg, Mette L; Vandborg, Pernille K; Hansen, Bo M

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundPhototherapy is the routine treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Absorption of light in the skin transforms the native Z,Z-bilirubin to photobilirubins. This study investigates whether the hemoglobin concentration has an impact on efficacy of phototherapy, expressed by the decline...... decrease in TsB after 24 h was 121 (57-199) μmol/l; the median hemoglobin was 12.0 (7.0-14.7) mmol/l. There was a significant effect of hemoglobin concentration on the decrease in TsB of -3.61 μmol/mmol hemoglobin (P=0.022), after adjusting for initial TsB and postnatal age. That is, assuming the same...... initial TsB and postnatal age, for each mmol/l increase in hemoglobin, the decrease in TsB was 3.61 μmol/l smaller. In our hemoglobin range, the decrease in TsB is reduced by 28 μmol/l (23%).ConclusionIncreasing hemoglobin levels led to a decrease in the efficacy of phototherapy. Our data provide...

  14. Biological variability of glycated hemoglobin.

    Braga, Federica; Dolci, Alberto; Mosca, Andrea; Panteghini, Mauro

    2010-11-11

    The measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) has a pivotal role in monitoring glycemic state in diabetic patients. Furthermore, the American Diabetes Association has recently recommended the use of HbA(1c) for diabetes diagnosis, but a clear definition of the clinically allowable measurement error is still lacking. Information on biological variability of the analyte can be used to achieve this goal. We systematically reviewed the published studies on the biological variation of HbA(1c) to check consistency of available data in order to accurately define analytical goals. The nine recruited studies were limited by choice of analytic methodology, population selection, protocol application and statistical analyses. There is an urgent need to determine biological variability of HbA(1c) using a specific and traceable assay, appropriate protocol and appropriate statistical evaluation of data. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE BIOCHEMISTRY OF VITREOSCILLA HEMOGLOBIN

    Benjamin C. Stark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The hemoglobin (VHb from Vitreoscilla was the first bacterial hemoglobin discovered. Its structure and function have been extensively investigated, and engineering of a wide variety of heterologous organisms to express VHb has been performed to increase their growth and productivity. This strategy has shown promise in applications as far-ranging as the production of antibiotics and petrochemical replacements by microorganisms to increasing stress tolerance in plants. These applications of “VHb technology” have generally been of the “black box” variety, wherein the endpoint studied is an increase in the levels of a certain product or improved growth and survival. Their eventual optimization, however, will require a thorough understanding of the various functions and activities of VHb, and how VHb expression ripples to affect metabolism more generally. Here we review the current knowledge of these topics. VHb's functions all involve oxygen binding (and often delivery in one way or another. Several biochemical and structure-function studies have provided an insight into the molecular details of this binding and delivery. VHb activities are varied. They include supply of oxygen to oxygenases and the respiratory chain, particularly under low oxygen conditions; oxygen sensing and modulation of transcription factor activity; and detoxification of NO, and seem to require interactions of VHb with “partner proteins”. VHb expression affects the levels of ATP and NADH, although not enormously. VHb expression may affect the level of many compounds of intermediary metabolism, and, apparently, alters the levels of expression of many genes. Thus, the metabolic changes in organisms engineered to express VHb are likely to be numerous and complicated.

  16. Led Astray by Hemoglobin A1c

    Jean Chen MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin A1c (A1c is used frequently to diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important be aware of factors that may interfere with the accuracy of A1c measurements. This is a case of a rare hemoglobin variant that falsely elevated a nondiabetic patient’s A1c level and led to a misdiagnosis of diabetes. A 67-year-old male presented to endocrine clinic for further management after he was diagnosed with diabetes based on an elevated A1c of 10.7%, which is approximately equivalent to an average blood glucose of 260 mg/dL. Multiple repeat A1c levels remained >10%, but his home fasting and random glucose monitoring ranged from 92 to 130 mg/dL. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and subsequent genetic analysis diagnosed the patient with hemoglobin Wayne, a rare hemoglobin variant. This variant falsely elevates A1c levels when A1c is measured using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. When the boronate affinity method was applied instead, the patient’s A1c level was actually 4.7%. Though hemoglobin Wayne is clinically silent, this patient was erroneously diagnosed with diabetes and started on an antiglycemic medication. Due to this misdiagnosis, the patient was at risk of escalation in his “diabetes management” and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it is important that providers are aware of factors that may result in hemoglobin A1c inaccuracy including hemoglobin variants.

  17. Hemoglobin Values During Pregnancy | Leffler | Nigerian Medical ...

    It is known that the iron turnover in expectant mothers is up to three times that of an average adult. This is reflected in lower hemoglobin levels. The study showed that hemoglobin levels can be maintained by taking Bio-Strath®, provided that the patients' diet contains adequate fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean ...

  18. Optical wavelength selection for portable hemoglobin determination by near-infrared spectroscopy method

    Tian, Han; Li, Ming; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Dinggao; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Linna

    2017-11-01

    Hemoglobin concentration is commonly used in clinical medicine to diagnose anemia, identify bleeding, and manage red blood cell transfusions. The golden standard method for determining hemoglobin concentration in blood requires reagent. Spectral methods were advantageous at fast and non-reagent measurement. However, model calibration with full spectrum is time-consuming. Moreover, it is necessary to use a few variables considering size and cost of instrumentation, especially for a portable biomedical instrument. This study presents different wavelength selection methods for optical wavelengths for total hemoglobin concentration determination in whole blood. The results showed that modelling using only two wavelengths combination (1143 nm, 1298 nm) can keep on the fine predictability with full spectrum. It appears that the proper selection of optical wavelengths can be more effective than using the whole spectra for determination hemoglobin in whole blood. We also discussed the influence of water absorptivity on the wavelength selection. This research provides valuable references for designing portable NIR instruments determining hemoglobin concentration, and may provide some experience for noninvasive hemoglobin measurement by NIR methods.

  19. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  20. Anemia and hemoglobin levels among Indigenous Xavante children, Central Brazil.

    Ferreira, Aline Alves; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Souza, July Anne Mendonça de; Welch, James R; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of anemia, mean hemoglobin levels, and the main nutritional, demographic, and socioeconomic factors among Xavante children in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A survey was conducted with children under 10 years of age in two indigenous Xavante communities within the Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reserve. Hemoglobin concentration levels, anthropometric measurements, and socioeconomic/demographic data were collected by means of clinical measurements and structured interviews. The cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization were used for anemia classification. Linear regression analyses with hemoglobin as the outcome and Poisson regression with robust variance and with the presence or absence of anemia as outcomes were performed (95%CI). Lower mean hemoglobin values were observed in children under 2 years of age, without a significant difference between sexes. Anemia was observed among 50.8% of children overall, with the highest prevalence among children under 2 years of age (77.8%). Age of the child was inversely associated with the occurrence of anemia (adjusted PR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.38-0.95) and mean hemoglobin values increased significantly with age. Greater height-for-age z-score values reduced the probability of having anemia by 1.8 times (adjusted PR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.34-1.00). Presence of another child with anemia within the household increased the probability of the occurrence of anemia by 52.9% (adjusted PR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.16-3.09). Elevated levels of anemia among Xavante children reveal a disparity between this Indigenous population and the national Brazilian population. Results suggest that anemia is determined by complex and variable relationships between socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and biological factors.

  1. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  2. The role of nitric oxide and hemoglobin in plant development and morphogenesis

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Shah, Jay K; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2013-01-01

    effects on control of plant growth and development, such as shoot and root architecture. All plants are able to express non-symbiotic hemoglobins at low concentration. Their function is generally not related to oxygen transport or storage; instead they effectively oxidize NO to NO3– and thereby control...... the local cellular NO concentration. In this review, we analyze available data on the role of NO and plant hemoglobins in morphogenetic processes in plants. The comparison of the data suggests that hemoglobin gene expression in plants modulates development and morphogenesis of organs, such as roots...... and shoots, through the localized control of NO, and that hemoglobin gene expression should always be considered a modulating factor in processes controlled directly or indirectly by NO in plants....

  3. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  4. Spin Label Studies of the Hemoglobin-Membrane Interaction During Sickle Hemoglobin Polymerization

    Falcon Dieguez, Jose E.; Rodi, Pablo; Lores Guevara, Manuel A.; Gennaro, Ana Maria

    2009-12-01

    An enhanced hemoglobin-membrane association has been previously documented in Sickle Cell Anemia. However, it is not known how this interaction is modified during the hemoglobin S polymerization process. In this work, we use a model of reconstituted erythrocytes from ghost membranes whose cytoskeleton proteins had been previously labeled with the 4-maleimido Tempo spin label, and that were subsequently resealed with hemoglobin S or A solutions. Using EPR spectroscopy, we studied the time dependence of the spectral W/S parameter, indicative of the conformational state of cytoskeleton proteins (mainly spectrin) under spontaneous deoxygenation, with the aim of detecting the eventual effects due to hemoglobin S polymerization. The differences observed in the temporal behaviour of W/S in erythrocytes reconstituted with both hemoglobins were considered as experimental evidence of an increment in hemoglobin S-membrane interaction, as a result of the polymerization process of hemoglobin S under spontaneous deoxygenation. (author)

  5. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  6. Influence of Ringer’s lactated solution in continuous infusion and general anesthesia on hematocrit in dogs

    Rogério Luizari Guedes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum parameters during general anesthesia procedures are subject to variations due to differences in protocol, splenic storage, and by the instituted fluid therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the hematocrit changes promoted by controlled fluid therapy and general anesthesia. Six mongrel female dogs underwent an anesthetic protocol with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg-1 and tramadol (5 mg kg-1 for premedication, induction with propofol (3 mg kg-1, and maintained with isoflurane and mechanical ventilation for 120 minutes. After induction, they were infused with 10 ml kg hr-1 of Ringer’s lactate solution. Hematocrit measurements were performed from the start until 72 hours from anesthesia and evaluated statistically to check if there were significant changes over time. The fluid therapy, the acepromazine and propofol in the anesthetic protocol promotes a significant reduction of hematocrit up to four hours after general anesthesia.

  7. Moessbauer and positron annihilation studies of structural modifications of hemoglobin in solution

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Kopelyan, E.A.; Semionkin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Structural modifications of human adult oxyhemoglobin in concentrated solution were studied by Moessbauer and positron life-time spectroscopies. The effects of non-sterile degradation and irradiation by γ-rays were compared by both techniques. It was found that positron annihilation parameters were sensitive to the structural modifications of hemoglobin molecules in solution and could be related with the conformational states of hemoglobin. (author)15 refs.; 3 tabs

  8. Novel idea to monitor and measure blood hemoglobin noninvasively ...

    Measuring blood hematocrit noninvasively is reviewed in this paper. Although there is an inclination to measure the hematocrit by determining the bioelectrical impedance of the blood, in vitro experimental methods still remain practically inapplicable. The blood sample size is determined when blood samples are examined.

  9. Autologous blood sequestration using a double venous reservoir bypass circuit and polymerized hemoglobin prime.

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Guerrero, J Luis; Vlahakes, Gus J

    2002-01-01

    Cardiac surgery often necessitates transfusion of homologous blood. Hemoglobin based oxygen carrying solutions (HBOCs) transport oxygen, suggesting use in cardiopulmonary bypass. HBOC was used in a novel oxygenator double-reservoir circuit that permits acute sequestration of a portion of the autologous blood volume during bypass. Two groups of seven mongrel dogs each were studied in an experimental bypass model using global myocardial ischemia and cardioplegia protection: HBOC group, initial venous return drained to a separate reservoir and hypothermic bypass was conducted with HBOC containing perfusate in a second bypass reservoir; Control group, crystalloid prime in a conventional circuit. Hemodynamics and metabolic and hematologic parameters were measured before and 60 min after aortic clamp removal and reinfusion of sequestered autologous blood. Blood gases, base excess, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and platelet counts were measured. In the HBOC group, metabolic acidosis did not occur, and ventricular function was preserved. Net conservation of platelets was noted at study conclusion: control 33+/-13 x 10(3) per mm3 versus HBOC 48+/-13 x 10(3), p conservation of the platelet mass occurs, a portion of which is not exposed to the deleterious effects of hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Neurocognitive profiles of preterm infants randomly assigned to lower or higher hematocrit thresholds for transfusion.

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Lindgren, Scott D; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concerns that anemia taxes infants' physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long-term neurocognitive outcome on children born prematurely and treated at birth with different transfusion guidelines. Neurocognitive outcomes were examined at school age for 56 preterm infants randomly assigned to a liberal (n = 33) or restrictive (n = 23) transfusion strategy. Tests of intelligence, achievement, language, visual-spatial/motor, and memory skills were administered. Between-group differences were assessed. Those in the liberal transfusion group performed more poorly than those in the restrictive group on measures of associative verbal fluency, visual memory, and reading. Findings highlight possible long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of maintaining higher hematocrit levels.

  11. The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus-Hemoglobins and ligand-binding properties.

    Roberta Russo

    Full Text Available A large amount of data is currently available on the adaptive mechanisms of polar bony fish hemoglobins, but structural information on those of cartilaginous species is scarce. This study presents the first characterisation of the hemoglobin system of one of the longest-living vertebrate species (392 ± 120 years, the Arctic shark Somniosus microcephalus. Three major hemoglobins are found in its red blood cells and are made of two copies of the same α globin combined with two copies of three very similar β subunits. The three hemoglobins show very similar oxygenation and carbonylation properties, which are unaffected by urea, a very important compound in marine elasmobranch physiology. They display identical electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra, indicating that their heme-pocket structures are identical or highly similar. The quaternary transition equilibrium between the relaxed (R and the tense (T states is more dependent on physiological allosteric effectors than in human hemoglobin, as also demonstrated in polar teleost hemoglobins. Similar to other cartilaginous fishes, we found no evidence for functional differentiation among the three isoforms. The very similar ligand-binding properties suggest that regulatory control of O2 transport may be at the cellular level and that it may involve changes in the cellular concentrations of allosteric effectors and/or variations of other systemic factors. The hemoglobins of this polar shark have evolved adaptive decreases in O2 affinity in comparison to temperate sharks.

  12. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion in patients with sepsis in Internal Medicine Departments.

    Muady, Gassan Fuad; Bitterman, Haim; Laor, Arie; Vardi, Moshe; Urin, Vitally; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2016-10-13

    Acute reduction in hemoglobin levels is frequently seen during sepsis. Previous studies have focused on the management of anemia in patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care units (ICU's), including aggressive blood transfusion aiming to enhance tissue oxygenation. To study the changes in hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis in the setting of Internal Medicine (IM) units, and their correlation to survival. Observational prospective study. We recorded hemoglobin values upon admission and throughout the first week of hospital stay in a consecutive cohort of septic patients admitted to IM units at a community hospital, the patients were enrolled into a prospective registry. Data on blood transfusions was also collected, we examined the correlation between hemoglobin concentrations during the first week of sepsis and survival, the effect of blood transfusion was also assessed. Eight hundred and fifteen patients (815) with sepsis were enrolled between February 2008 to January 2009. More than 20 % of them had hemoglobin levels less than 10g/dL on admission, a rate that was doubled during the first week of sepsis. Overall, 68 (8.3 %) received blood transfusions, 14 of them (20.6 %) due to bleeding. Typically, blood transfusion was given to older patients with a higher rate of malignancy and lower hemoglobin levels. While hemoglobin concentration on admission had strong correlation with in-hospital mortality (O.R-0.83 [95 % C.I. 0.74-0.92], blood transfusion was not found to be an independent predicting factor for mortality. Anemia is very common in sepsis. While hemoglobin level on admission exhibit independent correlation with survival, blood transfusion do not.

  14. Detection of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin in Haiti by Genotyping and Hemoglobin Solubility Tests

    Carter, Tamar E.; von Fricken, Michael; Romain, Jean R.; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Schick, Laura; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a growing global health concern because infants born with the disorder in developing countries are now surviving longer with little access to diagnostic and management options. In Haiti, the current state of sickle cell disease/trait in the population is unclear. To inform future screening efforts in Haiti, we assayed sickle hemoglobin mutations using traditional hemoglobin solubility tests (HST) and add-on techniques, which incorporated spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation. We also generated genotype data as a metric for HST performance. We found 19 of 202 individuals screened with HST were positive for sickle hemoglobin, five of whom did not carry the HbS allele. We show that spectrophotometry and insoluble hemoglobin separation add-on techniques could resolve false positives associated with the traditional HST approach, with some limitations. We also discuss the incorporation of insoluble hemoglobin separation observation with HST in suboptimal screening settings like Haiti. PMID:24957539

  15. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  16. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  17. TECHNIQUES OF EVALUATION OF HEMOGLOBIN OXYGEN SATURATION IN CLINICAL OPHTHALMOLOGY

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen content in body fluids and tissues is an important indicator of life support functions. A number of ocular pathologies, e.g. glaucoma, are of presumable vascular origin which means altered blood supply and oxygen circulation. Most oxygen is transported in the blood in the association with hemoglobin. When passing through the capillaries, hemoglobin releases oxygen, converting from oxygenated form to deoxygenated form. This process is accompanied by the changes in spectral characteristics of hemoglobin which result in different colors of arterial and venous blood. Photometric technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation in blood is based on the differences in light absorption by different forms of hemoglobin. The measurement of saturation is called oximetry. Pulse oximetry with assessment of tissue oxygenation is the most commonly used method in medicine. The degree of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the eye blood vessels is the most accessible for noninvasive studies during ophthalmoscopy and informative. Numerous studies showed the importance of this parameter for the diagnosis of retinopathy of various genesis, metabolic status analysis in hyperglycemia, diagnosis and control of treatment of glaucoma and other diseases involving alterations in eye blood supply. The specific method for evaluation of oxygen concentration is the measurement of pressure of oxygen dissolved in the blood, i.e. partial pressure of oxygen. In ophthalmological practice, this parameter is measured in anterior chamber fluid evaluating oxygen level for several ophthalmopathies including different forms of glaucoma, for instillations of hypotensive eye drops as well as in vitreous body near to the optic disc under various levels of intraocular pressure. Currently, monitoring of oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels, i.e. retinal oximetry, is well developed. This technique is based on the assessment of light absorption by blood depending on

  18. A Semi-Physiological Population Model to Quantify the Effect of Hematocrit on Everolimus Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Cancer Patients

    Erp, N.P. van; Herpen, C.M. van; Wit, D. de; Willemsen, A.; Burger, D.M.; Huitema, A.D.; Kapiteijn, E.; Heine, R. ter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Everolimus (a drug from the class of mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibitors) is associated with frequent toxicity-related dose reductions. Everolimus accumulates in erythrocytes, but the extent to which hematocrit affects everolimus plasma pharmacokinetics and

  19. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Weerwind, P.W.; Teerenstra, S.; Brouwer, René

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the

  20. Reliability of point-of-care hematocrit, blood gas, electrolyte, lactate and glucose measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Steinfelder-Visscher, J; Weerwind, P W; Teerenstra, S; Brouwer, M H J

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the GEM Premier blood gas analyser was upgraded to the GEM Premier 3000. In addition to pH, pCO2, pO2, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and hematocrit measurement, glucose and lactate can be measured on the GEM Premier 3000. In this prospective clinical study, the analytical performance of the GEM Premier 3000 was compared with the Ciba Corning 865 analyser for blood gas/electrolytes/metabolites, and for hematocrit with the Sysmex XE 2100 instrument. During a 6-month period, 127 blood samples were analysed on both the GEM Premier 3000 analyser and our laboratory analysers (Ciba Corning 865/Sysmex 2100 instrument), and compared using the agreement analysis for quantitative data. With the exception of K+, the other parameters (pCO2, pO2, Na+, Ca2+, hematocrit, glucose, and lactate) can be described in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the differences. For K+ measurement, a clear linear trend (r=0.79, panalyser seems to be suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes, metabolites, and blood gases during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, its downward bias in hematocrit values below 30% suggests that using the GEM Premier 3000 as a transfusion trigger leads to overtreatment with packed red cells.

  1. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  2. Hemoglobin correction factors for estimating the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women residing at high altitudes in Bolivia

    Jennifer Hadary Cohen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had two primary objectives: 1 to derive a method to determine hemoglobin cutoffs that could be used to better estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy at high altitudes and 2 to estimate the prevalence of anemia in a sample of pregnant women residing in two cities in Bolivia, La Paz (3 600 meters and El Alto (4 000 meters. We derived a hemoglobin-altitude curve from previously published data on the mean hemoglobin concentrations of nonanemic women of childbearing age at various altitudes. In addition, we abstracted data on hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy from medical records of women from La Paz and El Alto who had given birth at a maternity hospital in La Paz between January and June of 1996. Using our approach and two other previously published, currently used methods, we calculated and compared prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in this population using hemoglobin cutoffs determined from a hemoglobin-altitude curve corrected for pregnancy. The hemoglobin-altitude curve derived in this study provided a better fit to data for women of childbearing age than the two other models. Those models used cutoffs based on non-iron-replete populations of children or men, both of which were residing below 4 000 m, and then extrapolated to women and higher altitudes. The estimated prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy using the hemoglobin cutoffs determined in this study were higher than those estimated by the two other approaches.

  3. Selection of aptamers specific for glycated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin using on-chip SELEX.

    Lin, Hsin-I; Wu, Ching-Chu; Yang, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Shiesh, Shu-Chu

    2015-01-21

    Blood glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels reflecting average glucose concentrations over the past three months are fundamental for the diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment of diabetes. It has been hypothesized that aptamers, which are single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that demonstrate high affinity to a large variety of molecules ranging from small drugs, metabolites, or proteins, could be used for the measurement of HbA1c. Aptamers are selected through an in vitro process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and they can be chemically synthesized with high reproducibility at relatively low costs. This study therefore aimed to select HbA1c- and hemoglobin (Hb)-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers using an on-chip SELEX protocol. A microfluidic SELEX chip was developed to continuously and automatically carry out multiple rounds of SELEX to screen specific aptamers for HbA1c and Hb. HbA1c and Hb were first coated onto magnetic beads. Following several rounds of selection and enrichment with a randomized 40-mer DNA library, specific oligonucleotides were selected. The binding specificity and affinity were assessed by competitive and binding assays. Using the developed microfluidic system, the incubation and partitioning times were greatly decreased, and the entire process was shortened dramatically. Both HbA1c- and Hb-specific aptamers selected by the microfluidic system showed high specificity and affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 7.6 ± 3.0 nM and 7.3 ± 2.2 nM for HbA1c and Hb, respectively). With further refinements in the assay, these aptamers may replace the conventional antibodies for in vitro diagnostics applications in the near future.

  4. Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock.

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wernerman, Jan; Guttormsen, Anne B; Karlsson, Sari; Johansson, Pär I; Aneman, Anders; Vang, Marianne L; Winding, Robert; Nebrich, Lars; Nibro, Helle L; Rasmussen, Bodil S; Lauridsen, Johnny R M; Nielsen, Jane S; Oldner, Anders; Pettilä, Ville; Cronhjort, Maria B; Andersen, Lasse H; Pedersen, Ulf G; Reiter, Nanna; Wiis, Jørgen; White, Jonathan O; Russell, Lene; Thornberg, Klaus J; Hjortrup, Peter B; Müller, Rasmus G; Møller, Morten H; Steensen, Morten; Tjäder, Inga; Kilsand, Kristina; Odeberg-Wernerman, Suzanne; Sjøbø, Brit; Bundgaard, Helle; Thyø, Maria A; Lodahl, David; Mærkedahl, Rikke; Albeck, Carsten; Illum, Dorte; Kruse, Mary; Winkel, Per; Perner, Anders

    2014-10-09

    Blood transfusions are frequently given to patients with septic shock. However, the benefits and harms of different hemoglobin thresholds for transfusion have not been established. In this multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) who had septic shock and a hemoglobin concentration of 9 g per deciliter or less to receive 1 unit of leukoreduced red cells when the hemoglobin level was 7 g per deciliter or less (lower threshold) or when the level was 9 g per deciliter or less (higher threshold) during the ICU stay. The primary outcome measure was death by 90 days after randomization. We analyzed data from 998 of 1005 patients (99.3%) who underwent randomization. The two intervention groups had similar baseline characteristics. In the ICU, the lower-threshold group received a median of 1 unit of blood (interquartile range, 0 to 3) and the higher-threshold group received a median of 4 units (interquartile range, 2 to 7). At 90 days after randomization, 216 of 502 patients (43.0%) assigned to the lower-threshold group, as compared with 223 of 496 (45.0%) assigned to the higher-threshold group, had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 1.09; P=0.44). The results were similar in analyses adjusted for risk factors at baseline and in analyses of the per-protocol populations. The numbers of patients who had ischemic events, who had severe adverse reactions, and who required life support were similar in the two intervention groups. Among patients with septic shock, mortality at 90 days and rates of ischemic events and use of life support were similar among those assigned to blood transfusion at a higher hemoglobin threshold and those assigned to blood transfusion at a lower threshold; the latter group received fewer transfusions. (Funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and others; TRISS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01485315.).

  5. Graphene based chalcogenide fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor for detection of hemoglobin in human blood

    Sharma, Anuj K.; Gupta, Jyoti

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic evanescent wave sensor with graphene as an absorption-enhancing layer to measure hemoglobin concentration in human blood is proposed. Previous modal functions and experimental results describing the variation of optical constants of human blood with different hemoglobin concentrations in the near-infrared spectral region are considered for sensor design simulation. The sensor's performance is closely analyzed in terms of its absorption coefficient, sensitivity, and detection limit. It is found that the proposed sensor should be operated at longer light wavelength to get more enhanced sensitivity and smaller detection limit. At 1000 nm wavelength, a detection limit of 18 μg/dL and sensitivity of 6.71 × 10-4 per g/dL is achievable with the proposed sensor. The sensitivity is found to be better for larger hemoglobin concentrations. The results are correlated with the evanescent wave penetration depth.

  6. An algorithm using reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) measurement in screening adolescents for iron deficiency.

    Stoffman, Nava; Brugnara, Carlo; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate whether the use of an algorithm including reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), a new hematologic parameter, in addition to the screening complete blood count (CBC), improves detection of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in healthy adolescents. After initiation of an algorithm using CHr in addition to CBC results for identifying iron-deficient patients in a primary care hospital-based adolescent clinic, we reviewed results of all hematological tests performed in the clinic during an 8-month period. Electronic medical records were screened for health status and inclusion criteria. We determined the number of patients with low hematocrit values, low mean cell volume (MCV), and low CHr. To evaluate the impact of the protocol, we calculated the percentage of cases in which the CHr results suggested a management plan different from that which would have been formulated using the CBC results only. A total of 381 patients (mean age 16.8 +/- 3.1 years) were included in the study. Anemia was diagnosed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines in 63 patients (16.5%), low MCV in 170 patients (44.6%), and a low CHr in 80 (21%) patients. In 68% of anemia cases, a normal CHr suggested that iron deficiency was not the cause of the anemia. Although low MCV values were found in 38 (60.4%) of all anemic cases, mean MCV was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in the 19 cases with a low CHr as well. In 19% of 318 patients with a normal hematocrit (HCT), a low CHr suggested the need for treatment of early iron deficiency. In 103 (27%) cases, CHr suggested a different treatment plan from that which would have been formulated using the screening CBC only. The use of an algorithm including CHr to screen for iron deficiency anemia may increase the accuracy of diagnosis, enabling early detection and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescents without the need for additional costly iron studies.

  7. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  8. Measurement of Flow Properties of Mammalian Blood with Different Hematocrit Values Using Falling Needle Rheometer

    Takamasa Suzuki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of viscometry with high accuracy and quick operation, as well as the establishment of a data evaluation method by pathology are largely required. Especially, the flow properties of human blood are an important factor in the evaluation of blood disease on the medicine, but the method of viscometry and the data collection are not so easy. This study has been described on the viscosity measurement and their evaluations for mammalian blood (rabbit, pig and horse including human blood. A compact-sized falling needle rheometer (FNR and a flow analysis method using this device for blood have been developed, and the relationship between the apparent viscosity and physical properties (density, hematocrit value of blood have also been evaluated. Measured flow properties of blood are evaluated as a flow curve showing the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate. Observed flow curves of mammalian bloods show three typical fluid regions, these are, the Non-newtonian fluid region for a low shear rate range, the transition region and the Newtonian fluid region for a high shear rate range. Flow properties of blood in the Casson fluid region and the apparent viscosity (μ in the Newtonian fluid region are measured, and they are compared between mammals.

  9. Hematocrit levels as cardiovascular risk among taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand

    ISHIMARU, Tomohiro; ARPHORN, Sara; JIRAPONGSUWAN, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, taxi drivers employed in the informal sector often experience hazardous working conditions. Previous studies revealed that elevated Hematocrit (HCT) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study assessed factors associated with HCT in taxi drivers to predict their occupational CVD risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 male taxi drivers who joined a health check-up campaign in Bangkok, Thailand. HCT and body mass index were retrieved from participant health check-up files. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographics, driving mileage, working hours, and lifestyle. Statistical associations were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Our results showed that obesity (p=0.007), daily alcohol drinking (p=0.003), and current or past smoking (p=0.016) were associated with higher HCT levels. While working hours were not directly associated with HCT levels in the current study, the effect on overworking is statistically arguable because most participants worked substantially longer hours. Our findings suggest that taxi drivers’ CVD risk may be increased by their unhealthy work styles. Initiatives to improve general working conditions for taxi drivers should take into account health promotion and CVD prevention. The policy of providing periodic health check-ups is important to make workers in the informal sector aware of their health status. PMID:27151439

  10. Three-state combinatorial switch models as applied to the binding of oxygen by human hemoglobin.

    Straume, M; Johnson, M L

    1988-02-23

    We have generated a series of all 6561 unique, discrete three-state combinatorial switch models to describe the partitioning of the cooperative oxygen-binding free change among the 10 variously ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers. These models were inspired by the experimental observation of Smith and Ackers that the cooperative free energy of the intersubunit contact regions of the 10 possible ligated forms of human hemoglobin tetramers can be represented by a particular distribution of three distinct energy levels [Smith, F. R., & Ackers, G. K. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 5347-5351]. A statistical thermodynamic formulation accounting for both dimer-tetramer equilibria and ligand binding properties of hemoglobin solutions as a function of oxygen and protein concentrations was utilized to exhaustively test these thermodynamic models. In this series of models each of the 10 ligated forms of the hemoglobin tetramer can exist in one, and only one, of three possible energy levels; i.e., each ligated form was assumed to be associated with a discrete energy state. This series of models includes all possible ways that the 10 ligation states of hemoglobin can be distributed into three distinct cooperative energy levels. The mathematical models, as presented here, do not permit equilibria between energy states to exist for any of the 10 unique ligated forms of hemoglobin tetramers. These models were analyzed by nonlinear least-squares estimation of the free energy parameters characteristic of this statistical thermodynamic development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Point-of-care hemoglobin testing for postmortem diagnosis of anemia.

    Na, Joo-Young; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Byung Ha; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-03-01

    An autopsy involves examination of a body using invasive methods such as dissection, and includes various tests using samples procured during dissection. During medicolegal autopsies, the blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration is commonly measured using the AVOXimeter® 4000 as a point-of-care test. When evaluating the body following hypovolemic shock, characteristics such as reduced livor mortis or an anemic appearance of the viscera can be identified, but these observations arequite subjective. Thus, a more objective test is required for the postmortem diagnosis of anemia. In the present study, the AVOXimeter® 4000 was used to investigate the utility of point-of-care hemoglobin testing. Hemoglobin tests were performed in 93 autopsy cases. The AVOXimeter® 4000 and the BC-2800 Auto Hematology Analyzer were used to test identical samples in 29 of these cases. The results of hemoglobin tests performed with these two devices were statistically similar (r = 0.969). The results of hemoglobin tests using postmortem blood were compared with antemortem test results from medical records from 31 cases, and these results were similar. In 13 of 17 cases of death from internal hemorrhage, hemoglobin levels were lower in the cardiac blood than in blood from the affected body cavity, likely due to compensatory changes induced by antemortem hemorrhage. It is concluded that blood hemoglobin testing may be useful as a point-of-care test for diagnosing postmortem anemia.

  12. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Teresa Castro Aguilar-Tablada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001 and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006. Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI, the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05. Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit parameters (p < 0.05. A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  13. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  14. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  15. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of peptides isolated from the hemoglobin of chickens.

    Hu, Fengjiao; Wu, Qiaoxing; Song, Shuang; She, Ruiping; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yifei; Zhang, Meikun; Du, Fang; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan

    2016-12-05

    Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays. The results demonstrated that CHAP had potent and rapid antimicrobial activity against 19 bacterial strains, including 9 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. Bacterial biofilm and NaCl permeability assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were further performed to detect the mechanism of its antimicrobial effect. Additionally, CHAP showed low hemolytic activity, embryo toxicity, and high stability in different temperatures and animal plasma. CHAP may have great potential for expanding production and development value in animal medication, the breeding industry and environment protection.

  16. A new method for detecting hemoglobin directly in whole blood using photon attenuation techniques

    Medhat, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is focused on measuring iron concentration directly in whole blood as tool for estimating hemoglobin and anemic conditions in patients across the world. The investigated method depends on theory of photon attenuation through transmission of low energy in whole blood sample. The mathematical expressions for calculating hemoglobin and iron deficit on blood using photon attenuation are derived. Calculations are carried out for estimating concentration of iron in blood samples taken from children, adults and old patients and therefore measuring their hemoglobin and iron deficit from normal values. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the XCOM program. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium detector was employed to measure attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through blood samples. (author)

  17. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Concentrações de hemoglobina e ferritina sérica em escolares da rede pública municipal de Teresina, Piauí, Nordeste do Brasil Hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations in public school children from Teresina, in the State of Piauí, in Northeast Brazil

    Marize Melo dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o estado nutricional de ferro em escolares de instituições públicas de ensino de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: corte transversal, envolvendo amostra aleatória, selecionada em duas etapas, de 747 escolares (7-11 anos, de ambos os sexos, no período de agosto / setembro de 2000. A anemia foi rastreada em 747 escolares e para o diagnóstico adotou-se a concentração de hemoglobina (Hb OBJECTIVES: to assess iron nutritional status of public school children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 747 school children of both sexes, aged between seven and eleven years, who were randomly selected using a two-step sampling procedure, in August/September 2000. Children with hemoglobin (Hb concentrations less than 11.5 g/dL were evaluated as anemic and low body iron (Sfer< 15µg/L was evaluated in 207 children. RESULTS: the prevalence of anemia was 14.3% (95%CI 12.2-17.4 and of low body iron 20.3% (95%CI 15.2-26.6. Anemia and body iron depletion were not correlated with gender (p=0.60; p=0.96, respectively or age group (p=0.85; p=0.53, respectively. SFer was not correlated (r=0.1; p=0.168 with Hb concentrations. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (Hb< 11.5g/dL and SFer< 15.0µg/L was 26.3% (95%CI 17.3-37.5. CONCLUSIONS: iron deficiency and anemia seem to be a public health problem among school children in Teresina. Concerted action to prevent and control these conditions is strongly recommended. However, all anemia cannot be explained by iron deficiency. Therefore, it may be wise to consider other etiologies, such as micronutrient status, parasite infestation, hereditary disorders and exposure to environmental pollutants.

  19. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  20. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein, red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS: This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS: There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028 significantly inhibited (P < 0.050 this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION: According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes.   

  1. Functional behavior of tortoise hemoglobin Geochelone denticulata Comportamento funcional da hemoglobina da tartaruga Geochelone denticulata

    M. A. TORSONI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The hemolysate from Geochelone denticulata contains two main hemoglobin components, as shown by ion exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Electrophoresis under dissociating conditions showed three types of globin chains. The apparent molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, was compatible with tetrameric Hb, which was unable to polymerize. The G. denticulata Hb has a P50 value of 9.56 mm Hg at pH 7.4. The Hb oxygenation appears to be under the control of organic phosphates and hydrogen ion since it is strongly affected by those species. In the presence ATP or IHP the P50 values increased to 29.51 mm Hg and 54.95 mm Hg, respectively, at pH 7.4. The n50 was generally lower than 1.5 in stripped Hb, suggesting a dissociation of tetramers. In the presence of organic phosphates n50 values increased to approximately 2.5. The Bohr effect was evident in oxygen equilibrium experiments. The hematocrit (32% and Hb concentration (5.7 mM as heme of G. denticulata blood were substantially larger than those of G. carbonaria, but the methemoglobin levels were similar in both species, approximately 1%. Thus, the oxygen capacity of blood appears to be higher in G. denticulata than in G. carbonaria, particularly considering the functional properties of their Hbs, which would guarantee the survival of animals.O hemolisado de Geochelone denticulata contém dois componentes principais, de acordo com a cromatografia de troca iônica e PAGE. Eletroforese sob condições dissociantes mostrou 3 tipos de cadeias de globina. A massa molecular aparente, determinada pela filtração em gel sobre Sephadex G-200, foi compatível com Hb tetramérica que foi incapaz de polimerizar. A Hb de G. denticulata tem valor de P50 de 9,56 mm Hg em pH 7,4. A oxigenação da Hb parece estar sob controle de fosfatos orgânicos e íons hidrogênio, uma vez que ela é fortemente afetada por essas espécies. Na presença de ATP ou IHP, os

  2. Evidence that the low-affinity folate-binding protein in erythrocyte hemolysate is identical to hemoglobin

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1981-01-01

    Gel filtration studies on erythrocyte hemolysate demonstrated the presence of a folate binding protein, apparently of the low-affinity type, that co-elutes with hemoglobin. Further, the folate binder eluted with a low salt concentration after DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B anion-exchange chromatography of erythrocyte hemolysate at pH 6.3. The chromatographic behavior of hemoglobin labeled with [3H]folate was so similar to that of the present binder as to suggest that the folate binder in erythrocytes is in fact hemoglobin

  3. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  4. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  5. Constraints on mutational pathways of hemoglobin evolution

    Kumar, Amit; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    amino acid substitutions that occurred during an evolutionary reduction in hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity in nightjars (nocturnal birds in the family Caprimulgidae).We selected nightjar Hbs for experimental study because ancestral sequence reconstructions indicated that the evolved reduction in Hb-O2...

  6. Kadar Hemoglobin dan Kecerdasan Intelektual Anak

    Yuni Kusmiyati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas sumber daya manusia dipengaruhi oleh inteligensi anak. Skor kecerdasan intelektual yang tidak menetap pada usia tertentu dapat berubah karena faktor genetik, gizi, dan lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual anak. Penelitian observasional dengan desain potong lintang ini dilakukan pada populasi siswa kelas VI Sekolah Dasar Negeri Giwangan Yogyakarta, tahun 2013. Penarikan sampel dilakukan dengan metode simple random sampling terhadap 37 sampel siswa. Instrumen untuk mengukur kecerdasan intelektual dengan Cultural Fair Intelligence Quotient Test yang dirancang untuk meminimalkan pengaruh kultural dengan memperhatikan prosedur evaluasi, instruksi, konten isi, dan respons peserta. Tes dilakukan oleh Biro Psikologi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, kadar hemoglobin diukur menggunakan Portable Hemoglobin Digital Analyzer Easy Touch secara digital.Variabel luar indeks massa tubuh diukur langsung menggunakan parameter tinggi badan dan berat badan. Analisis menggunakan uji regresi linier. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan indeks massa tubuh tidak berhubungan dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,052. Anemia berhubungan cukup dengan kecerdasan anak (r = 0,491 dan berpola positif, semakin tinggi kadar hemoglobin semakin tinggi kecerdasan intelektual anak. Nilai koefisien determinasi 0,241 menerangkan bahwa 24,1% variasi anemia cukup baik untuk menjelaskan variabel kecerdasan intelektual. Ada hubungan antara kadar hemoglobin dengan kecerdasan intelektual (nilai p = 0,002. Quality of human resources is influenced by the child’s intelligent. Intelligence Quotient (IQ score will not settle at a certain age and can change due to genetic factors, nutrition, and the environment. The objective is known relationship of anemia with IQ to child. Method of observational study with cross sectional design. Population are students of class VI elementary school of Giwangan Yogyakarta in

  7. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  8. Oxygen Association-Dissociation and Stability Analysis on Mouse Hemoglobins with Mutant α- and β-Globins

    D'Surney, S. J.; Popp, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen association-dissociation and hemoglobin stability analysis were performed on mouse hemoglobins with amino acid substitutions in an α-globin (α89, His to Leu) and a β-globin (β59, Lys to Ile). The variant α-globin, designated chain 5(m) in the Hba(g2) haplotype, had a high oxygen affinity and was stable. The variant β-globin, (β(s2)) of the Hbb(s2) haplotype, also had an elevated oxygen affinity and in addition was moderately unstable in 19% isopropanol. Hemoglobins from the expected nine (Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s) X Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2)) F(2) genotypes can be grouped into five classes of P(50) values characterized by strict additivity and dependency on mutant globin gene dosage; physiologically, both globin variants gave indistinguishable effects on oxygen affinity. The hemoglobin of normal mice (Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s)) had a P(50) = 40 mm Hg and the hemoglobin of Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) F(2) mice had a P(50) = 25 mm Hg (human P(50) = 26 mm Hg). Peripheral blood from Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s), Hba(a)/Hba(a);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) and Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice exhibited normal hematological values except for a slightly higher hematocrit for Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s)/Hbb(s) and Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice, slightly elevated red cell counts for mice of the three mutant genotypes, and significantly lower values for the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin for Hba(g2)/Hba(g2);Hbb(s2)/Hbb(s2) mice. PMID:1427042

  9. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program

    Marcilene Rezende Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. METHODS: βS allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. RESULTS: The following alpha chain variants were found: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5 Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13 Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2 Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5 Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. CONCLUSION: Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  10. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  11. Effects of hydroxyurea treatment for patients with hemoglobin SC disease.

    Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Pressel, Sara; Hilliard, Lee; Brown, R Clark; Smith, Mary G; Thompson, Alexis A; Lee, Margaret T; Rothman, Jennifer; Rogers, Zora R; Owen, William; Imran, Hamayun; Thornburg, Courtney; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Aygun, Banu; Nelson, Stephen; Roberts, Carla; Gauger, Cynthia; Piccone, Connie; Kalfa, Theodosia; Alvarez, Ofelia; Hassell, Kathryn; Davis, Barry R; Ware, Russell E

    2016-02-01

    Although hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is usually considered less severe than sickle cell anemia (SCA), which includes HbSS and HbS/β(0) -thalassemia genotypes, many patients with HbSC experience severe disease complications, including vaso-occlusive pain, acute chest syndrome, avascular necrosis, retinopathy, and poor quality of life. Fully 20 years after the clinical and laboratory efficacy of hydroxyurea was proven in adult SCA patients, the safety and utility of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC patients remain unclear. Recent NHLBI evidence-based guidelines highlight this as a critical knowledge gap, noting HbSC accounts for ∼30% of sickle cell patients within the United States. To date, only 5 publications have reported short-term, incomplete, or conflicting laboratory and clinical outcomes of hydroxyurea treatment in a total of 71 adults and children with HbSC. We now report on a cohort of 133 adult and pediatric HbSC patients who received hydroxyurea, typically for recurrent vaso-occlusive pain. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a stable hemoglobin concentration; increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV); and reduced white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute reticulocyte count (ARC). Reversible cytopenias occurred in 22% of patients, primarily neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Painful events were reduced with hydroxyurea, more in patients >15 years old. These multicenter data support the safety and potentially salutary effects of hydroxyurea treatment for HbSC disease; however, a multicenter, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 clinical trial is needed to determine if hydroxyurea therapy has efficacy for patients with HbSC disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat

  13. Measurement of total hemoglobin reduces red cell transfusion in hospitalized patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a retrospective database analysis.

    Craver, Christopher; Belk, Kathy W; Myers, Gerard J

    2018-01-01

    Historically, perioperative hemoglobin monitoring has relied on calculated saturation, using blood gas devices that measure plasma hematocrit (Hct). Co-oximetry, which measures total hemoglobin (tHb), yields a more comprehensive assessment of hemodilution. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of tHb measurement by co-oximetry and Hct, using conductivity with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, length of stay (LOS) and inpatient costs in patients having major cardiac surgery. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve replacement (VR) procedures from January 2014 to June 2016, using MedAssets discharge data. The patient population was sub-divided by the measurement modality (tHb and Hct), using detailed billing records and Current Procedural Terminology coding. Cost was calculated using hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant drivers of RBC transfusion and resource utilization. The study population included 18,169 cardiovascular surgery patients. Hct-monitored patients accounted for 66% of the population and were more likely to have dual CABG and VR procedures (10.4% vs 8.9%, p=0.0069). After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, as well as patient comorbidities, Hct-monitored patients had significantly higher RBC transfusion risk (OR=1.26, CI 1.15-1.38, pcosts (IRR=1.15, pcost (IRR=1.22, pcost compared to Hct monitoring.

  14. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  15. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  16. Partial Least Square with Savitzky Golay Derivative in Predicting Blood Hemoglobin Using Near Infrared Spectrum

    Mohd Idrus Mohd Nazrul Effendy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a reliable technique that widely used in medical fields. Partial least square was developed to predict blood hemoglobin concentration using NIRS. The aims of this paper are (i to develop predictive model for near infrared spectroscopic analysis in blood hemoglobin prediction, (ii to establish relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum using a predictive model, (iii to evaluate the predictive accuracy of a predictive model based on root mean squared error (RMSE and coefficient of determination rp2. Partial least square with first order Savitzky Golay (SG derivative preprocessing (PLS-SGd1 showed the higher performance of predictions with RMSE = 0.7965 and rp2= 0.9206 in K-fold cross validation. Optimum number of latent variable (LV and frame length (f were 32 and 27 nm, respectively. These findings suggest that the relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum is strong, and the partial least square with first order SG derivative is able to predict the blood hemoglobin using near infrared spectral data.

  17. NITRITE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY OF NON-SYMBIOTIC HEMOGLOBINS FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA†

    Tiso, Mauro; Tejero, Jesús; Kenney, Claire; Frizzell, Sheila; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant non-symbiotic hemoglobins possess hexa-coordinate heme geometry similar to the heme protein neuroglobin. We recently discovered that deoxygenated neuroglobin converts nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule involved in many processes in plants. We sought to determine whether Arabidopsis thaliana non-symbiotic hemoglobins class 1 and 2 (AHb1 and AHb2) might function as nitrite reductases. We found that the reaction of nitrite with deoxygenated AHb1 and AHb2 generates NO gas and iron-nitrosyl-hemoglobin species. The bimolecular rate constants for nitrite reduction to NO are 19.8 ± 3.2 and 4.9 ± 0.2 M−1s−1, at pH = 7.4 and 25°C, respectively. We determined the pH dependence of these bimolecular rate constants and found a linear correlation with the concentration of protons, indicating the requirement for one proton in the reaction. Release of free NO gas during reaction in anoxic and hypoxic (2% oxygen) conditions was confirmed by chemiluminescence detection. These results demonstrate that deoxygenated AHb1 and AHb2 reduce nitrite to form NO via a mechanism analogous to that observed for hemoglobin, myoglobin and neuroglobin. Our findings suggest that during severe hypoxia and in the anaerobic plant roots, especially in water submerged species, non-symbiotic hemoglobins provide a viable pathway for NO generation via nitrite reduction. PMID:22620259

  18. Fetal hemoglobin is much less prone to DNA cleavage compared to the adult protein

    Sandeep Chakane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is well protected inside the red blood cells (RBCs. Upon hemolysis and when free in circulation, Hb can be involved in a range of radical generating reactions and may thereby attack several different biomolecules. In this study, we have examined the potential damaging effects of cell-free Hb on plasmid DNA (pDNA. Hb induced cleavage of supercoiled pDNA (sc pDNA which was proportional to the concentration of Hb applied. Almost 70% of sc pDNA was converted to open circular or linear DNA using 10 µM of Hb in 12 h. Hb can be present in several different forms. The oxy (HbO2 and met forms are most reactive, while the carboxy-protein shows only low hydrolytic activity. Hemoglobin A (HbA could easily induce complete pDNA cleavage while fetal hemoglobin (HbF was three-fold less reactive. By inserting, a redox active cysteine residue on the surface of the alpha chain of HbF by site-directed mutagenesis, the DNA cleavage reaction was enhanced by 82%. Reactive oxygen species were not directly involved in the reaction since addition of superoxide dismutase and catalase did not prevent pDNA cleavage. The reactivity of Hb with pDNA can rather be associated with the formation of protein based radicals. Keywords: Adult hemoglobin, Fetal hemoglobin, Supercoiled plasmid DNA, DNA cleavage, Cysteine, Protein radicals

  19. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Mustafa Karagülle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. METHODS: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin 120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/mL were enrolled. RESULTS: CHr was 24.95±3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93±2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. CHr showed a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, and transferrin saturation and a significant negative correlation with transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. The cut-off value of CHr for detecting IDA was 29 pg. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CHr is a useful parameter that can be confidently used in the diagnosis of IDA, and a CHr cut-off value of 29 pg predicts IDA.

  20. The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentrations.

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7 cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8 g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver>kidney>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. The dietary chromium exposure decreased the growth rate and hepatosomatic index of rockfish. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration exposed to ≥120 mg/kg chromium concentrations. The dietary chromium exposure (≥120 mg/kg) led to notable increase in glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, whereas there was no considerable change in calcium, magnesium, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results indicated that the dietary chromium exposure to rockfish can induce significant chromium accumulation in the specific tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potassium-based algorithm allows correction for the hematocrit bias in quantitative analysis of caffeine and its major metabolite in dried blood spots.

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Capiau, Sara; Stove, Veronique V; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2014-10-01

    Although dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is increasingly receiving interest as a potential alternative to traditional blood sampling, the impact of hematocrit (Hct) on DBS results is limiting its final breakthrough in routine bioanalysis. To predict the Hct of a given DBS, potassium (K(+)) proved to be a reliable marker. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of an algorithm, based upon predicted Hct or K(+) concentrations as such, allowed correction for the Hct bias. Using validated LC-MS/MS methods, caffeine, chosen as a model compound, was determined in whole blood and corresponding DBS samples with a broad Hct range (0.18-0.47). A reference subset (n = 50) was used to generate an algorithm based on K(+) concentrations in DBS. Application of the developed algorithm on an independent test set (n = 50) alleviated the assay bias, especially at lower Hct values. Before correction, differences between DBS and whole blood concentrations ranged from -29.1 to 21.1%. The mean difference, as obtained by Bland-Altman comparison, was -6.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), -9.7 to -3.4%). After application of the algorithm, differences between corrected and whole blood concentrations lay between -19.9 and 13.9% with a mean difference of -2.1% (95% CI, -4.5 to 0.3%). The same algorithm was applied to a separate compound, paraxanthine, which was determined in 103 samples (Hct range, 0.17-0.47), yielding similar results. In conclusion, a K(+)-based algorithm allows correction for the Hct bias in the quantitative analysis of caffeine and its metabolite paraxanthine.

  2. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  3. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  4. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  5. Positive Association of Vitamin E Supplementation with Hemoglobin Levels in Mildly Anemic Healthy Pakistani Adults.

    Jilani, Tanveer; Azam, Iqbal; Moiz, Bushra; Mehboobali, Naseema; Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin levels slightly below the lower limit of normal are common in adults in the general population in developing countries. A few human studies have suggested the use of antioxidant vitamins in the correction of mild anemia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of vitamin E supplementation in mildly anemic healthy adults with post-supplemental blood hemoglobin levels in the general population of Karachi, Pakistan. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled randomized trial, 124 mildly anemic subjects from the General Practitioners' Clinics and personnel of the Aga Khan University were randomized into intervention (n = 82) and control (n = 42) group. In the intervention group, each subject was given vitamin E (400 mg) everyday for a period of three months, while control group subjects received a placebo. Eighty six subjects completed the trial. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline and after three months of supplementation. Hemoglobin levels and serum/plasma concentrations of vitamin E, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, total-antioxidant-status and erythropoietin were measured and analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression. The adjusted regression coefficients (β) and standard error [SE(β)] of the significant predictors of post-supplemental hemoglobin levels were serum concentration of vitamin E (0.983[0.095]), gender (- 0.656[0.244]), sTfR (- 0.06[0.02]) and baseline hemoglobin levels (0.768[0.077]). The study showed a positive association between vitamin E supplementation and enhanced hemoglobin levels in mildly anemic adults.

  6. Facile Interfacial Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin

    Chunhai Fan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We herein describe a method of depositing hemoglobin (Hb and sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN on GC electrodes that facilitate interfacial protein electron transfer. Well-defined, reproducible, chemically reversible peaks of Hb and SPAN can be obtained in our experiments. We also observed enhanced peroxidase activity of Hb in SPAN films. These results clearly showed that SPAN worked as molecular wires and effectively exchanged electrons between Hb and electrodes.Mediated by Conjugated Polymers

  7. Radio-ligand immunoassay for human hemoglobin variants

    Javid, J.; Pettis, P.K.; Miller, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for the individual assay of human hemoglobin variants occurring singly or in mixture. The hemoglobin to be assayed is bound to specific antibody; the immune complex is attached to protein A-containing S. aureus and removed from the mixture. The hemoglobin thus isolated is quantified by its ability to bind radiolabeled haptoglobin. The technique is accurate and distinguishes among the 4 hemoglobins tested, namely Hb A, S, C and F. It has the advantage over conventional radioimmunoassay that a single probe, radiolabeled haptoglobin, is needed for the specific assay of any hemoglobin. (Auth.)

  8. Induction of nano pore in Agrobacterial hemoglobin

    Mojtaba Tousheh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A variety of oxygen-transport and -binding proteins exist in organisms including bacteria, protozoans, and fungi all have hemoglobin-like proteins. In addition to dealing with transport and sensing of oxygen, they may also deal with NO2, CO2, sulfide compounds, and even O2 scavenging in environments. Also they detoxified chlorinated materials like P450 enzymes and peroxidases and use as a detector of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. Pore-forming bacterial globins are interested for filtration. Materials and methods: Although there are data for bacterial toxin as a filter, here we used Agrobacterial hem to induce nano pore in the heme structure using point mutation. Results: Investigations showed that three amino acids leucine 76, alanine 83 and histidine 80 are important for pore formation in Agrobacterium hemoglobin. A point mutation on leucine 76 to glycine, histidine 80 to asparagine and alanine 83 to lysine step by step led to create the nano pore 0.7- 0.8 nm in the globin. Discussion and conclusion: These mutations in bacterial hemoglobin increase the stability when mutation is with it’s at pH7. This mutation decreases the aliphatic index however increase the stability index.

  9. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  10. Removal of cellular-type hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemoglobin-vesicles) from blood using centrifugation and ultrafiltration.

    Sakai, Hiromi; Sou, Keitaro; Horinouchi, Hirohisa; Tsuchida, Eishun; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The hemoglobin-vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating a concentrated hemoglobin solution in a phospholipid vesicle (liposome). During or after transporting oxygen, macrophages capture HbVs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with an approximate circulation half-life of 3 days. Animal studies show transient splenohepatomegaly after large doses, but HbVs were completely degraded, and the components were excreted in a few weeks. If a blood substitute is used for emergency use until red blood cell transfusion becomes available or for temporary use such as a priming fluid for an extracorporeal circuit, then one option would be to remove HbVs from the circulating blood without waiting a few weeks for removal by the RES. Using a mixture of beagle dog whole blood and HbV, we tested the separation of HbV using a centrifugal Fresenius cell separator and an ultrafiltration system. The cell separator system separated the layers of blood cell components from the HbV-containing plasma layer by centrifugal force, and then the HbV was removed from plasma phase by the ultrafiltration system. The HbVs (250-280 nm) are larger than plasma proteins (blood cell components (> 3 µm). The size of HbVs is advantageous to be separated from the original blood components, and the separated blood components can be returned to circulation. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  12. Effect of clorophilic juice from germinated corn on seric lipids, hemoglobin, and uric acid Efecto del germinado de maíz sobre el perfil lipídico, la hemoglobina y la uricemia

    María Luisa Bravo Aguiar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect was studied of clorophilic juice from germinated corn on blood seric lipids, uric acid, glucose, hemoglobine and hematocrite. Nine adults with average age 44 years and who presented hypertriglyceridemia received daily 30 ml doses of the juice during 2 months. Initial average concentrations in mg/dl were 6.9 (uric acid, 259 (triglycerides and 199 (total cholesterol; they decreased progressively and significantly at 30, 45 and 60 days of treatment reaching values of 5.0, 171 and 169 respectively (p:0.01 0,0.015 and 0.034. Hemoglobin increased significantly (p:0.008. This natural treatment could be useful in regulating blood lipids and other biologic risk factors for coronary arteriosclerosis, without the toxic efects shown by some lipid control drugs. Se investigó el efecto del jugo clorofílico de germinado de maíz, con una dosis de 30 ml diarios durante dos meses, sobre el perfil lipídico, la glicemia, la uricemia, la hemoglobina y el hematocrito, en nueve adultos con edad promedio de 44 años y que presentaban hipertrigliceridemia como trastorno principal. Las concentraciones promedio iniciales en mgl dl que eran de 6.9 (ácido úrico, 259 (triglicéridos y 199 (colesterol total descendieron en forma progresiva y significativa a los 30, 45 y 60 días de tratamiento hasta valores respectivos de 5.0, 171 y 169 (p = 0.010,0.015 y 0.034 respectivamente. La hemoglobina ascendió de manera progresiva y significativa (p = 0.008 durante el experimento. Este tratamiento natural podría ser útil en la regulación de los lípidos sanguíneos y otros factores biológicos de riesgo para el desarrollo de ateromatosis coronaría, sin los efectos tóxicos que se han demostrado con algunas drogas hipolipemiantes.

  13. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  14. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Growth stimulation of Porphyromonas endodontalis by hemoglobin and protoporphyrin IX.

    Zerr, M A; Cox, C D; Johnson, W T; Drake, D R

    2000-12-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis, like other Porphyromonas species, has a complex set of nutritional requirements. In addition to being an obligate anaerobe, the bacterium must be grown in a complex medium consisting of amino acids, reducing agents and heme compounds. P. endodontalis accumulates high concentrations of heme pigments to the extent that colonies appear black on blood agar. This accumulation of heme and the need for these compounds has been characterized as iron requirements by these species. However, in our studies, P. endodontalis demonstrated growth dependence on hemoglobin or protoporphyrin IX but not on free iron. Iron added to other heme compounds actually decreased growth stimulation by porphyrin-containing compounds. P. endodontalis actively transported free iron, but this process did not appear to be critical for growth. The maximum stimulation of growth by protoporphyrin IX, under conditions of iron deprivation, suggests that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin moiety as a growth factor.

  16. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D but not dietary vitamin D intake is associated with hemoglobin in women of reproductive age in rural northern Vietnam

    Ellen S. Michalski

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Low vitamin D status may be linked to reduced hemoglobin concentrations, but the role of diet in this association was not evident in this population of WRA in Vietnam where dietary vitamin D intake was very low.

  18. Anemia intrahospitalaria y descenso de hemoglobina en pacientes internados Hospital-acquired anemia and decrease of hemoglobin levels in hospitalized patients

    Carina V. Gianserra

    2011-06-01

    estadía hospitalaria prolongada, la presencia de leucocitosis, la hidratación parenteral y colocación de acceso venoso central fueron factores predictivos de descenso de hemoglobina = 2 g/dl.It is common to observe the development of anemia in hospitalized patients, especially in critical cases. Few studies have evaluated its prevalence and associated factors in patients in the general ward. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associated clinical factors of hospital-acquired anemia and the drop of hemoglobin concentration in hospitalized patients. This is a cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study. A total of 192 consecutive in-patients in the general ward were studied. Associated risk factors to the drop in hemoglobin by = 2g/dl were analyzed; 139 patients (72.4% presented anemia; 89 of them (46.4% had it at admission and 50 (26% developed hospital-acquired anemia, 47 out of 192 showed a drop in hemoglobin = 2 g/dl(24.48%. They also presented lower values of hematocrite and hemoglobin at discharge (p = 0.01, parenteral hydration at a higher volume (p = 0.01, and lengthier hospitalizations (p = 0.0001. In the univariate analysis, the following variables were statistically significant risk factors: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2,02; 1.03-4; p = 0.01, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:3.39; 1.62-7.09; p = 0.0006, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.47; 1.06-6.4; p = 0.01, central venous access (OR; IC95%:10.29; 1.75-108.07; p = 0.003 and hospital-acquired anemia (OR; IC95%: 7.06; 3.41-15.83; p = 0.00000004. In the multivariate analysis, the following variables were independent predictive factors of the hemoglobin decrease = 2 g/dl: leukocytosis = 11 000 mm³ (OR; IC95%: 2.45; 1.14-5,27; p = 0.02, hospitalization days = 7 (OR; IC95%:5.15; 2.19-12.07; p = 0.0002, parenteral hydration = 1500 ml/day (OR; IC95%: 2.95; 1.13-7.72; p = 0.02, central venous access (OR; IC95%:8.82; 1.37-56.82; p = 0

  19. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  20. Hemichrome formation during hemoglobin Zurich denaturation

    Zago, M.A.; Costa, F.F.; Botura, C.; Baffa, O.

    1988-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)spectrum of hemoglobin Zurich, after oxidation, storage and heating, showed several absorption derives in the high field region (g ≅ 2) which are indicative of hemichrome formation. Characteristic visible spectra of hemichromes were observed for oxidized Hb Zurich and for its spontaneous precipitate. The proportional increase of EPR signals at g ≅ 2 and decrease at g = 6.37, the constant ratio of absorbance at 540 nm to 280 nm during heating, and the similarity of this ratio for spontaneously precipitated HbA and for Hb Zurich indicate that heme is not lost during the first steps of Hb Zurich denaturation. (author) [pt

  1. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (<150 g/L baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (<138 g/L baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations.

  2. Relationship of Baseline Hemoglobin Level with Serum Ferritin, Postphlebotomy Hemoglobin Changes, and Phlebotomy Requirements among HFE C282Y Homozygotes

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Mahmood, Faiza; Aandahl, Astrid; Knutsen, Teresa Risopatron; Llohn, Abid Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to examine whether baseline hemoglobin levels in C282Y-homozygous patients are related to the degree of serum ferritin (SF) elevation and whether patients with different baseline hemoglobin have different phlebotomy requirements. Methods. A total of 196 patients (124 males and 72 females) who had undergone therapeutic phlebotomy and had SF and both pre- and posttreatment hemoglobin values were included in the study. Results. Bivariate correlation analysis suggested that baseline SF explains approximately 6 to 7% of the variation in baseline hemoglobin. The results also showed that males who had higher (≥150 g/L) baseline hemoglobin levels had a significantly greater reduction in their posttreatment hemoglobin despite requiring fewer phlebotomies to achieve iron depletion than those who had lower (baseline hemoglobin, regardless of whether baseline SF was below or above 1000 µg/L. There were no significant differences between hemoglobin subgroups regarding baseline and treatment characteristics, except for transferrin saturation between male subgroups with SF above 1000 µg/L. Similar differences were observed when females with higher (≥138 g/L) baseline hemoglobin were compared with those with lower (baseline hemoglobin. Conclusion. Dividing C282Y-homozygous patients into just two subgroups according to the degree of baseline SF elevation may obscure important subgroup variations. PMID:26380265

  3. Porphyromonas endodontalis binds, reduces and grows on human hemoglobin.

    Zerr, M; Drake, D; Johnson, W; Cox, C D

    2001-08-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis is a black-pigmented, obligate anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium implicated as playing a major role in endodontic infections. We have previously shown that P. endodontalis requires the porphyrin nucleus, preferably supplied as hemoglobin, as a growth supplement. The bacteria also actively transport free iron, although this activity does not support growth in the absence of a porphyrin source. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the binding and subsequent utilization of human hemoglobin by P. endodontalis. P. endodontalis binds hemoglobin and reduces the Fe(III) porphyrin, resulting in a steady accumulation of ferrous hemoglobin. Reduction of methemoglobin was similar to the extracellular reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium in the presence of oxidizable substrate. Turbidimetric and viable cell determinations showed that P. endodontalis grew when supplied only hemoglobin. Therefore, we conclude that hemoglobin appears to serve as a sole carbon and nitrogen source, and that these bacteria reduce extracellular compounds at the expense of oxidized substrates.

  4. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  5. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  6. SUPLEMENTASI BESI MINGGUAN MENINGKATKAN HEMOGLOBIN SAMA EFEKTIF DENGAN KOMBINASI MINGGUAN DAN HARIAN PADA REMAJA PUTRI

    Yeti Sutanti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this quasi experimental study was to analyze effectiveness of three iron supplementation on hemoglobin concentration of adolescent girls. Three intervention groups have received iron supplements (60 mg of iron elemental and 0.25 mg folic acid for 14 weeks in March-June 2015 in Tasikmalaya District. The groups received supplementation weekly (M, weekly and daily for ten days during menstruation period (M+Mens, and weekly and nutrition education (M+PG supplementation respectively. The result showed that the mean change of hemoglobin was not significantly different among the three groups (M+PG 0.63±1.16 g/dl, M+Mens 0.48±1.04 g/dl, and M 0.44±1.13 g/dl (p>0.05. Iron supplementation could reduce the prevalence of anaemia by 15.8% (M, 18.0% (M+Mens, and 4.9% (M+PG. Weekly iron supplementation was as effective as weekly and daily during menstruation period on hemoglobin change among adolescent girls. Iron supplementation in adolescent is better done intermittently (weekly with benefit addition the high compliance in supplement consumption.Keywords: adolescent, anaemia, hemoglobin, iron supplementationABSTRAKPenelitian kuasi eksperimental ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji perbedaan efektivitas tiga cara pemberian suplementasi besi terhadap perubahan kadar hemoglobin pada remaja putri. Tiga kelompok intervensi menerima suplemen besi (60 mg besi elemental dan 0,25 mg asam folat selama 14 minggu di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya pada bulan Maret-Juni 2015. Kelompok tersebut masing-masing menerima suplemen besi secara mingguan (M, mingguan dan setiap hari selama 10 hari menstruasi (M+Mens, serta mingguan disertai pendidikan gizi (M+PG. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kadar hemoglobin tidak berbeda nyata (p>0,05 pada semua kelompok perlakuan (M+PG 0,63±1,16 g/dl, M+Mens 0,48±1,04 g/dl, dan M 0,44±1,13 g/dl. Suplementasi besi dapat menurunkan prevalensi anemia masing-masing sebesar 15,8% (M, 18,0% (M+Mens dan 4,9% (M

  7. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  8. The use of regression analysis in determining reference intervals for low hematocrit and thrombocyte count in multiple electrode aggregometry and platelet function analyzer 100 testing of platelet function.

    Kuiper, Gerhardus J A J M; Houben, Rik; Wetzels, Rick J H; Verhezen, Paul W M; Oerle, Rene van; Ten Cate, Hugo; Henskens, Yvonne M C; Lancé, Marcus D

    2017-11-01

    Low platelet counts and hematocrit levels hinder whole blood point-of-care testing of platelet function. Thus far, no reference ranges for MEA (multiple electrode aggregometry) and PFA-100 (platelet function analyzer 100) devices exist for low ranges. Through dilution methods of volunteer whole blood, platelet function at low ranges of platelet count and hematocrit levels was assessed on MEA for four agonists and for PFA-100 in two cartridges. Using (multiple) regression analysis, 95% reference intervals were computed for these low ranges. Low platelet counts affected MEA in a positive correlation (all agonists showed r 2 ≥ 0.75) and PFA-100 in an inverse correlation (closure times were prolonged with lower platelet counts). Lowered hematocrit did not affect MEA testing, except for arachidonic acid activation (ASPI), which showed a weak positive correlation (r 2 = 0.14). Closure time on PFA-100 testing was inversely correlated with hematocrit for both cartridges. Regression analysis revealed different 95% reference intervals in comparison with originally established intervals for both MEA and PFA-100 in low platelet or hematocrit conditions. Multiple regression analysis of ASPI and both tests on the PFA-100 for combined low platelet and hematocrit conditions revealed that only PFA-100 testing should be adjusted for both thrombocytopenia and anemia. 95% reference intervals were calculated using multiple regression analysis. However, coefficients of determination of PFA-100 were poor, and some variance remained unexplained. Thus, in this pilot study using (multiple) regression analysis, we could establish reference intervals of platelet function in anemia and thrombocytopenia conditions on PFA-100 and in thrombocytopenia conditions on MEA.

  9. A review of variant hemoglobins interfering with hemoglobin A1c measurement.

    Little, Randie R; Roberts, William L

    2009-05-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used routinely to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus, as HbA1c is related directly to risks for diabetic complications. The accuracy of HbA1c methods can be affected adversely by the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants or elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). The effect of each variant or elevated HbF must be examined with each specific method. The most common Hb variants worldwide are HbS, HbE, HbC, and HbD. All of these Hb variants have single amino acid substitutions in the Hb beta chain. HbF is the major hemoglobin during intrauterine life; by the end of the first year, HbF falls to values close to adult levels of approximately 1%. However, elevated HbF levels can occur in certain pathologic conditions or with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In a series of publications over the past several years, the effects of these four most common Hb variants and elevated HbF have been described. There are clinically significant interferences with some methods for each of these variants. A summary is given showing which methods are affected by the presence of the heterozygous variants S, E, C, and D and elevated HbF. Methods are divided by type (immunoassay, ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, boronate affinity, other) with an indication of whether the result is artificially increased or decreased by the presence of a Hb variant. Laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of their method with respect to these interferences. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Assessment of Microcirculatory Hemoglobin Levels in Normal and Diabetic Subjects using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Visible Region — a Pilot Study

    Sujatha, N.; Anand, B. S. Suresh; Nivetha, K. Bala; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, R.

    2015-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic techniques provide a minimally invasive way for selective biomarker estimation when tissues transform from a normal to a malignant state. Spectroscopic techniques based on diffuse reflectance characterize the changes in tissue hemoglobin/oxygenation levels during the tissue transformation process. Recent clinical investigations have shown that changes in tissue oxygenation and microcirculation are observed in diabetic subjects in the initial and progressive stages. In this pilot study, we discuss the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the visible (Vis) range to differentiate the skin microcirculatory hemoglobin levels between normal and advanced diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. Average concentration of hemoglobin as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation within the probed tissue volume is estimated for a total of four different sites in the foot sole. The results indicate a statistically significant decrease in average total hemoglobin and increase in hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels for diabetic foot compared with a normal foot. The present study demonstrates the ability of reflectance spectroscopy in the Vis range to determine and differentiate the changes in tissue hemoglobin and hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels in normal and diabetic subjects.

  11. Imaging the effect of hemoglobin on properties of RBCs using common-path digital holographic microscope

    Joglekar, M.; Shah, H.; Trivedi, V.; Mahajan, S.; Chhaniwal, V.; Leitgeb, R.; Javidi, B.; Anand, A.

    2017-07-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the body is the most essential requirement. In vertebrate species this function is performed by Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells. The mass concentration of the Hb determines the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Thus it becomes necessary to determine its concentration in the blood, which helps in monitoring the health of a person. If the amount of Hb crosses certain range, then it is considered critical. As the Hb constitutes upto 96% of red blood cells dry content, it would be interesting to examine various physical and mechanical parameters of RBCs which depends upon its concentration. Various diseases bring about significant variation in the amount of hemoglobin which may alter certain parameters of the RBC such as surface area, volume, membrane fluctuation etc. The study of the variations of these parameters may be helpful in determining Hb content which will reflect the state of health of a human body leading to disease diagnosis. Any increase or decrease in the amount of Hb will change the density and hence the optical thickness of the RBCs, which affects the cell membrane and thereby changing its mechanical and physical properties. Here we describe the use of lateral shearing digital holographic microscope for quantifying the cell parameters for studying the change in biophysical properties of cells due to variation in hemoglobin concentration.

  12. Relationship between laparoscopic cholecystectomy operative time and carbonyl hemoglobin content

    ZHANG Qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether operative time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy impacts the carbonyl hemoglobin (COHb concentration in peripheral blood. MethodsForty patients with gallstones and indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the operative procedure. COHb concentration was measured by UV spectroscopy. The significance of changes in COHb concentration in relation to time of the operative procedure (rounded to the nearest minute was assessed by statistical correlation coefficient test. ResultsThe laparoscopic procedure was completed in 38 cases, and two patients required conversion to laparotomy. The content of COHb in peripheral venous blood had significantly increased during the laparoscopic operation (operation beginning: 11.07%±1.18% vs. operation end: 1.44%±0.26%, P<0.05. The change was positively correlated with operation time (r=0.85. ConclusionCarbon monoxide produced during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure can lead to an increase in peripheral venous blood COHb. The longer the operation lasts, the greater the increase in COHb.

  13. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of the lyophilized powder alpha-erythropoietin and the liquid form alpha-erythropoietin for hemoglobin maintenance in patients with hemodialysis treatment.

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Supasyndh, Ouppatham; Choovichian, Panbubpa

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient production oferythropoietin (EPO) is the primary cause ofanemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The EPO treatment is an established treatment for renal anemia. The study investigated the therapeutic outcome between lyophilized powder and liquid form of EPO alpha by intravenous (IV) administration in hemoglobin maintenance of anemic treatment for CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either lyophilized powder of EPO alpha (treatment, n = 21) or liquidform of EPO alpha (control, n = 19) for 12 weeks by lVadministration. The hemoglobin was maintained within the target range of 10. 0 to 12.0 g/dL by adjusting the dosage of EPO. The clinical and biochemical profiles including transferrin saturation andferritin were measured. Adverse events were documented. The mean hemoglobin ofboth groups at baseline was 11.2±0.6 g/dL. Mean hemoglobin and mean hematocrit levels at baseline, and follow-up data of both groups were not statistically different. The mean weekly dosage of EPO in the treatment and control groups had no statistical significance within the same group and between groups as well. Stable hemoglobin levels were maintained without EPO dosage adjustment in the majority ofpatients in both groups (treatment group, 90.5%, control group, 94.7%). During the 12-week study period, no serious side effect was detected The present study demonstrated that the lyophilizedpowder ofEPO alpha was effective and safe as the standard liquid form of EPO alpha when it was administered by IV route in hemoglobin maintenance of anemia treatment.

  14. Interaction of Jet Fuel Hydrocarbon Components with Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin

    2014-06-24

    Directorate (RHDJ), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. The authors would like to thank Maj. Paul Eden, Nicole Schaeublin, Christin Grabinski, Dr. Jeff Gearhart...We would also like to thank LtCol. Norman Fox (Laboratory Flight Commander), Mrs. Nersa Loh (Supervisor, Transfusion Services), and Mr. Dan Fischer ...Approximately 7.8 mg of hemoglobin sample was concentrated into a total volume of 5 mL of Fischer PBS pH 7.5 buffer using an Amicon Centrifugal Filter Unit

  15. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    Castillo Nieves; García-García Patricia; Rivero Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa Alejandro; Macía Manuel; Getino María; Méndez María; García-Pérez Javier; Navarro-González Juan F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialy...

  16. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  17. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  18. Relationship between changes in hemoglobin glycosilated and improvement of body composition in patients with morbid obesity after tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy.

    Gallart-Aragón, Tania; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cózar-Ibañez, Antonio; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Cambil-Martín, Jacobo; Jiménez Ríos, José Antonio; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2017-12-29

    The objective of our study is to analyze the possible relationship between changes in glycemic profile and body composition parameters in morbid obesity patients after tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy. A prospective observational cohort study with 69 patients was performed. The variables analyzed were body weight, blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and waist and hip circumference. An analysis of variance of repeated measurements (ANOVA) and a correlation analysis through the Pearson test were carried out. A significant reduction in weight (p<.001 after surgery) and in glycosylated hemoglobin (p<.036) and waist hip (p<.001) were found at 6 months after surgery. There was no significant difference in the rest of the variables studied. In correlation analysis, a significant positive correlation was found between the change in concentration of hemoglobin glycosylated and hip circumference (p=.047; r=0.237), the smaller the hip circumference, the lower the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin. Tubular laparoscopic gastrectomy is an effective technique for the treatment of morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reduction in the perimeter of hip is related to glycosylated hemoglobin reduction 6 months after intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Jin, C.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zou, Y.; Zhang, G.L.; Normura, M.; Zhu, G.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N ε bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO 2 decreases

  20. A thermodynamical measure of cooperativity: application to hemoglobin

    Jacchieri, S.G.; Ferreira, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the heat requirements for dioxygen exchange is made for hemoglobin and myoglobin, the latter taken as the prototype of the vertebrate hemoglobin's ancestor. it is shown that cooperativity manifests itself also in terms of energy utilization. (Author) [pt

  1. Biphasic oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin in bloodstains

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; de Joode, Maarten; Buma, Wybren Jan; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO(2)) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions of

  2. Haptoglobin radioassay based on binding to solid-phase hemoglobin

    Hooper, D.C.; Reed, R.A.; Peacock, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A specific and sensitive assay for haptoglobin based on binding to an easily prepred Sepharose-bound hemoglobin reagent is described. The assay is suitable for directly determining radiolabeled amino acid incorporation into haptoglobin in several liver cell systems in vitro and can be adapted to measure unlabeled free haptoglobin in plasma samples regardlss of the presence of the haptoglobin--hemoglobin complex

  3. Biphasic Oxidation of Oxy-Hemoglobin in Bloodstains

    Bremmer, R.H.; de Bruin, D.M.; de Joode, M.; Buma, W.J.; van Leeuwen, T.G.; Aalders, M.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background In forensic science, age determination of bloodstains can be crucial in reconstructing crimes. Upon exiting the body, bloodstains transit from bright red to dark brown, which is attributed to oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) to met-hemoglobin (met-Hb) and hemichrome (HC). The fractions

  4. 21 CFR 864.7400 - Hemoglobin A2 assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin A2 assay. 864.7400 Section 864.7400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7400 Hemoglobin A2...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7455 Fetal hemoglobin...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  7. Conformational changes in hemoglobin triggered by changing the iron charge

    Croci, S.; Achterhold, K.; Ortalli, I.; Parak, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the hemoglobin conformational changes induced by changing the iron charge have been studied and compared with Myoglobin. Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to follow the change of the iron conformation. In order to compare the conformational relaxation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, and to study a possible influence of the quaternary structure, an intermediate metastable state of hemoglobin has been created by low temperature X-ray irradiation of methemoglobin. The irradiation reduces the Fe(III) of the heme groups to Fe(II) Low Spin, where the water is still bound on the sixth coordination. Heating cycles performed at temperatures from 140 K to 200 K allow the molecules to overcome an activation energy barrier and to relax into a stable conformation such as deoxy-hemoglobin or carboxy-hemoglobin, if CO is present. Slightly different structures (conformational substates) reveal themselves as a distribution of energy barriers (ΔG). The distribution of the activation energy, for the decay of the Fe(II) Low Spin intermediate, has been fitted with a Gaussian. For comparison, published myoglobin data were re-analysed in the same way. The average energy value at characteristic temperature is very similar in case of myoglobin and hemoglobin. The larger Gaussian energy distribution for myoglobin with respect to hemoglobin shows that more conformational substates are available. This may be caused by a larger area exposed to water. In hemoglobin, part of the surface of the chains is not water accessible due to the quaternary structure.

  8. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: Reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Rebecca, Re; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted ...

  9. Radiation - induced changes in the optical properties of hemoglobin molecule

    Selim, N.S; El-Marakby, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Adult male albino rats were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation from Cs-137 source. Hemoglobin samples were analyzed 24 hrs after irradiation. The UV-visible spectrum of hemoglobin molecule was measured in the range 200 to 700 nm. The overall spectrum of the hemoglobin molecule showed hypochromicity that increased with dose increase. To investigate the effect of radiation on the hemoglobin molecule, different parameters of the spectrum were calculated: molar absorption coefficient, absorption cross section, transition dipole moment , dipole length, the optical energy gap and activation energy for each characteristic peak. The obtained results revealed that the radiation effect can induce rearrangement of the transition dipole moments and change molecular energy levels of the hemoglobin molecule

  10. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  11. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R.A.; Stratton, L.P.; Hawley, D.K.; Effron, K.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F 1 offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of α-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient α-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an α-thalassemia similar to human α-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with α-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining β-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 β-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC β-chain gene. (author)

  12. Hemoglobin of mice with radiation-induced mutations at the hemoglobin loci

    Popp, R A; Stratton, L P; Hawley, D K; Effron, K [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-01-15

    Chemical analyses were done on the abnormal hemoglobins of the five (101 x SEC)F/sub 1/ offspring of X- irradiated adult SEC mice to determine which hemoglobin genes were expressed in each hemoglobin variant. Three offspring of irradiated SEC males did not express either of the two kinds of ..cap alpha..-chains normally found in all SEC mice. The deficient ..cap alpha..-chain synthesis caused these mice to exhibit an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia similar to human ..cap alpha..-thalassemia. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show that many erythrocytes of mice with ..cap alpha..-thalassemia have bizarre shapes; e.g. many erythrocytes appeared flattened or had thorny projections (acanthocytes). One mutant with a tandem duplication of a segment of chromosome 7 (site of locus determining ..beta..-chain structure) produced twice as much SEC as 101 ..beta..-chain polypeptides. One mutant that probably arose by non-disjunction of chromosome 7's in its unirradiated 101 mother and loss of chromosome 7 from the gamete of its irradiated SEC father did not express the SEC ..beta..-chain gene.

  13. Effect of Multiple Mutations in the Hemoglobin- and Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin-Binding Proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    Morton, Daniel J.; Whitby, Paul W.; Jin, Hongfan; Ren, Zhen; Stull, Terrence L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approxi...

  14. Fetal hemoglobin, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin are potential predictive first trimester biomarkers for preeclampsia.

    Anderson, Ulrik Dolberg; Gram, Magnus; Ranstam, Jonas; Thilaganathan, Basky; Kerström, Bo; Hansson, Stefan R

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of cell-free fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the preeclamptic placenta has been recently implicated as a new etiological factor of preeclampsia. In this study, maternal serum levels of HbF and the endogenous hemoglobin/heme scavenging systems were evaluated as predictive biomarkers for preeclampsia in combination with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Case-control study including 433 women in early pregnancy (mean 13.7weeks of gestation) of which 86 subsequently developed preeclampsia. The serum concentrations of HbF, total cell-free hemoglobin, hemopexin, haptoglobin and α1-microglobulin were measured in maternal serum. All patients were examined with uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Logistic regression models were developed, which included the biomarkers, ultrasound indices, and maternal risk factors. There were significantly higher serum concentrations of HbF and α1-microglobulin and significantly lower serum concentrations of hemopexin in patients who later developed preeclampsia. The uterine artery Doppler ultrasound results showed significantly higher pulsatility index values in the preeclampsia group. The optimal prediction model was obtained by combining HbF, α1-microglobulin and hemopexin in combination with the maternal characteristics parity, diabetes and pre-pregnancy hypertension. The optimal sensitivity for all preeclampsia was 60% at 95% specificity. Overproduction of placentally derived HbF and depletion of hemoglobin/heme scavenging mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The combination of HbF and α1-microglobulin and/or hemopexin may serve as a prediction model for preeclampsia in combination with maternal risk factors and/or uterine artery Doppler ultrasound. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability

    Thompson, Brandon L.; Gilbert, Rachel J. [Department of Chemistry, McCormick Road, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mejia, Maximo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Shukla, Nishant [Department of Computer Science, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Haverstick, Doris M. [Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Garner, Gavin T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Landers, James P., E-mail: landers@virginia.edu [Department of Chemistry, McCormick Road, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing <0.5 USD (polyester and toner or PeT). Following introduction from a drop of blood (finger stick), whole blood metering and cell sedimentation are controlled by centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability. - Highlights: • A 12-sample hematocrit device was developed from polyester-toner materials. • The device can analyze a patient's hematocrit within 8 min from 3 μL of blood. • Cell phone image analysis is used to correctly determine clinical hematocrits.

  16. Hematocrit analysis through the use of an inexpensive centrifugal polyester-toner device with finger-to-chip blood loading capability

    Thompson, Brandon L.; Gilbert, Rachel J.; Mejia, Maximo; Shukla, Nishant; Haverstick, Doris M.; Garner, Gavin T.; Landers, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) measurements are important clinical diagnostic variables that help physicians diagnose and treat various medical conditions, ailments, and diseases. In this work, we present the HCT Disc, a centrifugal microdevice fabricated by a Print, Cut and Laminate (PCL) method to generate a 12-sample HCT device from materials costing <0.5 USD (polyester and toner or PeT). Following introduction from a drop of blood (finger stick), whole blood metering and cell sedimentation are controlled by centrifugal force, only requiring a CD player motor as external hardware and, ultimately, a cell phone for detection. The sedimented volume from patient blood in the HCT Disc was analyzed using a conventional scanner/custom algorithm for analysis of the image to determine a hematocrit value, and these were compared to values generated in a clinical laboratory, which correlated well. To enhance portability and assure simplicity of the HCT measurement, values from image analysis by a cell phone using a custom application was compared to the scanner. Fifteen samples were analyzed with cell phone image analysis system and were found to be within 4% of the HCT values determined in the clinical lab. We demonstrate the feasibility of the PeT device for HCT measurement, and highlight its uniquely low cost (<0.5 USD), speed (sample-to-answer <8 min), multiplexability (12 samples), low volume whole blood requirement (<3 μL), rotation speeds (<4000 rpm) needed for effective measurement as well as the direct finger-to-chip sample loading capability. - Highlights: • A 12-sample hematocrit device was developed from polyester-toner materials. • The device can analyze a patient's hematocrit within 8 min from 3 μL of blood. • Cell phone image analysis is used to correctly determine clinical hematocrits.

  17. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into Hemoglobin-catalyzed Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation and the Fate of Polysulfide Products

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Yadav, Pramod K.; An, Sojin; Seravalli, Javier; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med); (UNL)

    2017-02-17

    Hydrogen sulfide is a cardioprotective signaling molecule but is toxic at elevated concentrations. Red blood cells can synthesize H2S but, lacking organelles, cannot dispose of H2S via the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. We have recently shown that at high sulfide concentrations, ferric hemoglobin oxidizes H2S to a mixture of thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides in which the latter species predominates. Here, we report the crystal structure of human hemoglobin containing low spin ferric sulfide, the first intermediate in heme-catalyzed sulfide oxidation. The structure provides molecular insights into why sulfide is susceptible to oxidation in human hemoglobin but is stabilized against it in HbI, a specialized sulfide-carrying hemoglobin from a mollusk adapted to life in a sulfide-rich environment. We have also captured a second sulfide bound at a postulated ligand entry/exit site in the α-subunit of hemoglobin, which, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first direct evidence for this site being used to access the heme iron. Hydrodisulfide, a postulated intermediate at the junction between thiosulfate and polysulfide formation, coordinates ferric hemoglobin and, in the presence of air, generated thiosulfate. At low sulfide/heme iron ratios, the product distribution between thiosulfate and iron-bound polysulfides was approximately equal. The iron-bound polysulfides were unstable at physiological glutathione concentrations and were reduced with concomitant formation of glutathione persulfide, glutathione disulfide, and H2S. Hence, although polysulfides are unlikely to be stable in the reducing intracellular milieu, glutathione persulfide could serve as a persulfide donor for protein persulfidation, a posttranslational modification by which H2S is postulated to signal.

  18. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  19. In vivo distribution and elimination of hemoglobin modified by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    Bleeker, W.K.; van der Plas, J.; Feitsma, R.I.; Agterberg, J.; Rigter, G.; de Vries-van Rossen, A.; Pauwels, E.K.; Bakker, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Modified hemoglobin solutions have potential application as plasma expanders with oxygen-transporting capacity. In a previous study it was found that modification of hemoglobin by intramolecular cross-linking with 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5'-phosphate (NFPLP) improves the vascular retention time by a factor of three, and it also improves the oxygen-transporting properties. In the present study we investigated in rats how, after exchange transfusion of a clinically relevant dose, the modified hemoglobin (HbNFPLP) was distributed in the body compared with how the unmodified hemoglobin was distributed. By using a new technetium 99m labeling technique, we found in a scintigraphic study that accumulation of hemoglobin in the kidneys was greatly diminished by the intramolecular cross-linking with NFPLP. These findings were confirmed by light-microscopic observations after diaminobenzidine staining. It was concluded that the impairment of kidney function caused by blockade of the tubuli is not to be expected from HbNFPLP. In the liver and spleen, where the free HbNFPLP is possibly eliminated, some accumulation of 99mTc label was observed, but the major part of the extravascular label was diffusely spread throughout the body. This led to the conclusion that important accumulation of undegraded HbNFPLP does not occur in the liver and spleen. Rapid appearance of both hemoglobin and HbNFPLP in the lymph showed that cross-linking with NFPLP does not prevent the distribution of hemoglobin over the interstitial space in the first hours after administration. However, pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that transcapillary transfer contributes only to a limited extent to the disappearance from the circulation. During 24-hour infusions of HbNFPLP, a steady state with a constant plasma concentration was easily reached

  20. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  1. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  2. Determining the refractive index of human hemoglobin solutions by Kramers-Kronig relations with an improved absorption model

    Gienger, Jonas; Groß, Hermann; Neukammer, Jörg; Bär, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The real part of the refractive index (RI) of aqueous solutions of human hemoglobin is computed from their absorption spectra in the wavelength range $250\\,{\\rm nm} - 1100\\,{\\rm nm}$ using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations and the corresponding uncertainty analysis is provided. The strong ultraviolet (UV) and infrared absorbance of the water outside this spectral range were taken into account in a previous study employing KK relations. We improve these results by including the concentration dependence of the water absorbance as well as by modeling the deep UV absorbance of hemoglobin's peptide backbone. The two free parameters of the model for the deep UV absorbance are fixed by a global fit.

  3. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    Xiaoxia Jin

    Full Text Available Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A, hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of hemoglobin.

    Zhao, Changzhi; Wan, Li; Jiang, Li; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kui

    2008-12-01

    A cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of a hemoglobin-encapsulated chitosan-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed for highly sensitive and selective analysis of serum samples. Modified by films containing hemoglobin and cholesterol oxidase, the electrode was prepared by encapsulation of enzyme in chitosan matrix. The hydrogen peroxide produced by the catalytic oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase was reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized hemoglobin and used to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The linear response of cholesterol concentrations ranged from 1.00 x 10(-5) to 6.00 x 10(-4) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and estimated detection limit of cholesterol of 9.5 micromol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. The cholesterol biosensor can efficiently exclude interference by the commonly coexisting ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and epinephrine. The sensitivity to the change in the concentration of cholesterol as the slope of the calibration curve was 0.596 A/M. The relative standard deviation was under 4.0% (n=5) for the determination of real samples. The biosensor is satisfactory in the determination of human serum samples.

  5. Two-photon excited fluorescence emission from hemoglobin

    Sun, Qiqi; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Luo, Yi; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2015-03-01

    Hemoglobin, one of the most important proteins in blood, is responsible for oxygen transportation in almost all vertebrates. Recently, we discovered two-photon excited hemoglobin fluorescence and achieved label-free microvascular imaging based on the hemoglobin fluorescence. However, the mechanism of its fluorescence emission still remains unknown. In this work, we studied the two-photon excited fluorescence properties of the hemoglobin subunits, heme/hemin (iron (II)/(III) protoporphyrin IX) and globin. We first studied the properties of heme and the similar spectral and temporal characteristics of heme and hemoglobin fluorescence provide strong evidence that heme is the fluorophore in hemoglobin. Then we studied the fluorescence properties of hemin, globin and methemoglobin, and found that the hemin may have the main effect on the methemoglobin fluorescence and that globin has tryptophan fluorescence like other proteins. Finally, since heme is a centrosymmetric molecule, that the Soret band fluorescence of heme and hemoglobin was not observed in the single photon process in the previous study may be due to the parity selection rule. The discovery of heme two-photon excited fluorescence may open a new window for heme biology research, since heme as a cofactor of hemoprotein has many functions, including chemical catalysis, electron transfer and diatomic gases transportation.

  6. Quantifying risk of penile prosthesis infection with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Wilson, S K; Carson, C C; Cleves, M A; Delk, J R

    1998-05-01

    Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin above levels of 11.5 mg.% has been considered a contraindication to penile prosthesis implantation in diabetic patients. We determine the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in penile prosthesis infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients to confirm or deny this prevalent opinion. We conducted a 2-year prospective study of 389 patients, including 114 diabetics, who underwent 3-piece penile prosthesis implantation. All patients had similar preoperative preparation without regard to diabetic status, control or glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level. Risk of infection was statistically analyzed for diabetics versus nondiabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values above and below 11.5 mg.%, insulin dependent versus oral medication diabetics, and fasting blood sugars above and below 180 mg.%. Prosthesis infections developed in 10 diabetics (8.7%) and 11 nondiabetics (4.0%). No increased infection rate was observed in diabetics with high fasting sugars or diabetics on insulin. There was no statistically significant increased infection risk with increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C among all patients or among only the diabetics. In fact, there was no meaningful difference in the median or mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in the infected and noninfected patients regardless of diabetes. Use of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values to identify and exclude surgical candidates with increased risk of infections is not proved by this study. Elevation of fasting sugar or insulin dependence also does not increase risk of infection in diabetics undergoing prosthesis implantation.

  7. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Nagra, Navraj S; Van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture. Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored. There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative Day 5 Hb levels (pmeasurement, DHS patients had lower hemoglobin values over hemiarthroplasty patients (p=0.046). The decrease in hemoglobin in the first 24-hour postoperative period (D0 to Day 1) is an underestimation of the ultimate lowest value in hemoglobin found at Day 2. Relying on the Day 1 hemoglobin level could be detrimental to patient care. We propose a method of predicting patients likely to be transfused and recommend a protocol for patients undergoing femoral neck fracture surgery to standardize postoperative hemoglobin monitoring.

  8. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  9. Using the MWC model to describe heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin

    Rapp, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin is a classical model allosteric protein. Research on hemoglobin parallels the development of key cooperativity and allostery concepts, such as the ‘all-or-none’ Hill formalism, the stepwise Adair binding formulation and the concerted Monod-Wymann-Changuex (MWC) allosteric model. While it is clear that the MWC model adequately describes the cooperative binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, rationalizing the effects of H+, CO2 or organophosphate ligands on hemoglobin-oxygen saturation using the same model remains controversial. According to the MWC model, allosteric ligands exert their effect on protein function by modulating the quaternary conformational transition of the protein. However, data fitting analysis of hemoglobin oxygen saturation curves in the presence or absence of inhibitory ligands persistently revealed effects on both relative oxygen affinity (c) and conformational changes (L), elementary MWC parameters. The recent realization that data fitting analysis using the traditional MWC model equation may not provide reliable estimates for L and c thus calls for a re-examination of previous data using alternative fitting strategies. In the current manuscript, we present two simple strategies for obtaining reliable estimates for MWC mechanistic parameters of hemoglobin steady-state saturation curves in cases of both evolutionary and physiological variations. Our results suggest that the simple MWC model provides a reasonable description that can also account for heterotropic interactions in hemoglobin. The results, moreover, offer a general roadmap for successful data fitting analysis using the MWC model. PMID:28793329

  10. Highly sensitive voltammetric biosensor for nitric oxide based on its high affinity with hemoglobin

    Fan Chunhai; Liu Xinjian; Pang Jiantao; Li Genxi; Scheer, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Although heme protein-based, amperometric nitric oxide (NO) biosensors have been well documented in previous studies, most have been conducted in anaerobic conditions. Herein we report a novel hemoglobin-based NO biosensor that is not only very sensitive but also usable in air. The heme protein was entrapped in a sodium montmorillonite film, which was immobilized at a pyrolytic graphite electrode surface. Film-entrapped hemoglobin can directly exchange electrons with the electrode, and this process has proven to favor the catalytic reduction of oxygen. In addition, NO induced a cathodic potential shift of the catalytic reduction peak of oxygen. This potential shift was proportional to the logarithm of NO concentration ranging from 4.0 x 10 -11 to 5.0 x 10 -6 mol/L. The detection limit has been estimated to be 20 pM, approximately four orders lower than previously reported amperometric detectors

  11. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  12. NITRO MUSK BOUND TO CARP HEMOGLOBIN ...

    Nitroaromatic compounds including synthetic nitro musks are important raw materials and intermediates in the synthesis of explosives, dyes, and pesticides, pharmaceutical and personal care-products (PPCPs). The nitro musks such as musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK) are extensively used as fragrance ingredients in PPCPs and other commercial toiletries. Identification and quantification of a bound 4-amino-MX (4-AMX) metabolite as well as a 2- amino-MK (2-AMK) metabolite were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry' (GC/MS), with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in both the electron ionization (ElMS) and electron capture (EC) negative ion chemical ionization (NICIMS) modes. Detection of 4-AMX and 2-AMK occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin, derived from the nitroso metabolites, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released metabolites were extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation, and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. A comparison between the El and EC approaches was made. EC NICIMS detected both metabolites whereas only 4-AMX was detected by ElMS. The EC NICIMS approach exhibited fewer matrix responses and provided a lower detection limit. Quantitation in both approaches was based on internal standard and a calibration plot. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Q

  13. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  14. Evans Syndrome Complicated by Intratubular Hemoglobin Cast Nephropathy

    Iván González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare autoimmune disorder whose exact pathophysiology is unknown. It is characterized by the simultaneous or subsequent development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP. Intravascular hemolysis, with hemoglobinemia, is known to produce acute kidney injury; however, the development of intratubular hemoglobin casts (hemoglobin cast nephropathy in the setting of acute hemolysis is uncommon. Likewise, the association of ES and acute renal failure is equally uncommon. We present a case of a 7-year-old girl with ES who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of intravascular hemolysis and had widespread intratubular hemoglobin casts.

  15. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed

  16. Symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobin genes of Casuarina glauca

    Jacobsen-Lyon, K; Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo

    1995-01-01

    Casuarina glauca has a gene encoding hemoglobin (cashb-nonsym). This gene is expressed in a number of plant tissues. Casuarina also has a second family of hemoglobin genes (cashb-sym) expressed at a high level in the nodules that Casuarina forms in a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the actinomycete...... of the Casuarina gene. The finding that the nonsymbiotic Casuarina gene is also correctly expressed in L. corniculatus suggests to us that a comparable non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene will be found in legume species. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Feb...

  17. Pulsed high voltage discharge induce hematologic changes | El ...

    For basic hematology we determined the hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin (HGB), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). For differential blood count the number of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC), which were ...

  18. Response of a New Low-Coherence Fabry-Perot Sensor to Hematocrit Levels in Human Blood

    Małgorzata Jędrzejewska-Szczerska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-coherence Fabry-Perot sensor with a spectrally measured signal processing response to the refractive index of liquids is presented. Optical fiber sensors are potentially capable of continuous measuring hematocrit levels in blood. Low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors offer a robust solution, where information about the measurand is encoded in the full spectrum of light reflected from the sensing interferometer. The first step in the research on such sensor is the assessment of its performance under favorable conditions, i.e., using blood samples from healthy volunteers tested in vitro. Such an experiment was conducted using a sensor comprising a superluminescent diode source, an optical spectrum analyzer working as the detection setup and a sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer providing high interference contrast. The response of this sensor was recorded for several samples and compared with the reference laboratory method. The coefficient of determination (R2 for a linear relationship between the results given by both methods was 0.978 and the difference between these results was less than 1%. The presented results suggest that further research into the performance of the sensor is merited.

  19. Hemoglobin Expression in Nonerythroid Cells: Novel or Ubiquitous?

    Debarchana Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is a major protein involved in transport of oxygen (O2. Red blood cells (RBCs contain maximum amount of Hb and because of their unique structure and plasticity they transport O2 to various tissues of the body at an optimal concentration. Recently, it has been reported that, apart from RBCs, Hb is also expressed by nonerythroid cells such as epithelial cells of different origin. The cells expressing Hb are from the tissues where maintenance of O2 homeostasis is of paramount importance. Hb expression has been observed in the epithelial cells from human tissues including lungs, neurons, retina, and endometrium. Our group has recently demonstrated that Hb is expressed by the cervicovaginal epithelial cells. We further showed that, apart from maintaining O2 homeostasis, Hb and the peptides derived from it play an indispensable role in the protection of vaginal epithelium by exhibiting antimicrobial activity. In this review, we discuss the significance of Hb expression in vaginal epithelial cells and its role in the recognition of pathogens thereby reducing the risk and/or severity of inflammation and/or infections and the possible mechanism by which Hb exhibits antimicrobial and antioxidative functions.

  20. Hemoglobin detection using carbon dots as a fluorescence probe.

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-09-15

    Herein, we have described the application of high fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) without any surface modification as a simple and fast responding fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective determination of hemoglobin (Hb) in the presence of H2O2. Although Hb itself was able to quench the fluorescence of CDs, based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of the protein that affects both excitation and emission spectra of CDs, the presence of H2O2 resulted in further improvement of the sensitivity of Hb detection. The assay is based on the reaction of Hb with H2O2 that generates reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl (OH•) and superoxide (O2(•-)) radicals under heme degradation and/or iron release from Hb and the subsequent reaction of hydroxyl radicals, as strong oxidizing agents, with CDs resulting in high fluorescence quenching. The proposed probe was used for determination of Hb in concentration range of 1-100 nM with a detection limit of 0.4 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hb in human blood samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of postoperative hemoglobin drop after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    Watrowski, Rafał; Jäger, Christoph; Forster, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) can be associated with significant bleeding. To identify factors influencing the postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) drop after LM. This is a retrospective, single-center study. We evaluated data of 150 consecutive patients undergoing LM due to intramural myomas between 2010 and 2015. The median age of the patients was 37 (23-53) years. The mean diameter of the largest myoma was 5.7 ±2.3 (1.5-12) cm. The mean surgical time was 83 ±38 (35-299) min. The median number of sutures was 3 (1-11). The mean postoperative Hb drop was 1.6 ±1.2 (0-6) g/dl, and the mean estimated blood loss was 261 ±159 (50-1700) ml. In the univariate analysis, the postoperative Hb drop correlated with the duration of surgery (p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma (p < 0.001), cumulative myoma weight (p < 0.001), and number of sutures (p < 0.001), but not with patients' age or number of intramural myomas. In the multivariable analysis, the surgical time ( β = 0.395, p < 0.001), diameter of the largest myoma ( β = 0.292, p = 0.03) and preoperative Hb concentration ( β = 0.299, p < 0.001) predicted the postoperative Hb change. Surgical time and dominant myoma diameter are independent predictors of the postoperative Hb drop after LM.

  2. A Moessbauer study of hemoglobin in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Zamorano-Ulloa, R.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Flores-Llamas, H.; Perez-Ramirez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) of normal subjects and six patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) were studied at 300deg K and 77 K. PNH is a very rate autoimmune hematological disease. The possibility of structural alterations of Hb induced by, or as part of the altered PNH-red cell membrane was the objective of this study. The Moessbauer parameters of the Hb of the normal subjects, both at 300 K and at 77 K, are identical to values previously reported. The PNH-Hb spectra show clear differences. They are wider and more asymmetric. At 77 K, an extra doublet grows in with an isomer shift of 0.425 mm/sec. and a quadrupolar splitting of 1.951 mm/sec. The other two doublets have δ's and ΔQ's slightly, but significantly, different from the corresponding values for normal Hb. These results are rationalized in terms of a population of Hb molecules with structures varying very slightly in a narrow range. The spread in structures manifests itself in a wider and more asymmetric Moessbauer spectrum. (orig.)

  3. 21 CFR 866.5470 - Hemoglobin immunological test system.

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of free hemoglobin aid in the diagnosis of various hematologic disorders, such as sickle cell... blood cells), and leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming organs). (b) Classification. Class II...

  4. Novel subunit structure observed for noncooperative hemoglobin from Urechis caupo.

    Kolatkar, P R; Meador, W E; Stanfield, R L; Hackert, M L

    1988-03-05

    Tetrameric hemoglobin from the "fat innkeeper" worm Urechis caupo possesses a novel subunit arrangement having an "inside out" quaternary structure in that the G/H helices are located on the outer surface of the tetramer. A 5-A resolution crystal structure reveals that although the individual subunits are beta-like, having a distinct D helix and the general myoglobin fold, the subunit contacts are very different from those previously observed for hemoglobins. Furthermore, the hemoglobin from U. caupo is also quite different from the unusual hemoglobin tetramer from clam which also has its G/H helices on the outer surface but with the hemes in close proximity through E-F helical contacts (Royer, W. E., Jr., Love, W. E., and Fenderson, F. F. (1985) Nature 316, 277-280).

  5. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and ...

    Conclusion: Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients. ... Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2011 ..... This study was designed to determine the relationship .... mobiles and devices.

  6. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  7. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Administrator

    28. Li et al used single- walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and 1-hexyl-3- ... Electrochemistry of dextran/hemoglobin/carbon ionic liquid electrode. 273. 2.4 Procedures ..... used for the construction of H2O2 biosensor. Acknowledgement.

  8. Temperature-dependent enthalpy of oxygenation in Antarctic fish hemoglobins

    Fago, A.; Wells, R.M.G.; Weber, Roy E.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxygen-binding properties of the hemoglobins of three cold-adapted Antarctic fish species, Dissostichus mawsoni, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus, sp., has been investigated under different pH values and buffer conditions. A clear non linear van't Hoff plot...... (logP(50) vs 1/T) of D. mawsoni hemoglobin indicates that the enthalpy of oxygenation (slope of the plot) is temperature dependent and that at high temperatures oxygen-binding becomes less exothermic. Nearly linear relationships were found in the hemoglobins of the other two species. The data were...... oxygen binding. The degree of the temperature dependence of the heat of oxygenation observed in these hemoglobins seems to reflect the differences in their allosteric effects rather than a specific molecular adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, this study indicates that the disagreement between...

  9. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  10. Ændringer i blodprofiler under Tour de France 2007

    Mørkeberg, Jakob; Belhage, Bo; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Marked changes in different blood variables, e.g. hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and hematocrit (Hct), are indications of blood manipulation. Blood sampling and the development of individual, longitudinal blood profiles have therefore been implemented in doping control in different sports...

  11. EFEK PROGRAM PEMBERIAN "TABURIA" TERHADAP KADAR HEMOGLOBIN BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Abas Basuni Jahari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of "Taburia" Intervention Program on Hemoglobin Concentration Among Children Under-Five Years of Poor Families In North Jakarta.Background: Anemia is one of the main nutritional problems in Indonesia. Anemia in children under fives years will have an impact on growth and mental development. In an effort to improve the nutritional status of infants, especially in poor families, the Japan Funds for Poverty Reduction (JFPR in collaboration with the Center for Nutrition and Food, Ministry of Health, Bogor, making multi-vitamin ingredients and micro nutrients called as TABURIA.Objectives: To study the influence of hemoglobin levels on child under fives years of poor families.Methods: Design of the study was Evaluation Before and After Treatment (Pre-Post Evaluation. This research was conducted in 9 urban villages in 3 Public health centers in North Jakarta City. The numbers of samples were 540 children aged 6-59 months from poor families. Tabuaria was distributed by a cadre posyandu to all children under fives years (5000 children in the research area. The data analyzed included: hemoglobin levels, economic social family, compliance and child morbidity. Data were analyzed by descriptive to determine changes in status of anemia and haemoglobin levels before and after intervention.Results: Most of children under fives years (87.8% to receive and consume Taburia. The average Hb levels increased from 10.5 mg/dl in baseline data to 12.0 mg/dl at endline evaluation. The proportion of anemia (Hb <11 mg/dl decreased significantly from 62.3% (baseline to 24.7%(endline-evaluation.Conclusion: Taburia be accepted by the majority of children under fives and can increase hemoglobin levels of children under fives.Recommendation: Taburia can increase the hemoglobin levels of children under fives years, but if would be implemented as national program, it should be study in others regions (pilot areas to explore the appropriateness Taburia distribution model in

  12. Effects of thyroid status on glycated hemoglobin

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c can be altered in different conditions. We hypothesize that HbA1c levels may change due to altered thyroid status, possibly due to changes in red blood cell (RBC turnover. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of altered thyroid status on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes, with overt hyper- and hypo-thyroidism, and if present, whether such changes in HbA1c are reversed after achieving euthyroid state. Methods: Euglycemic individuals with overt hypo- or hyper-thyroidism were selected. Age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Baseline HbA1c and reticulocyte counts (for estimation of RBC turnover were estimated in all the patients and compared. Thereafter, stable euthyroidism was achieved in a randomly selected subgroup and HbA1c and reticulocyte count was reassessed. HbA1c values and reticulocyte counts were compared with baseline in both the groups. Results: Hb A1c in patients initially selected was found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid group. HbA1c values in hyperthyroid patients were not significantly different from controls. HbA1c reduction and rise in reticulocyte count were significant in hypothyroid group following treatment without significant change in glucose level. Hb A1c did not change significantly following treatment in hyperthyroid group. The reticulocyte count, however, decreased significantly. Conclusion: Baseline HbA1c levels were found to be significantly higher in hypothyroid patients, which reduced significantly after achievement of euthyroidism without any change in glucose levels. Significant baseline or posttreatment change was not observed in hyperthyroid patients. Our study suggests that we should be cautious while interpreting HbA1c data in patients with hypothyroidism.

  13. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients

    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  15. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  16. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil

    Schwartz, Julie A.; Aldridge, Brian M.; Lasley, Bill L.; Snyder, Paul W.; Stott, Jeff L.; Mohr, F. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants

  17. The Influence of Health Education using Transtheoretical Model Approach and Micro Nutrition supplement on The Hemoglobin, Ferritin, Hematocrite and Body Weight on Pregnant and Babies in Maros Regency, South Sulawesi

    Nontji, Werna

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to obtain a description about the influence of health education using Transtheoretical Model approach on the improvement of knowledge; support from husband, family and community; and obedience. The research used quasi experiemental method with the design of non randomized pre-test post-test controlled group. The study was conducted for six months on pregnant mothers who were in the second trimester in Barandasi area. The pregnant mothers were given health education us...

  18. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  19. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  20. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  1. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  2. Impact of Mean Cell Hemoglobin on Hb A1c-Defined Glycemia Status.

    Rodriguez-Segade, Santiago; Garcia, Javier Rodriguez; García-López, José M; Gude, Francisco; Casanueva, Felipe F; Rs-Alonso, Santiago; Camiña, Félix

    2016-12-01

    Several hematological alterations are associated with altered hemoglobin A 1c (Hb A 1c ). However, there have been no reports of their influence on the rates of exceeding standard Hb A 1c thresholds by patients for whom Hb A 1c determination is requested in clinical practice. The initial data set included the first profiles (complete blood counts, Hb A 1c , fasting glucose, and renal and hepatic parameters) of all adult patients for whom such a profile was requested between 2008 and 2013 inclusive. After appropriate exclusions, 21844 patients remained in the study. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic, hematological, and biochemical variables excluded from the predictors. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) correlated negatively with Hb A 1c . Fasting glucose, MCH, and age emerged as predictors of Hb A 1c in a stepwise regression that discarded sex, hemoglobin, MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum creatinine, and liver disease. Mean Hb A 1c in MCH interdecile intervals fell from 6.8% (51 mmol/mol) in the lowest (≤27.5 pg) to 6.0% (43 mmol/mol) in the highest (>32.5 pg), with similar results for MCV. After adjustment for fasting glucose and other correlates of Hb A 1c , a 1 pg increase in MCH reduced the odds of Hb A 1c -defined dysglycemia, diabetes and poor glycemia control by 10%-14%. For at least 25% of patients, low or high MCH or MCV levels are associated with increased risk of an erroneous Hb A 1c -based identification of glycemia status. Although causality has not been demonstrated, these parameters should be taken into account in interpreting Hb A 1c levels in clinical practice. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Platelets Drive Thrombus Propagation in a Hematocrit and Glycoprotein VI-Dependent Manner in an In Vitro Venous Thrombosis Model.

    Lehmann, Marcus; Schoeman, Rogier M; Krohl, Patrick J; Wallbank, Alison M; Samaniuk, Joseph R; Jandrot-Perrus, Martine; Neeves, Keith B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the role of platelets and red blood cells on thrombus propagation in an in vitro model of venous valvular stasis. A microfluidic model with dimensional similarity to human venous valves consists of a sinus distal to a sudden expansion, where for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers, 2 countercurrent vortices arise because of flow separation. The primary vortex is defined by the points of flow separation and reattachment. A secondary vortex forms in the deepest recess of the valve pocket characterized by low shear rates. An initial fibrin gel formed within the secondary vortex of a tissue factor-coated valve sinus. Platelets accumulated at the interface of the fibrin gel and the primary vortex. Red blood cells at physiological hematocrits were necessary to provide an adequate flux of platelets to support thrombus growth out of the valve sinus. A subpopulation of platelets that adhered to fibrin expose phosphatidylserine. Platelet-dependent thrombus growth was attenuated by inhibition of glycoprotein VI with a blocking Fab fragment or D-dimer. A 3-step process regulated by hemodynamics was necessary for robust thrombus propagation: First, immobilized tissue factor initiates coagulation and fibrin deposition within a low flow niche defined by a secondary vortex in the pocket of a model venous valve. Second, a primary vortex delivers platelets to the fibrin interface in a red blood cell-dependent manner. Third, platelets adhere to fibrin, activate through glycoprotein VI, express phosphatidylserine, and subsequently promote thrombus growth beyond the valve sinus and into the bulk flow. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Unfolding of hemoglobin variants--insights from urea gradient gel electrophoresis photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; GhoshMoulick, Ranjita; Choudhuri, Utpal; Chakrabarty, Prantar; Bhattacharya, Pranab K.; Lahiri, Prabir; Chakraborti, Bikas; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr.

    2004-01-01

    The unfolding pattern of crystal human hemoglobin and variants of hemoglobin obtained from hemolysate were studied using transverse urea gradient gel electrophoresis (TUGGE). A smooth sigmoid like increase of electrophoretic mobility was observed with increasing urea concentrations. A decrease in electrophoretic mobility resulted, if the protein was unfolded with guanidium hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The anomaly was resolved after the Stoke's radii (obtained using the photon correlation spectroscopy) and zeta potential (measured using laser Doppler velocimetry) measurements were made at different denaturant concentrations. Addition of denaturant led to formation of extended structure, irrespective of the nature of the denaturant, as indicated by increase in Stoke's radii in both cases (urea and GdnHCl). The unexpected increase in electrophoretic mobility in case of urea could be explained in terms of a critical redistribution of negative charge at intermediate stages of the unfolding process. In case of GdnHCl, the higher ionic strength masked the charge effect. The mobility, being solely dependent on size, decreased at higher denaturant concentration. Incidentally, folding loci of other hemoglobin variants (e.g. HbE) or that of post-translationally modified hemoglobin (e.g. HbA1c) could be determined by studying the charge distribution and hydrodynamic radius at varying denaturing stress and in each case the gel migration profile could be approximately scaled by the ratio of charge and hydrodynamic diameter of the protein. While unfolding induced charge effect was most pronounced in HbA0 (and crystal ferrous hemoglobin), the unfolding induced aggregation (manifested by the increase in Stoke's radii) was predominantly observed in the variant forms HbE and HbA1c. Representing the proteins by a plot, in which charge and hydrodynamic diameter are on independent axes, may be a useful way of characterizing protein variants having similar migration profiles on native gels

  5. Unfolding of hemoglobin variants--insights from urea gradient gel electrophoresis photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; GhoshMoulick, Ranjita; Choudhuri, Utpal; Chakrabarty, Prantar; Bhattacharya, Pranab K.; Lahiri, Prabir; Chakraborti, Bikas; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2004-09-27

    The unfolding pattern of crystal human hemoglobin and variants of hemoglobin obtained from hemolysate were studied using transverse urea gradient gel electrophoresis (TUGGE). A smooth sigmoid like increase of electrophoretic mobility was observed with increasing urea concentrations. A decrease in electrophoretic mobility resulted, if the protein was unfolded with guanidium hydrochloride (GdnHCl). The anomaly was resolved after the Stoke's radii (obtained using the photon correlation spectroscopy) and zeta potential (measured using laser Doppler velocimetry) measurements were made at different denaturant concentrations. Addition of denaturant led to formation of extended structure, irrespective of the nature of the denaturant, as indicated by increase in Stoke's radii in both cases (urea and GdnHCl). The unexpected increase in electrophoretic mobility in case of urea could be explained in terms of a critical redistribution of negative charge at intermediate stages of the unfolding process. In case of GdnHCl, the higher ionic strength masked the charge effect. The mobility, being solely dependent on size, decreased at higher denaturant concentration. Incidentally, folding loci of other hemoglobin variants (e.g. HbE) or that of post-translationally modified hemoglobin (e.g. HbA1c) could be determined by studying the charge distribution and hydrodynamic radius at varying denaturing stress and in each case the gel migration profile could be approximately scaled by the ratio of charge and hydrodynamic diameter of the protein. While unfolding induced charge effect was most pronounced in HbA0 (and crystal ferrous hemoglobin), the unfolding induced aggregation (manifested by the increase in Stoke's radii) was predominantly observed in the variant forms HbE and HbA1c. Representing the proteins by a plot, in which charge and hydrodynamic diameter are on independent axes, may be a useful way of characterizing protein variants having similar migration profiles on

  6. Identification of a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the Alaskan Least Cisco (Coregonus sardinella).

    Wahl, S M; Boger, J K; Michael, V; Duffy, L K

    1992-01-01

    The hemoglobin and a hemoglobin binding protein have been characterized in the Arctic fish (Coregonus sardinella). The evolutionary significance of the hemoglobin and plasma protein differences between fish and mammals is still unresolved. Blood samples from the Alaskan Least Cisco were separated into plasma and hemoglobin fractions and the proteins in these fractions were analyzed both by alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, by isolelectric focusing, and by capillary electrophoresis. Staining the plasma proteins gels with o-dianisidine revealed hemoglobin containing protein complexes. A hemoglobin-containing band was observed in hemolyzed plasma which did not migrate with free hemoglobin, and is believed to be hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. Size exclusion chromatography further characterized the hemoglobin as disassociating freely into dimers, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex having a molecular weight greater then 200,000 daltons.

  7. Impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice on hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of Cambodian schoolchildren

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies remain a critical public health problem. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of multi-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR) formulations, distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP), on the hemoglobin concentrations and iron......Rice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. Four additional schools not participating in WFP-SMP were randomly selected as controls. A total of 2440 schoolchildren (6–16 years old) participated in the biochemical study. Hemoglobin, iron status, estimated using inflammation-adjusted ferritin...... and transferrin receptors concentrations, and VA status, assessed using inflammation-adjusted retinol-binding protein concentration, were measured at the baseline, as well as at three and six months. Baseline prevalence of anemia, depleted iron stores, tissue iron deficiency, marginal VA status and VA deficiency...

  8. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  9. Propanil-induced methemoglobinemia and hemoglobin binding in the rat

    McMillan, D.C.; McRae, T.A.; Hinson, J.A. (National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (USA))

    1990-09-15

    Administration of (ring-U-14C)propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) to male Sprague-Dawley rats (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, ip) increased the formation of methemoglobin at the two highest doses. Following a propanil dose of 100 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 5% by 1.5 hr and declined to normal levels (approximately 2.5%) by 12 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 50 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Following a propanil dose of 300 mg/kg, methemoglobin formation attained a maximum level of 24% by 4.5 hr, and declined to a level of 5% by 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding attained a maximum level of 425 pmol/mg protein by 12 hr, and remained constant for 24 hr. Hemoglobin binding was also detected at the lowest propanil dose (10 pmol/mg protein) even though methemoglobin formation was not observed. HPLC analysis of alkaline-treated hemoglobin from propanil-treated rats indicated the presence of one radiolabeled compound with the same HPLC retention time as 3,4-dichloraniline. These data are consistent with the concept that propanil is converted to N-hydroxy-3,4-dichloroaniline in the liver. Subsequently, this metabolite enters the erythrocyte and is oxidized by hemoglobin to 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene with concomitant conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. The 3,4-dichloronitrosobenzene binds to cysteine residues on hemoglobin as the corresponding sulfinic acid amide adduct. These data suggest that human exposure to propanil may be monitored in the absence of observable toxicity by the analysis of propanil metabolites bound to hemoglobin.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin E, isolated from the blood samples of β-thalassemic patients

    Dasgupta, Jhimli; Sen, Udayaditya; Choudhury, Debi; Datta, Poppy; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Chakrabarty, Amit; Dattagupta, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin A 2 (α 2 δ 2 ), a minor (2-3%) component of circulating red blood cells, acts as an anti-sickling agent and its elevated concentration in β-thalassemia is a useful clinical diagnostic. In β-thalassemia major, where there is a failure of β-chain production, HbA 2 acts as the predominant oxygen deliverer. Hemoglobin E, is another common abnormal hemoglobin, caused by splice site mutation in exon 1 of β globin gene, when combines with β-thalassemia, causes severe microcytic anemia. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary structural studies of HbA 2 and HbE are reported here. HbA 2 and HbE are purified by cation exchange column chromatography in presence of KCN from the blood samples of individuals suffering from β-thalassemia minor and Eβ-thalassemia. X-ray diffraction data of HbA 2 and HbE were collected upto 2.1 and 1.73 A, respectively. HbA 2 crystallized in space group P2 1 with unit cell parameters a=54.33 A, b=83.73 A, c=62.87 A, and β=99.80 degree sign whereas HbE crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with unit cell parameters a=60.89 A, b=95.81 A, and c=99.08 A. Asymmetric unit in each case contains one Hb tetramer in R 2 state

  11. Hematological parameters in Nile Tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury

    Nilton Massuo Ishikawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury toxicity in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated by the hematological parameters after long-term (14 days exposure to various Hg concentrations (0.02, 0.002, 0.0002mg/L Hg. Test groups were set up with three replicates for each concentration, plus the control group. Blood samples were collected from six individuals for each concentration at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days of exposure. The hematological parameters analyzed were: total red blood cell count (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (Hb, hematocrit (Ht, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, total white blood cell count (WBC and differential leukocyte counts and total thrombocyte count (Tr. There were no significant differences among the mean hematological values at the different Hg concentrations indicating that Hg at the concentrations studied was not toxic to tilapia.A toxicidade do mercúrio foi avaliada em tilápia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaues, 1758 através da análise dos parâmetros hematológicos após exposição a diferentes concentrações sub-letais, durante um período de 14 dias. O bioensaio foi conduzido no laboratório de toxicologia do Instituto de Pesca, SP. Foram utilizados alevinos (12.44 ± 0.84 cm, e 27.13 ± 4.67 g e aquários com capacidade para 50 litros e preenchidos com água declorada e mais a quantidade de solução de mercúrio (HgCl2 correspondendo as seguintes concentrações: 0,02; 0,002; 0.0002 mg.L-1 Hg. Foram utilizadas 3 repetições de cada concentração e grupo controle. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de seis animais de cada concentração nos tempos 0, 3, 7, 10 e 14 dias de exposição. Foram avaliados: a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC, concentração de hemoglobina (Hb, hematócrito (Ht, volume corpuscular médio (VCM, hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, trombócitos totais (Tr, contagem

  12. Solid-Phase Extraction of Hemoglobin from Human Whole Blood with a Coordination-Polymer-Derived Composite Material Based on ZnO and Mesoporous Carbon.

    Jia, Yuan; Xu, Xinxin; Ou, Jinzhao; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-13

    A composite material, ZnO@MC, has been synthesized successfully by calcination using a one-dimensional zinc-based coordination polymer as the precursor. In ZnO@MC, ZnO particles with a size of about 5-8 nm are dispersed evenly in a mesoporous carbon matrix. Adsorption experiments at pH 6.8 with 2 mg ZnO@MC as adsorbent illustrated an adsorption efficiency of 92.3 % in 5 mL hemoglobin (Hb) solution with a concentration of 100 mg L -1 . In contrast, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin can almost be ignored under the same conditions. The selectivity originates from a strong Zn II -histidine interaction between ZnO@MC and hemoglobin. The adsorption behavior of hemoglobin on ZnO@MC fits the Temkin model perfectly with a capacity as high as 11646 mg g -1 . The hemoglobin adsorbed on the composite material can be eluted easily with sodium dodecyl sulfate stripping reagent with an extraction efficiency of 87.7 %. Circular dichroism spectra and protein activity studies suggest the structure and biological activity of hemoglobin is the same before and after the adsorption/desorption experiment. Finally, the ZnO@MC composite material was employed to extract hemoglobin from human whole blood without any pretreatment, and gave a very satisfactory result. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Haptoglobin Duplicon, Hemoglobin, and Vitamin C: Analyses in the British Women’s Heart and Health Study and Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Philip A. I. Guthrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haptoglobin acts as an antioxidant by limiting peroxidative tissue damage by free hemoglobin. The haptoglobin gene allele Hp2 comprises a 1.7 kb partial duplication. Relative to allele Hp1, Hp2 carriers form protein multimers, suboptimal for hemoglobin scavenging. Objective. To examine the association of haptoglobin genotype with a range of phenotypes, with emphasis on vitamin C and hemoglobin levels. Methods. We applied a quantitative PCR assay for the duplication junction to two population cohorts including 2747 British women and 1198 British men. We examined the association of haptoglobin duplicon copy number with hemoglobin and vitamin C and used the copy number to complete a phenome scan. Results. Hemoglobin concentrations were greater in those with Hp2,2 genotype, in women only (Hp1,1 13.45 g/dL, Hp1,2 13.49 g/dL, Hp2,2 13.61 g/dL; P=0.002, though statistically there was no evidence of a difference between the sexes (z value = 1.2, P=0.24. Haptoglobin genotype was not associated with vitamin C or any other phenotype in either cohort. Conclusions. Our results do not support association of haptoglobin genotype with vitamin C or with other phenotypes measured in two population cohorts. The apparent association between haptoglobin genotype and hemoglobin in the women’s cohort merits further investigation.

  14. Quantification of hemoglobin and its derivatives in oral cancer diagnosis by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Kaniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasarao; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most common threat to human beings and it increases at an alarming level around the globe. In recent years, due to the advancements in opto-electronic technology, various optical spectroscopy techniques have emerged to assess the photophysicochemical and morphological conditions of normal and malignant tissues in micro as well as in macroscopic scale. In this regard, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is considered to be the simplest, cost effective and rapid technique in diagnosis of cancerous tissues. In the present study, the hemoglobin concentration in normal and cancerous oral tissues was quantified and subsequent statistical analysis has been carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the technique.

  15. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  16. [Hemoglobin variants in Colombian patients referred to discard hemoglobinopathies].

    Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Gómez Gutiérrez, Alberto; Duarte, Yurani; Amazo, Constanza; Manosalva, Clara; Chila M, Lorena; Casas-Gómez, María Consuelo; Briceño Balcázar, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen transport is altered in hemoglobinopathies. To study the distribution of hemoglobinopathies in Andean subjects without African ancestry. We analyzed blood samples of 1,407 subjects aged 18 to 59 years (58% females), living in the central Andean region of Colombia, referred to discard hemoglobinopathies. The frequency and type of hemoglobinopathy was established by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 34.5% and higher among females. The structural variants found were: AS-heterozygous hemoglobin (8.1%), homozygous SS (3.7%), heterozygous SC (2.2%), AC heterozygotes (0.5%) and heterozygous AE (0.3%). Quantitative variants found were Hb A-Beta thalassemia (13.91%) and Hb H (0.06%), Beta-thalassemia heterozygotes C (0.88%), S-Beta thalassemia heterozygotes (6.07%) and compound heterozygous SC/Beta thalassemia (0.25%), with a persistence of fetal hemoglobin 0. Composite thalassemia was also found in 31%. All techniques showed good correlation and capillary electrophoresis demonstrated a greater detection of hemoglobin variants. The frequency of hemoglobin variants in the analyzed population was high, which is an important public health indicator. The most common hemoglobin variant was HbA/Increased structural Hb A2 and the mos frequent structural hemoglobinopathy was sickle cell trait. Capillary electrophoresis can discern any Hb variants present in the population.

  17. Biophysical Monitoring and dose response characteristics of irradiated hemoglobin

    Elshemey, W.M; Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using LAXS and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were irradiated at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV- visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of two peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1 s t peak, recorded at 4.65 o , is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5 o , appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  18. Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management

    Moerman, Jan; Vermeulen, Edith; Van Mullem, Mia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the added value of communicating post-transfusion hemoglobin values to clinicians as a strategy to improve RBC utilization in a 500-bed hospital. Methods: The total number of RBC transfusions, the mean number of RBC units...... transfused per patient, the mean pre- and post-transfusion hemoglobin values, the ratio of patients transfused and the ratio of patients with a post-transfusion hemoglobin > 10.5 g/dL were calculated per service and per department for six months. The data were reported to each service and compared...... with the data of the department as peer group. The impact of this communication strategy was evaluated in the following six months. Results: In the six months pre-intervention, the mean post-transfusion hemoglobin value was 9.2 g/dL. Post-transfusion hemoglobin was > 10.5 g/dL in 13.4% of patients (112...

  19. Study of LAXS Profile of Hemoglobin from Irradiated Blood

    Selim, N.S.; Desouky, O.S.; Elshemey, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present work aims to move a step forward towards a deeper understanding of the scattering of x-ray, from lyophilized biological samples. Comparative study has been performed using low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS) and UV-visible spectrophotometry for monitoring the dose response characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule of irradiated blood. Blood samples were exposed to gamma rays, at doses ranging from 5 up to 100 Gy. Diluted hemoglobin solution was scanned in the UV-visible range (200-700 nm), and lyophilized hemoglobin was prepared for LAXS measurement. The radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin structure have been evaluated. The LAXS profile of hemoglobin molecule is characterized by the presence of 2 peaks in the forward direction of scattering. These peaks were found to be sensitive to the variations in the molecular structure of a given sample. The obtained results suggest that the 1st peak, recorded at 4.65O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 0.526 nm-1), is sensitive to the tertiary and quaternary structure of the globin part, while the major peak, recorded at 10.5O (equivalent to momentum transfer, x= 1.189 nm-1), appeared to be related to its primary and secondary structure

  20. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients

    Castilho E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG. Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1 nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19; 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM patients (on insulin treatment (N = 19; 3 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22. The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%. In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control to 2.45 µmol/ml blood (IDDM. Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  1. The effects of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, and glycosylated hemoglobin on the hemoglobin-oxygen affinity of diabetic patients.

    Castilho, E M; Glass, M L; Manço, J C

    2003-06-01

    The position of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Decreases in 2,3-DPG concentration within the red cell shift the curve to the left, whereas increases in concentration cause a shift to the right of the ODC. Some earlier studies on diabetic patients have reported that insulin treatment may reduce the red cell concentrations of 2,3-DPG, causing a shift of the ODC to the left, but the reports are contradictory. Three groups were compared in the present study: 1) nondiabetic control individuals (N = 19); 2) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients (on insulin treatment) (N = 19); 3) non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients using oral hypoglycemic agents and no insulin treatment (N = 22). The overall position of the ODC was the same for the three groups despite an increase of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction that was expected to shift the ODC to the left in both groups of diabetic patients (HbA1c: control, 4.6%; IDDM, 10.5%; NIDDM, 9.0%). In IDDM patients, the effect of the glycosylated hemoglobin fraction on the position of the ODC appeared to be counterbalanced by small though statistically significant increases in 2,3-DPG concentration from 2.05 (control) to 2.45 mol/ml blood (IDDM). Though not statistically significant, an increase of 2,3-DPG also occurred in NIDDM patients, while red cell ATP levels were the same for all groups. The positions of the ODC were the same for control subjects, IDDM and NIDDM patients. Thus, the PO2 at 50% hemoglobin-oxygen saturation was 26.8, 28.2 and 28.5 mmHg for control, IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. In conclusion, our data question the idea of adverse side effects of insulin treatment on oxygen transport. In other words, the shift to the left reported by others to be caused by insulin treatment was not detected.

  2. Novel artificial stool material for external quality assurance (EQA) on a fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT): The confirmed utility of stable hemoglobin and an internal standard material.

    Yasui, Ryota; Yamada, Miyu; Takehara, Shizuka; Sakurabayashi, Ikunosuke; Watanabe, Katsunori

    2018-04-16

    The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT), which detects lower gastrointestinal bleeding, is widely accepted for population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. However, the FIT screening process has not been standardized yet, and standardizing the pre-analytical phase and establishing an external quality assurance (EQA) program compliant with ISO requirements is urgently needed. Although there have been various attempts to establish EQA materials suitable for FIT, no materials have yet been reported to have sufficient uniformity and acceptable immunochemical stability of hemoglobin (Hb). The Health Care Technology Foundation (HECTEF; Tokyo Japan) is now developing a ready-to-use artificial stool containing Hb and an internal standard, glycerol. Accordingly, we verified the adaptability and efficacy of this material for the evaluation of the specimen collection phase of FIT. This material uniformly contained both Hb and glycerol. The glycerol allowed us to estimate the weight of the collected artificial stool and to correct the Hb concentration with the estimated weight. Furthermore, the stability of both Hb and glycerol were confirmed to be sufficient for an EQA material under appropriate storage, in-use, repeated freeze-thaw, and heated conditions. These in-house performance characteristics suggest that HECTEF artificial stool is acceptable as an EQA material for FIT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...... lines develop normally. However, when AHb2 knockout is combined with AHb1 silencing, seedlings die at an early vegetative stage suggesting that the two 3-on-3 hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, together play an essential role for normal development of Arabidopsis seedlings. In conclusion, these results...

  4. An Atomistic View on Human Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide Migration Processes

    Lucas, M. Fátima; Guallar, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    A significant amount of work has been devoted to obtaining a detailed atomistic knowledge of the human hemoglobin mechanism. Despite this impressive research, to date, the ligand diffusion processes remain unclear and controversial. Using recently developed computational techniques, PELE, we are capable of addressing the ligand migration processes. First, the methodology was tested on myoglobin's CO migration, and the results were compared with the wealth of theoretical and experimental studies. Then, we explored both hemoglobin tense and relaxed states and identified the differences between the α-and β-subunits. Our results indicate that the proximal site, equivalent to the Xe1 cavity in myoglobin, is never visited. Furthermore, strategically positioned residues alter the diffusion processes within hemoglobin's subunits and suggest that multiple pathways exist, especially diversified in the α-globins. A significant dependency of the ligand dynamics on the tertiary structure is also observed. PMID:22385860

  5. Detection of anion-linked polymerization of the tetrameric hemoglobin from Scapharca inaequivalvis by 35Cl NMR spectroscopy

    Chiancone, E.; Univ. 'La Sapienza', Rome; Drakenberg, T.; Forsen, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ion binding to the hemoglobin components of Scaphara inaequivalvis has been measured directly in quadrupole relaxation experiments of 23 Na and 35 Cl. The dimeric and tetrameric hemoglobins interact weakly with sodium ions, but differ in their interaction with chloride ions. The dimeric hemoglobin binds chloride ions with low affinity, whereas the tetrameric protein has high affinity chloride binding sites. Binding of chloride ions to these high affinity sites brings about an oxygen-linked polymerization which manifests itself in an unusual dependence of the 35 Cl excess linewidth on the concentration of the anion. Polymerization is more pronounced in the deoxygenated than in the oxygenated derivative: in the former, it has been observed previously in sedimentation velocity experiments. The sensitivity of the 35 Cl excess linewidth on polymer formation indicates that the residence time of the transiently bound chloride on the tetrameric hemoglobin is not shorter than the correlation time of the molecule (2 X 10 -8 s -1 ). 17 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y. [MagQu Co. Ltd., Sindian City, Taipei County 231, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Horng, H.E. [Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: phyfv001@scc.ntnu.edu.tw; Hong, Chin-Yih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, Nantau County, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cyhong@nkut.edu.tw; Yang, H.C. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcyang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Lai, Y.K. [College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S. [Apex Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Hsinchu City 300, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  7. Dichloromethane as an antisickling agent in sickle cell hemoglobin

    Schoenborn, B.P.; North, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Observations are reported that show that dichloromethane (DCM) does have a significant effect on the oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin. At DCM pressures high enough to prevent or reverse sickling, DCM would lower the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, therefore reducing oxygen transport at low oxygen pressure. This decrease in oxygen affinity might, however, increase the oxygen availability to tissue as long as a sufficiently large lung P/sub O/sub 2// is maintained. Crystallographic studies show that site D4 has a much lower affinity for DCM than site D3 while sites D1 and D2 show a higher affinity.

  8. Independency of Fe ions in hemoglobin on immunomagnetic reduction assay

    Yang, S.Y.; Lan, C.B.; Chen, C.H.; Horng, H.E.; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, H.C.; Lai, Y.K.; Lin, Y.H.; Teng, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    Immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), which involves measuring the reduction in the ac magnetic susceptibility of magnetic reagents, is due to the association between bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and target bio-molecules. This has been demonstrated for assaying proteins in solutions free of Fe ions, such as serum. In this work, the validity of IMR assay for samples rich in Fe ions like hemoglobin (Hb) is investigated. According to the results, there is no magnetic signal contributed by Fe-ion-rich Hb. Furthermore, the results show a high sensitivity in assaying hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) by using IMR.

  9. Why are there two kinds of chain in tetrameric hemoglobins

    Ferreira, R.; Jacchieri, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    The homeotropic allosteric interactions responsible for the sigmoidal oxygen saturation curves of α 2 β 2 hemoglobins are shown to be larger than those of hypothetical hemoglobins obeying identical curves and built from equivalent chains, γ 4 . It is also shown that this ensures for the α 2 β 2 species a more dependable cooperativity, through a biologically significative temperature range. On the basis of these findings it is argued that the existence of two different globin chains is advantageous in an evolutionary sense. (Author) [pt

  10. Postoperative hemoglobin level in patients with femoral neck fracture

    Nagra, Navraj; van Popta, Dmitri; Whiteside, Sigrid; Holt, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of hemoglobin levels in patients undergoing fixation for femoral neck fracture.Methods: Peroperative hemoglobin levels of patients who underwent either dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation (n=74; mean age: 80 years) or hip hemiarthroplasty (n=104; mean age: 84 years) for femoral neck fracture was monitored.Results: There was a statistically and clinically significant mean drop of 31.1 g/L between the preoperative (D0) and postoperative D...

  11. Pengaruh Pemberian Fraksi Protein Ekstrak Kuda Laut (Hippocampus Kuda Bleeker, 1852) Terhadap Peningkatan Kadar Hemoglobin Mencit (Mus Musculus L)

    Adam, Kindi; Fitria, Laksmindra; Sarto, Mulyati

    2014-01-01

    Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) is known to have a high concentration of iron, taurin and progesteron as testosteron precursor. Seahorse extract can increase the production of testosterone hormone of mice. On the erythrocytes development, kidney is stimulated to release erythropoietin hormone in case of hypoxia and also related with testosterone production. Erythropoietin control erythrocytes development and increase hemoglobin synthesis. The objective of experiment was to study the effect of sea...

  12. Pengaruh Pemberian Fraksi Protein Ekstrak Kuda Laut (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1852) terhadap Peningkatan Kadar Hemoglobin Mencit (Mus musculus L)

    Kindi Adam; Laksmindra Fitria; Mulyati Sarto

    2015-01-01

    Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) is known to have a high concentration of iron, taurin and progesteron as testosteron precursor. Seahorse extract can increase the production of testosterone hormone of mice. On the erythrocytes development, kidney is stimulated to release erythropoietin hormone in case of hypoxia and also related with testosterone production. Erythropoietin control erythrocytes development and increase hemoglobin synthesis. The objective of experiment was to study the effect of sea...

  13. The influence of socioeconomic status on the hemoglobin level and anthropometry of sickle cell anemia patients in steady state at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

    Animasahun, B A; Temiye, E O; Ogunkunle, O O; Izuora, A N; Njokanma, O F

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) has multisystemic manifestations and is associated with severe morbidity and high mortality. It commonly affects growth leading to wasting and stunting. This study aimed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status on the nutritional status using anthropometric measurements and steady-state hemoglobin, of children with homozygous SCA, aged 1 year to 10 years in steady state at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 children with SCA and 100 age-, sex-, and social class-matched controls that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Social class was assessed using educational attainment and occupation of parents. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using the oxy-hemoglobin method. This study demonstrated a significantly lower mean weight and weight-for-height in the SCA patients than those of controls (P hemoglobin concentration were observed from social class 1 to 4; this was statistically significant in controls (P = 0.00) but not in subjects (P > 0.1). However, SCA patients had significantly lower values than controls in each of the social classes. Poor socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on the nutritional status and hemoglobin of SCA patients.

  14. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  15. Spatio-temporal imaging of the hemoglobin in the compressed breast with diffuse optical tomography

    Boverman, Gregory; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A.; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Selb, Juliette; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2007-07-01

    We develop algorithms for imaging the time-varying optical absorption within the breast given diffuse optical tomographic data collected over a time span that is long compared to the dynamics of the medium. Multispectral measurements allow for the determination of the time-varying total hemoglobin concentration and of oxygen saturation. To facilitate the image reconstruction, we decompose the hemodynamics in time into a linear combination of spatio-temporal basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using all of the data simultaneously, making use of a Newton-based nonlinear optimization algorithm. The solution of the extremely large least-squares problem which arises in computing the Newton update is obtained iteratively using the LSQR algorithm. A Laplacian spatial regularization operator is applied, and, in addition, we make use of temporal regularization which tends to encourage similarity between the images of the spatio-temporal coefficients. Results are shown for an extensive simulation, in which we are able to image and quantify localized changes in both total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Finally, a breast compression study has been performed for a normal breast cancer screening subject, using an instrument which allows for highly accurate co-registration of multispectral diffuse optical measurements with an x-ray tomosynthesis image of the breast. We are able to quantify the global return of blood to the breast following compression, and, in addition, localized changes are observed which correspond to the glandular region of the breast.

  16. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  17. Comparison of crystal and solution hemoglobin binding of selected antigelling agents and allosteric modifiers

    Mehanna, A.S.; Abraham, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper details comprehensive binding studies (solution and X-ray) of human hemoglobin A with a group of halogenated carboxylic acids that were investigated as potential antisickling agents. It is, to our knowledge, the first study to compare solution and crystal binding for a series of compounds under similar high-salt conditions used for cocrystallization. The compounds include [(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy]acetic acid, [(p-bromobenzyl)oxy]acetic acid, clofibric acid, and bezafibrate. The location and stereochemistry of binding sites have been established by X-ray crystallography, while the number of binding sites and affinity constants were measured by using equilibrium dialysis. The observed crystal structures are consistent with the binding observed in solution and that the number of binding sites is independent of salt concentration, while the binding constant increases with increasing salt concentration. The studies also reveal that relatively small changes in the chemical structure of a drug molecule can result in entirely different binding sites on the protein. Moreover, the X-ray studies provide a possible explanation for the multiplicity in function exhibited by these compounds as allosteric modulators and/or antisickling agents. Finally, the studies indicate that these compounds bind differently to the R and T states of hemoglobin, and observation of special significance to the original design of these agents

  18. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  19. Growth and time dependent alignment of KCl crystals in Hemoglobin LB monolayer

    Mahato, Mrityunjoy; Pal, Prabir; Tah, Bidisha; Kamilya, Tapanendu; Talapatra, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Nature and organism often use the biomineralization technique to build up various highly regular structures such as bone, teeth, kidney stone etc., and recently this becomes the strategy to design and synthesis of novel biocomposite materials. We report here the controlled crystallization of KCl in Langmuir and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) monolayer of Hemoglobin (Hb) at ambient condition. The nucleation and growth of KCl crystals in Hb monolayer has temporal and KCl concentration dependency. The growth of KCl crystals in LB film of Hb has distinct behavior in the alignment of crystals from linear to fractal like structures depending on growth time. The crystallographic identity of the biomineralized KCl crystal is confirmed from HR-TEM, XRD, and from powder diffraction simulation. Our results substantiated that the template of Langmuir monolayer of proteins plays a crucial role in biomineralization as well as in designing and synthesizing of novel biocomposite materials. Highlights: ► Biomineralization of KCl crystal has been studied in Hemoglobin LB film. ► KCl crystal growth is time and concentration of KCl dependent. ► The alignment of KCl crystal growth is fractal nature with time. ► The unfolding of Hb and evaporation factor has some role in crystallization and fractal growth.

  20. The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis

    Lipinski, S

    1972-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on hemoglobin synthesis was studied and its effect on the quality of protein was discovered. The biological effects due to the changes in the structure of protein were also observed. The results of the experiments are presented.

  1. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    , the fungus will produce various by-products like organic acids and polyols. In order to circumvent this problem we here study the effects of the expression of a bacterial hemoglobin protein on the metabolism of A. niger. We integrated the vgb gene from Vitreoscilla sp. into the genome at the pyrA locus...

  2. Relationship of Hemoglobin to Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Aeromedical Evacuation

    2015-04-02

    2. REPORT TYPE Special Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) September 2012 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relationship of Hemoglobin to...pressurized pulsatile, and hydrosurgery debridement methods for removing bacteria from fracture implants. Orthopedics. 2012; 35(7):e1046-e1050. 11. Burns TC

  3. Hemoglobin is essential for normal growth of Arabidopsis organs

    Hebelstrup, Kim Henrik; Hunt, Peter; Dennis, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silence...... suggests that 3-on-3 hemoglobins apart from a role in hypoxic stress play a general role under non-stressed conditions where they are essential for normal development by controlling the level of NO which tends to accumulate in floral buds and leaf hydathodes of plants......In Arabidopsis thaliana, the class I hemoglobin AHb1 is transiently expressed in the hydathodes of leaves and in floral buds from young inflorescences. Nitric oxide (NO) accumulates to high levels in these organs when AHb1 is silenced, indicating an important role in metabolizing NO. AHb1-silenced...... lines are viable but show a mutant phenotype affecting the regions where AHb1 is expressed. Arabidopsis lines with an insertional knockout or overexpression of AHb2, a class II 3-on-3 hemoglobin, were generated. Seedlings overexpressing AHb2 show enhanced survival of hypoxic stress. The AHb2 knockout...

  4. Site-specific semisynthetic variant of human hemoglobin

    Hefta, S.A.; Lyle, S.B.; Busch, M.R.; Harris, D.E.; Matthew, J.B.; Gurd, F.R.N.

    1988-01-01

    A single round of Edman degradation was employed to remove the NH 2 -terminal valine from isolated α chains of human hemoglobin. Reconstitution of normal β chains with truncated or substituted α chains was used to form truncated (des-Val 1 -α1) and substituted ([[1- 13 C]Gly 1 ]α1) tetrameric hemoglobin analogs. Structural homology of the analogs with untreated native hemoglobin was established by using several spectroscopic and physical methods. Functional studies indicate that the reconstituted tetrameric protein containing des-Val 1 -α chains has a higher affinity for oxygen, is less influenced by chloride ions or 2,3-biphosphoglycerate, and shows lower cooperativity than native hemoglobin. These results confirm the key functional role of the α-chain NH 2 terminus in mediating cooperative oxygen binding across the dimer interface. The NH 2 -terminal pK/sub 1/2/ value was determined for the [ 13 C]glycine-substituted analog to be 7.46 +/- 0.09 at 15 0 C in the carbon monoxide-liganded form. This value, measured directly by 13 C NMR, agrees with the determination made by the less-direct 13 CO 2 method and confirms the role of this residue as a contributor to the alkaline Bohr effect; however, it is consistent with the presence of an NH 2 -terminal salt bridge to the carboxylate of Arg-141 of the α chain in the liganded form

  5. A Review on hematology and hemoglobin of fish

    Ebru YILMAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hematological parameters of fish living in natüre helps to recognize population and to determinate of pollutants in the aquatic environment. In this review, hematological parameters of fish, fish hemoglobin and the Bohr effect were given information.

  6. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  7. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of c...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section 864.7470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7470...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5620 - Automated hemoglobin system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated hemoglobin system. 864.5620 Section 864.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices § 864...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7500 - Whole blood hemoglobin assays.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole blood hemoglobin assays. 864.7500 Section 864.7500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7500 Whole...

  12. 21 CFR 864.7440 - Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoretic hemoglobin analysis system. 864.7440 Section 864.7440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  13. Expression and purification of recombinant hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Jiang, Xiaoben; Fago, Angela

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technologies have played a pivotal role in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in hemoglobin (Hb) and other globin proteins. Here we describe the development of a plasmid expression system to synthesize recombinant Hbs in Escherichia coli, and we describe...

  14. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human hemoglobin at multiple sites

    Shapiro, R.; McManus, M.; Garrick, L.; McDonald, M.J.; Bunn, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    The most abundant minor hemoglobin component of human hemolysate is Hb A1c, which has glucose bound to the N-terminus of the beta chain by a ketoamine linkage. Hb A1c is formed slowly and continuously throughout the 120 day lifespan of the red cell. It can be synthesized in vitro by incubating purified hemoglobin with 14C-glucose. Other minor components, Hb A1a1 and Hb A1a2 are adducts of sugar phosphates at the N-terminus of the beta chain. Hb A1b contains an unidentified nonphosphorylated sugar at the beta N-terminus. In addition, a significant portion of the major hemoglobin component (Hb Ao) is also glycosylated by a glucose ketoamine linkage at other sites on the molecule, including the N-terminus of the alpha chain and the epsilon-amino group of several lysine residues on both the alpha and the beta chains. The results indicate that the interaction of glucose and hemoglobin is rather nonspecific and suggests that other proteins are modified in a similar fashion

  15. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  16. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  17. Relationships between hemoglobin A1c and spot glucose ...

    Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1c is the most acceptable measure of chronic glycemia. It is not widely available and/or affordable in Nigeria. The mean of the monthly fasting plasma glucose (MFPG) of the preceding 3 months is often used as surrogate for assessing chronic glycemia. Objective: To determine the ...

  18. Routine hemoglobin electrophoresis for pediatric surgery day case ...

    Background: Hemoglobin electrophoresis (HBE) is a part of the preoperative routine requested by anesthetists. However, the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in the population is low. This study aims to determine the clinical risk factors for hemoglobinopathies and propose clinical guidelines for preoperative screening of ...

  19. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  20. Ultrasonic processing for recovery of chicken erythrocyte hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin from chicken blood has been shown to be a good substitute for synthetic polymeric flocculants. One stage of processing the blood entails breaking open the cells and releasing the cytoplasmic contents; in the present study, we investigate the use of ultrasonic processing at this stage. Was...