WorldWideScience

Sample records for hemisphere plant disjunctions

  1. Does the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants? The case of Meehania (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during

  2. Does the Arcto-Tertiary Biogeographic Hypothesis Explain the Disjunct Distribution of Northern Hemisphere Herbaceous Plants? The Case of Meehania (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Drew, Bryan T.; Volis, Sergei; Kim, Changkyun; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yue-Hua; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, many details regarding the evolution of the Arcto-Tertiary flora, including the timing, direction, and relative importance of migration routes in the evolution of woody and herbaceous taxa of the Northern Hemisphere, remain poorly understood. Meehania (Lamiaceae) comprises seven species and five subspecies of annual or perennial herbs, and is one of the few Lamiaceae genera known to have an exclusively disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We analyzed the phylogeny and biogeographical history of Meehania to explore how the Arcto-Tertiary biogeographic hypothesis and two possible migration routes explain the disjunct distribution of Northern Hemisphere herbaceous plants. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid sequences (rbcL, rps16, rpl32-trnH, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) gene regions. Divergence times and biogeographic inferences were performed using Bayesian methods as implemented in BEAST and S-DIVA, respectively. Analyses including 11 of the 12 known Meehania taxa revealed incongruence between the chloroplast and nuclear trees, particularly in the positions of Glechoma and Meehania cordata, possibly indicating allopolyploidy with chloroplast capture in the late Miocene. Based on nrDNA, Meehania is monophyletic, and the North American species M. cordata is sister to a clade containing the eastern Asian species. The divergence time between the North American M. cordata and the eastern Asian species occurred about 9.81 Mya according to the Bayesian relaxed clock methods applied to the combined nuclear data. Biogeographic analyses suggest a primary role of the Arcto-Tertiary flora in the study taxa distribution, with a northeast Asian origin of Meehania. Our results suggest an Arcto-Tertiary origin of Meehania, with its present distribution most probably being a result of vicariance and southward migrations of populations during

  3. Origin and evolution of the northern hemisphere disjunction in the moss genus Homalothecium (Brachytheciaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Sanna; Hedenäs, Lars; Ignatov, Michael S; Devos, Nicolas; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2008-06-01

    Competing hypotheses that rely either on a stepping-stone dispersal via the North Atlantic or the Bering land bridges, or more recent transoceanic dispersal, have been proposed to explain the disjunct distribution of Mediterranean flora in southern Europe and western North America. These hypotheses were tested with molecular dating using a phylogeny of the moss genus Homalothecium based on ITS, atpB-rbcL, and rpl16 sequence data. The monophyly of two main lineages in Western Palearctic (Europe, central Asia and north Africa) and North America is consistent with the ancient vicariance hypothesis. The monophyly of Madeiran H. sericeum accessions supports the recognition of the Macaronesian endemic H. mandonii. A range of absolute rates of molecular evolution documented in land plants was used as probabilistic calibration prior by a Bayesian inference implementing a relaxed-clock model to derive ages for the nodes of interest. Our age estimates for the divergence of the American and Western Palearctic Homalothecium clade (5.7 Ma, IC 3.52-8.26) and the origin of H. mandonii (2.52 Myr IC 0.86-8.25) are not compatible with the ancient vicariance hypothesis. Age estimates suggests that species distributions result from rare instances of dispersal and subsequent sympatric diversification. The calibrated phylogeny indicates that Homalothecium has undergone a fast radiation during the last 4 Myr, which is consistent with the low levels of morphological divergence among sibling species.

  4. Several origins of floral oil in the Angelonieae, a southern hemisphere disjunct clade of Plantaginaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline C; Scherz, Mark D; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-12-01

    • Over the past 75 Myr, successive groups of plants have entered the "oil bee pollination niche," meaning that they depend on oil-collecting bees for their pollination. The highly dissimilar numbers of plant species and bee species involved in these mutualisms imply evolutionary host switching, asymmetric mutual dependencies, and uncoupled diversification. Among the clades with the best field data on oil bee behavior is the Angelonieae, which we here investigate to better understand the evolutionary time frame of this pollination syndrome.• We generated nuclear and plastid data matrices for 56% of the Angelonieae species (plus outgroups) and used Bayesian methods of molecular clock dating, ancestral state reconstruction, and biogeographic inference.• We found that Angelonieae have two major clades, Angelonia (including Monopera) and Basistemon, and Monttea, Melosperma, and Ourisia.• Angelonieae date back to the Uppermost Eocene, ca. 35 (26-47) Myr ago (Ma) and diversified in dry areas of southern South America; they switched from nectar to oil as a reward four or five times over the past 25 Ma. As predicted in a previous non-clock-dated study, dispersal to Australasia dates to the Miocene/Pliocene. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasof, Safaa; Lenoir, Jonathan; Aarrestad, Per Arild

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been...... disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological...... between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time - at least on time scales 104 years or less - seems...

  6. Early signs of range disjunction of submountainous plant species: an unexplored consequence of future and contemporary climate changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Emilien; Lenoir, Jonathan; Piedallu, Christian; Gégout, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    Poleward and upward species range shifts are the most commonly anticipated and studied consequences of climate warming. However, these global responses to climate change obscure more complex distribution change patterns. We hypothesize that the spatial arrangement of mountain ranges and, consequently, climatic gradients in Europe, will result in range disjunctions. This hypothesis was investigated for submountainous forest plant species at two temporal and spatial scales: (i) under future climate change (between 1950-2000 and 2061-2080 periods) at the European scale and (ii) under contemporary climate change (between 1914-1987 and 1997-2013 periods) at the French scale. We selected 97 submountainous forest plant species occurring in France, among which distribution data across Europe are available for 25 species. By projecting future distribution changes for the 25 submountainous plant species across Europe, we demonstrated that range disjunction is a likely consequence of future climate change. To assess whether it is already taking place, we used a large forest vegetation-plot database covering the entire French territory over 100 years (1914-2013) and found an average decrease in frequency (-0.01 ± 0.004) in lowland areas for the 97 submountainous species - corresponding to a loss of 6% of their historical frequency - along with southward and upward range shifts, suggesting early signs of range disjunctions. Climate-induced range disjunctions should be considered more carefully since they could have dramatic consequences on population genetics and the ability of species to face future climate changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

    OpenAIRE

    Wasof, Safaa; Lenoir, Jonathan; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Alsos, Inger Greve; Armbruster, W. Scott; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bakkestuen, Vegar; Birks, H. John B.; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Broennimann, Olivier; Brunet, Jörg; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dahlberg, Carl Johan; Diekmann, Martin; Dullinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years.LocationEuropean Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used tw...

  8. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dujmovic, Jozo; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    2007-01-01

    The generalized conjunction/disjunction function (GCD) is a continuous logic function of two or more variables that integrates conjunctive and disjunctive properties in a single function. It is used as a mathematical model of simultaneity and replaceability of inputs. Special cases of this function...... include the full (pure) conjunction, the partial conjunction, the arithmetic mean, the partial disjunction, and the full (pure) disjunction. GCD enables a continuous transition from the full conjunction to the full disjunction, using a parameter that specifies a desired level of conjunction (andness...

  9. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasof, Safaa; Lenoir, Jonathan; Aarrestad, Per Arild

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have be...

  10. Geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolla, B.; Cescatti, A.

    2017-11-01

    Radiometric measurements of hemispherical surface reflectance and long-wave irradiance are required to quantify the broadband albedo and the outgoing thermal radiation. These observations are typically integrated with eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to characterize the surface energy budget. While the aerodynamic footprint has been widely investigated, the geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies has been rarely tackled. In the present work, the size and shape of the hemispherical radiometric footprint are formalized for a bare surface and in presence of a vegetation cover. For this purpose, four idealized canopies are analyzed and the dependency of the radiometric footprint on leaf area index and canopy height is explored. Besides, the radiometric footprint is compared with the aerodynamic footprint in conditions of neutral stability. It was observed that almost 100% of the hemispherical radiometric signal originates within a distance of a few radiometer heights, while only about 50-80% of the cumulative aerodynamic signal is generated within a distance of about 20 sensor heights. In order to achieve comparable extensions of the footprint areas, hemispherical radiometric measurements should therefore be taken about 6-15 times higher than turbulent flux ones, depending on the vegetation type. The analysis also highlights that the size of the radiative footprint decreases at increasing leaf area index, whereas the aerodynamic footprint shows an opposite behavior. For the abovementioned reasons, this work may support the interpretation of energy flux measurements and the optimal design of eddy covariance stations located in heterogeneous sites.

  11. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  12. Darwin as a plant scientist: a Southern Hemisphere perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Stephen D; Lambers, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Events around the world this year celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the sesquicentenary of publication of his most important work, The Origin of Species (Darwin 1859). The associated plethora of books and papers now appearing to commemorate Darwin's work continue the traditional emphasis on his zoological and geological contributions. There has been some recent attention directed towards Darwin's relatively unsung but significant accomplishments as a botanist. Here, we bring together a review of Darwin's botanical discoveries and experiments and relevant aspects of his geological investigations, with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. This is a relatively unexplored aspect of Darwin's contributions that yields some new insights meriting future research.

  13. A Southern Hemisphere origin for campanulid angiosperms, with traces of the break-up of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Tank, David C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-04-08

    New powerful biogeographic methods have focused attention on long-standing hypotheses regarding the influence of the break-up of Gondwana on the biogeography of Southern Hemisphere plant groups. Studies to date have often concluded that these groups are too young to have been influenced by these ancient continental movements. Here we examine a much larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer its biogeographic history by combining Bayesian divergence time information with a likelihood-based biogeographic model focused on the Gondwanan landmasses. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated in the middle Albian (~105 Ma), and that a substantial portion of the early evolutionary history of campanulids took place in the Southern Hemisphere, despite their greater species richness in the Northern Hemisphere today. We also discovered several disjunctions that show biogeographic and temporal correspondence with the break-up of Gondwana. While it is possible to discern traces of the break-up of Gondwana in clades that are old enough, it will generally be difficult to be confident in continental movement as the prime cause of geographic disjunctions. This follows from the need for the geographic disjunction, the inferred biogeographic scenario, and the dating of the lineage splitting events to be consistent with the causal hypothesis.

  14. Burge on Perception and the Disjunction Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Altschul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Disjunction Problem states that teleological theories of perception cannot explain why a subject represents an F when an F causes the perception and not the disjunction F v G, given that the subject has mistaken G’s for F’s in the past.  Without a suitable answer, non-veridical representation becomes impossible to explain.  Here, I defend Burge’s teleological theory of perception against the Disjunction Problem, arguing that a perceptual state’s representing a disjunctive property is incompatible with perceptual anti-individualism.  Because anti-individualism is at the heart of Burge’s theory, I conclude that Burgeans need not be concerned with the Disjunction Problem.

  15. Tropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Amphi-Pacific and trans-Pacific disjunctions are among the most controversial distribution patterns in biogeography. A disjunct distribution pattern between SE Asia (in fact, Indochina-Assam and the Neotropics is rarely investigated in freshwater invertebrates. In the following, we give the first review on potential tropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda, a group of freshwater microcrustaceans. As a case study, we examine the littoral-benthic freshwater genus Leydigiopsis Sars, 1901 (Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae. The lineage has four known species in the Neotropics and we examine the status of Leydigiopsis records from Indochina and Assam (India. Our morphological study shows that the Oriental Leydigiopsis is not a humanmediated introduced species from South America. The populations belong to a distinct species, which we describe as new from Thailand and Vietnam. We discuss the biogeography of Leydigiopsis and examine possible hypotheses underlying the observed distribution pattern (e.g. transoceanic long-distance dispersal, boreotropical migration scenario, African extinction scenario. Our case study shows that a boreotropical origin seems the most plausible scenario for the current distribution of this tropical chydorid lineage. In the absence of a good fossil record, we propose that a comparison with biogeographical hypotheses of plants, may provide useful analogies when studying anomopod biogeography, because ephippia, the propagules for dispersal, functionally act as minute aquatic plant seeds. We list other examples of potential tropical Amphi-or trans-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera, based on phenotypes and we provide an updated key to the Leydigiopsis species of the world. Undersampling, taxonomical bias, the absence of molecular data and a poor fossil record, remain the most important obstacles for studying biogeography in non-planktonic tropical freshwater zooplankton.

  16. Hoare Logic for Disjunctive Information Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Li, Ximeng

    2015-01-01

    with synchronous communication and separate data domains we develop a Hoare logic for enforcing disjunctive information flow policies. We establish the soundness of the Hoare logic with respect to an operational semantics and illustrate the development on a running example....

  17. Minimal founded semantics for disjunctive logic programs and deductive databases

    OpenAIRE

    Furfaro, Filippo; Greco, Gianluigi; Greco, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a variant of stable model semantics for disjunctive logic programming and deductive databases. The semantics, called minimal founded, generalizes stable model semantics for normal (i.e. non disjunctive) programs but differs from disjunctive stable model semantics (the extension of stable model semantics for disjunctive programs). Compared with disjunctive stable model semantics, minimal founded semantics seems to be more intuitive, it gives meaning to programs which ...

  18. Phylogeographical disjunction in abundant high-dispersal littoral gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, J M; King, T M; O'Loughlin, P M; Spencer, H G

    2005-08-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical disjunctions in high-dispersal marine taxa are variously ascribed to palaeogeographical conditions or contemporary ecological factors. Associated biogeographical studies, however, seldom incorporate the sampling design required to confidently discriminate among such competing hypotheses. In the current study, over 7800 gastropod specimens were examined for operculum colour, and 129 specimens genetically, to test ecological and historical biogeographical hypotheses relating to biogeographical disjunction in the Southern Hemisphere, and to southern Australia in particular. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the high-dispersal intertidal gastropod Nerita atramentosa in southern Australia (88 specimens; 18 localities) revealed an east-west phylogeographical split involving two highly divergent clades (26.0 +/- 1.9%) exhibiting minimal geographical overlap in the southeast. The eastern clade of Nerita atramentosa is also widespread in northern New Zealand (43 specimens, 10 localities), but no significant genetic differentiation is explained by the Tasman Sea, a 2000-km-wide oceanic barrier. Spatial genetic structure was not detected within either clade, consistent with the species' dispersive planktotrophic phase lasting for 5-6 months. Digital analysis of operculum colouration revealed substantial differences between eastern (tan) and western (black) specimens. Genetic analysis and visual inspection of 88 Australian specimens revealed a completely nonrandom association between mtDNA data and operculum colouration. Independent examination of a further 7822 specimens from 14 sites in southern Australia revealed both colour morphs at all localities, but reinforced the phylogeographical data by indicating a marked turnover in colour morph abundance associated with a palaeogeographical barrier: Wilsons Promontory. This sharp biogeographical disjunction is in marked contrast to the species' high dispersal abilities. The genetic similarity of

  19. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  20. Non-disjunction of chromosome 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, M; Collins, A; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 100 trisomy 18 conceptuses analysed separately and together with a published sample of 61 conceptuses confirms that an error in maternal meiosis II (MII) is the most frequent cause of non-disjunction for chromosome 18. This is unlike all other human trisomies that have been studied......, which show a higher frequency in maternal meiosis I (MI). Maternal MI trisomy 18 shows a low frequency of recombination in proximal p and medial q, but not the reduction in proximal q observed in chromosome 21 MI non-disjunction. Maternal MII non-disjunction does not fit the entanglement model...... that predicts increased recombination, especially near the centromere. Whereas recent data on MII trisomy 21 show the predicted increase in recombination proximally, maternal MII trisomy 18 has non-significantly reduced recombination. Therefore, chromosome-specific factors must complicate the simple model...

  1. Disjunct Hepaticae in tropical America and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Pócs, T.; Váňa, J.

    1983-01-01

    An increasingly large number of macrodisjunct species is emerging from recent literature dealing with taxonomy and floristics of tropical bryophytes. This paper reviews present knowledge concerning Afro-American disjunctions in Hepaticae and seeks to interprete the data in the light of current

  2. Young dispersal of xerophil Nitraria lineages in intercontinental disjunctions of the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Kamshat Temirbayeva; Stewart C. Sanderson; X. Chen

    2015-01-01

    Many cases of intercontinental disjunct distributions of seed plants have been investigated, however few have concerned the continents of Eurasia (mainly Central Asia), Africa, and Australia, especially the xerophytic lineages are lacking. Nitraria (Nitrariaceae) is just one of these xerophytic lineages. Previous Nitraria studies have hypothesized either Africa as the...

  3. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, a set S of vertices in a graph G is a b-disjunctive dominating set in G if every vertex v not in S is adjacent ...

  4. First Things First: Order Bias in Deontic Disjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elqayam, Shira; Ohm, Eyvind; St. B. T. Evans, Jonathan; Over, David E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the way disjunctive choices work in conversational context. We focus on disjunctive deontic rules, such as "you must either submit an essay or attend an exam". According to the Gricean "maxim of orderliness", a derivative of the "maxim of manner", people should interpret the first-mentioned…

  5. Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga | Lee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga are examined with the purpose of presenting the distribution of these forms. While verbs in the conjunctive form are followed by some elements, the disjunctive is used when no element follows the verb. Xitsonga follows these basic patterns observed in other Bantu ...

  6. The disjunctive domination number of a graph | Goddard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disjunctive dominating set if every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S or has at least b vertices in S at distance 2 from it. The b-disjunctive domination number is the minimum cardinality of such a set. This concept is motivated by the concepts of ...

  7. Modeling Disjunct Gray Wolf Populations in Semi-Wild Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; David J. Mladenoff; Adrian P. Wydeven

    1998-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in parts of the United States and Europe live in networks of disjunct populations, many of which are close to human settlement. Because wolf management goals include sustaining disjunct populations, it is important to ask what types of areas and protections are needed for population survival. To predict the effects of different levels of human...

  8. LIVING ON THE EDGE: TIMING OF RAND FLORA DISJUNCTIONS CONGRUENT WITH ONGOING ARIDIFICATION IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa ePokorny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands —Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and 9 orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with subtropical taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina, but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  9. Non-disjunction of chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete; Collins, Andrew; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2007-01-01

    We performed a molecular study with 21 microsatellites on a sample of 82 trisomy 13 conceptuses, the largest number of cases studied to date. The parental origin was determined in every case and in 89% the extra chromosome 13 was of maternal origin with an almost equal number of maternal MI and MII...... recombination in both maternal MI and MII errors and the former is associated with a significant number of tetrads (33%) that are nullichiasmate, which do not appear to be a feature of normal chromosome 13 meiosis. This study supports the evidence for subtle chromosome-specific influences on the mechanisms...... that determine non-disjunction of human chromosomes, consistent with the diversity of findings for other trisomies....

  10. Disjunct eddy covariance technique for trace gas flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, H. J. I.; Guenther, A. B.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Luxembourg, S. L.

    A new approach for eddy covariance flux measurements is developed and applied for trace gas fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. In disjunct eddy covariance technique, quick samples with a relatively long time interval between them are taken instead of continuously sampling air. This subset of the time series together with vertical wind velocity data at corresponding sampling times can be correlated to give a flux. The disjunct eddy sampling gives more time to analyze the trace gas concentrations and thus makes eddy covariance measurements possible using slower sensors. In this study a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer with response time of about 1 second was used with a disjunct eddy sampler to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds from an alfalfa field. The measured day-time maximum methanol fluxes ranged from 1 mg m-2 h-1 from uncut alfalfa to 8 mg m-2 h-1 from freshly cut alfalfa. Night-time fluxes were around zero.

  11. Historical biogeography of Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) on Rhus hosts (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhumei; Zhong, Yang; Kurosu, Utako; Aoki, Shigeyuki; Ma, Enbo; von Dohlen, Carol D; Wen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Intercontinental biotic disjunctions have been documented and analyzed in numerous Holarctic taxa. Patterns previously synthesized for animals compared to plants suggest that the timing of animal disjunctions are mostly Early Tertiary and were generated by migration and vicariance events occurring in the North Atlantic, while plant disjunctions are mostly Mid-Late Tertiary and imply migration and vicariance over Beringia. Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Fordini) exhibit host-alternating life cycles comprising an obligate seasonal shift between Rhus subgenus Rhus species (Anacardiaceae) and mosses (Bryophyta). Similar to their Rhus hosts, melaphidines are distributed disjunctly between Eastern Asia and Eastern North America. We examined evolutionary relationships within Melaphidina to determine the position of the North American lineage, date its divergence from Asian relatives, and compare these results to a previous historical biogeographic study of Rhus. We sampled nine species and three subspecies representing all six genera of Melaphidina. Data included sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II+leucine tRNA, cytochrome b, and nuclear elongation factor 1α genes. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) of the combined data (3282 bp) supported the monophyly of all genera except Nurudea and Schlechtendalia, due to the position of N. ibofushi. While the exact position of the North American Melaphis was not well resolved, there was high support for a derived position within Asian taxa. The divergence of Melaphis from Asian relatives centered on the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (~33-35Ma), which coincides with closure of Beringian Land Bridge I. This also corresponded to the Asian-North American disjunction previously estimated for subgenus Rhus spp. We suggest the late-Eocene Bering Land Bridge as the most likely migration route for Melaphis ancestors, as was also hypothesized for North American Rhus ancestors

  12. Timing transantarctic disjunctions in the Atherospermataceae (Laurales): evidence from coding and noncoding chloroplast sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S S; Foreman, D B; Murray, D

    2000-09-01

    Previous studies of the small Southern Hemisphere family Atherospermataceae have drawn contradictory conclusions regarding the number of transantarctic disjunctions and role of transoceanic dispersal in its evolution. Clarification of intergeneric relationships is critical to resolving (1) whether the two Chilean species, Laurelia sempervirens and Laureliopsis philippiana, are related to different Austral-Pacific species, implying two transantarctic disjunctions as suggested by morphology; (2) where the group is likely to have originated; and (3) whether observed disjunctions reflect the breakup of Gondwana. We analyzed chloroplast DNA sequences from six regions (the rbcL gene, the rpl16 intron, and the trnL-trnF, trnT-trnL, psbA-trnH, and atpB-rbcL spacer regions; for all six regions, 4,372 bp) for all genera and most species of Atherospermataceae, using parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML). The family's sister group, the Chilean endemic Gomortega nitida (Gomortegaceae), was used to root the tree. Parsimony and ML yielded identical single best trees that contain three well-supported clades (> or = 75% bootstrap): Daphnandra and Doryphora from south-eastern Australia; Atherosperma and Nemuaron from Australia-Tasmania and New Caledonia, respectively; and Laurelia novac-zelandiac and Laureliopsis philippiana from New Zealand and Chile, respectively. The second Chilean species, Laurelia sempervirens, is sister to this last clade. Likelihood ratio testing did not reject the molecular clock assumption for the rbcL data, which can therefore be used for divergence time estimates. The atherosperm fossil record, which goes back to the Upper Cretaceous, includes pollen, wood, and leaf fossils from Europe, Africa, South America, Antarctica, New Zealand, and Tasmania. Calibration of rbcL substitution rates with the fossils suggests an initial diversification of the family at 100-140 million years ago (MYA), probably in West Gondwana, early entry into Antarctica, and long

  13. Disjunctive Normal Level Set: An Efficient Parametric Implicit Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mesadi, Fitsum; Çetin, Müjdat; Cetin, Mujdat; Taşdizen, Tolga; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for image segmentation because of their capability to handle topological changes. In this paper, we propose a novel parametric level set method called Disjunctive Normal Level Set (DNLS), and apply it to both two phase (single object) and multiphase (multi-object) image segmentations. The DNLS is formed by union of polytopes which themselves are formed by intersections of half-spaces. The proposed level set framework has the following major advantages compare...

  14. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  15. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Doubrawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  16. Disjunctive cuts in a branch-and-price algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    This talk presents computational results that show the usefulness of the general-purpose valid inequalities disjunctive cuts when applied to the CVRP. Results indicate that the disjunctive cuts are able to reduce the gap between lower bound and upper bound more than state-of-the-art problem speci...

  17. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Nouioui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase, dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator, and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

  18. TRACKING DISPERSAL ROUTES - PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE ARCTIC ANTARCTIC DISJUNCT SEAWEED ACROSIPHONIA-ARCTA (CHLOROPHYTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, MJH; DIEKMANN, OE; WIENCKE, C; STAM, WT; OLSEN, JL

    Phylogenetic relationships in the Arctic-Antarctic disjunct seaweed species Acrosiphonia arcta (Dillwyn) J. G. Agardh (Acrosiphoniales, Chlorophyta) were examined using restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of the fast-evolving nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) region and random

  19. Bloom Syndrome Helicase Promotes Meiotic Crossover Patterning and Homolog Disjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Kohl, Kathryn P; McMahan, Susan; Hartmann, Michaelyn A; Williams, Andrew M; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-01-09

    In most sexually reproducing organisms, crossover formation between homologous chromosomes is necessary for proper chromosome disjunction during meiosis I. During meiotic recombination, a subset of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired as crossovers, with the remainder becoming noncrossovers [1]. Whether a repair intermediate is designated to become a crossover is a highly regulated decision that integrates several crossover patterning processes, both along chromosome arms (interference and the centromere effect) and between chromosomes (crossover assurance) [2]. Because the mechanisms that generate crossover patterning have remained elusive for over a century, it has been difficult to assess the relationship between crossover patterning and meiotic chromosome behavior. We show here that meiotic crossover patterning is lost in Drosophila melanogaster mutants that lack the Bloom syndrome helicase. In the absence of interference and the centromere effect, crossovers are distributed more uniformly along chromosomes. Crossovers even occur on the small chromosome 4, which normally never has meiotic crossovers [3]. Regulated distribution of crossovers between chromosome pairs is also lost, resulting in an elevated frequency of homologs that do not receive a crossover, which in turn leads to elevated nondisjunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental Models for the Negation of Conjunctions and Disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates why reasoning that involves negation is extremely difficult. We presented participants with reasoning problems containing sentences with negation of conjunctions and disjunctions in order to test predictions derived from the Mental Models Theory of human thought. According to this theory, reasoning consists of representing and comparing possibilities. Different sentential forms would require different cognitive demands. In particular, responses to a sentential negation task would be modulated by working memory load. This prediction would hold for correct responses but also for the general pattern of responses that includes incorrect responses when the task offers different response options. A within-subjects experimental design with selection paradigm was applied to test these predictions. Experimental comparisons and a complementary descriptive study yielded evidence consistent with the theory-driven predictions derived from the Mental Models Theory. The working memory load was critical for the modulation of correct responses and overall responses. We discussed alternative accounts, and suggested additional predictions for further evaluation of these phenomena.

  1. Phylogeny and disjunct distribution: evolution of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M; Cronk, Q C

    1997-12-22

    The molecular phylogeny of African violets (Saintpaulia H. Wendl.), based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, follows the disjunct biogeography of the genus. Sequence analysis by parsimony of 19 accessions, representing 17 currently recognized Saintpaulia species, resulted in four trees of 182 steps. The first major division is between S. goetzeana, from the Uluguru Mts, Tanzania, and the rest of the genus. The basal position of S. goetzeana, and its putative primitive characters, may indicate an Uluguru origin for Saintpaulia and subsequent colonization of the more northerly mountains. Of the remainder, S. teitensis, from the Teita Hills of Kenya, is sister taxon to the other species (which occur mainly in the Usambara Mts of north-east Tanzania). A group of nine Usambaran species that we call the 'ionantha complex' show minimal ITS genetic differentiation and are also taxonomically critical. Species diversity in the Usambara Mts appears to be the result of rapid, recent (possibly Pleistocene) radiation. This study reveals the limitations of ITS sequences for elucidating the radiation of poorly differentiated species (the ionantha complex). However, the molecular data strongly suggest that conservation of the Uluguru and Teita populations is essential for the protection of the full range of diversity within the genus.

  2. Isoprene flux measurements using eddy covariance and disjunct eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B.; Westberg, H.; Allwine, G.; Turnipseed, A.; Guenther, A.

    2005-12-01

    Quantifying biogenic hydrocarbon (BHC) emissions is important for understanding the role they play in tropospheric chemistry. Isoprene is a very reactive compound that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, which in turn determines the lifetime of numerous atmospheric constituents such as methane (CH4) and CO. The oxidation of isoprene leads to the production of peroxy radicals (RO2), which may lead to the formation of organic acids, or depending on the level of nitric oxides present, to either production or consumption of tropospheric O3. BHC emissions, in particular isoprene, are predominantly driven by increases in temperature and solar radiation, and there can be significant variations in emissions from one hour to the next, and between days. To better understand the natural variability of isoprene emissions, eddy covariance isoprene flux measurements are being collected on a long-term basis. This long-term dataset, spanning from 1999-2005, provides a unique tool for validating biogenic emission inventories that are used as input into regional photochemical models. This long-term dataset will be presented and compared to the biogenic emission inventory system (BEIS3) model estimates. Using isoprene as a compound of interest, the micrometeorological technique of disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) was tested side-by-side with the direct eddy covariance (EC) technique. One week of DEA and EC hourly flux measurements will be presented, confirming the use of DEA to measure fluxes of other atmospheric compounds that, to date, has not been attainable.

  3. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  4. Remote canopy hemispherical image collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Liu, Bingyu; Yang, Yi; Han, Fang; Cui, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Canopies are major part of plant photosynthesis and have distinct architectural elements such as tree crowns, whorls, branches, shoots, etc. By measuring canopy structural parameters, the solar radiation interception, photosynthesis effects and the spatio-temporal distribution of solar radiation under the canopy can be evaluated. Among canopy structure parameters, Leaf Area Index (LAI) is the key one. Leaf area index is a crucial variable in agronomic and environmental studies, because of its importance for estimating the amount of radiation intercepted by the canopy and the crop water requirements. The LAI can be achieved by hemispheric images which are obtained below the canopy with high accuracy and effectiveness. But existing hemispheric images canopy-LAI measurement technique is based on digital SLR camera with a fisheye lens. Users need to collect hemispheric image manually. The SLR camera with fisheye lens is not suit for long-term canopy-LAI outdoor measurement too. And the high cost of SLR limits its capacity. In recent years, with the development of embedded system and image processing technology, low cost remote canopy hemispheric image acquisition technology is becoming possible. In this paper, we present a remote hemispheric canopy image acquisition system with in-field/host configuration. In-field node based on imbed platform, low cost image sensor and fisheye lens is designed to achieve hemispherical image of plant canopy at distance with low cost. Solar radiation and temperature/humidity data, which are important for evaluating image data validation, are obtained for invalid hemispherical image elimination and node maintenance too. Host computer interacts with in-field node by 3G network. The hemispherical image calibration and super resolution are used to improve image quality in host computer. Results show that the remote canopy image collection system can make low cost remote canopy image acquisition for LAI effectively. It will be a potential

  5. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  6. Hemispherical Laue camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  7. The presence of synaptic and chromosome disjunction mutants in Cenchrus ciliaris (Poaceae: Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Visser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic mutants are present in  Cenchrus ciliaris L This species, due to the presence of linear bivalents and occasion­al trivalents and quadrivalents, is an intermediate desynaptic species. In addition, geographical distribution and environmental factors, such as high temperatures and low humidity, could also have had an influence on the desynapsis observed.The disjunction of chromosomes during anaphase I was mostly abnormal in this desynaptic species. Precocious disjunction of chromosomes into chromatids occurred during anaphase I Due to the high incidence of this chromosome abnormality, a mutant gene,  'pc'  responsible for the disjunction of chromosomes, must be present. The absence of cytokinesis in one specimen indicates a recessive mutant gene,  'va' to be active in this species.

  8. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  9. Unilateral Hemispheric Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Leslie Noone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 10 year old boy presented with history of mild fever and upper respiratory symptoms followed by recurrent seizures and loss of consciousness on the next day. Normal blood counts and abnormal hepatic transaminases were noted. MRI of the brain, done on the fourth day of illness, showed extensive involvement of the cortex in the right hemisphere. Lumbar CSF was normal. The EEG showed bilateral slowing with frontal sharp wave discharges and marked attenuation over the entire right hemisphere. The patient succumbed to the illness on the ninth day. A similar pattern of acute unilateral hemispheric cortical involvement is described in the hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE syndrome, which is typically described to occur in children below 4 years of age. This case of fulminant acute unilateral encaphilitic illness could represent the acute phase of HHE syndrome.

  10. Patterns and drivers of plant functional group dominance across the Western Hemisphere: a macroecological re-assessment based on a massive botanical dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional group dominance has been linked to climate, topography and anthropogenic factors. Here, we assess existing theory linking functional group dominance patterns to their drivers by quantifying the spatial distribution of plant functional groups at a 100-km grid scale. We use...... a standardized plant species occurrence dataset of unprecedented size covering the entire New World. Functional group distributions were estimated from 3 648 533 standardized occurrence records for a total of 83 854 vascular plant species, extracted from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN......) database. Seven plant functional groups were considered, describing major differences in structure and function: epiphytes; climbers; ferns; herbs; shrubs; coniferous trees; and angiosperm trees. Two measures of dominance (relative number of occurrences and relative species richness) were analysed against...

  11. GAS2L1 Is a Centriole-Associated Protein Required for Centrosome Dynamics and Disjunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, F.K.; Jia, Y.; Jiang, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374338094; Grigoriev, I.S.; Hau, B.K.; Shen, Y.; Du, S.; Akhmanova, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156410591; Qi, R.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Mitotic spindle formation and chromosome segregation require timely separation of the two duplicated centrosomes, and this process is initiated in late G2 by centrosome disjunction. Here we report that GAS2L1, a microtubule- and actin-binding protein, associates with the proximal end of mature

  12. Phenology of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. in a Disjunctly-zoned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avicennia marina in Gazi Bay, Kenya, displays a disjunct zonation pattern across the intertidal zone with a seaward and a landward A. marina fringe. Earlier studies revealed significant differences in its vegetation structure, physiognomy, root system and leaf morphology, which can be attributed to salinity and tidal ...

  13. Pre-Holocene Origin for the Coronopus navasii Disjunction: Conservation Implications from Its Long Isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martín-Hernanz

    Full Text Available Integration of unexpected discoveries about charismatic species can disrupt their well-established recovery plans, particularly when this requires coordinate actions among the different governments responsible. The Critically Endangered Coronopus navasii (Brassicaceae was considered a restricted endemism to a few Mediterranean temporary ponds in a high mountain range of Southeast Spain, until a new group of populations were discovered 500 km North in 2006. Ten years after this finding, its management has not been accommodated due to limited information of the new populations and administrative inertia. In this study, DNA sequences and species distribution models are used to analyse the origin of the C. navasii disjunction as a preliminary step to reassess its recovery plan. Molecular results placed the disjunction during Miocene-Pleistocene (6.30-0.49 Mya, plastid DNA; 1.45-0.03 Mya, ribosomal DNA, which discards a putative human-mediated origin. In fact, the haplotype network and the low gene flow estimated between disjunct areas suggest long-term isolation. Dispersal is the most likely explanation for the disjunction as interpreted from the highly fragmented distribution projected to the past. Particularly, a northward dispersal from Southeast is proposed since C. navasii haplotype network is connected to the sister-group through the southern haplotype. Although the reassessment of C. navasii conservation status is more optimistic under the new extent of occurrence, its long-term survival may be compromised due to the: (1 natural fragmentation and rarity of the species habitat, (2 genetic isolation between the two disjunct areas, and (3 northward shift of suitable areas under future climate change scenarios. Several ex-situ and in-situ conservation measures are proposed for integrating Central East Spanish populations into the on-going recovery plan, which still only contemplates Southeast populations and therefore does not preserve the

  14. Patterns and drivers of plant functional group dominance across the Western Hemisphere: a macroecological re-assessment based on a massive botanical dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ) database. Seven plant functional groups were considered, describing major differences in structure and function: epiphytes; climbers; ferns; herbs; shrubs; coniferous trees; and angiosperm trees. Two measures of dominance (relative number of occurrences and relative species richness) were analysed against...

  15. Patterns and drivers of plant functional group dominance across the Western Hemisphere: a macroecological re-assessment based on a massive botanical dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional group dominance has been linked to climate, topography and anthropogenic factors. Here, we assess existing theory linking functional group dominance patterns to their drivers by quantifying the spatial distribution of plant functional groups at a 100-km grid scale. We use...... influence and topography were secondarily important. Our results support the prediction that future climate change and anthropogenic pressures could shift geographical patterns in dominance of plant functional groups, with probable consequences for ecosystem functioning....... a range of hypothesized predictors. The functional groups showed distinct geographical patterns of dominance across the New World. Temperature seasonality and annual precipitation were most frequently selected, supporting existing hypotheses for the geographical dominance of each functional group. Human...

  16. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  17. The challenge of consciousness with special reference to the exclusive disjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of evolution makes sense of the emergence of consciousness. Reduction is not wrong as such, but must not be totalised. The fact that we are star stuff does not preclude the novelty of consciousness. Materialism is naturalism, but naturalism need not be materialism. Neural pathways are relevant but are not the total picture. The central thesis is about David Chalmers’s philosophy being based on an exclusive disjunction. An inclusive disjunction is, when explained, more appropriate. Functionalism is appropriate. Thomas Nagel’s philosophy on first person ontology can still be maintained. Quantum and complexity theories’ hypothesis on consciousness is more compatible with freedom of decision than classical theories.

  18. The challenge of consciousness with special reference to the exclusive disjunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The theory of evolution makes sense of the emergence of consciousness. Reduction is not wrong as such, but must not be totalised. The fact that we are star stuff does not preclude the novelty of consciousness. Materialism is naturalism, but naturalism need not be materialism. Neural pathways are relevant but are not the total picture. The central thesis is about David Chalmers’s philosophy being based on an exclusive disjunction. An inclusive disjunction is, when explained, more appropriate. Functionalism is appropriate. Thomas Nagel’s philosophy on first person ontology can still be maintained. Quantum and complexity theories’ hypothesis on consciousness is more compatible with freedom of decision than classical theories.

  19. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BOOLEAN FORMULA OF A POLYGON IN THE DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Butov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on finalizing the method of finding a polygon Boolean formula in disjunctive normal form, described in the previous article [1]. An improved method eliminates the drawback asso-ciated with the existence of a class of problems for which the solution is only approximate. The pro-posed method always allows to find an exact solution. The method can be used, in particular, in the systems of computer-aided design of integrated circuits topology.

  20. Speech and the Right Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. R. Critchley

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two facts are well recognized: the location of the speech centre with respect to handedness and early brain damage, and the involvement of the right hemisphere in certain cognitive functions including verbal humour, metaphor interpretation, spatial reasoning and abstract concepts. The importance of the right hemisphere in speech is suggested by pathological studies, blood flow parameters and analysis of learning strategies. An insult to the right hemisphere following left hemisphere damage can affect residual language abilities and may activate non-propositional inner speech. The prosody of speech comprehension even more so than of speech production—identifying the voice, its affective components, gestural interpretation and monitoring one's own speech—may be an essentially right hemisphere task. Errors of a visuospatial type may occur in the learning process. Ease of learning by actors and when learning foreign languages is achieved by marrying speech with gesture and intonation, thereby adopting a right hemisphere strategy.

  1. The use of disjunct eddy sampling methods for the determination of ecosystem level fluxes of trace gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Turnipseed

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of disjunct eddy sampling (DES for use in measuring ecosystem-level micrometeorological fluxes is re-examined. The governing equations are discussed as well as other practical considerations and guidelines concerning this sampling method as it is applied to either the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC or disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA techniques. A disjunct eddy sampling system was constructed that could either be combined with relatively slow sensors (response time of 2 to 40 s to measure fluxes using DEC, or could also be used to accumulate samples in stable reservoirs for later laboratory analysis (DEA technique. Both the DEC and DEA modes of this sampler were tested against conventional eddy covariance (EC for fluxes of either CO2 (DEC or isoprene (DEA. Good agreement in both modes was observed relative to the EC systems. However, the uncertainty in a single DEA flux measurement was considerable (~40% due to both the reduced statistical sampling and the analytical precision of the concentration difference measurements. We have also re-investigated the effects of nonzero mean vertical wind velocity on accumulation techniques as it relates to our DEA measurements. Despite the higher uncertainty, disjunct eddy sampling can provide an alternative technique to eddy covariance for determining ecosystem-level fluxes for species where fast sensors do not currently exist.

  2. The use of disjunct eddy sampling methods for the determination of ecosystem level fluxes of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, A. A.; Pressley, S. N.; Karl, T.; Lamb, B.; Nemitz, E.; Allwine, E.; Cooper, W. A.; Shertz, S.; Guenther, A. B.

    2009-02-01

    The concept of disjunct eddy sampling (DES) for use in measuring ecosystem-level micrometeorological fluxes is re-examined. The governing equations are discussed as well as other practical considerations and guidelines concerning this sampling method as it is applied to either the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) or disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) techniques. A disjunct eddy sampling system was constructed that could either be combined with relatively slow sensors (response time of 2 to 40 s) to measure fluxes using DEC, or could also be used to accumulate samples in stable reservoirs for later laboratory analysis (DEA technique). Both the DEC and DEA modes of this sampler were tested against conventional eddy covariance (EC) for fluxes of either CO2 (DEC) or isoprene (DEA). Good agreement in both modes was observed relative to the EC systems. However, the uncertainty in a single DEA flux measurement was considerable (~40%) due to both the reduced statistical sampling and the analytical precision of the concentration difference measurements. We have also re-investigated the effects of nonzero mean vertical wind velocity on accumulation techniques as it relates to our DEA measurements. Despite the higher uncertainty, disjunct eddy sampling can provide an alternative technique to eddy covariance for determining ecosystem-level fluxes for species where fast sensors do not currently exist.

  3. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  4. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  5. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Clegg, Jonathan R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Richards, Stephen J.; Taylor, Peter N.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  6. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Clegg, Jonathan R; Fisher, Robert N; Richards, Stephen J; Taylor, Peter N; Jocque, Merlijn M T

    2016-12-14

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  7. Potential and Limitations of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Disjunct Eddy Covariance Aerosol Flux Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A.; Niessner, R.; Bosveld, F.; Klemm, O.

    2006-12-01

    A micrometeorological application of an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) is proposed for the measurement of size-resolved particle fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. This extends flux measurement capabilities to cover submicron particles in several size classes simultaneously. The disjunct eddy covariance system combines a sonic anemometer, an ELPI and a valve-controlled particle sampling unit. Depending on the valve setting, ambient air or filtered particle-free air is sampled and introduced into the impactor. For disjunct eddy covariance measurements, ambient air is sampled only during a very short sampling interval (~ 0.1 s) in measurement intervals of several seconds. The integrated ELPI signal is representative for the particle size distribution during the short sampling interval. This information may be correlated with fast measurements of the vertical wind speed to obtain turbulent fluxes of submicron particles simultaneously in several size classes. A prototype system has been tested in lab and field experiments in order to evaluate the technical limitations of this approach. Tests show that different valve switch cycles do not affect the concentration measurements. However, longitudinal diffusion processes within the sampling lines lead to signal dilatation. In addition, reliable measurements require a minimum number of charged particles impacting on each stage. This leads to the exclusion of some size bins in typical field applications. Nevertheless, the system showed its potential for size-resolved flux measurements under favorable conditions. Travel support by the ACCENT Access to Infrastructures program is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Genetic Differentiation, Niche Divergence, and the Origin and Maintenance of the Disjunct Distribution in the Blossomcrown Anthocephala floriceps (Trochilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Jaramillo, María; Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the origin and maintenance of disjunct distributions are of special interest in biogeography. Disjunct distributions can arise following extinction of intermediate populations of a formerly continuous range and later maintained by climatic specialization. We tested hypotheses about how the currently disjunct distribution of the Blossomcrown (Anthocephala floriceps), a hummingbird species endemic to Colombia, arose and how is it maintained. By combining molecular data and models of potential historical distributions we evaluated: (1) the timing of separation between the two populations of the species, (2) whether the disjunct distribution could have arisen as a result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread range due to climatic changes, and (3) if the disjunct distribution might be currently maintained by specialization of each population to different climatic conditions. We found that the two populations are reciprocally monophyletic for mitochondrial and nuclear loci, and that their divergence occurred ca. 1.4 million years before present (95% credibility interval 0.7–2.1 mybp). Distribution models based on environmental data show that climate has likely not been suitable for a fully continuous range over the past 130,000 years, but the potential distribution 6,000 ybp was considerably larger than at present. Tests of climatic divergence suggest that significant niche divergence between populations is a likely explanation for the maintenance of their disjunct ranges. However, based on climate the current range of A. floriceps could potentially be much larger than it currently is, suggesting other ecological or historical factors have influenced it. Our results showing that the distribution of A. floriceps has been discontinous for a long period of time and that populations exhibit different climatic niches have taxonomic and conservation implications. PMID:25251766

  9. Long distance movements and disjunct spatial use of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the inland waters of the Pacific Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina typically limit their movements and activity to 100 km from their capture site at least once, two of which traveled round trip to and from the Pacific coast, a total distance >400 km. Disjunct spatial use patterns observed provide new insight into general harbor seal behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-distance movements and disjunct spatial use of adult harbor seals have not been reported for the study region and are rare worldwide in such a large proportion of tagged individuals. Thus, the ecological influence of individual seals may reach farther than previously assumed.

  10. Landscape: A Southern Hemisphere perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, V. R.

    1988-12-01

    Well into the Mesozoic Era, Africa, South America, India and Australia were joined to Antarctica in one supercontinent—Gondwanaland. The northern continents were also joined to form the supercontinent Laurasia. Southern Hemisphere land masses, especially Australia, have been characterised by a long period of relative geological stability and a short period of glaciation during the Quaternary. These circumstances have led to the development of quite old landscapes, developed on surfaces subjected to the processes of weathering for millions of years. Unlike the Gondwanaland continents, much of the Northern Hemisphere has been tectonically active with orogenic processes producing young uplifted surfaces subjected to active erosion. The Northern Hemisphere has experienced four extensive and intense Pleistocene glaciations. The consequence of these periods of glaciation is that present-day landscapes are substantially the product of climate over the past 10,000 years and commonly have not undergone extensive weathering. The applicability therefore of Northern Hemisphere-derived models to explain things as diverse as landforms, stream patterns and processes, soil genesis and ecological theory in the Southern Hemisphere has increasingly come into question. Because southern landscapes have a physiography and palaeohistory quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop new concepts and theories which may have implications for the whole globe.

  11. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  12. Processing inferences at the semantics/pragmatics frontier: disjunctions and free choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Emmanuel; Bott, Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Linguistic inferences have traditionally been studied and categorized in several categories, such as entailments, implicatures or presuppositions. This typology is mostly based on traditional linguistic means, such as introspective judgments about phrases occurring in different constructions, in different conversational contexts. More recently, the processing properties of these inferences have also been studied (see, e.g., recent work showing that scalar implicatures is a costly phenomenon). Our focus is on free choice permission, a phenomenon by which conjunctive inferences are unexpectedly added to disjunctive sentences. For instance, a sentence such as "Mary is allowed to eat an ice-cream or a cake" is normally understood as granting permission both for eating an ice-cream and for eating a cake. We provide data from four processing studies, which show that, contrary to arguments coming from the theoretical literature, free choice inferences are different from scalar implicatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Disjunct eddy accumulation flux measurements of individual VOCs from an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Erik; Pressley, Shelley; Grivicke, Rasa; Allwine, Eugene; Jobson, B. Tom; Westberg, Hal; Molina, Luisa T.; Lamb, Brian

    2010-05-01

    As part of the MILAGRO-2006 study a flux tower was deployed at urban Mexico City to measure turbulent fluxes of trace gases. Fluxes of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) sampler with ionization detector/gas chromatography (GC-FID) analysis. The DEA method partitions the air into two reservoirs based on the magnitude and direction of the vertical wind speed. The VOCs concentrations in both reservoirs are analyzed and used to determine the fluxes with the vertical wind velocities. Although this method is not as precise as other micrometeorological techniques, such as the eddy covariance method, it provides the ability to directly measure the fluxes of an extended number of individual species using off-line sensors without relying on similarity scaling or empirical parameters. According to our knowledge these measurements constitute the first time that the DEA method was applied in an urban environment. A comparison of the DEA fluxes of selected aromatic and olefinic species measured in parallel by the more accurate eddy covariance and disjunct eddy covariance techniques coupled with fast-response analytical sensors evidenced a flux under-prediction by the DEA method. However, this under-prediction was consistent and constant for the species compared, allowing an analysis of the DEA fluxes in terms of relative magnitudes and ratios. It was found that fluxes of alkane species were the dominant VOCs fluxes, which is consistent with ambient concentration measurements and the local emissions inventory. Among the top 20 mean VOCs fluxes measured during daytime, 11 corresponded to alkanes, followed by 5 aromatics, 2 olefins, 1 alkyne and 1 oxygenated.

  14. The extreme disjunction between Beringia and Europe in Ranunculus glacialis s. l. (Ranunculaceae) does not coincide with the deepest genetic split - a story of the importance of temperate mountain ranges in arctic-alpine phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Schneeweiss, G M; Schönswetter, P

    2012-11-01

    The arctic-alpine Ranunculus glacialis s. l. is distributed in high-mountain ranges of temperate Europe and in the North, where it displays an extreme disjunction between the North Atlantic Arctic and Beringia. Based on comprehensive sampling and employing plastid and nuclear marker systems, we (i) test whether the European/Beringian disjunction correlates with the main evolutionary diversification, (ii) reconstruct the phylogeographic history in the Arctic and in temperate mountains and (iii) assess the susceptibility of arctic and mountain populations to climate change. Both data sets revealed several well-defined lineages, mostly with a coherent geographic distribution. The deepest evolutionary split did not coincide with the European/Beringian disjunction but occurred within the Alps. The Beringian lineage and North Atlantic Arctic populations, which reached their current distribution via rapid postglacial colonization, show connections to two divergent pools of Central European populations. Thus, immigration into the Arctic probably occurred at least twice. The presence of a rare cpDNA lineage related to Beringia in the Carpathians supports the role of these mountains as a stepping stone between temperate Europe and the non-European Arctic, and as an important area of high-mountain biodiversity. The temperate and arctic ranges presented contrasting phylogeographic histories: a largely static distribution in the former and rapid latitudinal spread in the latter. The persistence of ancient lineages with a strictly regional distribution suggests that the ability of R. glacialis to survive repeated climatic changes within southern mountain ranges is greater than what recently was predicted for alpine plants from climatic envelope modelling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  16. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  17. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  18. Individual Differences in Hemispheric Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    cerebral dominance, slnlstrallty and psychosis . In: Gruzeller, J. & Flor-Henry, P. (Lds.) Hemisphere Asymmetries of Function In...Chapman, L., Numbers, J. and McFall, R. (1979). Relation of social competence to scores on two scales of psychosis proneness...233-236. ’ Rado, S. (1956). Psychoanalysis of Behavior: Collected Papers. New York: ; \\. *. v .-vvvJ >’..’>’, «< ■V

  19. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  20. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  1. Phylogeographic analysis elucidates the influence of the ice ages on the disjunct distribution of relict dragonflies in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Büsse

    Full Text Available Unusual biogeographic patterns of closely related groups reflect events in the past, and molecular analyses can help to elucidate these events. While ample research on the origin of disjunct distributions of different organism groups in the Western Paleartic has been conducted, such studies are rare for Eastern Palearctic organisms. In this paper we present a phylogeographic analysis of the disjunct distribution pattern of the extant species of the strongly cool-adapted Epiophlebia dragonflies from Asia. We investigated sequences of the usually more conserved 18 S rDNA and 28 S rDNA genes and the more variable sequences of ITS1, ITS2 and CO2 of all three currently recognised Epiophlebia species and of a sample of other odonatan species. In all genes investigated the degrees of similarity between species of Epiophlebia are very high and resemble those otherwise found between different populations of the same species in Odonata. This indicates that substantial gene transfer between these populations occurred in the comparatively recent past. Our analyses imply a wide distribution of the ancestor of extant Epiophlebia in Southeast Asia during the last ice age, when suitable habitats were more common. During the following warming phase, its range contracted, resulting in the current disjunct distribution. Given the strong sensitivity of these species to climatic parameters, the current trend to increasing global temperatures will further reduce acceptable habitats and seriously threaten the existences of these last representatives of an ancient group of Odonata.

  2. Phylogeographic analysis elucidates the influence of the ice ages on the disjunct distribution of relict dragonflies in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsse, Sebastian; von Grumbkow, Philipp; Hummel, Susanne; Shah, Deep Narayan; Tachamo Shah, Ram Devi; Li, Jingke; Zhang, Xueping; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wedmann, Sonja; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Unusual biogeographic patterns of closely related groups reflect events in the past, and molecular analyses can help to elucidate these events. While ample research on the origin of disjunct distributions of different organism groups in the Western Paleartic has been conducted, such studies are rare for Eastern Palearctic organisms. In this paper we present a phylogeographic analysis of the disjunct distribution pattern of the extant species of the strongly cool-adapted Epiophlebia dragonflies from Asia. We investigated sequences of the usually more conserved 18 S rDNA and 28 S rDNA genes and the more variable sequences of ITS1, ITS2 and CO2 of all three currently recognised Epiophlebia species and of a sample of other odonatan species. In all genes investigated the degrees of similarity between species of Epiophlebia are very high and resemble those otherwise found between different populations of the same species in Odonata. This indicates that substantial gene transfer between these populations occurred in the comparatively recent past. Our analyses imply a wide distribution of the ancestor of extant Epiophlebia in Southeast Asia during the last ice age, when suitable habitats were more common. During the following warming phase, its range contracted, resulting in the current disjunct distribution. Given the strong sensitivity of these species to climatic parameters, the current trend to increasing global temperatures will further reduce acceptable habitats and seriously threaten the existences of these last representatives of an ancient group of Odonata.

  3. A hybrid guided neighborhood search for the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhand Hifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of a hybrid guided neighborhood search for solving the disjunctively constrained knapsack problem. The studied problem may be viewed as a combination of two NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems: the weighted-independent set and the classical binary knapsack. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid approach that combines both deterministic and random local searches. The deterministic local search is based on a descent method, where both building and exploring procedures are alternatively used for improving the solution at hand. In order to escape from a local optima, a random local search strategy is introduced which is based on a modified ant colony optimization system. During the search process, the ant colony optimization system tries to diversify and to enhance the solutions using some informations collected from the previous iterations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is computationally analyzed on a set of benchmark instances available in the literature. The provided results are compared to those realized by both the Cplex solver and a recent algorithm of the literature. The computational part shows that the obtained results improve most existing solution values.

  4. Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp. (Thuidiaceae) another bipolar moss disjunct from Subantarctic Marion Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochyra, R.; Smith, V.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp. is recorded from Marion Island in the Prince Edward Islands Archipelago in the Subantarctic. This is the first report of the genus Thuidium Schimp. from the subpolar region of the Southern Hemisphere and establishes Th. delicatulum as a bipolar species with

  5. Microsatellite-based genetic diversity patterns in disjunct populations of a rare orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Richards, Matt; Sharma, Jyotsna

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in seven disjunct populations of a rare North American orchid, Cypripedium kentuckiense by including populations that represented the periphery and the center of the its range. Eight nuclear and two chloroplast microsatellites were used. Genetic diversity was low across the sampled populations of C. kentuckiense based on both nuclear (average An = 4.0, Ho = 0.436, He = 0.448) and cpDNA microsatellites (average An = 1.57, Nh = 1.57 and H = 0.133). The number of private alleles ranged from one to four per population with a total of 17 private alleles detected at five nuclear microsatellites. One private allele at one cpDNA microsatellite was also observed. Although the absolute values for nuclear microsatellite based population differentiation were low (Fst = 0.075; ϕPT = 0.24), they were statistically significant. Pairwise Fst values ranged from 0.038 to 0.123 and each comparison was significant. We also detected isolation by distance with nDNA microsatellites based on the Mantel test (r(2) = 0.209, P = 0.05). STRUCTURE analysis and the neighbor joining trees grouped the populations similarly whereby the geographically proximal populations were genetically similar. Our data indicate that the species is genetically depauperate but the diversity is distributed more or less equally across its range. Population differentiation and isolation by distance were detectable, which indicates that genetic isolation is beginning to manifest itself across the range in this rare species.

  6. Geologic map of Southern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    A surface geologic map of the Southern Hemisphere should be useful to geologists and geophysicists studying continental drift and petroleum exploration because it relates Antarctic geology to the other continents. The most dominant feature appears to be the Transantarctic lineament that ties with the South American Andes and, to a lesser degree, with tectonic elements in eastern Australia. From the rocks exposed, it appears that Gondwanaland may have broken up during early Paleozoic time, and then the hemisphere remained stable until the end of Jurassic time when the existence of widespread volcanic rocks suggests that further rifting took place. During early Tertiary time, drifting was renewed and it more or less continued until recent time. Several island arcs and deep trenches indicate that rifting is still active today. There appears to be a significant west-to-east drift of crustal material at the far southern latitudes corresponding to the circum-polar ocean currents. Offshore petroleum prospects are related to the age of the continental margins as determined by continental drift, i.e. the trailing edges of the continents have the most mature basins beginning with coastal plain sequences that are prograded over isostatically sinking margins. Thick sedimentary columns which began to form in the Mesozoic include reef facies and diapirs. There are exceptions to this model, and various offshore petroleum basins are described with emphasis on the exposed coastal plain morphology as providing the dominant indicator for large reserves.

  7. Psychological sexual identity and hemispheric orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, E C

    1983-04-01

    The study examines gender and psychological sexual identity as alternative bases for the development of hemispheric orientation. Hypotheses anticipated that females place greater reliance upon right hemisphere functions, such as imagery and emotion, whereas males place more emphasis upon left hemisphere functions, such as logical reasoning. This was extended to an examination of the roles of masculinity and femininity within genders upon hemispheric orientation. With a sample of 219 male and 221 female adults, it was found that the male-left hemisphere orientation/female-right hemisphere orientation dichotomy was supported in part. However, this relationship appears to be moderated by a second dimension: females appear more internally oriented, males more externally oriented.

  8. [Long-term outcome after hemispheric disconnection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, C; Dorfmüller, G; Fohlen, M; Jalin, C; Oliver, M-V; Delalande, O

    2008-05-01

    Hemispheric disconnection has been largely proposed for patients with severe epilepsy associated with a congenital or acquired hemispheric cerebral pathology. The classical procedure of anatomical hemispherectomy was progressively abandoned by neurosurgeons in order to avoid postoperative complications since then hemispherotomy techniques have been developed. Globally, with hemispheric disconnection, the rate of patients becoming seizure-free has been between 50 and 80%. The factors affecting seizure control have not been completely elucidated, but several authors suggested that differences in etiology as well as the hemispheric disconnection technique used may partially explain this variability. The percentage of seizure-free patients is higher with hemispherotomy techniques and in the group of patients with Rasmussen encephalitis, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and vascular insults. Depending on overall long-term progression, there is an improvement compared to preoperative status even if children exhibit heterogenous abilities. The lowest scores are observed for motor skills but communication and socialization are relatively well-preserved and strongly related to the duration of epilepsy: the longer the duration, the lower the scores were. Neuropsychological outcome following hemispheric disconnection makes it possible to study the development of hemispheric specialization during infancy and to provide information on cognitive recovery. Cerebral reorganization has been proved to exist in motor and language recovery. Ipsilateral corticospinal pathways seem to be involved in the movement of hemiplegic limbs. Everyday language can be supported by both hemispheres, but there is an early hemispheric specialization of the left hemisphere according to metaphonologic abilities.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetries: The comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries play an important role in almost all cognitive functions. For more than a century, they were considered to be uniquely human but now an increasing number of findings in all vertebrate classes make it likely that we inherited our asymmetries from common ancestors. Thus, studying animal models could provide unique insights into the mechanisms of lateralization. We outline three such avenues of research by providing an overview of experiments on left-right differences in the connectivity of sensory systems, the embryonic determinants of brain asymmetries, and the genetics of lateralization. All these lines of studies could provide a wealth of insights into our own asymmetries that should and will be exploited by future analyses.

  10. Southern Hemisphere tropospheric aerosol microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Aerosol particle-size distribution data have been obtained in the Southern Hemisphere from approximately 4-deg S to 44-deg S and between ground level and 5 km, in the vicinity of eastern Australia. The relative shape of the free-tropospheric size distribution for particles with radii larger than approximately 0.04 micron was found to be remarkably stable with time, altitude, and location for the autumn-winter periods considered. This was despite some large concentration changes, which were found to be typical of the southeastern Australian coastal region. The majority of free-troposphere large particles were found to have sulfuric acid or lightly ammoniated sulfate morphology. Large particles in the boundary layer almost exclusively had a sea-salt morphology.

  11. Effects of a disturbed zone of low-amplitude disjunctive dislocations on parameters of Love channel waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.N.; Osipov-Ivanovskii, S.P.; Vatolin, E.S. (Moskovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))

    1990-08-01

    Analyzes effects of low-amplitude disjunctive dislocations on Love channel waves travelling through a coal seam. A model of the parameters of Love channel waves travelling through a system of coal seam layers with discrete changing elastic properties is used. Changes of transverse wave velocity in this zone are described by an analytical approximation formula based on the results of experiments carried out in the Eastern Donbass. Analyses show that the dislocation zones cause a decrease in wave amplitude for the first channel harmonic by about 20% while seismic pulse energy decreases by 30%. 3 refs.

  12. The role of landscape anomalies in regional plant conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Kelso; C. Hall; G. Maentz

    2001-01-01

    Landscape anomalies are regionally restricted habitats created by unusual geologic, edaphic, or hydrologic factors. Barrens, cliff faces, canyons, hanging gardens, and playas are all examples of landscape anomalies in the arid Southwest. Such sites often harbor an unusual and rich flora, including endemic, disjunct, or relictual plant species. Using examples from our...

  13. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Ballard, S; Nelson, R

    2013-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12-22 with a maximum release phase from March 14-17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  15. Hemispheric Dominance of Native American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellern, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines language and spatial lateralization of 49 elementary American Indian students using a cognitive-manual dual task model and psychoeducational assessment techniques. All students were found to be left-hemisphere dominant for language and some were lateralized to the left hemisphere for spatial function. Contradicts evidence of right-brain…

  16. Personality, Hemispheric Dominance, and Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Jaime; Hartman, Steve E.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that 154 medical students and 526 undergraduates (samples treated separately) who were judged left- or right-hemisphere dominant (by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator) were found to have very different personalities (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Considers some of the practical ramifications of the psychometric overlap of…

  17. The Cost of Action Miscues: Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenal, Brian V.; Hinze, Stephan; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors require preparation and when necessary inhibition or alteration of actions. The right hemisphere has been posited to be dominant for preparatory motor activation. This experiment was designed to learn if there are hemispheric asymmetries in the control of altered plans of actions. Cues, both valid and invalid, which indicate the…

  18. Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

    1998-07-01

    Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

  19. UV Observations of Hemispheric Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R. K.; Paxton, L. J.; Wolven, B. C.; Zhang, Y.; Romeo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetry in the auroral patterns can be an important diagnostic for understanding the dynamics of solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system (e.g., Newel and Meng, 1998; Fillingrim et al., 2005). Molecular nitrogen emission in the UV Lyman-Birge-Hopfield bands can be used to determine energy flux and electron mean energy (Sotirelis, et al, 2013) and thereby Hall and Pederson integrated conductances (Gjerloev, et al., 2014). UV imagery provided by the 4 SSUSI instruments on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16-F19 spacecraft provide two dimensional maps of this emission at different local times. Often there are near simultaneous observations of both poles by some combination of the satellites. (see figure 1) The SSUSI auroral data products are well suited to this study, as they have the following features.: - dayglow has been subtracted on dayside aurora - electron energy flux and mean energy are pre-calculated - individual arcs have been identified through image processing. In order to intercompare data from multiple satellites, we must first ensure that the instrument calibrations are consistent. In this work we show that the instruments are consistently calibrated, and that results generated from the SSUSI data products can be trusted. Several examples of storm time asymmetries captured by the SSUSI instruments will be discussed. Fillingim, M. O., G. K. Parks, H. U. Frey, T. J. Immel, and S. B. Mende (2005), Hemispheric asymmetry of the afternoon electron aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03113, doi:10.1029/2004GL021635. Gjerloev, J., Schaefer, R., Paxton, L, and Zhang, Y. (2014), A comprehensive empirical model of the ionospheric conductivity derived from SSUSI/GUVI, SuperMAG and SuperDARN data, SM51G-4339, Fall 2014 AGU meeting, San Francisco. Newell, P. T., and C.-I. Meng (1988), Hemispherical asymmetry in cusp precipitation near solstices, J. Geophys. Res., 93(A4), 2643-2648, doi:10.1029/JA093iA04p02643

  20. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  1. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  2. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-10-31

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Technology Assessment Program (TAP) was developed to provide detailed, comparable data for environmental technologies and to disseminate this data to D&D professionals in a manner that will facilitate the review and selection of technologies to perform decontamination and decommissioning. The objectives for this project include the following: Determine technology needs through review of the Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) information and other applicable websites and needs databases; Perform a detailed review of industries that perform similar activities as those required in D&D operations to identify additional technologies; Define the technology assessment program for characterization and waste management problem sets; Define the data management program for characterization, dismantlement, and waste management problem sets; Evaluate baseline and innovative technologies under standard test conditions at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) and other locations and collect data in the areas of performance, cost, health and safety, operations and maintenance, and primary and secondary waste generation; Continue to locate, verify, and incorporate technology performance data from other sources into the multimedia information system; and Develop the conceptual design for a dismantlement technology decision analysis tool for dismantlement technologies.

  3. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  4. Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a disjunct Guineo-Congolian tree found in Ethiopia as dominant in riverine forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Harris, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    and Kenya near Lake Victoria. The newly discovered range extension of A. cordifolia matches that recently discovered for Zanthoxylum gilletii De Wild. (Rutaceae), found as new to Ethiopia in 2006, and is found to be congruent with previous known disjunct distributions of Guineo-Congolian-Ethiopian species...

  5. ARCTIC-ANTARCTIC DISJUNCTIONS IN THE BENTHIC SEAWEEDS ACROSIPHONIA-ARCTA (CHLOROPHYTA) AND DESMARESTIA-VIRIDIS-WILLII (PHAEOPHYTA) ARE OF RECENT ORIGIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, MJH; OLSEN, JL; STAM, WT; VANDENHOEK, C; WIENCKE, C

    Two examples of the most extreme biogeographic disjunctions in benthic marine algae are found in Acrosiphonia arcta (Chlorophyta) and Desmarestia viridis/willii (Phaeophyta). Both species are members of the Arctic and Antarctic boreal and subboreal marine floras. Although both genera have temperate

  6. East African odontopygid millipedes 2: A new, geographically disjunct species of Chaleponcus (Attems 1914) from the Pare Mts., Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Odontopygidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Sara B

    2013-01-01

    Chaleponcus parensis n. sp., found in the North Pare Mountains, Tanzania, is described. The find is remarkable due to its geographically disjunct location, being at least 1500 km as the crow flies to the nearest valid record in Zimbabwe of a Chaleponcus.

  7. Phylogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates, Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jay E; Gulvik, Christopher A; Elrod, Mindy G; Batra, Dhwani; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2017-07-01

    The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, which is mainly associated with tropical areas. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among genome sequences from isolates of B. pseudomallei that originated in the Western Hemisphere by comparing them with genome sequences of isolates that originated in the Eastern Hemisphere. Analysis indicated that isolates from the Western Hemisphere form a distinct clade, which supports the hypothesis that these isolates were derived from a constricted seeding event from Africa. Subclades have been resolved that are associated with specific regions within the Western Hemisphere and suggest that isolates might be correlated geographically with cases of melioidosis. One isolate associated with a former World War II prisoner of war was believed to represent illness 62 years after exposure in Southeast Asia. However, analysis suggested the isolate originated in Central or South America.

  8. AMPLITUDES OF DISJUNCTIVE DISLOCATIONS IN THE KNIPOVICH RIDGE FLANKS (NORTHERN ATLANTIC AS AN INDICATOR OF MODERN REGIONAL GEODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Sokolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first map showing the vertical amplitudes of modern disjunctive dislocations inNorthern Atlantic, based on the estimated phase shifts of reflected waves recorded by high-frequency seismic acoustic surveys. The amplitude distribution pattern is mosaic with alternating areas of compression and extension in the flanks of the Knipovich rift system. The modern structure of the Knipovich Ridge, including two strike-slip faults, represents a local rift in the pull-apart setting. The asymmetry of stresses and the presence of compression in the ridge flanks is evidenced by the distribution of the focal mechanisms of strong earthquakes related to reverse faults. In the southeastern Knipovich Ridge, tectonic activity is marked by the asymmetric pattern of the epicenters of small earthquakes.

  9. Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Hemispheric Cognitive Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Jeremy E C; Sparks, Kenneth E; Little, Kathleen D

    2017-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between hemispheric cognitive style and ear temperature. A sample of 100 participants completed a measure of hemispheric cognitive style, the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile. Ear temperatures were taken in 2 sessions, 2 times for each ear at each session. Average left ear temperature was subtracted from average right ear temperature as an index of dominant temperature. Only 56 of the participants showed a stable dominant ear temperature. For these 56 participants, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between scores on the Hemispheric Consensus Prediction Profile and tympanic member temperature (Spearman's  ρ =.29, 95% CI [.04,.51]). Individuals with a left hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer left tympanic membrane temperature while those with a right hemispheric cognitive style tended to have a warmer right tympanic membrane temperature. Tympanic membrane temperatures are easily obtained using inexpensive and noninvasive technology. The relationship suggested by these findings may open new opportunities for the study of cerebral asymmetry.

  10. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Carlson, Anders E; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Kutzbach, John E

    2013-02-07

    According to the Milankovitch theory, changes in summer insolation in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere caused glacial cycles through their impact on ice-sheet mass balance. Statistical analyses of long climate records supported this theory, but they also posed a substantial challenge by showing that changes in Southern Hemisphere climate were in phase with or led those in the north. Although an orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere signal may have been transmitted to the Southern Hemisphere, insolation forcing can also directly influence local Southern Hemisphere climate, potentially intensified by sea-ice feedback, suggesting that the hemispheres may have responded independently to different aspects of orbital forcing. Signal processing of climate records cannot distinguish between these conditions, however, because the proposed insolation forcings share essentially identical variability. Here we use transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to identify the impacts of forcing from changes in orbits, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, ice sheets and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on hemispheric temperatures during the first half of the last deglaciation (22-14.3 kyr BP). Although based on a single model, our transient simulation with only orbital changes supports the Milankovitch theory in showing that the last deglaciation was initiated by rising insolation during spring and summer in the mid-latitude to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and by terrestrial snow-albedo feedback. The simulation with all forcings best reproduces the timing and magnitude of surface temperature evolution in the Southern Hemisphere in deglacial proxy records. AMOC changes associated with an orbitally induced retreat of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature; the ensuing rise in atmospheric CO(2

  11. Molecular Biogeography of Tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan Disjunction Pattern with an African Origin of Core Genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Huang, Jian-Feng; Sanderson, Stewart C.; Yan, Ping; Wu, Yu-Hu; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and East Asia-North America disjunction, with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F sequence data; biogeographical approaches included BEAST molecular dating and Bayesian dispersal and vicariance analysis (S-DIVA). The results indicate that the core genistoides most likely originated in Africa during the Eocene to Oligocene, ca. 55-30 Ma, and dispersed eastward to Central Asia at ca. 33.47 Ma. The origin of Thermopsideae is inferred as Central Asian and dated to ca. 28.81 Ma. Ammopiptanthus is revealed to be a relic. Birth of the ancestor of Thermopsideae coincided with shrinkage of the Paratethys Sea at ca. 30 Ma in the Oligocene. The Himalayan motion of QTP uplift of ca. 20 Ma most likely drove the diversification between Central Asia and North America. Divergences in East Asia, Central Asia, the Mediterranean, and so forth, within Eurasia, except for Ammopiptanthus, are shown to be dispersals from the QTP. The onset of adaptive radiation at the center of the tribe, with diversification of most species in Thermopsis and Piptanthus at ca. 4-0.85 Ma in Tibet and adjacent regions, seems to have resulted from intense northern QTP uplift during the latter Miocene to Pleistocene. PMID:26114116

  12. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Phylogeography of screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus: Successive disjunctions and extinctions due to cyclical climatic changes in southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Sebastián; Ferreiro, Alejandro M; Chiappero, Marina B; Sánchez, Julieta; Gabrielli, Magalí; Lizarralde, Marta S

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about phylogeography of armadillo species native to southern South America. In this study we describe the phylogeography of the screaming hairy armadillo Chaetophractus vellerosus, discuss previous hypothesis about the origin of its disjunct distribution and propose an alternative one, based on novel information on genetic variability. Variation of partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA Control Region (CR) from 73 individuals from 23 localities were analyzed to carry out a phylogeographic analysis using neutrality tests, mismatch distribution, median-joining (MJ) network and paleontological records. We found 17 polymorphic sites resulting in 15 haplotypes. Two new geographic records that expand known distribution of the species are presented; one of them links the distributions of recently synonimized species C. nationi and C. vellerosus. Screaming hairy armadillo phylogeographic pattern can be addressed as category V of Avise: common widespread linages plus closely related lineages confined to one or a few nearby locales each. The older linages are distributed in the north-central area of the species distribution range in Argentina (i.e. ancestral area of distribution). C. vellerosus seems to be a low vagility species that expanded, and probably is expanding, its distribution range while presents signs of genetic structuring in central areas. To explain the disjunct distribution, a hypothesis of extinction of the species in intermediate areas due to quaternary climatic shift to more humid conditions was proposed. We offer an alternative explanation: long distance colonization, based on null genetic variability, paleontological record and evidence of alternance of cold/arid and temperate/humid climatic periods during the last million years in southern South America.

  14. Microcnemum coralloides (Chenopodiaceae- Salicornioideae: an example of intraspecific East-West disjunctions in the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadereit, Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microcnemum is a monotypic genus of Salicornioideae comprising rare, annual, hygrohalophytic herbs growing in hypersaline inland lagoons and salt pans. Microcnemum coralloides shows an East-West disjunction in the Mediterranean region: M. coralloides subsp. coralloides occurs in central and eastern Spain while M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum grows in Turkey, Syria, Armenia and Iran. We studied the phylogeny, biogeography and morphological differentiation of M. coralloides. Molecular analyses, using five western and eight eastern accessions of the species, were based on three different markers (nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL spacer and trnT/F region analysed with Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood. Estimates of divergence times were calculated using a Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT and the Penalized Likelihood (PL method. The two subspecies can be clearly distinguished by their different seed testa surface. Other diagnostic characters were not found. The molecular data (ITS and ML analysis of the trnT/F region indicate that M. coralloides subsp. coralloides originated from within M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum which implies an East Mediterranean origin and subsequent westward dispersal. Age estimates for the split of the two subspecies range from 2.8–0.5 million years ago. Considering the relatively low genetic differentiation and the low crown group age (0.7–0.1 mya of M. coralloides subsp. coralloides in comparison to M. coralloides subsp. anatolicum we favour the hypothesis that the Iberian part of the species range was established during cold periods of the Early Pleistocene and that the range of the species was fragmented during a warmer period soon after its arrival in Iberia.Microcnemum es un género monotípico de Salicornioideae que consiste en hierbas higrohalófilas, anuales, raras, que crecen en cuencas endorréicas hipersalinas del interior y salares. Microcnemum coralloides muestran una disyunción Este

  15. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  17. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  18. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  19. A Study of GluK1 Kainate Receptor Polymorphisms in Down Syndrome Reveals Allelic Non-Disjunction at 1173(C/T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Ghosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying Down syndrome (DS-related mental retardation (MR remain poorly understood. In trisomic offspring, non-disjunction may result in the reduction to homozygosity of a susceptibility allele inherited from a heterozygous parent. Accordingly, we sought evidence for allelic non-disjunction in the GluK1 gene that encodes the critical kainite-binding glutamate receptor subunit-5, maps to chromosome 21q22.1 in the DS critical region and is expressed in brain regions responsible for learning and memory. Three polymorphisms of GluK1 [522(A/C rs363538; 1173(C/T rs363430 and 2705(T/C rs363504] were genotyped in 86 DS patient families by means of PCR-coupled RFLP assays and evaluated with respect to allele frequency, heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, stage and parental origin of allelic non-disjunction. We report that the distribution of allele frequencies is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moderate heterozygosity (0.339 and a major allele frequency of 0.78 render the 1173(C/T marker informative. Pair-wise comparisons reveal that 522(A/C-1173(C/T [χ2 = 31.2, df = 1, p = 0.0001; D’ = 0.42] and 1173(C/T-2705(T/C [χ2 = 18.3, df = 1, p = 0.0001; D’ = 0.34] are in significant linkage disequilibrium of weak magnitude. The estimated ratio of meiosis-I to meiosis-II errors arising from allelic non-disjunction of 1173(C/T is 4:1 in maternal cases and 2:1 in paternal cases. Studies including additional markers and patient samples are warranted to further substantiate present findings.

  20. Hemispheric Learning and the Hispanic Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Maximiliano

    People of different cultures differ in the cognitive style they use. Research reports that Mexican American children indicate a preference for field-sensitive cognitive strategies that are spatial-holistic, and middle class children a preference for field-independent strategies that are verbal-analytic. Brain research in hemisphericity appears to…

  1. Right Hemisphere Specialization for Color Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Akiko; Nishio, Akira; Matsuura, Sumie

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to investigate hemispheric asymmetry in color processing among normal participants. In Experiment 1, it was shown that the reaction times (RTs) of the dominant and non-dominant hands assessed using a visual target presented at the central visual field, were not significantly different. In Experiment 2, RTs of…

  2. An Evaluative Review of Hemispheric Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    abilities of both the hemispheres. Specific learning gains on standardized tests have been reported. Neurolinguistic programing is a technique...transformed into possibilities; problems into creative opportunities (U.K. Training Centre broadsheet). Neurolinguistic programing can even be employed to...also draw on suggestopedia and neurolinguistic programing, together with yoga. Inner Track Learning suggests that Recent research has shown that

  3. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  4. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help guide rehabilitation strategies to improve swallowing outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the formation of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions using Asian and Neotropical hinged-teeth snakes (Sibynophis and Scaphiodontophis: Serpentes: Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Huang, Song; Guo, Peng; Colli, Guarino R; Nieto Montes de Oca, Adrián; Vitt, Laurie J; Pyron, R Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T

    2013-01-01

    Numerous taxa show ancient intertropical disjunct distributions. Many can be explained by well-known processes of historical vicariance, such as the breakup of Gondwanaland. Others, such as Asian-Neotropical divergences are not as well understood. To clarify the phylogenetic position and understand biogeographic and temporal origins of the geographically disjunct and morphologically unique genera of hinged-teeth snakes, Scaphiodontophis (n=1) and Sibynophis (n=9; Colubridae), we inferred a time-calibrated phylogeny with additional 107 taxa representing the superfamily Colubroidea using four genes (c-mos, cyt-b, ND2, RAG-1; 3085 bp). We used this tree to estimate ancestral areas for the group. The results show that Scaphiodontophis is sister to Sibynophis, both originated in the late Eocene/Oligocene in Asia and likely dispersed through Beringia to the New World, but unlike other snake groups left no extant species in temperate North America. Current recognition of Scaphiodontophiinae renders Colubrinae paraphyletic, and we resurrect the previously named subfamily Sibynophiinae to encompass both genera and use the tribes Sibynophiini (Sibynophis) and Scaphiodontophiini (Scaphiodontophis) to highlight the geographically distinct areas occupied by these taxa. These results suggest that intercontinental dispersal with extinction in intermediate areas can explain puzzling patterns of ancient intertropical disjunct distributions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrate probability mapping in the northern aquifer alluvial system of the river Tagus (Portugal) using Disjunctive Kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Luís

    2010-02-01

    The Water Framework Directive and its daughter directives recognize the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water by individual pollutants or a group of pollutants that present a significant risk to the quality of water. Probability maps showing that the nitrate concentrations exceed a legal threshold value in any location of the aquifer are used to assess risk of groundwater quality degradation from intensive agricultural activity in aquifers. In this paper we use Disjunctive Kriging to map the probability that the Nitrates Directive limit (91/676/EEC) is exceeded for the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the River Tagus alluvium aquifer. The Tagus alluvial aquifer system belongs to one of the most productive hydrogeological unit of continental Portugal and it is used to irrigate crops. Several groundwater monitoring campaigns were carried out from 2004 to 2006 according to the summer crops cycle. The study reveals more areas on the west bank with higher probabilities of contamination by nitrates (nitrate concentration values above 50mg/L) than on the east bank. The analysis of synthetic temporal probability map shows the areas where there is an increase of nitrates concentration during the summers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements of organic compound fluxes from a subalpine forest using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Karl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A `virtual' disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC device was tested with field measurements of biogenic VOC fluxes at a subalpine forest site in the Rocky Mountains of the USA. A PTR-MS instrument was used as the VOC sensor. Daily peak emission fluxes of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were around 1.5, 1, 0.8 and 0.4 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. High pass filtering due to long sampling lines was investigated in laboratory experiments, and suggested that VOC losses in PTFA lines are generally governed by diffusion laws. Memory effects and surface reactions did not seem to play a dominant role. Model estimates of MBO fluxes compared well with measured fluxes. The results also suggest that latent heat and sensible heat fluxes are reasonably well correlated with VOC fluxes and could be used to predict variations in VOC emissions. The release of MBO, methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde resulted in significant change of tropospheric oxidant levels and a 10--40% increase in ozone levels, as inferred from a photochemical box model. We conclude that vDEC with a PTR-MS instrument is a versatile tool for simultaneous field analysis of multiple VOC fluxes.

  8. Control of Discrete Event Systems by Means of Discrete Optimization and Disjunctive Colored PNs: Application to Manufacturing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Ignacio Latorre-Biel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence methodologies, as the core of discrete control and decision support systems, have been extensively applied in the industrial production sector. The resulting tools produce excellent results in certain cases; however, the NP-hard nature of many discrete control or decision making problems in the manufacturing area may require unaffordable computational resources, constrained by the limited available time required to obtain a solution. With the purpose of improving the efficiency of a control methodology for discrete systems, based on a simulation-based optimization and the Petri net (PN model of the real discrete event dynamic system (DEDS, this paper presents a strategy, where a transformation applied to the model allows removing the redundant information to obtain a smaller model containing the same useful information. As a result, faster discrete optimizations can be implemented. This methodology is based on the use of a formalism belonging to the paradigm of the PN for describing DEDS, the disjunctive colored PN. Furthermore, the metaheuristic of genetic algorithms is applied to the search of the best solutions in the solution space. As an illustration of the methodology proposal, its performance is compared with the classic approach on a case study, obtaining faster the optimal solution.

  9. Design and discovery of silybin analogues as antiproliferative compounds using a ring disjunctive - Based, natural product lead optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Elangovan; Amawi, Haneen; Hussein, Noor; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Fetcenko, Aubry; Narayana Moorthy, N S Hari; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2017-06-16

    The present study reports the synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of twelve novel silybin analogues designed using a ring disjunctive-based natural product lead (RDNPL) optimization approach. All twelve compounds were tested against a panel of cancer cells (i.e. breast, prostate, pancreatic, and ovarian) and compared with normal cells. While all of the compounds had significantly greater efficacy than silybin, derivative 15k was found to be highly potent (IC 50  cancer cell lines, as well as other cancer cell lines, compared to normal cells. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicated that the antiproliferative efficacy of 15k was mediated by its induction of apoptosis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G1 phase. Furthermore, 15k inhibited cellular microtubules dynamic and assembly by binding to tubulin and inhibiting its expression and function. Overall, the results of the study establish 15k as a novel tubulin inhibitor with significant activity against ovarian cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Resting state EEG power, intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Nita; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, Warsito P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the differences of EEG power and coherence between bipolar disorder patients and healthy subjects in the resting state. Observations are focused on the prefrontal cortex area by calculating intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence. EEG data acquisition are conducted by using wireless Emotiv Epoc on AF3, AF4, FC5, FC6, F7 and F8 channels. The power spectral analysis shows that in bipolar disoder there is an increase of power in the delta, theta and beta frequencies, and power decrease in the alpha frequency. The coherence test results show that both intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder patients are lower than healthy subjects. This shows the lack of brain synchronization in bipolar disorder patients.

  11. Why are most aquatic plants widely distributed? Dispersal, clonal growth and small-scale heterogeneity in a stressful environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria, L.

    2002-01-01

    Non-marine aquatic vascular plants generally show broad distributional ranges. Climatic factors seem to have limited effects on their distributions, besides the determination of major disjunctions (tropical-temperate-subarctic). Dispersal should have been frequent enough to assure the quick

  12. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  13. Deep genetic divergence between disjunct Refugia in the Arctic-Alpine King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G DeChaine

    Full Text Available Despite the strength of climatic variability at high latitudes and upper elevations, we still do not fully understand how plants in North America that are distributed between Arctic and alpine areas responded to the environmental changes of the Quaternary. To address this question, we set out to resolve the evolutionary history of the King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia using multi-locus population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in combination with ecological niche modeling. Our population genetic analyses of multiple anonymous nuclear loci revealed two major clades within R. integrifolia that diverged from each other ~ 700 kya: one occurring in Beringia to the north (including members of subspecies leedyi and part of subspecies integrifolia, and the other restricted to the Southern Rocky Mountain refugium in the south (including individuals of subspecies neomexicana and part of subspecies integrifolia. Ecological niche models corroborate our hypothesized locations of refugial areas inferred from our phylogeographic analyses and revealed some environmental differences between the regions inhabited by its two subclades. Our study underscores the role of geographic isolation in promoting genetic divergence and the evolution of endemic subspecies in R. integrifolia. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses of the plastid spacer region trnL-F demonstrate that among the native North American species, R. integrifolia and R. rhodantha are more closely related to one another than either is to R. rosea. An understanding of these historic processes lies at the heart of making informed management decisions regarding this and other Arctic-alpine species of concern in this increasingly threatened biome.

  14. The nature of hemispheric specialization for prosody perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina S.; Martens, Sander; Aleman, Andre; Van Heuven, Vincent J.; Schiller, Niels O.

    Recent evidence suggests a relative right-hemispheric specialization for emotional prosody perception, whereas linguistic prosody perception is under bilateral control. It is still unknown, however, how the hemispheric specialization for prosody perception might arise. Two main hypotheses have been

  15. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  16. Biogeographic analysis of the woody plants of the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the origins of a regional flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Paul S; Meireles, José Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the origins of 252 Southern Appalachian woody species representing 158 clades to analyze larger patterns of biogeographic connectivity around the northern hemisphere. We tested biogeographic hypotheses regarding the timing of species disjunctions to eastern Asia and among areas of North America. We delimited species into biogeographically informative clades, compiled sister-area data, and generated graphic representations of area connections across clades. We calculated taxon diversity within clades and plotted divergence times. Of the total taxon diversity, 45% were distributed among 25 North American endemic clades. Sister taxa within eastern North America and eastern Asia were proportionally equal in frequency, accounting for over 50% of the sister-area connections. At increasing phylogenetic depth, connections to the Old World dominated. Divergence times for 65 clades with intercontinental disjunctions were continuous, whereas 11 intracontinental disjunctions to western North America and nine to eastern Mexico were temporally congruent. Over one third of the clades have likely undergone speciation within the region of eastern North America. The biogeographic pattern for the region is asymmetric, consisting of mostly mixed-aged, low-diversity clades connecting to the Old World, and a minority of New World clades. Divergence time data suggest that climate change in the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene generated disjunct patterns within North America. Continuous splitting times during the last 45 million years support the hypothesis that widespread distributions formed repeatedly during favorable periods, with serial cooling trends producing pseudocongruent area disjunctions between eastern North America and eastern Asia. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John A.; Fair, Sara B.; Caldwell, Scott E.; Gronner, Sally J.

    1992-05-01

    A hemispherical imaging and tracking (HIT) system is described which is used for an interceptor designed to acquire, select, home, and hit-to-kill reentry vehicle targets from intercontinental ballistic missiles. The system provides a sizable field of view, over which a target may be tracked and yields a unique and distinctive optical signal when the system is 'on target'. The system has an infinite depth of focus and no moving parts are required for imaging within a hemisphere. Critical alignment of the HIT system is based on the comparison of signals captured through different points on an annular window. Assuming that the perturbations are radially symmetric, errors may be eliminated during the subtraction.

  18. Right hemisphere structures predict poststroke speech fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Ethan; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Jasmine; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-04-26

    We sought to determine via a cross-sectional study the contribution of (1) the right hemisphere's speech-relevant white matter regions and (2) interhemispheric connectivity to speech fluency in the chronic phase of left hemisphere stroke with aphasia. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter regions underlying the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), precentral gyrus (PreCG), pars opercularis (IFGop) and triangularis (IFGtri) of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the corpus callosum (CC) was correlated with speech fluency measures. A region within the superior parietal lobule (SPL) was examined as a control. FA values of regions that significantly predicted speech measures were compared with FA values from healthy age- and sex-matched controls. FA values for the right MTG, PreCG, and IFGop significantly predicted speech fluency, but FA values of the IFGtri and SPL did not. A multiple regression showed that combining FA of the significant right hemisphere regions with the lesion load of the left arcuate fasciculus-a previously identified biomarker of poststroke speech fluency-provided the best model for predicting speech fluency. FA of CC fibers connecting left and right supplementary motor areas (SMA) was also correlated with speech fluency. FA of the right IFGop and PreCG was significantly higher in patients than controls, while FA of a whole CC region of interest (ROI) and the CC-SMA ROI was significantly lower in patients. Right hemisphere white matter integrity is related to speech fluency measures in patients with chronic aphasia. This may indicate premorbid anatomical variability beneficial for recovery or be the result of poststroke remodeling. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de Concepción, Concepción CHILE foppiano@udec.cl ABSTRACT A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Departamento de Geofísica Universidad de...UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED MORPHOLOGY OF SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE RIOMETER AURORAL ABSORPTION Alberto J. Foppiano Departamento de

  20. Visual Hemispheric Specialization: A Computational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    been extensively tested and his right hemisphere is capable of comprehending involved verbal instructions and of making simple deductions and...1968). Spatial and verbal components of the act of recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 19, 289-299. Butters, N., Barton, M., and Brody, B. A. (1970...1967). The relationship between visuo-spatial impairment and constructional apraxia . Cortex, 3, 327-342. Diamond, R., and Carey, S. (1977

  1. Brain Hemisphere Dominance: Building the Whole-Brain Singer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of brain hemisphere dominance serves as the basis for many educational learning theories. The dominant brain hemisphere guides the learning process, but both hemispheres are necessary for true learning to take place. This treatise outlines and analyzes the dominance factor, a learning theory developed by Dr. Carla Hannaford, which…

  2. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  3. Depression and the hyperactive right-hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, David

    2010-10-01

    Depression is associated with an inter-hemispheric imbalance; a hyperactive right-hemisphere (RH) and a relatively hypoactive left-hemisphere (LH). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms which can explain why depression is associated with a RH dominance remain elusive. This article points out the potential links between functional cerebral asymmetries and specific symptoms and features of depression. There is evidence that the RH is selectively involved in processing negative emotions, pessimistic thoughts and unconstructive thinking styles--all which comprise the cognitive phenomenology of depression and in turn contribute to the elevated anxiety, stress and pain associated with the illness. Additionally, the RH mediates vigilance and arousal which may explain the sleep disturbances often reported in depression. The RH had also been linked with self-reflection, accounting for the tendency of depressed individuals to withdraw from their external environments and focus attention inward. Physiologically, RH activation is associated with hyprecortisolemia, which contributes to the deterioration of the immune system functioning and puts depressed patients at a greater risk of developing other illnesses, accounting for depression's high comorbidity with other diseases. Conversely, the LH is specifically involved in processing pleasurable experiences, and its relative attenuation is in line with the symptoms of anhedonia that characterize depression. The LH is also relatively more involved in decision-making processes, accounting for the indecisiveness that is often accompanied with depression. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Transpolar arcs observed simultaneously in both hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J. A.; Milan, S. E.; Fear, R. C.; Walach, M.-T.; Harrison, Z. A.; Paxton, L. J.; Hubert, B.

    2017-06-01

    Two coexisting transpolar arcs are observed on 31 August 2005. We track the formation and motion of the arcs in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, using data from two independent satellites (Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration and a Defence Meteorological Satellite Program satellite). The observations are supported by supplementary ground-based ionospheric convection data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network. The two arcs form during a period of northward interplanetary magnetic field. Following a change in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field BY component from negative to positive, the dawnside arc traverses the polar cap to the duskside in the Northern Hemisphere. Over the same time period and in the Southern Hemisphere, the duskside arc traverses the polar cap to the dawnside. A complex magnetic field line topology resulting in the coexistence of two tongues of closed field lines protruding into the otherwise open polar cap is implied. We discuss these observations in terms of magnetic conjugacy and a model of transpolar arcs formation.

  5. Epidemiology of obesity in the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2008-11-01

    Obesity has emerged as a global public health challenge. The objective of this review was to examine epidemiological aspects of obesity in the Western Hemisphere. Using PubMed, we searched for publications about obesity (prevalence, trends, correlates, economic costs) in countries in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. To the extent possible, we focused on studies that were primarily population based in design and on four countries in the Western Hemisphere: Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Data compiled by the International Obesity Task Force show a substantial level of obesity in all of or selected areas of the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Chile, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, and Venezuela. Furthermore, countries such as Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and the United States have experienced increases in the prevalence of obesity. In many countries, the prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men and in urban areas than in rural areas. The relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity depends on the stage of economic transition. Early in the transition, the prevalence of obesity is positively related to income whereas at some point during the transition the prevalence becomes inversely related to income. Like other countries in the Western Hemisphere, the four countries that we focused on have experienced a rising tide of obesity. The high and increasing prevalence of obesity and its attendant comorbidities are likely to pose a serious challenge to the public health and medical care systems in these countries.

  6. Casimir effect in hemisphere capped tubes

    CERN Document Server

    de Mello, E R Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum densities for a massive scalar field with general curvature coupling in background of a (2+1)-dimensional spacetime corresponding to a cylindrical tube with a hemispherical cap. A complete set of mode functions is constructed and the positive-frequency Wightman function is evaluated for both the cylindrical and hemispherical subspaces. On the base of this, the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and energy-momentum tensor are investigated. The mean field squared and the normal stress are finite on the boundary separating two subspaces, whereas the energy density and the parallel stress diverge as the inverse power of the distance from the boundary. For a conformally coupled field, the vacuum energy density is negative on the cylindrical part of the space. On the hemisphere, it is negative near the top and positive close to the boundary. In the case of minimal coupling the energy density on the cup is negative. On the tube it is positive near the boundary and ...

  7. Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Riedel, Frank; von Rintelen, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2014-03-06

    The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa's biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical patterns of freshwater biota through time on a continental scale, which is further complicated by the scarcity of molecular data from the largest African river system, the Congo. We study these biogeographical patterns using a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the gastropod family Viviparidae. This group allows reconstructing drainage patterns exceptionally well because it disperses very poorly in the absence of existing freshwater connections. Our phylogeny covers localities from major drainage basins of tropical Africa and reveals highly disjunct sister-group relationships between (a) the endemic viviparids of Lake Malawi and populations from the Middle Congo as well as between (b) the Victoria region and the Okavango/Upper Zambezi area. The current study testifies to repeated disruptions of the distribution of the Viviparidae during the formation of the East African Rift System, and to a central role of the Congo River system for the distribution of the continent's freshwater fauna during the late Cenozoic. By integrating our results with previous findings on palaeohydrographical connections, we provide a spatially and temporarily explicit model of historical freshwater biogeography in tropical Africa. Finally, we review similarities and differences in patterns of vertebrate and invertebrate dispersal. Amongst others we argue that the closest relatives of present day viviparids in Lake Malawi are living in the Middle Congo River, thus shedding new light on the origin of the endemic fauna of this rift lake.

  8. A revision of the Neotropical species of Bolitogyrus Chevrolat, a geographically disjunct lineage of Staphylinini (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Brunke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical species of the rarely collected genus Bolitogyrus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini are revised. The genus exhibits an uncommon, disjunct distribution between the Neotropical and Oriental Regions and is of unknown phylogenetic position within Staphylinini. Morphological evolution remarkable for Staphylinini was discovered within Bolitogyrus, including sexually dimorphic modifications of the pronotum that may be involved in male competition for females. rSEM interactive animations were used to establish morphological species boundaries between two highly variable species and are provided to illustrate diagnostic characters of the genitalia in unconventional views. The genus is redescribed based on the world fauna and twenty-eight Neotropical species are considered valid. Of these, nineteen are described as new to science: Bolitogyrus ashei sp. n.; B. apicofasciatus sp. n.; B. brevistellus sp. n.; B. bufo sp. n.; B. cheungi sp. n.; B. cornutus sp. n.; B. divisus sp. n.; B. falini sp. n.; B. gracilis sp. n.; B. inexspectatus sp. n.; B. longistellus sp. n.; B. marquezi sp. n.; B. newtoni sp. n.; B. pseudotortifolius sp. n.; B. pulchrus sp. n.; B. silex sp. n.; B. thomasi sp. n.; B. tortifolius sp. n.; and B. viridescens sp. n. Bolitogyrus sallei (Kraatz, stat. r. is removed from synonymy with B. buphthalmus (Erichson and the following new synonyms are proposed: Cyrtothorax cyanescens Sharp, 1884, syn. n. = Quedius buphthalmus Erichson, 1840; C. nevermanni Scheerpeltz, 1974, syn. n. = C. costaricensis Wendeler, 1927. A summary of all available bionomic and distributional data, as well as an illustrated identification key to and diagnoses of all Neotropical species are provided.

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry in stratospheric NO2 trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yela, Margarita; Gil-Ojeda, Manuel; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Gonzalez-Bartolomé, David; Puentedura, Olga; Funke, Bernd; Iglesias, Javier; Rodríguez, Santiago; García, Omaira; Ochoa, Héctor; Deferrari, Guillermo

    2017-11-01

    Over 20 years of stratospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data from ground-based zenith DOAS spectrometers were used for trend analysis, specifically, via multiple linear regression. Spectrometers from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) cover the subtropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (Izaña, 28° N), the southern Subantarctic (Ushuaia, 55° S) and Antarctica (Marambio, 64° S, and Belgrano, 78° S). The results show that for the period 1993-2014, a mean positive decadal trend of +8.7 % was found in the subtropical Northern Hemisphere stations, and negative decadal trends of -8.7 and -13.8 % were found in the Southern Hemisphere at Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively; all trends are statistically significant at 95 %. Belgrano only shows a significant decadal trend of -11.3 % in the summer/autumn period. Most of the trends result from variations after 2005. The trend in the diurnal build-up per hour (DBU) was used to estimate the change in the rate of N2O5 conversion to NO2 during the day. With minor differences, the results reproduce those obtained for NO2. The trends computed for individual months show large month-to-month variability. At Izaña, the maximum occurs in December (+13.1 %), dropping abruptly to lower values in the first part of the year. In the Southern Hemisphere, the polar vortex dominates the monthly distributions of the trends. At Marambio, the maximum occurs in mid-winter (-21 %), whereas at the same time, the Ushuaia trend is close to its annual minimum (-7 %). The large difference in the trends at these two relatively close stations suggests a vortex shift towards the Atlantic/South American area over the past few years. Finally, the hemispheric asymmetry obtained in this work is discussed in the framework of the results obtained by previous works that considered tracer analysis and Brewer-Dobson circulation. The results obtained here provide evidence that the NO2 produced by N2O

  10. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains.

  12. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right......-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made......, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially...

  13. The disjunct pattern of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Gonyleptidae explained by climate-driven range shifts in the Quaternary: Paleodistributional and molecular evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vergara

    Full Text Available The disjunct distribution of the harvestman Discocyrtus dilatatus (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae is used as a case study to test the hypothesis of a trans-Chaco Pleistocene paleobridge during range expansion stages. This would have temporarily connected humid regions ('Mesopotamia' in northeastern Argentina, and the 'Yungas' in the northwest, NWA in the subtropical and temperate South American lowlands. The present study combines two independent approaches: paleodistributional reconstruction, using the Species Distribution Modeling method MaxEnt and projection onto Quaternary paleoclimates (6 kya, 21 kya, 130 kya, and phylogeographic analyses based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I molecular marker. Models predict a maximal shrinkage during the warm Last Interglacial (130 kya, and the rise of the hypothesized paleobridge in the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya, revealing that cold-dry stages (not warm-humid ones, as supposed enabled the range expansion of this species. The disjunction was formed in the mid-Holocene (6 kya and is intensified under current conditions. The median-joining network shows that NWA haplotypes are peripherally related to different Mesopotamian lineages; haplotypes from Santa Fe and Córdoba Provinces consistently occupy central positions in the network. According to the dated phylogeny, Mesopotamia-NWA expansion events would have occurred in the last glacial period, in many cases closely associated to the Last Glacial Maximum, with most divergence events occurring shortly thereafter. Only two (out of nine NWA haplotypes are shared with Mesopotamian localities. A single, presumably relictual NWA haplotype was found to have diverged much earlier, suggesting an ancient expansion event not recoverable by the paleodistributional models. Different measures of sequence statistics, genetic diversity, population structure and history of demographic changes are provided. This research offers the first available evidence for the historical

  14. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  15. Walter Baade and the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1993-12-01

    The inception of the European Southern Observatory is generally traced to Walter Baade's discussions with Jan Oort during his visit to Leiden in the spring of 1953. However, these discussions had certainly been underway between them previously, during Oort's visit to Pasadena in early 1952. Furthermore, Baade's great interest in southern-hemisphere astronomy and his strong desire to observe there can be traced far back in his career. In 1927, after his return to Germany from a year in the U.S. under a Rockefeller fellowship, Baade reported that his country had no chance to catch up with American astronomy in the northern hemisphere. He advocated moving the Hamburg 1-meter reflector to the southern hemisphere to get in ahead of the U.S. with an effective telescope there. Baade emphasized the research that could be done on high-luminosity and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Later, after he had joined the Mount Wilson staff, his early attempts to locate the center of our Galaxy and globular clusters near it (in 1937) and his observational study (with Edwin Hubble) of the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies (in 1939) re-emphasized to him the need for a southern observatory. During and soon after World War II he made many suggestions on a search for ``cluster-type variables'' in the Magellanic Clouds to Enrique Gaviola, director of the new 1.5-meter Bosque Alegre reflector in Argentina. Baade wanted to go there to observe with it himself, but his German citizenship prevented him from leaving the U.S.. Finally, in the last year of his life, he was able to observe NGC 6522 (the globular cluster in ``his'' window), with the Mount Stromlo 1.9-meter reflector.

  16. Plant Community Development, Site Quality Analysis and River Dynamics in the Design of Riparian Preserves on the Middle Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall F. McCarten

    1989-01-01

    Loss of riparian habitat along the Middle Sacramento River, over the last 100 years, has reduced a once contiguous riparian forest to a series of disjunct remnants of varying size and quality. With limited financial resources to purchase and protect some of the remaining riparian plant communities, it has become necessary to develop methods to select which of the...

  17. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern

  18. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  19. Hemispheric asymmetries in reading Korean: task matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, J; Park, K

    1997-06-01

    Native Korean readers were studied in a visual half-field paradigm. Subjects were to make speeded judgments on Hangul (syllabic) and Hanzza (logographic) scripts based on phonetic or visual properties of the stimuli. A task by visual field interaction was obtained indicating that, for both scripts, responses on the phonetic task were faster in the right visual field, whereas no visual field differences were found on the visual task. Script type did not interact with visual field. The results support a task-based account of hemispheric differences in verbal processing.

  20. Multimodal agnosia after unilateral left hemisphere lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, T E; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1986-06-01

    Agnosia is an abnormality of recognition that is not explained by sensory or cognitive disorders. We studied a patient who had combined visual-tactile agnosia without prosopagnosia after a left hemisphere infarct. Although he copied figures presented visually and he performed intramodal or crossmodal visual-tactile matches, he could not indicate recognition by either sight or touch. The lesion involved areas of the occipital and temporal lobes that may be important for human performance of tasks that require construction and application of meaning to percepts presented both visually and tactually.

  1. Highly disjunct and highly infected millipedes – a new cave-dwelling species of Chiraziulus (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida: Cambalidae) from Iran and notes on Laboulbeniales ectoparasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Malek Hosseini, M.J.; Sadeghi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chiraziulus is a highly disjunct, hitherto monotypic genus of cambalid millipedes, geographically isolated in Iran by more than 7000 km from its presumed closest relatives in East Asia and North America. Recent fieldwork in caves of Iran has provided several specimens of this genus, allowing the ...... time in the genus Cambala. The patterns and prevalence of the infection with a species of ectoparasitic fungus of the genus Rickia (order Laboulbeniales) in the type material of C. kaiseri is described. An updated review of the cave-adapted fauna of Iran is given....

  2. Historical biogeography and ecological niche modelling of the Asimina-Disepalum clade (Annonaceae): role of ecological differentiation in Neotropical-Asian disjunctions and diversification in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pui-Sze; Thomas, Daniel C; Saunders, Richard M K

    2017-08-14

    The Asimina-Disepalum clade (Annonaceae subfam. Annonoideae tribe Annoneae) includes a major Neotropical-Asian biogeographical disjunction. We evaluate whether this disjunction can be explained by the Eocene boreotropics hypothesis, which relies on the existence of extensive boreotropical forests during the Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene thermal maximum (52-50 Ma), followed by disruption of boreotropical vegetation during post-Eocene cooling. Molecular dating using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock (UCLD) model with two fossil calibrations, ancestral range estimation, and ecological niche modelling across evolutionary time were performed. Our focus was the geographical origin of Disepalum and general biogeographic patterns within this genus. Comparison of ecological tolerance among extant species and niche reconstructions at ancestral nodes within the clade enabled insights in likely migration routes of lineages, as well as evaluating the role of bioclimatic ecological differentiation in the diversification of Disepalum within Southeast Asia. The inferred vicariance event associated with the Asimina-Disepalum disjunction is estimated to have originated ca. 40 Mya [95% highest posterior density (HPD): 44.3-35.5 Mya]. The Disepalum crown lineage is estimated to have originated ca. 9 Mya (95% HPD: 10.6-7.6), either in western Malesia and continental Southeast Asia, or exclusively in western Malesia. Ecological niche modelling shows that seasonality of temperature and precipitation are major contributors determining the geographical range of species. Ancestral niche modelling furthermore indicates that the ancestor of the Asimina-Disepalum clade likely had bioclimatic preferences close to conditions found in current tropical and subtropical climates across Asia, whereas the ancestors of the Asimina and Disepalum crown groups are projected onto the more subtropical and tropical regions, respectively. The vicariance event associated with the Neotropical

  3. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  4. Novel hemispheric image formation: concepts and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Simon; Konen, Pierre; Roulet, Patrice; Villegas, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    Panoramic and hemispheric lens technologies represent new and exciting opportunities in both imaging and projection systems. Such lenses offer intriguing applications for the transportation/automotive industry, in the protection of civilian and military areas, business. In this paper we describe a new optical design technique that provides a greater degree of freedom in producing a variety of hemispheric spatial light distribution areas. This innovative optical design strategy, of generating and controlling image mapping, has been successful in producing high-resolution imaging and projection systems. This success has subsequently generated increased interest in the high-resolution camera/projector and the concept of absolute measurement with high-resolution wide-angle lenses. The new technique described in this paper uses optimization techniques to improve the performance of a customized wide-angle lens optical system for a specific application. By adding a custom angle-to-pixel ratio at the optical design stage, this customized optical system provides ideal image coverage while reducing and optimizing signal processing. This novel image formation technique requires the development of new algorithms in order to view the panoramic image on a display without any residual distortion.

  5. Chiasmatic and achiasmatic inverted meiosis of plants with holocentric chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Gabriela; Marques, André; Schubert, Veit; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; Schlögelhofer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division in sexually reproducing organisms before gamete formation. Following DNA replication, the canonical sequence in species with monocentric chromosomes is characterized by reductional segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first and equational segregation of sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. Species with holocentric chromosomes employ specific adaptations to ensure regular disjunction during meiosis. Here we present the analysis of two closely related plant species with holocentric chromosomes that display an inversion of the canonical meiotic sequence, with the equational division preceding the reductional. In-depth analysis of the meiotic divisions of Rhynchospora pubera and R. tenuis reveals that during meiosis I sister chromatids are bi-oriented, display amphitelic attachment to the spindle and are subsequently separated. During prophase II, chromatids are connected by thin chromatin threads that appear instrumental for the regular disjunction of homologous non-sister chromatids in meiosis II. PMID:25295686

  6. A dual task priming investigation of right hemisphere inhibition for people with left hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Conway Erin R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal semantic processing, the left hemisphere (LH is suggested to restrict right hemisphere (RH performance via interhemispheric suppression. However, a lesion in the LH or the use of concurrent tasks to overload the LH's attentional resource balance has been reported to result in RH disinhibition with subsequent improvements in RH performance. The current study examines variations in RH semantic processing in the context of unilateral LH lesions and the manipulation of the interhemispheric processing resource balance, in order to explore the relevance of RH disinhibition to hemispheric contributions to semantic processing following a unilateral LH lesion. Methods RH disinhibition was examined for nine participants with a single LH lesion and 13 matched controls using the dual task paradigm. Hemispheric performance on a divided visual field lexical decision semantic priming task was compared over three verbal memory load conditions, of zero-, two- and six-words. Related stimuli consisted of categorically related, associatively related, and categorically and associatively related prime-target pairs. Response time and accuracy data were recorded and analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, and planned contrasts were performed to compare priming effects in both visual fields, for each of the memory load conditions. Results Control participants exhibited significant bilateral visual field priming for all related conditions (p Conclusions The results from the control group are consistent with suggestions of an age related hemispheric asymmetry reduction and indicate that in healthy aging compensatory bilateral activation may reduce the impact of inhibition. In comparison, the results for the LHD group indicate that following a LH lesion RH semantic processing can be manipulated and enhanced by the introduction of a verbal memory task designed to engage LH resources and allow disinhibition of RH processing.

  7. Discourse Impairments Following Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Clinton L; Tooley, Kristen M; Traxler, Matthew J

    2008-11-01

    Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) rarely causes aphasias marked by clear and widespread failures of comprehension or extreme difficulty producing fluent speech. Nonetheless, subtle language comprehension deficits can occur following unilateral RHD. In this article, we review the empirical record on discourse function following right hemisphere damage, as well as relevant work on non-brain damaged individuals that focuses on right hemisphere function. The review is divided into four sections that focus on discourse processing, inferencing, humor, and non-literal language. While the exact role that the right hemisphere plays in language processing, and the exact way that the two cerebral hemispheres coordinate their linguistic processes are still open to debate, our review suggests that the right hemisphere plays a critical role in managing inferred or implied information by maintaining relevant information and/or suppressing irrelevant information. Deficits in one or both of these mechanisms may account for discourse deficits following RHD.

  8. Why Are the Right and Left Hemisphere Conceptual Representations Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. The main goals of the present review are (a to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations.

  9. Total hemispherical emissivity of Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Shawn E.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K., E-mail: LoyalkaS@missouri.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We have measured the total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 from about 600–1250 K. • Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity. • Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase in the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the 220 grit sandblasted Inconel 718 did show an increase in emissivity. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 was measured in anticipation of its application in Very High Temperature Gas Reactors (VHTRs). A majority of current emissivity data for Inconel 718 is in the form of spectral measurements. The data presented here were obtained with an experimental apparatus based on the standard ASTM C835-06 for total hemispherical emittance. Measurements of Inconel 718 were made for four different surface types including: (i) ‘as-received’ from the manufacturer, (ii) oxidized in air and humidified helium, (iii) sandblasted with aluminum oxide powder, and (iv) with a thin coating of nuclear grade graphite powder (grade NGB-18). The emissivity for the ‘as-received’ sample ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 in the temperature interval from 760 K to 1275 K. Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity into the range from 0.2 at 650 K to 0.52 at 1200 K. There was no dependence on the oxidation times studied here. Oxidation with humidified helium at 1073 K produced less of an increase in emissivity than the oxidation in air but there was an increase up to the range from 0.2 at 600 K to 0.35 at 1200 K. Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity up to the range from 0.43 at 780 K to 0.53 at 1270 K when 60 grit sized powder was used and up to the range from 0.45 at 683 K to 0.57 at 1267 K when 120 and 220 grit sized powders were used. Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase

  10. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  11. The inner core hemispheric boundary near 180 °W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-che; Su, Jun; Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Mozziconacci, Laetitia; Huang, Bor-Shouh

    2017-11-01

    The inner core (IC) east-west hemispheric dichotomy is widely recognized, but the reported position of the hemispheric boundary varies among studies due to uneven sampling coverage and the data analyzed. This study investigates the sharpness of the western hemispheric boundary (WHB) near 180 °W by analyzing differential time residuals of PKiKP-PKPdf and PKP(bc-df) for PKPdf phases that sample 155 °E-130 °W in various azimuthal directions. Using PKiKP-PKPdf observations, the WHB is located at 175 °E-180 °W in the southern hemisphere, based mainly on the lateral isotropy-anisotropy transition. However, based on the lateral isotropic velocity contrast and this isotropy-anisotropy transition between the two hemispheres, its location is 170-160 °W in the northern hemisphere. These findings indicate that the WHB is sharp and exhibits a latitudinal dependence with a 10°-20° kink, as well as 1.75% anisotropy in the uppermost IC across the 180-155 °W range of the western hemisphere. As suggested by PKP(bc-df), the WHB could remain at 160 °W at depth. The isotropic velocity contrast near the WHB (160 °W) between the eastern and western hemispheres is lower than previous estimates using PKPdf phases sampling the bulk part of each hemisphere.

  12. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) provides measurements of direct solar, hemispheric diffuse, and total hemispheric shortwave irradiance over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm at a rate of about 30 seconds. The SASHe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections systems located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector uses a small Spectralon button as a hemispheric diffuser with a shadowband to distinguish signal from diffuse sky and direct sun.

  13. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil microbial and soil microbial-plant interactions : What lies ahead?

    OpenAIRE

    Classen, Aimee Taylor; Sundqvist, Maja; Henning, Jeremiah A.; Newman, Greg; Moore, Jessica A. M.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Moorhead, Leigh C.; Patterson, Courtney M.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is altering species distributions and thus interactions among organisms. Organisms live in concert with thousands of other species, some beneficial, some pathogenic, some which have little to no effect in complex communities. Since natural communities are composed of organisms with very different life history traits and dispersal ability it is unlikely they will all respond to climatic change in a similar way. Disjuncts in plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions under ...

  14. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  15. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... to damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  16. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  17. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  18. The Right Hemisphere in Aesthetic Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eBromberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes (AAA, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism and animacy. Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of

  19. Standardizing the protocol for hemispherical photographs: accuracy assessment of binarization algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Glatthorn

    Full Text Available Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify the photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study assessed the accuracy of seven binarization methods implemented in software currently available for the processing of hemispherical photographs. Therefore, binarizations obtained by the algorithms were compared to reference data generated through a manual binarization of a stratified random selection of pixels. This approach was adopted from the accuracy assessment of map classifications known from remote sensing studies. Percentage correct (Pc and kappa-statistics (K were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed for photographs taken with automatic exposure settings (auto-exposure and photographs taken with settings which avoid overexposure (histogram-exposure. In addition, gap fraction values derived from hemispherical photographs were compared with estimates derived from the manually classified reference pixels. All tested algorithms were shown to be sensitive to overexposure. Three of the algorithms showed an accuracy which was high enough to be recommended for the processing of histogram-exposed hemispherical photographs: "Minimum" (Pc 98.8%; K 0.952, "Edge Detection" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.950, and "Minimum Histogram" (Pc 98.1%; K 0.947. The Minimum algorithm overestimated gap fraction least of all (11%. The overestimation by the algorithms Edge Detection (63% and Minimum Histogram (67% were considerably larger. For the remaining four evaluated algorithms (IsoData, Maximum Entropy, Min

  20. LAI Measurement With Hemispherical Photographs At Variable Conditions For Assessment Of Remotely Sensed Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas K.; Stavridou, Domna; Strati, Stavroula; Monachou, Styliani; Silleos, Nikolaos

    2013-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of a plant canopy is defined as its leaf area per unit of ground area. It is an important input parameter for several studies related to water, gases and energy exchange on the Earth surface, and several algorithms have been developed to estimate LAI from remotely sensed images. Nevertheless, in-situ estimations are required for the development and validation of these algorithms, which is often the most costly part of a project. Various source of errors during acquisition or analysis of digital hemispherical canopy photography have been reported, such as exposure and evenness of sky lighting. Several instructions have been found in literature, however some seem arbitrarily related to the automatic exposure of the camera, and further investigation is needed to achieve standards. The aim of this work is to identify a procedure for in-situ hemispherical lens photography and processing that guarantees comparable measurements across variable acquisition conditions, in order to be used as validation of remotely sensed LAI maps. The experimental design is based on the assumption that LAI should be constant in a site throughout the day, and in various cloud conditions. The effect of variable illumination conditions has been examined with taking bihourly time-series of hemispherical photos at the exact same locations, under the same canopy conditions. Two calibration techniques were tested to minimize the effect of clear vs. overcast sky. Finally, two computer software specialized in hemispherical photos processing were used. Results suggest that calibration using the sky lighting is a good means for repeatability of observations under closed canopies. Also, CAN-EYE and HEMISFER software are capable of processing large numbers of hemispherical photographs accurately. The resulting in-situ LAI measurements were used to validate LAI maps from various satellites: ENVISAT MERIS, Terra MODIS, and SPOT VEGETATION.

  1. Study of Subtropical Forestry Index Retrieval Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Hemispherical Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve gap fraction, leaf inclination angle, and leaf area index (LAI of subtropical forestry canopy, here we acquired forestry detailed information by means of hemispherical photography, terrestrial laser scanning, and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer. Meanwhile, we presented a series of image processing and computer graphics algorithms that include image and point cloud data (PCD segmentation methods for branch and leaf classification and PCD features, such as normal vector, tangent plane extraction, and hemispherical projection method for PCD coordinate transformation. In addition, various forestry mathematical models were proposed to deduce forestry canopy indexes based on the radiation transfer model of Beer-Lambert law. Through the comparison of the experimental results on many plot samples, the terrestrial laser scanner- (TLS- based index estimation method obtains results similar to digital hemispherical photograph (HP and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer taken of the same stands and used for validation. It indicates that the TLS-based algorithm is able to capture the variability in LAI of forest stands with a range of densities, and there is a high chance to enhance TLS as a calibration tool for other devices.

  2. Differentiating Hemispheric Contributions to Syntax and Semantics in Patients with Left-Hemisphere Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between brain and cognition critically depends on data from brain-damaged patients since these provide major constraints on identifying the essential components of brain–behavior systems. Here we relate structural and functional fMRI data with behavioral data in 21 human patients with chronic left hemisphere (LH) lesions and a range of language impairments to investigate the controversial issue of the role of the hemispheres in different language functions. We address this issue within a dual neurocognitive model of spoken language comprehension in which core linguistic functions, e.g., syntax, depend critically upon an intact left frontotemporal system, whereas more general communicative abilities, e.g., semantics, are supported by a bilateral frontotemporal system and may recover from LH damage through normal or enhanced activity in the intact right hemisphere. The fMRI study used a word-monitoring task that differentiated syntactic and semantic aspects of sentence comprehension. We distinguished overlapping interactions between structure, neural activity, and performance using joint independent components analysis, identifying two structural–functional networks, each with a distinct relationship with performance. Syntactic performance correlated with tissue integrity and activity in a left frontotemporal network. Semantic performance correlated with activity in right superior/middle temporal gyri regardless of tissue integrity. Right temporal activity did not differ between patients and controls, suggesting that the semantic network is degenerately organized, with regions in both hemispheres able to perform similar computations. Our findings support the dual neurocognitive model of spoken language comprehension and emphasize the importance of linguistic specificity in investigations of language recovery in patients. PMID:22699896

  3. The Hemispheric Sign Rule of Current Helicity during the Rising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We compute the signs of two different current helicity parameters (i.e., best and ) for 87 active regions during the rise of cycle 23. The results indicate that 59% of the active regions in the northern hemisphere have negative best and 65% in the southern hemisphere have positive. This is consistent with that of the cycle ...

  4. Hemispheric Specialization for Tactile-Spatial Processing in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Levy, Rhonda B.

    1981-01-01

    Witelson found that boys but not girls showed right-hemisphere specialization for tactile-spatial processing as early as six years. Witelson's task was administered to 46 normal four- and five-year olds. Both sexes showed right-hemisphere specialization. No sex differences appeared either in specialization or in overall performance. (Author/SJL)

  5. Hemispheric Dominance, Conservation Reasoning and the Dominant Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Wollman, Warren T.

    This study was based on the following assumptions: (1) functioning of the brain's left hemisphere, because of its logical, verbal mode, facilitates conservation reasoning; (2) functioning of the brain's right hemisphere, because of its nonverbal, spatial mode, inhibits conservation reasoning; (3) visual input from the left eye will reach the left…

  6. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, Sanne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328213187; Gobes, Sharon M H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832669; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14760902X; Bolhuis, Johan J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074069454

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops

  7. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ghosh, Tushar K., E-mail: ghoshT@missouri.edu [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  8. Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope Accuracy Analysis Under Temperature Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boran LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency splitting of hemispherical resonator gyroscope will change as system operating temperature changes. This phenomenon leads to navigation accuracy of hemispherical resonator gyroscope reduces. By researching on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamical model and its frequency characteristic, the frequency splitting formula and the precession angle formula of gyroscope vibrating mode based on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamic equation parameters are derived. By comparison, gyroscope precession angle deviation caused by frequency splitting can be obtained. Based on analysis of temperature variation against gyroscope resonator, the design of hemispherical resonator gyroscope feedback controller under temperature variation conditions is researched and the maximum theoretical fluctuation of gyroscope dynamical is determined by using a numerical analysis example.

  9. Hemispheric processing of memory is affected by sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shaw, John J; Ashworth-Lord, Anneliese; Newbury, Chloe R

    2017-04-01

    Sleep is known to affect learning and memory, but the extent to which it influences behavioural processing in the left and right hemispheres of the brain is as yet unknown. We tested two hypotheses about lateralised effects of sleep on recognition memory for words: whether sleep reactivated recent experiences of words promoting access to the long-term store in the left hemisphere (LH), and whether sleep enhanced spreading activation differentially in semantic networks in the hemispheres. In Experiment 1, participants viewed lists of semantically related words, then slept or stayed awake for 12h before being tested on seen, unseen but related, or unrelated words presented to the left or the right hemisphere. Sleep was found to promote word recognition in the LH, and to spread activation equally within semantic networks in both hemispheres. Experiment 2 ensured that the results were not due to time of day effects influencing cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  11. MR imaging features of hemispherical spondylosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Joao R.T.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar L.; Chang, Connie Y.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Hemispherical spondylosclerosis (HS) is a rare degenerative entity characterized by dome-shaped sclerosis of a single vertebral body that may pose a diagnostic dilemma. The goal of this study was to describe the MR imaging features of HS. We identified spine radiographs and CT examinations of subjects with HS who also had MR imaging for correlation. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently assessed sclerosis characteristics, presence of endplate erosions, marrow signal intensity, and disk degeneration (Pfirrmann scale). We identified 11 subjects (six males, five females, mean 48 ± 10 years) with radiographic/CT findings of HS. The most commonly affected vertebral body was L4 (6/11; 55%). On MR imaging, variable signal intensity was noted, being most commonly low on T1 (8/11, 73%) and high on fat-suppressed T2-weighted (8/11, 73%) images. In two subjects, diffuse post-contrast enhancement was seen in the lesion. Moderate disk degeneration and endplate bone erosions adjacent to sclerosis were present in all subjects. Erosions of the opposite endplate were present in two subjects (2/11, 18%). CT data from nine subjects showed the mean attenuation value of HS was 472 ± 96 HU. HS appearance on MR imaging is variable and may not correlate with the degree of sclerosis seen on radiographs or CT. Disk degenerative changes and asymmetric endplate erosions are consistent markers of HS. (orig.)

  12. Climate change induced by Southern Hemisphere desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Yan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Some 10-20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world's poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate are assessed using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, MPM-2. This analysis focuses on differences in climate among the averages of simulations with desert expansion in different latitude bands by year 2000. The localized desertification causes significant global changes in temperature and precipitation as well as surface albedo. On the global scale, cooling dominates the SH desertification effects. However, the biogeophysical effects are most significant in regions with desertification, and the cooling is also prominent in northern mid-latitudes. Desert expansion in 15°-30°S reveals statistically most significant cooling and increased precipitation over the forcing regions during spring. The global and regional scale responses from desertification imply the climate teleconnection and address the importance of the effects from the SH which are contingent on the location of the forcing. Our study indicates that biogeophysical mechanisms of land cover changes in the SH need to be accounted for in the assessment of land management options especially for latitude band over 15°-30°S.

  13. Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing

  14. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  15. A hemispherical high-pressure xenon gamma radiation spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kessick, R

    2002-01-01

    A prototype hemispherical high-pressure xenon gamma radiation spectrometer was designed, constructed and tested. The detector consists of a pair of concentric hemispherical electrodes contained inside a thin-walled stainless steel pressure dome. Detector performance parameters such as energy resolution, linearity and vibration sensitivity were determined and compared to previous cylindrical and planar designs. Without a Frisch grid, the hemispherical detector provides a total room temperature energy resolution of 6% at 662 keV and is relatively insensitive to acoustic interference.

  16. Motivation and attention following hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgiati, E; Russell, C; Soto, D; Malhotra, P

    2016-01-01

    Spatial neglect (SN) is an extremely common disorder of attention; it is most frequently a consequence of stroke, especially to the right cerebral hemisphere. The current view of SN is that it is not a unitary deficit but a multicomponent syndrome. Crucially, it has been repeatedly shown that it has a considerable negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. Although a number of behavioral and pharmacological therapies have been developed, none of these appears to be applicable to all patients with SN or has proved unequivocally successful in clinical trials. One potential avenue for therapeutic intervention in neglect relates to the interaction between motivation and attention. A number of investigators, including ourselves, have observed a possible motivational component to the syndrome and showed that motivational stimulation can temporarily improve attention in patients with SN. In this chapter we review previous work looking at how motivation can modulate attention in healthy individuals and how it may be affected by neurological disease before discussing how motivational impairments may contribute to neglect, and how motivation has been used to modulate neglect. In the final section, we present recent experimental work examining how reward interacts with attentional biases in patients with SN. In this study, we adapted the classic Landmark task to explore the mechanisms behind the effect of reward in SN, and found that centrally located stimuli that were explicitly associated with reward appeared to improve neglect and reduce rightward bias. Our results suggest that positive motivation, in the form of anticipated monetary reward, may influence attentional bias via more general mechanisms, such as alerting and task engagement, rather than directly increasing salience of items in contralesional space. We conclude by discussing how motivation might be practically integrated into the rehabilitation of patients with this debilitating disorder. © 2016 Elsevier B

  17. Plant planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes planting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1995 and 2009.

  18. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Price Estimation: Do Brain Hemispheres Attribute Different Monetary Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Felice; D’Anselmo, Anita; Tommasi, Luca; Brancucci, Alfredo; Pietroni, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect has been associated with a wide range of magnitude processing. This effect is due to an implicit relationship between numbers and horizontal space, according to which weaker magnitudes and smaller numbers are represented on the left, whereas stronger magnitudes and larger numbers are represented on the right. However, for some particular type of magnitudes such as price, judgments may be also influenced by perceived quality and thus involving valence attribution biases driven by brain asymmetries. In the present study, a lateralized tachistoscopic presentation was used in a price estimation task, using a weight estimation task as a control, to assess differences in asymmetries between these two attributes. Results show a side bias in the former condition but not in the latter, thus indicating that other non-numerical mechanisms are involved in price estimation. Specifically, prices were estimated lower in the left visual field than in the right visual field. The proposed explanation is that price appraisal might involve a valence attribution mechanism leading to a better perceived quality (related to higher prices) when objects are processed primarily in the left hemisphere, and to a lower perceived quality (related to lower prices) when objects are processed primarily in the right hemisphere.

  19. Comprehension and Hemispheric Processing of Irony in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2017-01-01

    Studies focusing on the comprehension of figurative language among schizophrenia patients (SZ) reveal their difficulties comprehending such language and their tendency to interpret it literally. The present study investigated hemispheric processing and comprehension of irony in 16 SZ patients and 18 typically developing (TD) adults. Two experimental tasks were used: an online divided visual field experiment and an offline irony questionnaire. The results show an atypical reversal of hemispheric processing of irony in SZ patients as compared to TD adults. While the TD group demonstrated a right hemisphere advantage in processing irony, SZ patients demonstrated a left hemisphere advantage. Greater comprehension of irony was associated with decreased negative symptoms. In addition, under conditions that not involving a time restriction, the SZ patients' performance improved. Our findings reinforce those of previous studies suggesting that brain lateralization is atypical in SZ patients.

  20. A Novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera for EVAs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this SBIR project is to develop a novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera(HDC), with unprecedented capability of optically unwrapping, thus...

  1. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  2. A Novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera for EVAs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project is to develop a novel Hemispherical and Dynamic Camera(HDC) with ultra-wide field of view and low geometric distortion. The novel technology we...

  3. ISLSCP II Northern Hemisphere Monthly Snow Cover Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This ISLSCP data set is derived from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent product which...

  4. Impacts of hemispheric solar geoengineering on tropical cyclone frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony C; Haywood, James M; Dunstone, Nick; Emanuel, Kerry; Hawcroft, Matthew K; Hodges, Kevin I; Jones, Andy

    2017-11-14

    Solar geoengineering refers to a range of proposed methods for counteracting global warming by artificially reducing sunlight at Earth's surface. The most widely known solar geoengineering proposal is stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), which has impacts analogous to those from volcanic eruptions. Observations following major volcanic eruptions indicate that aerosol enhancements confined to a single hemisphere effectively modulate North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the following years. Here we investigate the effects of both single-hemisphere and global SAI scenarios on North Atlantic TC activity using the HadGEM2-ES general circulation model and various TC identification methods. We show that a robust result from all of the methods is that SAI applied to the southern hemisphere would enhance TC frequency relative to a global SAI application, and vice versa for SAI in the northern hemisphere. Our results reemphasise concerns regarding regional geoengineering and should motivate policymakers to regulate large-scale unilateral geoengineering deployments.

  5. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  7. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunyé, Tad T.

    2013-01-01

    We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demand...

  8. Differential Representation of Speech Sounds in the Human Cerebral Hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Jill B.; Ulmer, John L.; Gaggl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Various methods in auditory neuroscience have been used to gain knowledge about the structure and function of the human auditory cortical system. Regardless of method, hemispheric differences are evident in the normal processing of speech sounds. This review manuscript, augmented by the authors’ own work, provides evidence that asymmetries exist in both cortical and subcortical structures of the human auditory system. Asymmetries are affected by stimulus type, for example hemispheric activati...

  9. Can we predict dispersal guilds based on the leaf-height-seed scheme in a disjunct cerrado woodland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVF. Jardim

    Full Text Available Although there have been advances in methods for extracting information about dispersal processes, it is still very difficult to measure them. Predicting dispersal groups using single readily-measured traits would facilitate the emergence of instructive comparisons among ecological strategies of plants and offer a path towards improved synthesis across field experiments. The leaf-height-seed scheme consists of three functional traits: specific leaf area, plant canopy height, and seed mass. We tested, applying logistic regression analysis, whether these traits are potential predictors of dispersal guilds in a disjoint cerrado woodland site in southeastern Brazil. According to our results, none of the plant traits studied could predict dispersal guild; this means that abiotically and biotically dispersed species showed similar values of specific leaf area, height, and seed mass. The species of both guilds exhibited sclerophylly, probably a result of the typical soil nutrient deficiency of cerrado, which also may have placed constraints upon plant canopy height regardless of the dispersal mode. In the cerrado, some abiotically dispersed trees might present higher than expected seed mass as support to the investment in high root-to-shoot ratio at the seedling stage. Seeds of bird-dispersed species are limited in size and mass because of the small size of most frugivorous birds. Since soil nutrient quality might contribute to the similarity between the dispersal guilds regarding the three traits of the scheme, other plant traits (e.g., root depth distribution and nutrient uptake strategy that detail the former should be considered in future predictive studies.

  10. Hemispherical optical dome for underwater communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2017-08-01

    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water, even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple communication system, consisting only of a highly directional source/transmitter and small optical detector/receiver, has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter. Two versions of the optical dome (with 6" and 8" diameters) were designed using PTC's Creo CAD software and modeled using Synopsys' CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows that the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with

  11. Large Craters in Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Galileo spacecraft provides a new view of this heavily cratered region in the southern hemisphere of the icy Jovian satellite Callisto. The region was not observed by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. Craters ranging in diameter from the 1.85 kilometer (1.13 mile) limit of resolution up to more than 70 kilometers (43 miles) can be observed in this image. Although all craters are generally round in outline, details in their structures vary with both size and relative age. Bright spots in the center of smaller craters (up to approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles)) are central peaks. Larger craters (up to the 51 kilometer (31 mile) wide crater in the east central part of the image) exhibit central pits or depressions. The largest crater, called Thrainn, has a diameter of 74 kilometers (45 miles) and is located in the southernmost corner of the image. This crater contains a broad central uplift, or dome, and has a highly eroded rim. In contrast, the 70 kilometer (43 mile) crater Audr, located along the northern margin of the image, is flat-bottomed, and has a less degraded and generally rounder rim. If erosional or degradational forces have been roughly constant with time on Callisto, scientists viewing this image can assume that Audr is relatively younger than Thrainn by noting the less degraded or fresher appearance of its rim. The differences in crater floor features between these two similarly sized craters could have been produced by differences in the impacting bodies that produced them, differences in the crustal materials in which the craters formed, or simply by a gradual evolution of crater floor shape with time.North is to the top of the image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 34 degrees south latitude, 84 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 48,430 kilometers (29,542 miles) from

  12. Hemispherical Optical Dome for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ron S.; Lunde, Emily L.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, acoustic systems have been used as the primary method for underwater communication; however, the data transfer rate of such systems is low because sound propagates slowly through the water. A higher throughput can be achieved using visible light to transmit data underwater. The first issue with using this approach is that there is generally a large loss of the light signal due to scattering and absorption in water even though there is an optimal wavelength for transmission in the blue or green wavelengths of the visible spectrum. The second issue is that a simple system consisting only of a highly directional source transmitter and small optical detector receiver has a very narrow field of view. The goal of this project is to improve an optical, underwater communication system by increasing the effective field of view of the receiving optics. To this end, we make two changes to the simple system: (1) An optical dome was added near the receiver. An array of lenses is placed radially on the surface of the dome, reminiscent of the compound eye of an insect. The lenses make the source and detector planes conjugate, and each lens adds a new region of the source plane to the instrument's total field of view. (2) The receiver was expanded to include multiple photodiodes. With these two changes, the receiver has much more tolerance to misalignments (in position and angle) of the transmitter.Two versions of the optical dome (with 6 and 8 diameters) were designed using the CREO CAD software and modeled using the CODE V optical design software. A series of these transparent hemispherical domes, with both design diameters, were manufactured using a 5-axis mill. The prototype was then retrofitted with lenses and compared with the computer-generated model to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution. This work shows the dome design improves the optical field of view of the underwater communication system considerably. Furthermore, with the experimental test

  13. Phase Relationships of Solar Hemispheric Toroidal and Poloidal Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraközy, J.

    2016-08-01

    The solar northern and southern hemispheres exhibit differences in their intensities and time profiles of the activity cycles. The time variation of these properties was studied in a previous article covering the data from Cycles 12-23. The hemispheric phase lags exhibited a characteristic variation: the leading role was exchanged between hemispheres every four cycles. The present work extends the investigation of this variation using the data of Staudacher and Schwabe in Cycles 1-4 and 7-10 as well as Spörer’s data in Cycle 11. The previously observed variation cannot be clearly recognized using the data of Staudacher, Schwabe, and Spörer. However, it is more interesting that the phase lags of the reversals of the magnetic fields at the poles follow the same variations as those of the hemispheric cycles in Cycles 12-23, i.e., one of the hemispheres leads in four cyles and the leading role jumps to the opposite hemisphere in the next four cycles. This means that this variation is a long-term property of the entire solar dynamo mechanism, for both the toroidal and poloidal fields, which hints at an unidentified component of the process responsible for the long-term memory.

  14. The nature of hemispheric specialization for prosody perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina S; Martens, Sander; Aleman, André; Van Heuven, Vincent J; Schiller, Niels O

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests a relative right-hemispheric specialization for emotional prosody perception, whereas linguistic prosody perception is under bilateral control. It is still unknown, however, how the hemispheric specialization for prosody perception might arise. Two main hypotheses have been put forward. Cue-dependent hypotheses, on the one hand, propose that hemispheric specialization is driven by specialization for the non-prosody-specific processing of acoustic cues. The functional lateralization hypothesis, on the other hand, proposes that hemispheric specialization is dependent on the communicative function of prosody, with emotional and linguistic prosody processing being lateralized to the right and left hemispheres, respectively. In the present study, the functional lateralization hypothesis of prosody perception was systematically tested by instructing one group of participants to evaluate the emotional prosody, and another group the linguistic prosody dimension of bidimensional prosodic stimuli in a dichotic-listening paradigm, while event-related potentials were recorded. The results showed that the right-ear advantage was associated with decreased latencies for an early negativity in the contralateral hemisphere. No evidence was found for functional lateralization. These findings suggest that functional lateralization effects for prosody perception are small and support the structural model of dichotic listening.

  15. Metaphors and verbal creativity: the role of the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva

    2012-01-01

    Ample research suggests that the right cerebral hemisphere plays a central role in verbal creativity as well as in novel metaphor comprehension. The aim of the present study was to directly examine the relation between verbal creativity and right hemisphere involvement during novel metaphor comprehension. Thus 30 healthy adults were asked to fill in the Hebrew version of the Remote Association Test to assess their level of creativity. In addition, reaction times and error rates were measured while these participants performed a semantic judgement task on two word expressions presented in a divided visual field paradigm. The word pairs comprised four types of semantic relations: novel metaphors, conventional metaphors, literal word pairs, and meaningless word pairs. Correlations were conducted to assess the relation between level of creativity and processing of the four pair types in the two cerebral hemispheres. The main finding was of a significant negative correlation between degree of creativity and reaction times to novel metaphor processing in the right hemisphere, thus supporting the involvement of this cerebral hemisphere in both tasks. Results are discussed in light of linguistic theories and recent neuroscientific evidence regarding relative hemispheric involvement during semantic processing.

  16. Differential representation of speech sounds in the human cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firszt, Jill B; Ulmer, John L; Gaggl, Wolfgang

    2006-04-01

    Various methods in auditory neuroscience have been used to gain knowledge about the structure and function of the human auditory cortical system. Regardless of method, hemispheric differences are evident in the normal processing of speech sounds. This review article, augmented by the authors' own work, provides evidence that asymmetries exist in both cortical and subcortical structures of the human auditory system. Asymmetries are affected by stimulus type, for example, hemispheric activation patterns have been shown to change from right to left cortex as stimuli change from speech to nonspeech. In addition, the presence of noise has differential effects on the contribution of the two hemispheres. Modifications of typical asymmetric cortical patterns occur when pathology is present, as in hearing loss or tinnitus. We show that in response to speech sounds, individuals with unilateral hearing loss lose the normal asymmetric pattern due to both a decrease in contralateral hemispheric activity and an increase in the ipsilateral hemisphere. These studies demonstrate the utility of modern neuroimaging techniques in functional investigations of the human auditory system. Neuroimaging techniques may provide additional insight as to how the cortical auditory pathways change with experience, including sound deprivation (e.g., hearing loss) and sound experience (e.g., training). Such investigations may explain why some populations appear to be more vulnerable to changes in hemispheric symmetry such as children with learning problems and the elderly. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Right hemisphere structural adaptation and changing language skills years after left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Thomas M H; Leff, Alex P; Prejawa, Susan; Bruce, Rachel; Haigh, Zula; Lim, Louise; Ramsden, Sue; Oberhuber, Marion; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Crinion, Jenny; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2017-06-01

    Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain. Contrary to the prevailing view that these patients' language skills are stable, these results imply that real change continues over years. The strongest brain-behaviour associations (the 'peak clusters') were in the anterior temporal lobe and the precentral gyrus. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we confirmed that both regions are actively involved when neurologically normal control subjects name visually presented objects, but neither appeared to be involved when the same participants used a finger press to make semantic association decisions on the same stimuli. This suggests that these regions serve word-retrieval or articulatory functions in the undamaged brain. We teased these interpretations apart by reference to change in other tasks. Consistent with the claim that the real change is occurring here, change in spoken object naming was correlated with change in two other similar tasks, spoken action naming and written object naming, each of which was independently associated with structural adaptation in similar (overlapping) right hemisphere regions. Change in written object naming, which requires word-retrieval but not articulation, was also significantly more correlated with both (i) change in spoken object naming; and (ii) structural adaptation in

  18. Phylogeography of Arenaria balearica L. (Caryophyllaceae): evolutionary history of a disjunct endemic from the Western Mediterranean continental islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Barrios de León, Sara B; Seguí Colomar, Jaume; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Peñas de Giles, Julio; Martínez-Ortega, María Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally accepted that Arenaria balearica (Caryophyllaceae) could be a relict Tertiary plant species, this has never been experimentally tested. Nor have the palaeohistorical reasons underlying the highly fragmented distribution of the species in the Western Mediterranean region been investigated. We have analysed AFLP data (213) and plastid DNA sequences (226) from a total of 250 plants from 29 populations sampled throughout the entire distribution range of the species in Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. The AFLP data analyses indicate very low geographic structure and population differentiation. Based on plastid DNA data, six alternative phylogeographic hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). These analyses revealed ancient area fragmentation as the most probable scenario, which is in accordance with the star-like topology of the parsimony network that suggests a pattern of long term survival and subsequent in situ differentiation. Overall low levels of genetic diversity and plastid DNA variation were found, reflecting evolutionary stasis of a species preserved in locally long-term stable habitats.

  19. Phylogeography of Arenaria balearica L. (Caryophyllaceae: evolutionary history of a disjunct endemic from the Western Mediterranean continental islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bobo-Pinilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally accepted that Arenaria balearica (Caryophyllaceae could be a relict Tertiary plant species, this has never been experimentally tested. Nor have the palaeohistorical reasons underlying the highly fragmented distribution of the species in the Western Mediterranean region been investigated. We have analysed AFLP data (213 and plastid DNA sequences (226 from a total of 250 plants from 29 populations sampled throughout the entire distribution range of the species in Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. The AFLP data analyses indicate very low geographic structure and population differentiation. Based on plastid DNA data, six alternative phylogeographic hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. These analyses revealed ancient area fragmentation as the most probable scenario, which is in accordance with the star-like topology of the parsimony network that suggests a pattern of long term survival and subsequent in situ differentiation. Overall low levels of genetic diversity and plastid DNA variation were found, reflecting evolutionary stasis of a species preserved in locally long-term stable habitats.

  20. Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huth

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology

  1. Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huth

    Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology

  2. Modeling the Influence of Hemispheric Transport on Trends in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development and application of the hemispheric version of the CMAQ to examine the influence of long-range pollutant transport on trends in surface level O3 distributions. The WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations were recently performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the northern hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the northern hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 is then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. A reduced form model combining these source region sensitivities estimated from DDM with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends, is then developed to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas

  3. Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Amy E; Long, Debra L; Swick, Diane; Larsen, Jary; Baynes, Kathleen

    2008-01-10

    The representation of words in sentences can involve the activation and integration of perceptual information. For example, readers who are asked to view pictures of objects relating to a word in a sentence are influenced by perceptual information in the sentence context-readers are faster to respond to a picture of a whole apple after reading, "There is an apple in the bag," than after reading, "There is an apple in the salad." The purpose of this study was to examine how the two cerebral hemispheres use perceptual information about words as a function of sentence context. Patients who had damage to the left or right hemisphere and age-matched control participants read sentences that described, but did not entail, the shape or state of an object. They then made recognition judgments to pictures that either matched or mismatched the perceptual form implied by the sentence. Responses and latencies were examined for a match effect -- faster and more accurate responses to pictures in the match than mismatch condition -- controlling for comprehension ability and lesion size. When comprehension ability and lesion size are properly controlled, left-hemisphere-damaged patients and control participants exhibited the expected match effect, whereas right-hemisphere-damaged participants showed no effect of match condition. These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information.

  4. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Koch, Bailey A; Abblett, Rebecca L; Han, Xuemei; Yates, John R; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2017-06-01

    Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc) inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery.

  5. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Bailey A.; Han, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc) inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery. PMID:28609436

  6. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery.

  7. Metamorphic hemispherical microphone array for three-dimensional acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shantonu; Reiprich, Johannes; Cohrs, Thaden; Stauden, Thomas; Pezoldt, Joerg; Jacobs, Heiko O.

    2017-07-01

    This article describes the realization of a metamorphic stretchable microphone array, which can be inflated by air to morph from a planar to a hemispherical shape. The array undergoes morphological changes to adjust their receive characteristic. To realize this device, a metamorphic printed circuit board technology (m-PCB) is described. The resulting products are millimeter-thin stretchable silicone embedded and electrically interconnected electronic structures with mechanical properties, which resemble a silicone membrane. The microphone array is used to localize a sound source in a 3D space. The results of the planar orientation (resting shape), and the 3D hemispherical orientation after air inflation are compared. The inflated hemispherical microphone array proofs to be better for 3D acoustic localization and/or beam-forming.

  8. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  9. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  10. Modeling and verification of hemispherical solar still using ANSYS CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Hitesh N. [KSV University, Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute, Mehsana (India); Shah, P.K. [Silver Oak College of Engineering and Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2013-07-01

    In every efficient solar still design, water temperature, vapor temperature and distillate output, and difference between water temperature and inner glass cover temperatures are very important. Here, two dimensional three phase model of hemispherical solar still is made for evaporation as well as condensation process in ANSYS CFD. Simulation results like water temperature, vapor temperature, distillate output compared with actual experimental results of climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23° 59’ and longitude of 72° 38) of hemispherical solar still. Water temperature and distillate output were good agreement with actual experimental results. Study shows that ANSYS-CFD is very powerful as well as efficient tool for design, comparison purpose of hemispherical solar still.

  11. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  12. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Human cerebral hemispheres develop at different rates and ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, R W; Walker, R A; Giudice, S

    1987-05-29

    The development of the cerebral hemispheres was assessed by using measures of electroencephalographic coherence and phase in 577 children ranging in age from 2 months to early adulthood. Two categories of age-dependent change in electroencephalographic coherence and phase were noted: continuous growth processes that were described best by an exponential growth function, and discrete growth spurts that appeared in specific anatomical locations at specific postnatal periods. The left and right hemispheres developed at different rates and with different postnatal onset times with the timing of growth spurts overlapping the timing of the major developmental stages described by Piaget.

  14. Schizophrenia, the sense of 'self' and the right cerebral hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, David

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is described in phenomenological theory as an illness with various degrees of 'self disintegration' and/or 'disembodiment' experiences. Cognitive neuroscience and neurology had identified specific brain structures, all in the right cerebral hemisphere, that are crucial for the generation of a normal 'sense of self' and self-corporeal-awareness. Behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence also suggest various deficits in the right hemisphere of schizophrenics. A hypothesis is put forth here for a strong linkage and correlation between the specific brain constructs involved in self/corporeal-awareness and the schizophrenic symptoms manifesting the disintegration of the 'self'.

  15. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF...... reduction (average 10%) in contralateral hemispheric cortex. In all four cases clinical signs of unilateral cerebellar dysfunction were still present when rescanned 1 to 4 months later and the relative CBF decrease in the contralateral cortex of the forebrain also remained. The basal ganglia contralateral...

  16. Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  17. Opposed hemispheric specializations for human hypersexuality and orgasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffren, Sabrina; Braun, Claude M J; Guimond, Anik; Devinsky, Orrin

    2011-05-01

    With a multiple case report analysis we demonstrate that hypersexuality more often results from right hemisphere (RH) (n=26) than left hemisphere (LH) (n=7) lesions, possibly because of LH release after the RH lesion, and that ictal orgasm more often occurs in patients with right-sided (n=23) than left-sided (n=8) seizure foci, with the symptom probably resulting from RH activation. The LH may be specialized for increasing sexual tension, whereas the RH may be specialized for release of this tension (orgasm), the former being catabolic and the latter anabolic. Several other interpretations of the findings are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SFR test fixture for hemispherical and hyperhemispherical camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, John M.

    2017-08-01

    Optical testing of camera systems in volume production environments can often require expensive tooling and test fixturing. Wide field (fish-eye, hemispheric and hyperhemispheric) optical systems create unique challenges because of the inherent distortion, and difficulty in controlling reflections from front-lit high resolution test targets over the hemisphere. We present a unique design for a test fixture that uses low-cost manufacturing methods and equipment such as 3D printing and an Arduino processor to control back-lit multi-color (VIS/NIR) targets and sources. Special care with LED drive electronics is required to accommodate both global and rolling shutter sensors.

  19. Multiple planetary flow regimes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoden, Shigeo; Shiotani, Masato; Hirota, Isamu

    1987-01-01

    Low-frequency variations in the general circulation of the Southern Hemisphere during 1983 were studied using daily geopotential height and temperature analyses for 12 pressure levels from 1000 mb up to 50 mb, performed by the National Meteorological Center of Japan. Results disclosed the presence, in the Southern Hemisphere troposphere, of an irregular fluctuation of two zonal mean geostrophic wind patterns (named single-jet and double-jet regimes) during wintertime. The fluctuation is characterized by the persistence of one geostrophic wind regime, with characteristic duration of a month, followed by a rather rapid transition to another regime.

  20. The sensed presence as right hemispheric intrusions into the left hemispheric awareness of self: an illustrative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A; Bureau, Y R; Peredery, O P; Richards, P M

    1994-06-01

    The hypothesis of vectorial hemisphericity predicts that left hemispheric intrusions of the right hemispheric equivalent of the sense of self should be associated with the experience of a "presence" of someone else. The neurophenomenological profile of a woman whose medical history satisfied these theoretical criteria (verified electrical anomalies that could encourage phasic discharges within the right temporal lobe and atrophy within the left temporoparietal region) is presented. In addition to interactions between electrical seizures and thinking, she reported a long history of sensed presences, ego-alien intrusions, and "sudden knowing of the subsequent sequences of seizures" before they occurred clinically. The existence of these neurocognitive processes demands a reevaluation of the psychiatric default explanations of "hysteria" and questions the belief that "awareness during seizures" or "premonition of subsequent somatosensory experience" contraindicates an epileptic process.

  1. Deep Genetic Divergence between Disjunct Refugia in the Arctic-Alpine King’s Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChaine, Eric G.; Forester, Brenna R.; Schaefer, Hanno; Davis, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the strength of climatic variability at high latitudes and upper elevations, we still do not fully understand how plants in North America that are distributed between Arctic and alpine areas responded to the environmental changes of the Quaternary. To address this question, we set out to resolve the evolutionary history of the King’s Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia using multi-locus population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in combination with ecological niche modeling. Our population genetic analyses of multiple anonymous nuclear loci revealed two major clades within R. integrifolia that diverged from each other ~ 700 kya: one occurring in Beringia to the north (including members of subspecies leedyi and part of subspecies integrifolia), and the other restricted to the Southern Rocky Mountain refugium in the south (including individuals of subspecies neomexicana and part of subspecies integrifolia). Ecological niche models corroborate our hypothesized locations of refugial areas inferred from our phylogeographic analyses and revealed some environmental differences between the regions inhabited by its two subclades. Our study underscores the role of geographic isolation in promoting genetic divergence and the evolution of endemic subspecies in R. integrifolia. Furthermore, our phylogenetic analyses of the plastid spacer region trnL-F demonstrate that among the native North American species, R. integrifolia and R. rhodantha are more closely related to one another than either is to R. rosea. An understanding of these historic processes lies at the heart of making informed management decisions regarding this and other Arctic-alpine species of concern in this increasingly threatened biome. PMID:24282505

  2. The influence of handedness on hemispheric representation of tools: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    An important debate exists in contemporary cognitive neuroscience about the innate or experience-dependent origin of the brain representation of conceptual categories. The 'domains of knowledge' hypothesis maintains that innate factors subsume the categorical organization at the brain level of animals, plant life and artefacts. On the other hand, the 'sensory-motor model of conceptual knowledge' and the embodied cognition theory attribute this categorical organization to experience-dependent factors. I tried to clarify this issue by surveying the influence that handedness could have on the lateralization of tools representation in the inferior fronto-parietal and posterior middle temporal cortices of the left hemisphere. The underlying assumption was that, if this lateralization results from innate mechanisms, then handedness should not influence this hemispheric asymmetry. If, on the other hand, this lateralization is due to the motor and somatosensory experiences made with the right dominant hand during the manipulation of tools and other artefacts, then this asymmetry should be inverted or strongly attenuated in left-handers. Results of the review strongly suggest that manual experience acquired during tool manipulation can influence the hemispheric representation of tools and other artefacts. They also suggest, however, that handedness-related embodiment is not fixed, but influenced by personal motor experiences (such as those made by left-handers who have been forced to use their right hand) and by social visual experiences (such as the fact that, living in a right-handed world, left-handers see more people in their environment who use the right rather than the left hand) during tool manipulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Kirk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  4. Optical analysis of a hemispheric concentrator with a manual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present in this paper, a craft prototype of a fixed hemispheric concentrator, built from small square mirrors with a moon crescent receiver. The position of the receiver is adjusted every three days taking into account the declination. This system achieves a geometric mean concentration of 122 and the experimental ...

  5. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  6. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  7. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as

  8. Global and hemispheric temperature reconstruction from glacier length fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339579951; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2012-01-01

    Temperature reconstructions for recent centuries provide a historical context for the warming over the twentieth century. We reconstruct annual averaged surface temperatures of the past 400 years on hemispherical and global scale from glacier length fluctuations. We use the glacier length records of

  9. New hemispheric geomagnetic indices α with 15 min time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambodut, Aude; Marchaudon, Aurélie; Lathuillère, Chantal; Menvielle, Michel; Foucault, Etienne

    2015-11-01

    New subauroral α15 indices are proposed. They are based on a simple reproducible algorithm which relies on an as dense as possible network of magnetic observatories in each hemisphere. At first, the variation with time of local geomagnetic activity is determined at each magnetic station. Gathering all obtained stations' precomputed values, a normalization with corrected geomagnetic latitude is determined. Then, for each 15 min interval, magnetic activity on the horizontal component is averaged out over 15 min and corrected using this normalization, before a spline modeling of the longitudinal variation in each hemisphere is applied. Hemispheric and planetary 15 min indices are then computed by arithmetic means. Preliminary statistical results, from probability distribution function over a solar cycle and superposed epoch analysis during storms conditions, show, by comparison with am geomagnetic index series, that new α15 indices are reliable in describing subauroral magnetic activity. These new indices will suit any future user, allowing either to choose the spatial description (planetary versus hemispheric) and/or to choose the temporal resolution, knowing unambiguously all their strengths and caveats.

  10. Anosognosia in patients with acute hemispheric ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Grigoryeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the frequency of anosognosia (a deficit of self-awareness, its anatomic correlates associated with other neuropsychological and neurological disorders in acute hemispheric ischemic stroke (IS.Patients and methods 150 patients (83 men and 67 women; mean age, 63.0±9.3 years with acute hemispheric IS were examined. All the patients underwent neurological, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological (by the procedure described by A.R. Luria examinations. neuropsychological investigations. Anosognosia was diagnosed using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX and the authors' procedure involving a scale to measure impaired self-rating of motor abilities and a scale to measure impaired self-rating of cognitive abilities in everyday life.Results and discussion. In the acute period of hemispheric IS, reduced self-awareness of motor and cognitive abilities was noted in 14% of the patients and unawareness of only cognitive abilities was recorded in 15%. Patients with anosognosia and cognitive dysfunction (ACD and those with anosognosia and motor dysfunction (AMD had right-sided hemispheric IS more frequently (76% while this was not found in patients with isolated ACD. The development of anosognosia for paralysis and paresis was favored by the large sizes of an ischemic focus that involved a few lobes in the posterior regions of the brain although no lesions were found in the anosognosia-specific anatomical regions. ACD and AMD proved to be associated with unilateral spatial and tactile neglect and obvious regulatory dysfunction. 

  11. Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930

  12. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  13. Hemispheric Brain Research: A Breakthrough in Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Frederick A.

    1980-01-01

    Outdoor education facilitates the use of both cerebral hemispheres. The right side, which is often ignored in traditional education, is the location of intuitive, imaginative, and metaphoric thinking and can be used in conjunction with the left side, the base of logical and analytic thought. (CJ)

  14. Hemispherical-rod microlens as a variant fractional Fourier transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, D; Brenner, K H; Dragoman, M; Bähr, J; Krackhardt, U

    1998-10-01

    It is shown that a hemispherical-rod microlens can act as a fractional Fourier transform device with a continuously varying degree of fractionality. It is believed to be the first proposed device to perform such a task; its most immediate applications include optical tomography.

  15. [Relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing: effect of handedness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazaeva, A Iu; Razumnikova, O M

    2012-01-01

    Effect of handedness in creativity-related global and local hemispheric selective processing was examined with lateralized presentation of hierarchical letters. Eighty-four university students (aged 17-22 years) participated in the study. Handedness was determined by Annett questionnaire. Originality of imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test. Verbal creativity was assessed by the results of the sentence construction with three nouns belonging to remote semantic categories. The results show that higher figural originality is provided by an increase in both right-hemispheric and interhemispheric interference processes at the global/local or congruent/noncongruent level. Verbal originality is associated with an increase in the right-hemispheric interference between congruent and noncongruent stimuli at the local attention level and with a decrease in interhemispheric interference at the global level. A decrease in the typical preference of the right hand is accompanied by the higher creativity and acceleration of the right-hemispheric interference processes.

  16. Ecology of beech forests in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Beech forests are dominated or codominated by at least one Fagus species. The beeches are a homogeneous group of 11 deciduous tree species growing in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1). They often dominate forest ecosystems throughout their ranges. The optimum for

  17. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  18. Asymmetric effects of daytime and night-time warming on Northern Hemisphere vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Chen, Anping; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dolman, Albertus J; Janssens, Ivan A; Peñuelas, Josep; Zhang, Gengxin; Vicca, Sara; Wan, Shiqiang; Wang, Shiping; Zeng, Hui

    2013-09-05

    Temperature data over the past five decades show faster warming of the global land surface during the night than during the day. This asymmetric warming is expected to affect carbon assimilation and consumption in plants, because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during daytime and is more sensitive to the maximum daily temperature, Tmax, whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day and is therefore influenced by both Tmax and the minimum daily temperature, Tmin. Most studies of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate warming, however, ignore this asymmetric forcing effect on vegetation growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. Here we analyse the interannual covariations of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, an indicator of vegetation greenness) with Tmax and Tmin over the Northern Hemisphere. After removing the correlation between Tmax and Tmin, we find that the partial correlation between Tmax and NDVI is positive in most wet and cool ecosystems over boreal regions, but negative in dry temperate regions. In contrast, the partial correlation between Tmin and NDVI is negative in boreal regions, and exhibits a more complex behaviour in dry temperate regions. We detect similar patterns in terrestrial net CO2 exchange maps obtained from a global atmospheric inversion model. Additional analysis of the long-term atmospheric CO2 concentration record of the station Point Barrow in Alaska suggests that the peak-to-peak amplitude of CO2 increased by 23 ± 11% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmax from May to September over lands north of 51° N, but decreased by 28 ± 14% for a +1 °C anomaly in Tmin. These lines of evidence suggest that asymmetric diurnal warming, a process that is currently not taken into account in many global carbon cycle models, leads to a divergent response of Northern Hemisphere vegetation growth and carbon sequestration to rising temperatures.

  19. Out of the alps: the biogeography of a disjunctly distributed mountain butterfly, the almond-eyed ringlet Erebia alberganus (Lepidoptera, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louy, Dirk; Habel, Jan Christian; Ulrich, Werner; Schmitt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on the biogeography of thermophilic and arctic-alpine species were performed during the past. Only little is known about species with intermediate characteristics. We analyzed the molecular biogeography of the butterfly Erebia alberganus (30 populations, representing 1106 individuals), sampled over the Alps, Apennines (Italy), and the Stara Planina (Bulgaria) using allozyme electrophoresis (17 loci). Genetic analyses revealed 3 major splits, with the strongest between the Stara Planina populations and all other populations, and a weaker split between the Alps and the Apennines. Individuals from the Apennines were genetically nested within the Alps group. The Alps cluster was segregated into 3 groups: the Southwestern, Western/Central, and Eastern Alps. The genetic diversities were highest for the Alps populations and significantly lower in the 2 isolates (Apennines, Stara Planina). The remarkable genetic split between Stara Planina and all other populations and the genetic distinctiveness of the former cluster might be interpreted as an ancient colonization event of this Balkan mountain range. The Apennines populations derive from a more recent expansion out of the Southwestern Alps. After surviving the Würm ice age most probably in the central Apennines, accompanied by genetic modification of some of these populations, northward expansion might have started from the western parts of the central Apennines reaching the northern Apennines during the early postglacial. The subtle genetic differentiation found among the Alps populations probably reflects 3 geographically disjunct Würm glacial centers located at the western slopes of the Southwestern Alps, at the southern slopes of the Central Alps, and in the Southeastern Alps.

  20. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  1. Methods of dichotic listening as a research methodology for hemispheric interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovyazina M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data was obtained from a dichotic listening test by patients with unilateral brain lesions and corpus callosum pathology (agenesis, cysts, degenerative changes, etc. Efficiency index analysis shows that interhemispheric interaction in the audioverbal sphere depends to a greater extent on the right hemisphere state. The dichotic listening technique is not an informative means of studying hemispheric interaction, since it does not allow a clear distinction between hemispheric symptoms and symptoms of pathology of the corpus callosum. Thus, violations of hemispheric relations caused by disorders of the corpus callosum and cerebral hemispheres change worth more right hemisphere activity.

  2. Right hemisphere dominance for language in a woman with schizophrenia and a porencephalic cyst of the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Monteiro, Myriam; Pacheco, Paula; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo; Moll, Jorge; Nazar, Bruno Palazzo

    2016-06-01

    A large left hemisphere porencephalic cyst was incidentally found in a 48-year-old woman (MS) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia. The encephaloclastic characteristics of the cyst indicated that it was acquired between the 22nd and 24th gestational weeks, after the major waves of neuronal migration had tapered off. The cyst destroyed the left temporal and occipital lobes, and the inferior parietal lobule. Surprisingly, MS had no evidence of aphasia, alexia, agraphia, or ideational apraxia; in contrast, cognitive functions dependent on the integrity of the right hemisphere were severely impaired. To test the hypothesis that the development of language in MS took place at the expense of functions that are normally carried out by the right hemisphere, we investigated MS's correlates of oral comprehension with fMRI as a proxy for auditory comprehension and other cognitive functions strongly lateralized to the posterior left hemisphere, such as ideational praxis and reading. Comprehension of spoken language engaged the homologous of Wernicke's area in the right planum temporale. Porencephaly may represent a natural model of neuroplasticity supervening at predictable epochs of prenatal development.

  3. VLBI Astrometry of 22 Southern Hemisphere Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Alan L.; Ojha, Roopesh; Jauncey, David L.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Reynolds, John E.; Lovell, James E. J.; Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Quick, Jonathan F. H.; Nicolson, George D.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; McCulloch, Peter M.; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2004-06-01

    Milliarcsecond accurate radio positions for 22 Southern Hemisphere extragalactic sources are reported. These positions are derived from Mark III Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations made between 2003 February and 2003 August. The results presented here supplement an ongoing project to increase the sky density of Souther Hemisphere sources in order to better define the International Celestial Reference Frame and to provide additional phase reference sources with accurate positions for use in astrophysical observations. The positions for all 22 sources are south of declination = -30 degrees (positions for ten of the sources are south of declination = -60 degrees) and represent the largest group of new milliarcsecond accurate astrometric positions for sources in this declination range since the initial definition of the ICRF. The reported positions have average formal uncertainties of 0.5 milliarcseconds in right ascension and 0.6 milliarcseconds in declination.

  4. Accurate Astrometry of 22 Southern Hemisphere Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Alan L.; Ojha, Roopesh; Jauncey, David L.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Reynolds, John E.; Lovell, James E. J.; Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Quick, Jonathan F. H.; Nicolson, George D.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; McCulloch, Peter M.; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2004-03-01

    Milliarcsecond-accurate radio positions for 22 southern hemisphere extragalactic sources are reported. These positions are derived from Mark III very long baseline interferometry observations made between 2003 February and 2003 August. The results presented here supplement an ongoing project to increase the sky density of southern hemisphere sources in order to better define the International Celestial Reference Frame and to provide additional phase-reference sources with accurate positions for use in astrophysical observations. The positions for all 22 sources are south of δ=-30° (positions for 10 of the sources are south of δ=-60°) and represent the largest group of new milliarcsecond-accurate astrometric positions for sources in this declination range since the initial definition of the International Celestial Reference Frame. The reported positions have average formal uncertainties of 0.5 mas in right ascension and 0.6 mas in declination.

  5. Agents with left and right dominant hemispheres and quantum statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Alexandr A.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiagent model illustrating the emergence of two different quantum statistics, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac, in a friendly population of individuals with the right-brain dominance and in a competitive population of individuals with the left-brain hemisphere dominance, correspondingly. Doing so, we adduce the arguments that Lefebvre’s “algebra of conscience” can be used in a natural way to describe decision-making strategies of agents simulating people with different brain dominance. One can suggest that the emergence of the two principal statistical distributions is able to illustrate different types of society organization and also to be used in order to simulate market phenomena and psychic disorders, when a switching of hemisphere dominance is involved.

  6. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Propper

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT, affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT.

  7. Italian Right Hemisphere Language Battery: the normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, S; Bryan, K; De Luca, G; Bava, A

    2005-04-01

    Clinical neurolinguistics still lacks consolidated and standardised tools for the assessment of impairments of pragmatics of verbal communication. In the present paper we present norms of the Italian version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (Batteria del Linguaggio dell'Emisfero Destro, BaLED) originally devised by Bryan. The normative study has been conducted with the recruitment of 440 healthy subjects. The battery of tests was not intended to be cognitively oriented, by providing evidence of the cognitive impairments underpinning verbal pragmatic deficits; on the contrary, it permits the detection of the presence/absence of impairments in processing the main pragmatic features of verbal communication traditionally associated with right hemisphere lesions. Thus, apart from being a clinical tool for diagnosing pragmatic impairments of verbal communication, the BaLED represents a useful initial battery of tests for clinical assessment and for selecting specific populations of neurological patients suitable for investigation in further experimental studies.

  8. Do temporal processes underlie left hemisphere dominance in speech perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K; McGettigan, Carolyn

    2013-10-01

    It is not unusual to find it stated as a fact that the left hemisphere is specialized for the processing of rapid, or temporal aspects of sound, and that the dominance of the left hemisphere in the perception of speech can be a consequence of this specialization. In this review we explore the history of this claim and assess the weight of this assumption. We will demonstrate that instead of a supposed sensitivity of the left temporal lobe for the acoustic properties of speech, it is the right temporal lobe which shows a marked preference for certain properties of sounds, for example longer durations, or variations in pitch. We finish by outlining some alternative factors that contribute to the left lateralization of speech perception. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  10. Right-hemisphere (spatial?) acalculia and the influence of neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Pitteri, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients [12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+), 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN−)], and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as cou...

  11. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  12. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Frederiksen, Carsten S.

    2011-01-01

    During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation ...

  13. Statistical Tropical Cyclone Forecasting Techniques for the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    TR 84-D7 We, STATISTICAL TROPICAL CYCLONE * FORECASTING TECHNIQUES FOR THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE C. Thomas 0. Keenan I, Bureau of Meteorology -c...NOTES : , *Author’s affiliation: Synoptic Research Section, Bureau of Meteorology , Melbourne, Australia. Research documented in TR 84-07 was performed...Techniques The Australian techniques were developed at the Bureau of Meteorology , Australia for use in the Australian area of fore- casting

  14. Prognostic implications of total hemispheric glucose metabolism ratio in cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segtnan, Eivind Antonsen; Grupe, Peter; Jarden, Jens Ole

    2017-01-01

    and 9 women aged 35-77 years) with 10 single scans from healthy controls aged 43-75 years. Dedicated 3D-segmentation software was used to obtain total hemispheric glucose metabolic ratios (THGr) by dividing total hemispheric (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in each diaschitic hemisphere, i...

  15. Hemisphere Lateralization Is Influenced by Bilingual Status and Composition of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gang; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that the left hemisphere is more functionally specialized for language than the right hemisphere for right-handed monolinguals. But more and more studies have also demonstrated right hemisphere advantage for some language tasks with certain participants. A recent comprehensive survey has shown that hemisphere…

  16. Research on measurement of residual stresses of hemispherical lithium hydride by blind-hole method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Lin, E-mail: linbo@caep.cn [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box: 919-71, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan (China); Kaihui, He [China International Nuclear Fusion Energy Program Execution Center, 15B, Fuxing Rd, 100862 Beijing (China); Dongwei, Shan; Weicai, Yang; Yonggang, Chi; Mei, Liu; Jun, Shen [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box: 919-71, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The residual stresses of sintered and machined lithium hydride of SR40 hyper-hemispherical and SR30 inner hemispherical sample were measured by blind-hole method. • The nearly 45 degrees direction residual stresses of SR40 hyper-hemisphere and SR30 inner hemisphere are the greatest stresses on spherical surface of lithium hydride samples. • The radial residual stress σ{sub r} of SR40 hyper-hemispherical and SR30 inner hemispherical sample is compressive stress and the circumferential residual stress σ{sub t} is tensile stress. - Abstract: The released strains of sintered and machined lithium hydride of SR40 hyper-hemispherical and SR30 inner hemispherical sample could be shown in the measuring process by blind-hole method. The residual stresses of lithium hydride sample were calculated with the formulas of residual stress and released strains. The results show that the nearly 45 degrees direction residual stresses of SR40 hyper-hemisphere and SR30 inner hemisphere are the greatest stresses on spherical surface of lithium hydride samples. The radial residual stress σ{sub r} of SR40 hyper-hemispherical and SR30 inner hemispherical sample is compressive stress and the circumferential residual stress σ{sub t} is tensile stress.

  17. A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark P; Song, Jizhou; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Choi, Won Mook; Yu, Chang-Jae; Geddes, Joseph B; Xiao, Jianliang; Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2008-08-07

    The human eye is a remarkable imaging device, with many attractive design features. Prominent among these is a hemispherical detector geometry, similar to that found in many other biological systems, that enables a wide field of view and low aberrations with simple, few-component imaging optics. This type of configuration is extremely difficult to achieve using established optoelectronics technologies, owing to the intrinsically planar nature of the patterning, deposition, etching, materials growth and doping methods that exist for fabricating such systems. Here we report strategies that avoid these limitations, and implement them to yield high-performance, hemispherical electronic eye cameras based on single-crystalline silicon. The approach uses wafer-scale optoelectronics formed in unusual, two-dimensionally compressible configurations and elastomeric transfer elements capable of transforming the planar layouts in which the systems are initially fabricated into hemispherical geometries for their final implementation. In a general sense, these methods, taken together with our theoretical analyses of their associated mechanics, provide practical routes for integrating well-developed planar device technologies onto the surfaces of complex curvilinear objects, suitable for diverse applications that cannot be addressed by conventional means.

  18. The history of rabies in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andres; Mauldin, Matthew R.; Shi, Mang; Escobar, Luis E.; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F.; Damon, Inger; Olson, Victoria A.; Streicker, Daniel G.; Emerson, Ginny

    2017-01-01

    Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization. The introduction of the cosmopolitan dog rabies lyssavirus variant and the marked expansion of the dog population provided ideal conditions for the flourishing of enzootic canine rabies. The shift of dog-maintained viruses into gray foxes, coyotes, skunks and other wild mesocarnivores throughout the Americas and to mongooses in the Caribbean has augmented the risk of human rabies exposures and has complicated control efforts. At the same time, the continued presence of bat rabies poses novel challenges in the absolute elimination of canine and human rabies. This article compiles existing historical and phylogenetic evidence of the origins and subsequent dynamics of rabies in the Western Hemisphere, from the era preceding the arrival of the first European colonizers through the present day. A companion article reviews the current status of canine rabies control throughout the Western Hemisphere and steps that will be required to achieve and maintain its complete elimination (Velasco-Villa et al., in press). PMID:28365457

  19. Analytical and Numerical Investigations into Hemisphere-Shaped Electrostatic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic sensors have been widely used in many applications due to their advantages of low cost and robustness. Their spatial sensitivity and time-frequency characteristics are two important performance parameters. In this paper, an analytical model of the induced charge on a novel hemisphere-shaped electrostatic sensor was presented to investigate its accurate sensing characteristics. Firstly a Poisson model was built for electric fields produced by charged particles. Then the spatial sensitivity and time-frequency response functions were directly derived by the Green function. Finally, numerical calculations were done to validate the theoretical results. The results demonstrate that the hemisphere-shaped sensors have highly 3D-symmetrical spatial sensitivity expressed in terms of elementary function, and the spatial sensitivity is higher and less homogeneous near the hemispherical surface and vice versa. Additionally, the whole monitoring system, consisting of an electrostatic probe and a signal conditioner circuit, acts as a band-pass filter. The time-frequency characteristics depend strongly on the spatial position and velocity of the charged particle, the radius of the probe as well as the equivalent resistance and capacitance of the circuit.

  20. The history of rabies in the Western Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Villa, Andres; Mauldin, Matthew R; Shi, Mang; Escobar, Luis E; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Damon, Inger; Olson, Victoria A; Streicker, Daniel G; Emerson, Ginny

    2017-10-01

    Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization. The introduction of the cosmopolitan dog rabies lyssavirus variant and the marked expansion of the dog population provided ideal conditions for the flourishing of enzootic canine rabies. The shift of dog-maintained viruses into gray foxes, coyotes, skunks and other wild mesocarnivores throughout the Americas and to mongooses in the Caribbean has augmented the risk of human rabies exposures and has complicated control efforts. At the same time, the continued presence of bat rabies poses novel challenges in the absolute elimination of canine and human rabies. This article compiles existing historical and phylogenetic evidence of the origins and subsequent dynamics of rabies in the Western Hemisphere, from the era preceding the arrival of the first European colonizers through the present day. A companion article reviews the current status of canine rabies control throughout the Western Hemisphere and steps that will be required to achieve and maintain its complete elimination (Velasco-Villa et al., 2017). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Stratospheric warming in Southern Hemisphere high latitudes since 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show evidence of significant stratospheric warming over Southern Hemisphere high latitudes and large portions of the Antarctic polar region in winter and spring seasons, with a maximum warming of 7–8°C in September and October, using satellite Microwave Sounding Unit observations for 1979–2006. It is found that this warming is associated with increasing wave activity from the troposphere into the stratosphere, suggesting that the warming is caused by enhanced wave-driven adiabatic heating. We show that the stratospheric warming in Southern Hemisphere high latitudes has close correlations with sea surface temperature (SST increases, and that general circulation model simulations forced with observed time-varying SSTs reproduce similar warming trend patterns in the Antarctic stratosphere. The simulated stratospheric warming is closely related to increasing wave activity in the Southern Hemisphere. These findings suggest that the stratospheric warming is likely induced by SST warming. As SST warming continues as a consequence of greenhouse gas increases due to anthropogenic activity, the stratospheric warming would also continue, which has important implications to the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  2. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-03-12

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants.

  3. Aging Modulates the Hemispheric Specialization during Word Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hoyau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although older adults exhibit normal accuracy in performing word retrieval and generation (lexical production; e.g., object naming, they are generally slower in responding than younger adults. To maintain accuracy, older adults recruit compensatory mechanisms and strategies. We focused on two such possible compensatory mechanisms, one semantic and one executive. These mechanisms are reflected at inter- and intra-hemispheric levels by various patterns of reorganization of lexical production cerebral networks. Hemispheric reorganization (HR changes were also evaluated in relation to increase naming latencies. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined 27 healthy participants (from 30 years to 85 years during an object naming task, exploring and identifying task-related patterns of cerebral reorganization. We report two main results. First, we observed a left intra-hemispheric pattern of reorganization, the left anterior-posterior aging (LAPA effect, consisting of supplementary activation of left posterior (temporo-parietal regions in older adults and asymmetric activation along the left fronto-temporal axis. This pattern suggests that older adults recruit posterior semantic regions to perform object naming. The second finding consisted of bilateral recruitment of frontal regions to maintain appropriate response times, especially in older adults who were faster performers. This pattern is discussed in terms of compensatory mechanism. We suggest that aging is associated with multiple, co-existing compensation and reorganization mechanisms and patterns associated with lexical production.

  4. Origami silicon optoelectronics for hemispherical electronic eye systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kan; Jung, Yei Hwan; Mikael, Solomon; Seo, Jung-Hun; Kim, Munho; Mi, Hongyi; Zhou, Han; Xia, Zhenyang; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-11-24

    Digital image sensors in hemispherical geometries offer unique imaging advantages over their planar counterparts, such as wide field of view and low aberrations. Deforming miniature semiconductor-based sensors with high-spatial resolution into such format is challenging. Here we report a simple origami approach for fabricating single-crystalline silicon-based focal plane arrays and artificial compound eyes that have hemisphere-like structures. Convex isogonal polyhedral concepts allow certain combinations of polygons to fold into spherical formats. Using each polygon block as a sensor pixel, the silicon-based devices are shaped into maps of truncated icosahedron and fabricated on flexible sheets and further folded either into a concave or convex hemisphere. These two electronic eye prototypes represent simple and low-cost methods as well as flexible optimization parameters in terms of pixel density and design. Results demonstrated in this work combined with miniature size and simplicity of the design establish practical technology for integration with conventional electronic devices.

  5. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  6. Praxial disorders in focal lesions of cerebral hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Murillo Duran

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to analyze paraxial difficulties i.e, functional disorders in movementresulting from cerebral tissue lesions. In accordance with the literature on the subject, the following definition, the following definition of apraxia has been accepted: “Apraxia is inability in properly executing kinetic tasks without impairment or loss of motor or sensory functions or ataxia with would condition such inability”. “Proper execution” used in this definition concerns not only the effect of the action but also means of its realization. “Kinetic tasks” signify all aspects of motor activity defined by instructions, irrespective of the type of instruction (verbal or gestures, and regardless of whether it required −in the final effect− imitating the movement of the investigator or whether they were performed independently. The methodology has been based in the principle on Luria’s works.Deliberations on praxial disorders were based on investigation results embracing 90 patients with focal cerebral lesions. In fifty cases, changes were localized in the left cerebral hemisphere, in forty cases−in the right hemisphere. The summing up the results concerning a global comparison between cerebral hemispheres, indicate the following regularities: Results achieved made it possible to form the opinion that not all of the generally accepted tests investigating praxia in persons with cerebral lesions are solved faultlessly by healthy individuals; thus, a faulty execution should not always be regarded as a sign of pathological functioning of the cerebral tissue as a result of lesion.

  7. Effects of Emotional Valence on Hemispheric Asymmetries in Response Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ocklenburg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetries are a major organizational principle in human emotion processing, but their interaction with prefrontal control processes is not well understood. To this end, we determined whether hemispheric differences in response inhibition depend on the emotional valence of the stimulus being inhibited. Participants completed a lateralised Go/Nogo task, in which Nogo stimuli were neutral or emotional (either positive or negative images, while Go stimuli were scrambled versions of the same pictures. We recorded the N2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP components, two common electrophysiological measures of response inhibition processes. Behaviourally, participants were more accurate in withholding responses to emotional than to neutral stimuli. Electrophysiologically, Nogo-P3 responses were greater for emotional than for neutral stimuli, an effect driven primarily by an enhanced response to positive images. Hemispheric asymmetries were also observed, with greater Nogo-P3 following left versus right visual field stimuli. However, the visual field effect did not interact with emotion. We therefore find no evidence that emotion-related asymmetries affect response inhibition processes.

  8. Anthropogenic and solar components of hemispheric 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuiver, Minze; Braziunas, Thomas F.

    A variable solar (helio-magnetic) modulation of the cosmic ray flux causes atmospheric 14C to change on a decadal to century timescale. Ocean-atmosphere exchange rates and atmospheric circulation patterns play a role in Northern-Southern Hemispheric 14C offsets and regional 14C differences that are significant for radiocarbon dating. Time dependent radiocarbon age differences, relative to Washington, were determined for Alaska (A.D. 1884-1932), South Chile (A.D. 1850-1952 and A.D. 1670-1722), Tasmania (A.D. 1895-1950) and Siberia (A.D. 1545-1715). Twentieth century fossil fuel CO2, lacking 14C and mostly released in the Northern Hemisphere (N), has entered the Southern Hemisphere (S) by atmospheric N-S exchange. Regional 14C time series show that initial (19th century) positive N-S 14C offsets switch to negative values by AD 1940. First order carbon reservoir modeling predicts such crossovers.

  9. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 – stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50 from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles.

    Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit.

    As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m−2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from −4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m−2 s−1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10−3 m

  10. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 - stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Klemm, O.

    2008-12-01

    During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50) from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles. Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit. As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m-2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from -4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m-2 s-1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10-3 m s-1 that appear temporary during noontime and in the evening hours.

  11. A hemispherical dynamo model: Implications for the Martian crustal magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W.; Wicht, J.; Christensen, U. R.

    2011-12-01

    In 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor detected a strong but very heterogeneous crustal magnetization mainly localized in the southern hemisphere. Their magnetization dichotomy may have either an external or an internal origin. In the first scenario, the Martian crust was fully magnetized by a dipolar dynamo induced in the Martian liquid core. After the core dynamo cessation, the crust was demagnetized by volcanoes, impacts or any other resurfacing event distributed not homogeneously over the surface. The internal origin, which is investigated here, relies on a per se hemispherical internal magnetric field. For this, we rely on that Mars never developed an inner core. The planets ancient dynamo was thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating. Due to the small planetary size, the core mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux may be not as homogeneous, as in e.g. Earth. Mantle convection in smaller planets is thought to develope larger scales, maybe even a huge single-plume structure. Giant impacts might have played a crucial role in the thermal history of Mars, hence they are heating mainly one hemisphere. Giant plumes and major impact events would both cause a hemispherical CMB heat flux pattern. Therefore, we model the ancient Martian dynamo as rotating, convecting and conducting fluid heated by an internal heat source and contained in a spherical shell, where the CMB heat flux is perturbed by a sinusoidal anomaly. Compared to the classical columnar convection, we find a drastically different flow pattern. There meridional circulation seeking to equilibrate the heat difference between both hemispheres is diverted into two counterdirected cells of axisymmetric zonal flows (thermal winds) by the strong Coriolis force. Convective plumes are confined to the region of high heat flux in the vicinity of the southern pole. Core convection is thus dominated by equatorially antisymmetric and axisymmetric (EAA) modes. In the columnar regime, poloidal and toroidal

  12. Atmospheric mercury in the Southern Hemisphere tropics: seasonal and diurnal variations and influence of inter-hemispheric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Howard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic element of serious concern for human and environmental health. Understanding its natural cycling in the environment is an important goal towards assessing its impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury, the atmosphere is the dominant transport pathway for this heavy metal, with the consequence that regions far removed from sources can be impacted. However, there exists a dearth of long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. This paper presents the first 2 years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM measurements taken at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS in northern Australia, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS. Annual mean GEM concentrations determined at ATARS (0.95 ± 0.12 ng m−3 are consistent with recent observations at other sites in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with GEM data from other Australian monitoring sites suggests a concentration gradient that decreases with increasing latitude. Seasonal analysis shows that GEM concentrations at ATARS are significantly lower in the distinct wet monsoon season than in the dry season. This result provides insight into alterations of natural mercury cycling processes as a result of changes in atmospheric humidity, oceanic/terrestrial fetch, and convective mixing, and invites future investigation using wet mercury deposition measurements. Due to its location relative to the atmospheric equator, ATARS intermittently samples air originating from the Northern Hemisphere, allowing an opportunity to gain greater understanding of inter-hemispheric transport of mercury and other atmospheric species. Diurnal cycles of GEM at ATARS show distinct nocturnal depletion events that are attributed to dry deposition under stable boundary layer conditions. These cycles provide strong further evidence supportive of

  13. Atmospheric mercury in the Southern Hemisphere tropics: seasonal and diurnal variations and influence of inter-hemispheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dean; Nelson, Peter F.; Edwards, Grant C.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Ward, Jason; Harnwell, James; van der Schoot, Marcel; Atkinson, Brad; Chambers, Scott D.; Griffiths, Alan D.; Werczynski, Sylvester; Williams, Alastair G.

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a toxic element of serious concern for human and environmental health. Understanding its natural cycling in the environment is an important goal towards assessing its impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury, the atmosphere is the dominant transport pathway for this heavy metal, with the consequence that regions far removed from sources can be impacted. However, there exists a dearth of long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. This paper presents the first 2 years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements taken at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in northern Australia, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS). Annual mean GEM concentrations determined at ATARS (0.95 ± 0.12 ng m-3) are consistent with recent observations at other sites in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with GEM data from other Australian monitoring sites suggests a concentration gradient that decreases with increasing latitude. Seasonal analysis shows that GEM concentrations at ATARS are significantly lower in the distinct wet monsoon season than in the dry season. This result provides insight into alterations of natural mercury cycling processes as a result of changes in atmospheric humidity, oceanic/terrestrial fetch, and convective mixing, and invites future investigation using wet mercury deposition measurements. Due to its location relative to the atmospheric equator, ATARS intermittently samples air originating from the Northern Hemisphere, allowing an opportunity to gain greater understanding of inter-hemispheric transport of mercury and other atmospheric species. Diurnal cycles of GEM at ATARS show distinct nocturnal depletion events that are attributed to dry deposition under stable boundary layer conditions. These cycles provide strong further evidence supportive of a multi-hop model of GEM

  14. Mars' paleomagnetic field as the result of a single-hemisphere dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Sabine; Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Zuber, Maria T; Parmentier, E Marc

    2008-09-26

    Mars' crustal magnetic field was most likely generated by dynamo action in the planet's early history. Unexplained characteristics of the field include its strength, concentration in the southern hemisphere, and lack of correlation with any surface features except for the hemispheric crustal dichotomy. We used numerical dynamo modeling to demonstrate that the mechanisms proposed to explain crustal dichotomy formation can result in a single-hemisphere dynamo. This dynamo produces strong magnetic fields in only the southern hemisphere. This magnetic field morphology can explain why Mars' crustal magnetic field intensities are substantially stronger in the southern hemisphere without relying on any postdynamo mechanisms.

  15. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  16. In your right mind: right hemisphere contributions to language processing and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2006-09-01

    The verbal/nonverbal account of left and right hemisphere functionality is the prevailing dichotomy describing the cerebral lateralization of function. Yet the fact that the left hemisphere is the superior language processor does not necessarily imply that the right hemisphere is completely lacking linguistic ability. This paper reviews the growing body of research demonstrating that, far from being nonverbal, the right hemisphere has significant language processing strength. From prosodic and paralinguistic aspects of speech production, reception, and interpretation, to prelexical, lexical and postlexical components of visual word recognition; strong involvement of the right hemisphere is implicated. The evidence reviewed challenges the notion that language is solely a function of the "verbal" left hemisphere, indicating that the right cerebral hemisphere makes significant and meaningful contributions to normal language processing as well.

  17. Digital simulation of chronoamperometry at an electrode within a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme: comparison of a hemispherical with a flat disk electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Dieter; Strutwolf, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Current-time and steady state current behaviour was simulated for the cases of a hemispherical and flat inlaid disk electrodes located under a hemispherical polymer drop containing an enzyme which converts a substrate diffusing into the drop into a product that is electroactive at the electrode. A...

  18. Exploring the Research concerning Left Hemisphere/Right Hemisphere Cognitive Processes and Examining One Instructional Technique Which May Be Implemented across the Curriculum to Produce Holistic Thinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Gloria H.

    Current writings on the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain are examined, focusing upon possible implications for improving present educational techniques. It has been generally accepted by researchers that the organizational and verbalizing processes are functions of the left cerebral hemisphere, while creative and intuitive…

  19. Reaching Across the Hemispheres with Science, Language, Arts and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in

  20. Analysis of global and hemispheric temperature records and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Rolf; Valev, Dimitar; Danov, Dimitar; Guineva, Veneta; Kirillov, Andrey

    2015-06-01

    Climate changes are connected to long term variations of global and hemispheric temperatures, which are important for the work out of socio-political strategy for the near future. In the paper the annual temperature time series are modeled by linear multiple regression to identify important climate forcings including external climate factors such as atmospheric CO2 content, volcanic emissions, and the total solar irradiation as well as internal factors such as El Niño-Southern oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Adjusted temperatures were determined by removal of all significant influences except CO2. The adjusted temperatures follow a linear dependence toward the logarithm of the CO2 content, and the coefficient of determination is about 0.91. The evolution of the adjusted temperatures suggests that the warming due to CO2 from the beginning of the studied here time interval in 1900 has never stopped and is going on up to now. The global warming rate deduced from the adjusted temperatures since 1980 is about 0.14 ± 0.02 °C/decade. The warming rate reported in the IPCC assessment report 4 based on observed global surface temperature set is about 20% higher, due to the warming by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation additional to the anthropogenic warming. The predicted temperature evolution based on long time changes of CO2 and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation index shows that the Northern Hemispheric temperatures are modulated by the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation influence and will not change significantly to about 2040, after that they will increase speedily, just like during the last decades of the past century. The temperatures of the Southern Hemisphere will increase almost linearly and don't show significant periodic changes due to Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. The concrete warming rates of course are strongly depending on the future atmospheric CO2 content.

  1. [Gliosarcoma of cerebral hemispheres: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhen; Liang, Zhiyong; Li, Yuan; Shen, Jie; Bi, Yalan; Meng, Yunxiao; Zhang, Shuying; Luo, Yufeng; Cao, Jinling; Yang, Di

    2014-10-01

    To study the clinical and pathologic features of gliosarcoma of cerebral hemispheres. The clinicopathologic features of 10 cases of gliosarcoma involving cerebral hemispheres were reviewed. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using EnVision method. The mean age of the patients was 54 years and the male-to-female ratio was 6 to 4. Clinical symptoms included headache (6/10), nausea/vomiting (5/10), and sensory or motor impairment (4/10). Nine of the cases were primary gliosarcoma, with maximum diameter ranging from 2.4 to 5.5 cm (mean = 4.2 cm). The remaining case represented secondary gliosarcoma involving skull base and extracranial tissues. Histologic examination showed a biphasic pattern in all cases. Regarding the glial component, there were 9 cases of pleomorphic glioblastoma and 1 case of giant cell glioblastoma. Reticulin stain was positive in all cases. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells variably expressed GFAP (10/10), p16 (4/10), EGFR (1/10), CD68 (1/10) and p53 (6/10). The Ki-67 index ranged from 15% to 70% (mean = 34%). Six patients had follow-up data available. One patient was disease-free for 45 months and 5 patients died of the disease at 3 to 17 months after the operation (mean duration of survival = 9 months). Gliosarcoma is a highly aggressive tumor, often locates in the deeper part cerebral hemispheres and has a relatively short duration of symptoms. It carries a poor prognosis. GFAP immunostain and reticulin stain are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. p53 and p16 are also expressed in some cases.

  2. Near-Infrared Lasing from Small-Molecule Organic Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedong; Liao, Qing; Li, Hui; Bai, Shuming; Wu, Yishi; Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Huaiyuan; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Hongbing

    2015-07-29

    Near-infrared (NIR) lasers are key components for applications, such as telecommunication, spectroscopy, display, and biomedical tissue imaging. Inorganic III-V semiconductor (GaAs) NIR lasers have achieved great successes but require expensive and sophisticated device fabrication techniques. Organic semiconductors exhibit chemically tunable optoelectronic properties together with self-assembling features that are well suitable for low-temperature solution processing. Major blocks in realizing NIR organic lasing include low stimulated emission of narrow-bandgap molecules due to fast nonradiative decay and exciton-exciton annihilation, which is considered as a main loss channel of population inversion for organic lasers under high carrier densities. Here we designed and synthesized the small organic molecule (E)-3-(4-(di-p-tolylamino)phenyl)-1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DPHP) with amphiphilic nature, which elaborately self-assembles into micrometer-sized hemispheres that simultaneously serves as the NIR emission medium with a photoluminescence quantum efficiency of ∼15.2%, and the high-Q (∼1.4 × 10(3)) whispering gallery mode microcavity. Moreover, the radiative rate of DPHP hemispheres is enhanced up to ∼1.98 × 10(9) s(-1) on account of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the solid state with the J-type molecular-coupling component, and meanwhile the exciton-exciton annihilation process is eliminated. As a result, NIR lasing with a low threshold of ∼610 nJ/cm(2) is achieved in the single DPHP hemisphere at room temperature. Our demonstration is a major step toward incorporating the organic coherent light sources into the compact optoelectronic devices at NIR wavelengths.

  3. First early Mesozoic amber in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Ash, Sidney R.

    1991-03-01

    Detrital amber pebbles and granules have been discovered in Upper Triassic strata on the Colorado Plateau. Although amber pre-viously has been reported from Pennsylvanian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata, we know of no other reported Triassic occurrence in North America or the Western Hemisphere. The newly discovered occurrences of amber are at two localities in the lower part of the Petrified }Forest Member of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. The paper coals and carbonaceous paper shales containing the amber also contain fossil palynomorph assemblages that indicate a late Carnian age for these occurrences.

  4. The southern hemisphere ozone hole split in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas

    2002-01-01

    Among the most important aspects of the atmospheric pollution problem are the anthropogenic impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer, the related trends of the total ozone content drop and the solar ultraviolet radiation enhancement at the Earth's surface level. During September 2002, the ozone hole over the Antarctic was much smaller than in the previous six years. It has split into two separate holes, due to the appearance of sudden stratospheric warming that has never been observed before in the southern hemisphere. The analysis of this unprecedented event is attempted, regarding both the meteorological and photochemical aspects, in terms of the unusual thermal field patterns and the induced polar vortex disturbances.

  5. Highest treeline in the Northern Hemisphere found in Southern Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Miehe, Georg; Miehe, Sabine; Vogel, Jonas; Co, Sonam; Duo, La

    2007-01-01

    This article was first published in "Mountain Research and Development" (MRD), vol 27 no 2, pp 169-173. The rights of reproduction remain with the co-copyright holders: The International Mountain Society (IMS) and the United Nations University (UNU), c/o MRD Editorial Office, Bern, Switzerland (www.mrd-journal.org). Three new records of the highest treelines in the northern hemisphere are presented here, based on the definition of a “tree.” The tree species with the highest tre...

  6. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamic perturbations during Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, M. E.; Fejer, B. G.; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We use ground-based and satellite measurements to examine, for the first time, the characteristics of equatorial electrodynamic perturbations measured during the 2002 major and 2010 minor Southern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Our data suggest the occurrence of enhanced...... quasi 2 day fluctuations during the 2002 early autumnal equinoctial warming. They also show a moderately large multi-day perturbation pattern, resembling those during arctic SSW events, during 2002 late equinox, as the major SSW was weakening. We also compare these data with extensive recent results...

  7. Update on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities yearly, around the globe. The largest burden of these diseases falls on communities with poor access to basic sanitation, healthcare facilities, and educational programs. This review focuses on advances in vaccination, treatment and control programs over the past decade for the major NTDs of the Western Hemisphere: malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, ankylostomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis, and onchocerciasis. The discussion centers on challenges for NTD eradication and prospects for the future.

  8. Literacy after cerebral hemispherectomy: Can the isolated right hemisphere read?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bode, Stella; Chanturidze, Marine; Mathern, Gary W; Dubinsky, Stanley

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral hemispherectomy, a surgical procedure undergone to control intractable seizures, is becoming a standard procedure with more cases identified and treated early in life [33]. While the effect of the dominant hemisphere resection on spoken language has been extensively researched, little is known about reading abilities in individuals after left-sided resection. Left-lateralized phonological abilities are the key components of reading, i.e., grapheme-phoneme conversion skills [1]. These skills are critical for the acquisition of word-specific orthographic knowledge and have been shown to predict reading levels in average readers as well as in readers with mild cognitive disability [26]. Furthermore, impaired phonological processing has been implicated as the cognitive basis in struggling readers. Here, we explored the reading skills in participants who have undergone left cerebral hemispherectomy. Seven individuals who have undergone left cerebral hemispherectomy to control intractable seizures associated with perinatal infarct have been recruited for this study. We examined if components of phonological processing that are shown to reliably separate average readers from struggling readers, i.e., phonological awareness, verbal memory, speed of retrieval, and size of vocabulary, show the same relationship to reading levels when they are mediated by the right hemisphere [2]. We found that about 60% of our group developed both word reading and paragraph reading in the average range. Phonological processing measured by both phonological awareness and nonword reading was unexpectedly spared in the majority of participants. Phonological awareness levels strongly correlated with word reading. Verbal memory, a component of phonological processing skills, together with receptive vocabulary size, positively correlated with reading levels similar to those reported in average readers. Receptive vocabulary, a bilateral function, was preserved to a certain degree similar

  9. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  10. Workflow Generation from the Two-Hemisphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusarovs Konstantīns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD is a trend in Software Development that focuses on code generation from various kinds of models. To perform such a task, it is necessary to develop an algorithm that performs source model transformation into the target model, which ideally is an actual software code written in some kind of a programming language. However, at present a lot of methods focus on Unified Modelling Language (UML diagram generation. The present paper describes a result of authors’ research on Two-Hemisphere Model (2HM processing for easier code generation.

  11. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  12. Lateral thinkers are not so laterally minded: hemispheric asymmetry, interaction, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2011-07-01

    The biological basis of creativity remains a topic of contention. A long-held view suggests that whereas the left hemisphere is intelligent and analytic, the right hemisphere is the source of all creativity. Consequently, activating the right hemisphere should enhance creative thinking, prompting a plethora of popular books hawking a right hemisphere solution to topics ranging from drawing, to money management, to sex. More recently, an alternate proposal has suggested that creativity is not a lateralised function; instead, creativity is argued to stem from the interaction and integration of information across both the left and right hemispheres. According to this view, individuals with greater interhemispheric communication and/or less-lateralised brains will evidence enhanced creative ability. This paper reviews the neural basis of creativity to determine whether creativity stems from activation of the right hemisphere, or from the interaction of both hemispheres. The relationship between creativity and psychopathology is also examined, evaluating the evidence for a causal link between disorders such as schizophrenia, hemispheric activation, and enhanced creativity. Although the research reviewed indicates greater right hemisphere activity during creative tasks, the interaction between many varied, often distant, cortical regions across both the left and right hemispheres is also a crucial component of creativity. This interaction facilitates the integration of a variety of separate cognitive abilities, fostering creative thinking. As such, creativity is better conceptualised as a distributed, rather than a purely lateralised, function; more lateral thinkers have less lateralised brains.

  13. Hemispheric biases and the control of visuospatial attention: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banich Marie T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether individual differences in hemispheric utilization can interact with the intrinsic attentional biases of the cerebral hemispheres. Evidence suggests that the hemispheres have competing biases to direct attention contralaterally, with the left hemisphere (LH having a stronger bias than the right hemisphere. There is also evidence that individuals have characteristic biases to utilize one hemisphere more than the other for processing information, which can induce a bias to direct attention to contralateral space. We predicted that LH-biased individuals would display a strong rightward attentional bias, which would create difficulty in selectively attending to target stimuli in the left visual field (LVF as compared to right in the performance of a bilateral flanker task. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, flanker interference effects were found on the N2c event-related brain potential and error rate for LH-biased individuals in the Attend-LVF condition. The error rate effect was correlated with the degree of hemispheric utilization bias for the LH-Bias group. Conclusion We conclude that hemispheric utilization bias can enhance a hemisphere's contralateral attentional bias, at least for individuals with a LH utilization bias. Hemispheric utilization bias may play an important and largely unrecognized role in visuospatial attention.

  14. Biodiversity and Complexity Influence Seagrass Functioning: A Comparative-Experimental Approach Across the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ecosystems are mediated by interactions between resource supply, consumer pressure, and community composition, with the balance shifting along environmental gradients. Comparative-experimental approaches, including observational and experimental networks, are a promising way forward to organizing this complexity into predictive models and to quantify the role of biodiversity on ocean processes. Through the Zostera Experimental Network we utilize this approach to study the community ecology of eelgrass (Zostera marina), the most widespread marine plant and foundation of important but threatened coastal ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. In 2014, parallel field surveys and experiments were conducted at 50 field sites to measure correlations between mesograzer species diversity, eelgrass genetic diversity, predation pressure, and seagrass dynamics. Biodiversity was positively correlated with plant and grazer biomass across sites. Predation pressure in these systems decreased with grazer biomass and latitude. In subsequent experiments in 2015, habitat complexity influenced the grazer community. These results suggest that the impacts of biodiversity loss on ecosystems will be of comparable magnitude to those of other global change factors and should be accounted for in relevant monitoring and restoration activities.

  15. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  16. The USNO-UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Scott; Bruursema, Justice; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Vrba, Fred J.; Dorland, Bryan; Dye, Simon; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Irwin, Mike; Lawrence, Andy; McLaren, Robert; Hodapp, Klaus; Hasinger, Guenther

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey (U2HS), currently underway using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) installed on UKIRT on Maunakea. U2HS is a collaborative effort undertaken by USNO, the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) and the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) in Edinburgh. The principal objective of the U2HS is to provide continuous northern hemisphere K-band coverage over a declination range of δ=0o – +60o by combining over 12,700 deg2 of new imaging with the existing UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). U2HS will achieve a 5-σ point source sensitivity of K~18.4 mag (Vega), over three magnitudes deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). In this contribution we discuss survey design, execution, data acquisition and processing, photometric calibration and quality control. The data obtained by the U2HS will be made publicly available through the Wide Field Science Archive (WSA) maintained by the WFAU.

  17. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  18. Right-hemisphere (spatial?) acalculia and the influence of neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Pitteri, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD), focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients [12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+), 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-)], and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication, which do not require written visuo-spatial abilities. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  19. Circadian differences in hemisphere-linked spelling proficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Diubaldo, D

    1995-03-01

    Male and female adolescents (N = 113) were assigned randomly to spelling instruction in either morning or afternoon groups for a school year. A spelling list (100 words) was administered at the beginning of the school year to obtain a sample of error responses and estimate proficiency. Although equally proficient, subjects tested in the afternoon showed more phonetically inappropriate errors, while those tested in the morning showed more phonetically appropriate errors. This error pattern is viewed as support for a more engaged left hemisphere in the morning. There were no differences on two types of visual errors. Subjects then received instruction in spelling for nine months in either morning or afternoon settings. Time-of-day effects were not evident on the word list and there were too few errors to conduct a posttest error analysis. However, standardized test results for a subgroup revealed that subjects receiving morning instruction made greater gains on phonetically regular words compared to phonetically irregular words--an effect consistent with a circadian-linked higher level of left hemisphere engagement early in the day. The findings are of a pilot nature, but implications for education and further research are discussed.

  20. Global and hemispheric temperature reconstruction from glacier length fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Paul Willem; Oerlemans, Johannes [Universiteit Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Temperature reconstructions for recent centuries provide a historical context for the warming over the twentieth century. We reconstruct annual averaged surface temperatures of the past 400 years on hemispherical and global scale from glacier length fluctuations. We use the glacier length records of 308 glaciers. The reconstruction is a temperature proxy with decadal resolution that is completely independent of other temperature records. Temperatures are derived from glacier length changes using a linear response equation and an analytical glacier model that is calibrated on numerical model results. The global and hemispherical temperatures reconstructed from glacier length fluctuations are in good agreement with the instrumental record of the last century. Furthermore our results agree with existing multi-proxy reconstructions of temperature in the pre-instrumental period. The temperature record obtained from glacier fluctuations confirms the pronounced warming of the twentieth century, giving a global cumulative warming of 0.94 {+-} 0.31 K over the period 1830-2000 and a cumulative warming of 0.84 {+-} 0.35 K over the period 1600-2000. (orig.)

  1. Hemispheric asymmetries in speech perception: sense, nonsense and modulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Rosen

    Full Text Available The well-established left hemisphere specialisation for language processing has long been claimed to be based on a low-level auditory specialization for specific acoustic features in speech, particularly regarding 'rapid temporal processing'.A novel analysis/synthesis technique was used to construct a variety of sounds based on simple sentences which could be manipulated in spectro-temporal complexity, and whether they were intelligible or not. All sounds consisted of two noise-excited spectral prominences (based on the lower two formants in the original speech which could be static or varying in frequency and/or amplitude independently. Dynamically varying both acoustic features based on the same sentence led to intelligible speech but when either or both acoustic features were static, the stimuli were not intelligible. Using the frequency dynamics from one sentence with the amplitude dynamics of another led to unintelligible sounds of comparable spectro-temporal complexity to the intelligible ones. Positron emission tomography (PET was used to compare which brain regions were active when participants listened to the different sounds.Neural activity to spectral and amplitude modulations sufficient to support speech intelligibility (without actually being intelligible was seen bilaterally, with a right temporal lobe dominance. A left dominant response was seen only to intelligible sounds. It thus appears that the left hemisphere specialisation for speech is based on the linguistic properties of utterances, not on particular acoustic features.

  2. Semantic processing in the left versus right cerebral hemispheres following unilateral hand contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Casey E; Hahn, Michael E; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral hand contractions increase activation in the motor cortex of the contralateral hemisphere, providing a means to alter the relative degree of activation in the right hemisphere versus the left hemisphere through spreading activation. Prior research reported enhanced verbal creativity as measured by performance on remote associate problems in Hebrew from left-hand contractions (right-hemisphere activation). We sought to extend the previous findings to English problems and to homograph interpretation. In Experiment 1, unilateral hand contractions in fact altered performance on the English remote associates, but in the direction of improved performance following right-hand contractions and left-hemisphere activation. In Experiment 2, the probability of retrieving atypical interpretations of homographs with multiple meanings was least likely for left-hemisphere dominant strong right handers, but the hand contraction manipulation had no effect.

  3. Migration of Sparganum of the Frontal Lobe to the Ipsilateral Cerebellar Hemisphere: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Eun A; Choi, See Sung; Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Hey Won; Lee, Young Hwan [Wonkwang University Hopital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Most cerebral sparganosis lesions are located in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere. A few cases of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum have migrated into the contralateral cerebral hemisphere have been reported. We report a case of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum migrated from the white matter of the left frontal lobe to the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere after failure of surgical removal of the worm

  4. BOREAS TE-23 Canopy Architecture and Spectral Data from Hemispherical Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Hemispherical photographs collected in support of the effort to characterize and interpret information on estimates of canopy architecture and radiative...

  5. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  6. BOREAS TE-23 Canopy Architecture and Spectral Data from Hemispherical Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hemispherical photographs collected in support of the effort to characterize and interpret information on estimates of canopy architecture and radiative transfer...

  7. Communicating with the non-dominant hemisphere Implications for neurological rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira Sheilla de Medeiros Correia Marin Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci

    2013-01-01

    .... Mechanisms of language recovery after brain injury to the dominant hemisphere seem to be relatively stereotyped, including activations of perilesional areas in the acute phase and of homologues...

  8. Asperger syndrome: tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen L; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Ellis, Hadyn D

    2002-08-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to assess to what extent Rourke's (1989, 1995) nonverbal learning disabilities syndrome (NLD) model resembles the pattern of assets and deficits seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). NLD can be characterized by a cluster of deficits primarily affecting nonverbal aspects of functioning, in the presence of proficiency in single word reading and a superior verbal memory. The neurological underpinnings of this syndrome may be dysfunction of white matter affecting right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. To explore this hypothesis, eight participants with AS (ages 10 to 41 years) were assessed in the following areas: the pragmatics of language and communication, verbal and visual memory, visual-spatial abilities, and bimanual motor skills. Results confirmed the close similarity in the neuropsychologic profiles of NLD and AS.

  9. Story processing in right-hemisphere brain-damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, A; Kaplan, J A; Weylman, S T; Kelly, B; Brownell, H H; Gardner, H

    1992-04-01

    The understanding of stories requires sensitivity to structural aspects of narrative, the emotional content conveyed by the narrative, and the interaction between structural and emotional facets of the story. Right-hemisphere-damaged (RHD) and normal control subjects performed a number of different analytic tasks which probed their competence at story comprehension. Results revealed that RHD subjects perform at a level comparable to that of normal controls with stories that follow a canonical form and that they show few difficulties with structural aspects of narrative. Contrary to expectation, they are strongly influenced by the "interest" level of a story and by other factors that tap emotional sensitivity. Findings are discussed in terms of the processing and arousal mechanisms which may give rise to the observed pattern of difficulties in RHD patients.

  10. Design of a Quasi-Hemispherical UWB Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Franek, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a design of three-dimensional antenna for ultrawideband applications. The antenna has dimensions of 58 mm x 58 mm x 76.5 mm and is composed of two identical arms. Each arm consists of a hollow quasi-hemisphere and an inner for it tube. In the simulation, a 50 Ω coaxial cable...... is employed to feed the antenna in order to assess the change of the antenna performance due to the cable effect. The simulated results show that the antenna is capable of operating in the frequency band from 7 to 32.5 GHz with S11 below -10 dB, while maintaining an omnidirectional radiation pattern....... The simulated total efficiency is above 88 % over the entire impedance bandwidth which indicates a good antenna performance. The realized gain varies from 0.8 to 3.1 dBi with frequency....

  11. N = 2 gauge theories on the hemisphere HS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Edi; Narain, K. S.; Muteeb, M. Nouman; Giraldo-Rivera, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    Using localization techniques, we compute the path integral of N = 2 SUSY gauge theory coupled to matter on the hemisphere HS4, with either Dirichlet or Neumann supersymmetric boundary conditions. The resulting quantities are wave-functions of the theory depending on the boundary data. The one-loop determinants are computed using SO (4) harmonics basis. We solve kernel and co-kernel equations for the relevant differential operators arising from gauge and matter localizing actions. The second method utilizes full SO (5) harmonics to reduce the computation to evaluating QSUSY2 eigenvalues and its multiplicities. In the Dirichlet case, we show how to glue two wave-functions to get back the partition function of round S4. We will also describe how to obtain the same results using SO (5) harmonics basis.

  12. Changes in the brightness of Jupiter's hemispheres again become periodic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Our analysis of data on relative brightness distribution along the central meridian of Jupiter showed that the ratio of brightness of northern and southern tropical zones Aj=BNTrZ/BSTrZ is a good index of activity of processes in Jovian atmosphere. In the years when the influence of solar activity is synchronized with the seasonal changes of irradiation of the northern and southern hemisphere, we note an increasing of the correlation of the activity index Aj with the periodic curve for change of distance to Sun at moving of planet on orbit. Analysis of Jupiter's images obtained in 2014-2017 showed, that if in 1998-2013 synchronization of change the Aj with the curve of change distance to the Sun when the planet moved on orbit, was somewhat disrupted; but in 2015-2017 such a correlation began to recover.

  13. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  14. Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead: the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, A.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    2000-10-01

    Aerosols collected between 1994 and 1999 at more than 70 different sites affecting the Southern Hemisphere have been measured for their 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios and Pb concentrations. Lower ratios are found at the southern tips of Africa, Australia and South America probably due to the supply of alkyllead from a common supplier such as Associated Octel. The ratios increase in a northerly direction probably due to a changing market share in alkyllead or an increasing industrial Pb contribution. The geographical variations in isotopic signatures made it possible to broadly characterize the different regions that influence the Southern Hemisphere. Brazil and Argentina exhibited 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios in aerosols of 1.141-1.184, 2.416-2.442 and 17.77-18.57, respectively. Mexican aerosols had values of 1.188-1.197, 2.452-2.463 and 18.46-18.73. Aerosols sampled in Chile had low ratios in the South of 1.063-1.094, 2.337-2.373 and 16.46-17.13 which increased in a northerly direction. Emissions from South Africa were characterized by ratios 1.067-1.090, 2.340-2.358 and 16.53-16.99. In 1994-1995 Australia and New Zealand had ratios of 1.060-1.193, 2.324-2.445 and 16.08-18.54. In 1997 however, the range was narrower: 1.072-1.112, 2.342-2.398 and 16.55-17.36, respectively. These isotopic signatures are potentially useful for tracing sources of pollution and the movement of air-masses on a global scale.

  15. Is it mine? Hemispheric asymmetries in corporeal self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Francesca; Maini, Manule; Romualdi, Sabrina; Galante, Emanuela; Avanzi, Stefano

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the recognition of "self body parts" is independent from the recognition of other people's body parts. If this is the case, the ability to recognize "self body parts" should be selectively impaired after lesion involving specific brain areas. To verify this hypothesis, patients with lesion of the right (right brain-damaged [RBD]) or left (left brain-damaged [LBD]) hemisphere and healthy subjects were submitted to a visual matching-to-sample task in two experiments. In the first experiment, stimuli depicted their own body parts or other people's body parts. In the second experiment, stimuli depicted parts of three categories: objects, bodies, and faces. In both experiments, participants were required to decide which of two vertically aligned images (the upper or the lower one) matched the central target stimulus. The results showed that the task indirectly tapped into bodily self-processing mechanisms, in that both LBD patients and normal subjects performed the task better when they visually matched their own, as compared to others', body parts. In contrast, RBD patients did not show such an advantage for self body parts. Moreover, they were more impaired than LBD patients and normal subjects when visually matching their own body parts, whereas this difference was not evident in performing the task with other people's body parts. RBD patients' performance for the other stimulus categories (face, body, object), although worse than LBD patients' and normal subjects' performance, was comparable across categories. These findings suggest that the right hemisphere may be involved in the recognition of self body parts, through a fronto-parietal network.

  16. Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) a southern hemisphere perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J.; Murphy, D. J.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Holdsworth, D. A.

    The existence of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes PMSE in the Southern Hemisphere SH has recently been confirmed using HF radar Ogawa et al 2002 MST radar Morris et al 2004 and a Dynasonde Jarvis et al 2005 following earlier observations using MST radar Woodman et al 1999 These studies spanned the geographic latitudes 62 1 r S Machu Picchu 68 6 r S Davis 69 0 r S Syowa and 75 5 r S Halley Bay The emerging array of SH SuperDARN radars provide an opportunity to extend the spatial coverage of PMSE observations An understanding of the occurrence and intensity of PMSE against latitude in the SH is needed to facilitate a comparison with the better spatial coverage of Northern Hemisphere NH PMSE observations Such a comparison will contribute to the ongoing debate as to whether PMSE can provide a proxy for mesosphere temperature and thus shed light on the existence of any interhemispheric asymmetry or otherwise in the polar mesosphere regions The argument for different polar mesosphere environments spawned in part by the reported lack of SH PMSE observations Recent PMSE reflectivity and intensity results from Davis 68 6 r S and Andenes 69 0 r N are given The characteristics and morphology of PMSE events above these Antarctic stations are considered in the context of the thermal and dynamical state of the mesosphere as deduced from satellite i e SABER and AURA and radar i e MF and MST observations respectively A brief account of recent coincident PMSE MST radar and Polar Mesospheric Cloud PMC

  17. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  18. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the northern hemispheric aerosol transport with the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the ranges of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and is 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The aerosol transport is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the intercontinental aerosol transport and its inter-annual variations are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions within the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the source regions of Europe, North America, South and East Asia vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the inter-annual aerosol variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations with the magnitudes from 6% to 20% is more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the intercontinental aerosols in El Niño- and La Niña-years respectively with the strong and weak transport of the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH.

  19. Phonotactic awareness deficit following left-hemisphere stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghaleh

    2015-04-01

    Likert-type scale responses were z-transformed and coded accurate for positive z-values in condition 3 and negative z-values in condition 1 trials. Accuracy was analyzed using binomial mixed effects models and z-transformed scale responses were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. For both analyses, the fixed effects of stimulus, trial number, group (patient/control, education, age, response time, phonotactic regularity (1/3, and gender were examined along with all relevant interactions. Random effects for participant and stimuli as well as random slopes were also included. Model fitting was performed in a backward-stepwise iterative fashion, followed by forward fitting of maximal random effects structure. Models were evaluated by model fitness comparisons using Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion. Accuracy analysis revealed that healthy participants were significantly more accurate than patients [β = 0.47, p<0.001] in Englishness rating. Scale response analysis revealed a significant effect of phonotactic regularity [β = 1.65, p<0.0001] indicating that participants were sensitive to phonotactic regularity differences among non-words. However, the significant interaction of group and phonotactic regularity [β = -0.5, p= 0.02] further demonstrated that, compared to healthy adults, patients were less able to recognize the phonotactic regularity differences between non-words. Results suggest that left-hemisphere lesions cause impaired phonotactic processing and that the left hemisphere might be necessary for phonotactic awareness. These preliminary findings will be followed up by further analyses investigating the interactions between phonotactic processing and participants’ scores on other linguistic/cognitive tasks as well as lesion-symptom mapping.

  20. Mechanism of secular increasing of mean gravity in Northern hemisphere and secular decreasing of mean gravity in Southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    phenomena as cyclicity and synchronism of planetary natural processes, inversion of activity of natural processes in opposite hemispheres. Numerous confirmations give the extensive data of every possible geophysical observations. The phenomenon of synchronism in annual variations of activity of various natural processes is rather brightly expressed - their phases are precisely synchronized, and the periods of extreme activity (or passivity) fall to February - March or August - September. In daily variations of natural processes similar laws are observed. Here we speak about modern processes, but similar laws take place in various time scales, including geological. In the given report we shall concentrate on the analysis of possible secular variations of a gravity at displacement of an external core (of its centre of mass) relatively to the elastic mantle. The analysis has shown, that gravitational influence of displaced superfluous mass of the core are a major factor of secular variations of a gravity. However the displaced core causes directed redistribution of atmospheric masses from a southern hemisphere in northern, and also complex slow redistribution of oceanic masses. Increase of loading of atmospheric and oceanic masses on an elastic crust of northern hemisphere results in its slow lowering. Return processes should observed in a southern hemisphere. All listed factors, certainly, directly influence variations of a gravity. In a more comprehensive sense redistribution of all fluid masses, including climatic character also result in changes of a gravity. Hemispheres mean secular trends of gravity. For an estimation of a role of factors of redistribution of air and fluid masses in variations of a gravity the point model of redistribution of masses of the Earth (Barkin, 2001), obtained very effective applications at studying of fundamental problems of geodynamics, has been used. Let's emphasize, that the Earth is active dynamic object at which activity in the certain

  1. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Ellison

    Full Text Available The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya. By 25-44 (HPD = 35 Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America. This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23 Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya; the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation

  2. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  3. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Bonito

    Full Text Available Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp. and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago, with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of

  4. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivation and motor control: hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brookshire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH, according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the "sword hand," used preferentially to perform approach actions and the nondominant hand (i.e., the "shield hand," used preferentially to perform avoidance actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants' trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers. CONCLUSIONS: The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.

  6. Cognitive impairment after unilateral hemispheric injury of congenital or adult origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sandra L; Coe, Christopher L; Hartke, Kara

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare cognitive functioning in adults with unilateral hemispheric injury due to either congenital damage or an ischemic event in young adulthood. Adults with cerebral palsy resulting from left hemispheric brain damage were compared with adults who had a unilateral stroke in either the left or the right hemisphere. Our primary interest was to determine the impact on hemispheric dominance as revealed by dichotic listening, a task that assesses the bias for preferential listening and processing of sounds. Performance also was determined on a language-related task (word finding) and a spatial task (dot localization). Scores on the Quick Neurological Screening Test indicated that all participants demonstrated significant neuromotor deficits, whereas scores on the Barthel Index indicated that the participants were functional in basic activities of daily living. On cognitive assessments, healthy control participants demonstrated a pronounced left-hemisphere dominance and right-ear advantage; participants with injury to the left hemisphere showed a strong shift toward a right-hemisphere and left-ear dominance. In particular, injury of congenital origin appeared to foster this neural reorganization and localization of language-related functions into the healthy hemisphere. This shift was associated with a deterioration of performance on both the language and the spatial tasks. The importance of appreciating subtle deficits after unilateral injury is important in therapy. The dichotic listening test may provide a simple and useful means for evaluating persistent unilateral brain dysfunction in the clinical setting.

  7. Communicating with the non-dominant hemisphere: Implications for neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira; Correia Marin, Sheilla de Medeiros; Ferreira Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique

    2013-05-05

    Aphasic syndromes usually result from injuries to the dominant hemisphere of the brain. Despite the fact that localization of language functions shows little interindividual variability, several brain areas are simultaneously activated when language tasks are undertaken. Mechanisms of language recovery after brain injury to the dominant hemisphere seem to be relatively stereotyped, including activations of perilesional areas in the acute phase and of homologues of language areas in the non-dominant hemisphere in the subacute phase, later returning to dominant hemisphere activation in the chronic phase. Plasticity mechanisms reopen the critical period of language development, more specifically in what leads to disinhibition of the non-dominant hemisphere when brain lesions affect the dominant hemisphere. The non-dominant hemisphere plays an important role during recovery from aphasia, but currently available rehabilitation therapies have shown limited results for efficient language improvement. Large-scale randomized controlled trials that evaluate well-defined interventions in patients with aphasia are needed for stimulation of neuroplasticity mechanisms that enhance the role of the non-dominant hemisphere for language recovery. Ineffective treatment approaches should be replaced by more promising ones and the latter should be evaluated for proper application. The data generated by such studies could substantiate evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for patients with aphasia.

  8. Differences in Recall of Pictures and Words as a Function of Hemisphericity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    Differences between left and right hemispheric subjects in recalling information presented as pictures and words were studied. The hemisphericity of 133 college students (37 males and 96 females) was identified using the Human Information Process Survey. These subjects were shown 25 concrete nouns individually either as pictures or words. The data…

  9. A cable-driven parallel mechanism for the interaction with hemispherical surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, K.H.J.; van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens; Viadero, Fernando; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a device based upon a specific cable-driven parallel mechanism to interact with hemispherical surfaces is proposed and investigated. This device could be of use in, for example, the automated cleaning of glass domes. Because the cables move on the hemispherical surface, they are

  10. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER..., 12 and 13 to Part 1203—Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil ER10MR98.011 ...

  11. Double Take: Parallel Processing by the Cerebral Hemispheres Reduces Attentional Blink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalf, Paige E.; Banich, Marie T.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Narechania, Kunjan; Simon, Clarissa D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent data have shown that parallel processing by the cerebral hemispheres can expand the capacity of visual working memory for spatial locations (J. F. Delvenne, 2005) and attentional tracking (G. A. Alvarez & P. Cavanagh, 2005). Evidence that parallel processing by the cerebral hemispheres can improve item identification has remained elusive.…

  12. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  13. Measuring right-hemisphere dysfunction in children: validity of two new computer tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, H.J.W.A.; C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); H.R. van Dongen (Huug); van der Werff, P.J.J.; Brooke, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe validity of two new computer‐mediated tests for the detection of right‐cerebral hemisphere lesions in children–the Right‐hemisphere Dysfunction Test and the Visual Perception Test–was evaluated. Normative data were drawn from a group of 91 children (aged five to 14 years) and 14

  14. Remembering 1500 Pictures: The Right Hemisphere Remembers Better than the Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeng, Bruno; Overvoll, Morten; Ole Steinsvik, Oddmar

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that the right hemisphere would be superior to the left hemisphere in remembering having seen a specific picture before, given its superiority in perceptually encoding specific aspects of visual form. A large set of pictures (N=1500) of animals, human faces, artifacts, landscapes, and art paintings were shown for 2 s in central…

  15. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  16. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Gaze-Triggered Reflexive Shift of Attention in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…

  17. Hemispheric specialization and creative thinking: a meta-analytic review of lateralization of creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihov, K.M.; Denzler, M.; Förster, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the

  18. Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…

  19. Moral judgement by the disconnected left and right cerebral hemispheres: a split-brain investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Conor M; Hamlin, J Kiley; Miller, Michael B; King, Danielle; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states. To date, split-brain research has found that the right hemisphere is necessary for intent-based moral judgement. When testing the left hemisphere using linguistically based moral vignettes, split-brain patients evaluate actions based on outcomes, not intentions. Because the right hemisphere has limited language ability relative to the left, and morality paradigms to date have involved significant linguistic demands, it is currently unknown whether the right hemisphere alone generates intent-based judgements. Here we use nonlinguistic morality plays with split-brain patient J.W. to examine the moral judgements of the disconnected right hemisphere, demonstrating a clear focus on intent. This finding indicates that the right hemisphere is not only necessary but also sufficient for intent-based moral judgement, advancing research into the neural systems supporting the moral sense.

  20. Anomaly Detection in the Right Hemisphere: The Influence of Visuospatial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D.; Dixon, Michael J.; Tays, William J.; Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Previous research with both brain-damaged and neurologically intact populations has demonstrated that the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is superior to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH) at detecting anomalies (or incongruities) in objects (Ramachandran, 1995; Smith, Tays, Dixon, & Bulman-Fleming, 2002). The current research assesses whether the RH…

  1. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  2. The Role Played by the Right Hemisphere in the Organization of Complex Textual Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A.; Carlomagno, S.; Caltagirone, C.; Nocentini, U.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with right hemisphere damage (RHD), 11 left hemisphere damaged (LHD) nonaphasic subjects, and 11 neurologically intact controls were given three story description tasks. The two brain-damaged groups had no language, visuospatial, memory, or conceptual deficits on standardized neuropsychological testing. In the first experiment, the…

  3. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  4. Counter-season cultivation of truffles in the Southern Hemisphere: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hall

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of truffles in the Southern Hemisphere began in New Zealand in the mid-1980s and the first fruiting bodies of Tuber melanosporum were harvested in Gisborne in 1993. Cultivation started in Australia soon after and the first truffles were found in Tasmania in 1999. Now there are more than 150 mostly small truffières in New Zealand, and approximatively 200-250 plantations in Australia some of which are very large. Most of the productive truffières have been established with Tuber melanosporum Vittad. infected plants but more recently fruiting bodies of Tuber borchii Vittad. and Tuber aestivum Vittad. have been harvested. Chile followed by Argentina and South Africa were the next to get involved and produced in 2009, 2014 and 2015 respectively. Over the past 10 years alternative techniques have been tried in Italy, China and New Zealand in attempts to control contaminating ectomycorrhizal fungi in the nursery – arguably the most important problem facing the cultivation of truffles worldwide.

  5. Uniform Temperature Dependency in the Phenology of a Keystone Herbivore in Lakes of the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straile, Dietmar; Adrian, Rita; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Spring phenologies are advancing in many ecosystems associated with climate warming causing unpredictable changes in ecosystem functioning. Here we establish a phenological model for Daphnia, an aquatic keystone herbivore based on decadal data on water temperatures and the timing of Daphnia population maxima from Lake Constance, a large European lake. We tested this model with long-term time-series data from two lakes (Müggelsee, Germany; Lake Washington, USA), and with observations from a diverse set of 49 lakes/sites distributed widely across the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The model successfully captured the observed temporal variation of Daphnia phenology in the two case study sites (r2 = 0.25 and 0.39 for Müggelsee and Lake Washington, respectively) and large-scale spatial variation in the NH (R2 = 0.57). These results suggest that Daphnia phenology follows a uniform temperature dependency in NH lakes. Our approach – based on temperature phenologies – has large potential to study and predict phenologies of animal and plant populations across large latitudinal gradients in other ecosystems. PMID:23071520

  6. The influence on the radioxenon background during the temporary suspension of operations of three major medical isotope production facilities in the Northern Hemisphere and during the start-up of another facility in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, Paul R J; Auer, Matthias; Becker, Andreas; Hoffmann, Emmy; Nikkinen, Mika; Ringbom, Anders; Tinker, Rick; Schlosser, Clemens; Sonck, Michel

    2010-09-01

    Medical isotope production facilities (MIPF) have recently been identified to emit the major part of the environmental radioxenon measured at many globally distributed monitoring sites deployed to strengthen the radionuclide component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. Efforts to raise a global radioxenon emission inventory revealed that the yearly global total emission from MIPF's is around 15 times higher than the total radioxenon emission from nuclear power plants (NPP's). Given that situation, from mid 2008 until early 2009 two out of the ordinary hemisphere-specific events occured: 1) In the Northern hemisphere, a joint temporary suspension of operations of the three largest MIPF's made it possible to quantify the effects of the emissions related to NPP's. The average activity concentrations of (133)Xe measured at a monitoring station close to Freiburg, Germany, went down significantly from 4.5 +/- 0.5 mBq/m(3) to 1.1 +/- 0.1 mBq/m(3) and in Stockholm, Sweden, from 2.0 +/- 0.4 mBq/m(3) to 1.05 +/- 0.15 mBq/m(3). 2) In the Southern hemisphere the only radioxenon-emitting MIPF in Australia started up test production in late November 2008. During eight test runs, up to 6.2 +/- 0.2 mBq/m(3) of (133)Xe was measured at the station in Melbourne, 700 km south-west from the facility, where no radioxenon had been observed before, originating from the isotopic production process. This paper clearly confirms the hypothesis that medical isotope production facility are at present the major emitters of radioxenon to the atmosphere. Suspension of operations of these facilities indicates the scale of their normal contribution to the European radioxenon background, which decreased two to four fold. This also gives a unique opportunity to detect and investigate the influence of other local and long distance sources on the radioxenon background. Finally the opposing effect was studied: the contribution of the start-up of a renewed

  7. [Amusia and aphasia of Bolero's creator--influence of the right hemisphere on music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Lorraine; Sikirić, Predrag; Tudor, Katarina Ivana; Cambi-Sapunar, Liana; Radonić, Vedran; Tudor, Mario; Buca, Ante; Carija, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The experience with cortical localization (BA 44, 45, 22) of language (Broca, Wernicke and others) in the left hemisphere has been repeatedly tested over the last 150 years and is now generally accepted. A single case report with autopsy findings (Leborgne, Tan tan), has enabled to localize the seat of spoken language in the left third frontal convolution. As music and language have a lot in common and even share the same hearing system, it is logical to try to localize the cognitive centers for music too. The disabling neurological disease illness of Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), a French impressionist composer, is not the right example to localize music center as that of Broca's language center, but it demonstrates the role of the right hemisphere in music production. In the last five years of his life, Ravel suffered from an unknown disease that affected the left hemisphere causing aphasia, apraxia, alexia, agraphia and amusia. It was the reason why Ravel could not compose during the last years of his life. In contrast to Ravel, Shebalin and Britten continued writing music works of their own although aphasic after having sustained two strokes to the left hemisphere. While lacking clinical cases with selective ablative brain lesions, research into the music localization can be done using modern imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET. Exercising music (professionally) develops analytical process in the left hemisphere whereas other individuals process music in their right hemisphere. There is right ear (left hemisphere) predominance in musicians and vice versa in musical amateurs. Music lateralization towards the right hemisphere is seen in women and in inattentive listeners. It can be subject to cultural influence, so the Japanese process their traditional popular music in the left hemisphere, whereas Westerners process the same music in the right hemisphere. Music and language are processed separately; they are localized in homologous regions of the opposite

  8. Colour knowledge: the role of the right hemisphere in colour processing and object colour knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kylie J

    2008-09-01

    The lateralisation of colour processing is not well understood, although there is a reasonable amount of evidence indicating a right hemisphere bias for colour processing. Tasks that require colour naming are associated with a left hemisphere bias and it is likely that asymmetry of colour processing is influenced by task demands. It is not known whether object colour knowledge is lateralised. In the current study colour and achromatic Mondrian-like objects were presented to either the left or right hemisphere to assess the lateralisation of colour processing. Participants were required to judge whether the objects were colour or achromatic. To assess colour knowledge, congruently and incongruently coloured familiar objects were presented to either the left or right hemisphere and participants were required to judge whether the objects were correctly or incorrectly coloured. The data show that both colour processing and colour knowledge are associated with a right hemisphere bias.

  9. Hemispherical array of sensors with contractively wrapped polymer petals for flow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhere, Elgar; Wang, Nan; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Hemispherical arrays have inherent advantages that allow simultaneous detection of flow speed and direction due to their shape. Though MEMS technology has progressed leaps and bounds, fabrication of array of sensors on a hemispherical surface is still a challenge. In this work, a novel approach of constructing hemispherical array is presented which employs a technique of contractively wrapping a hemispherical surface with flexible liquid crystal polymer petals. This approach also leverages the offerings from rapid prototyping technology and established standard MEMS fabrication processes. Hemispherical arrays of piezoresistive sensors are constructed with two types of petal wrappings, 4-petals and 8-petals, on a dome. The flow sensing and direction detection abilities of the dome are evaluated through experiments in wind tunnel. Experimental results demonstrate that a dome equipped with a dense array of sensors can provide information pertaining to the stimulus, through visualization of output profile over the entire surface.

  10. The motor side of emotions: investigating the relationship between hemispheres, motor reactions and emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal-Hartmann, Cigdem; Pauli, Paul; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze if the left hemisphere preferentially controls flexion responses toward positive stimuli, while the right hemisphere is specialized toward extensor responses to negative pictures. To this end, right-handed subjects had to pull or push a joystick subsequent to seeing a positive or a negative stimulus in their left or right hemifield. Flexion responses were faster for positive stimuli, while negative stimuli were associated with faster extensions responses. Overall, performance was fastest when emotional stimuli were presented to the left visual hemifield. This right hemisphere superiority was especially clear for negative stimuli, while reaction times toward positive pictures showed no hemispheric difference. We did not find any interaction between hemifield and response type. Neither was there a triple interaction between valence, hemifield and response type. We suppose that response dichotomies in humans are not as tightly linked to a hemisphere- and valence-bound reaction type as previously assumed.

  11. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Ruiz, Paulina C; Peñaloza-López, Yolanda R; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Poblano, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere's contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP), such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  12. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  13. Prediction and explanation of increases of mean sea levels in northern hemisphere, in southern hemisphere and all ocean of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    The phenomenon of contrast secular changes of sea levels in the southern and northern hemispheres, predicted on the basis of geodynamic model about the forced relative oscillations and displacements of the Earth shells, has obtained theoretical explanation. In northern hemisphere the mean sea level of ocean increases with velocity about 2.45±0.32 mm/yr, and in a southern hemisphere the mean sea level increases with velocity about 0.67±0.30 mm/yr. Theoretical values of velocity of increase of global mean sea level thus has been estimated in 1.61±0.36 mm/yr. 1 Introduction. The slow (secular) drift of the centre of mass of the Earth in the direction of North Pole with velocity about 12-20 mm/yr has been predicted by author in 1995, and now has confirmed with methods of space geodesy. The DORIS data in period 1999-2008 let us to estimate velocity of polar drift in 5.24 ± 0.29 mm/yr. To explain this fundamental planetary phenomenon it is possible only, having admitted, that similar northern drift tests the centre of mass of the liquid core relatively to the centre of mass of viscous-elastic and thermodynamically changeable mantle with velocity about 2-3 cm/yr [1]. Naturally, a drift of the core is accompanied by the global changes (deformations) of all layers of the mantle and the core, by inversion changes of their tension states when in one hemisphere the tension increases and opposite on the contrary - decreases. Also it is possible that thermodynamical mechanism actively works with inversion properties of molting and solidification of materials at core-mantle boundary in opposite (northern - southern) hemispheres. 2 Atmospheric and oceanic inversion tides. The gravitational attraction of superfluous mass of the drifting to the North core (in 17 masses of the Moon) causes a planetary inversion tide of air masses of the Earth and its oceanic masses, from the southern hemisphere - to the northern hemisphere [2, 3]. As consequence the phenomenon of increasing of

  14. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in False Color (Time Set 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers.This mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. ENSO teleconnections in the southern hemisphere: A climate network view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo

    2017-09-01

    Using functional network analysis, we study the seasonality of atmospheric connectivity and its interannual variability depending on the different phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We find a strong variability of the connectivity on seasonal and interannual time scales both in the tropical and extratropical regions. In particular, there are significant changes in the southern hemisphere extratropical atmospheric connectivity during austral spring within the different stages of ENSO: We find that the connectivity patterns due to stationary Rossby waves differ during El Niño and La Niña, showing a very clear wave train originating close to Australia in the former case, as opposed to La Niña that seems to generate a wave train from the central Pacific. An attempt to understand these differences in terms of changes in the frequency of intraseasonal weather regimes cannot fully explain the differences in connectivity, even though we found the prevalence of different intraseasonal regimes in each phase of ENSO. We conclude that the differential response to extreme phases of ENSO during austral springtime is related to the forcing of waves of different tropical origins.

  16. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Frederiksen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation instability-model with reanalyzed observed July three-dimensional basic states for the periods 1949–1968, 1975–1994, and 1997–2006. We relate the reduction in the winter rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in south-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of leading storm track and blocking modes. We find that cyclogenesis and onset-of-blocking modes growing on the subtropical jet have significantly reduced growth rates in the latter periods. On the other hand there is a significant increase in the growth rate of northwest cloud-band modes and intraseasonal oscillation disturbances that cross Australia and are shown to be related to recent positive trends in winter rainfall over northwest Western Australia and central Australia, in general. The implications of our findings are discussed.

  17. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  18. Hemispheric lateralization and language skill coherence in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Joseph I; Waldron, Brigid; Glosser, David; Sharan, Ashwini; Mintzer, Scott; Zangaladze, Andro; Skidmore, Christopher; Siddiqui, Imran; Caris, Elizabeth; Sperling, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Patients with an early onset of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are at an increased risk for language reorganization. It is unknown whether this reorganization involves a full shift of all language skills to the contralateral hemisphere, or whether it can be partial and involve only a subset of language skills. In this study we report dominance concordance patterns for five separate language skills measured during the Intracarotid Amobarbital Procedure (IAP) for 124 TLE patients. We examined whether the language skills show similar or independent lateralization patterns. We compare these patterns in early versus late seizure onset groups with either a left or right temporal lobe seizure focus. The data showed that the rates of atypical representation ranged from 25.8% for reading to 14.5% of the sample for speech. A majority of patients (60%) showing atypical language representation do so on more than one skill. While multiple atypicalities were common, the proportion of patients showing atypical representation on all five skills was strikingly low (5.6% of the total sample). Our data suggest that language systems are not independent and do not shift and reorganize in isolation, and no pairs of skills seem more likely to reorganize than others. There was also evidence that language is not monolithic with all language skills reorganizing together. The latter suggests that the pressures compelling atypical representation may not work equally on all language skills.

  19. Australian shelf sediments reveal shifts in Miocene Southern Hemisphere westerlies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Henderiks, Jorijntje; Renema, Willem; McHugh, Cecilia M.; De Vleeschouwer, David; Christensen, Beth A.; Fulthorpe, Craig S.; Reuning, Lars; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Bogus, Kara; Auer, Gerald; Ishiwa, Takeshige

    2017-01-01

    Global climate underwent a major reorganization when the Antarctic ice sheet expanded ~14 million years ago (Ma) (1). This event affected global atmospheric circulation, including the strength and position of the westerlies and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and, therefore, precipitation patterns (2–5). We present new shallow-marine sediment records from the continental shelf of Australia (International Ocean Discovery Program Sites U1459 and U1464) providing the first empirical evidence linking high-latitude cooling around Antarctica to climate change in the (sub)tropics during the Miocene. We show that Western Australia was arid during most of the Middle Miocene. Southwest Australia became wetter during the Late Miocene, creating a climate gradient with the arid interior, whereas northwest Australia remained arid throughout. Precipitation and river runoff in southwest Australia gradually increased from 12 to 8 Ma, which we relate to a northward migration or intensification of the westerlies possibly due to increased sea ice in the Southern Ocean (5). Abrupt aridification indicates that the westerlies shifted back to a position south of Australia after 8 Ma. Our midlatitude Southern Hemisphere data are consistent with the inference that expansion of sea ice around Antarctica resulted in a northward movement of the westerlies. In turn, this may have pushed tropical atmospheric circulation and the ITCZ northward, shifting the main precipitation belt over large parts of Southeast Asia (4). PMID:28508066

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of cylindrical and hemispherical jet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Edwards, Thomas; Tully, Brett; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; First Light Fusion Ltd. Team

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the formation of jets in cylindrical and spherical cavities, when impacted by shocks at extreme pressures. As the shock pressure increases the effects of material strength lessen in proportion. Beyond a certain magnitude the behaviour is referred to as "hydrodynamic". In this domain both cylindrical and spherical cavities involute to form jets, which go on to strike the leeward cavity wall, compressing the cavity contents to high pressures and temperatures. In this study, the jet formation process is isolated by cutting hemispherical and half-cylindrical cavities from the rear side of PMMA and copper blocks. This allows direct measurement of the jet speed and shape using high speed imaging, providing data against which numerical models may be compared. Shock waves at pressures of up to 30 GPa are formed in the targets by the impact of projectiles from a two-stage light gas gun, at velocities of up to 7 km/s. Numerically, the jet formation process is modelled using our in-house front-tracking code. This code uses Lagrangian hypersurfaces to model the interfaces between different media, with an underlying Eulerian mesh used to model the bulk flow. Detailed comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented.

  1. Predicting weather regime transitions in Northern Hemisphere datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondrashov, D. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Shen, J. [UCLA, Department of Statistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berk, R. [UCLA, Department of Statistics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Criminology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); D' Andrea, F.; Ghil, M. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Departement Terre-Atmosphere-Ocean and Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (CNRS and IPSL), Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-10-15

    A statistical learning method called random forests is applied to the prediction of transitions between weather regimes of wintertime Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric low-frequency variability. A dataset composed of 55 winters of NH 700-mb geopotential height anomalies is used in the present study. A mixture model finds that the three Gaussian components that were statistically significant in earlier work are robust; they are the Pacific-North American (PNA) regime, its approximate reverse (the reverse PNA, or RNA), and the blocked phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (BNAO). The most significant and robust transitions in the Markov chain generated by these regimes are PNA {yields} BNAO, PNA {yields} RNA and BNAO {yields} PNA. The break of a regime and subsequent onset of another one is forecast for these three transitions. Taking the relative costs of false positives and false negatives into account, the random-forests method shows useful forecasting skill. The calculations are carried out in the phase space spanned by a few leading empirical orthogonal functions of dataset variability. Plots of estimated response functions to a given predictor confirm the crucial influence of the exit angle on a preferred transition path. This result points to the dynamic origin of the transitions. (orig.)

  2. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  3. Electroencephalographic changes in the dominant hemisphere during memorizing and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsby, B; Risberg, J; Ingvar, D H

    1977-05-01

    The EEG was recorded with bipolar technique in ten normal subjects in the frontal, temporal and occipital regions of the dominant hemisphere in four situations: (1) during an auditory memory test, (2) during 'auditory rest' (listening to white noise), (3) during a visual reasoning test and (4) during 'visual rest' (watching a black dot on a white screen). Computer analysis of the EEG was made by (a) an on-line automatic EEG analyser yielding measures of mean power, mean frequency and frequency spread (complexity) and (b) an off-line period-amplitude (P-A) analysis, which gave per cent activity time and mean voltage in 21 frequency bands. As compared to auditory rest the auditory memory test gave an amplitude increase frontally in the alpha, theta, and delta bands. During the visual reasoning test there was in addition an amplitude increase in the alpha band in the temporal region. During the auditory test a tendency to a decrease of the alpha activity was seen in all three regions but this decrease occurred only occipitally during the visual test. The two types of mental activity thus induced two patterns of regional EEG changes. These showed principal similarities to regional cerebral blood flow patterns which have been recorded during visual and auditory tests of about the same types as those used in the present study.

  4. Western hemisphere of the Moon taken by Galileo spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft image of the Moon recorded at 9:35 am Pacific Standard Time (PST), 12-09-90, after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. Western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar near side with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria, but, at lower left South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to

  5. Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J.J.; Shafer, S.L.; White, D.; Kareiva, P.; Maurer, E.P.; Blaustein, A.R.; Bartlein, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to be one of the greatest drivers of ecological change in the coming century. Increases in temperature over the last century have clearly been linked to shifts in species distributions. Given the magnitude of projected future climatic changes, we can expect even larger range shifts in the coming century. These changes will, in turn, alter ecological communities and the functioning of ecosystems. Despite the seriousness of predicted climate change, the uncertainty in climate-change projections makes it difficult for conservation managers and planners to proactively respond to climate stresses. To address one aspect of this uncertainty, we identified predictions of faunal change for which a high level of consensus was exhibited by different climate models. Specifically, we assessed the potential effects of 30 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future-climate simulations on the geographic ranges of 2954 species of birds, mammals, and amphibians in the Western Hemisphere. Eighty percent of the climate projections based on a relatively low greenhouse-gas emissions scenario result in the local loss of at least 10% of the vertebrate fauna over much of North and South America. The largest changes in fauna are predicted for the tundra, Central America, and the Andes Mountains where, assuming no dispersal constraints, specific areas are likely to experience over 90% turnover, so that faunal distributions in the future will bear little resemblance to those of today. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Southern Hemisphere rainfall variability over the past 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergis, Joëlle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2017-04-01

    This study presents an analysis of three palaeoclimate rainfall reconstructions from the Southern Hemisphere regions of south-eastern Australia (SEA), southern South Africa (SAF) and southern South America (SSA). We provide a first comparison of rainfall variations in these three regions over the past two centuries, with a focus on identifying synchronous wet and dry periods. Despite the uncertainties associated with the spatial and temporal limitations of the rainfall reconstructions, we find evidence of dynamically-forced climate influences. An investigation of the twentieth century relationship between regional rainfall and the large-scale climate circulation features of the Pacific, Indian and Southern Ocean regions revealed that Indo-Pacific variations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole dominate rainfall variability in SEA and SAF, while the higher latitude Southern Annular Mode (SAM) exerts a greater influence in SSA. An assessment of the stability of the regional rainfall-climate circulation modes over the past two centuries revealed a number of non-stationarities, the most notable of which occurs during the early nineteenth century around 1820. This corresponds to a time when the influence of ENSO on SEA, SAF and SSA rainfall weakens and there is a strengthening of the influence of SAM. We conclude by advocating the use of long-term palaeoclimate data to estimate decadal rainfall variability for future water resource management.

  7. Extending the Applicability of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model to Hemispheric Scales: Motivation, Challenges, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to simulate O3, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions over the northern hemisphere is presented. Hemispheric simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (...

  8. Seismic imaging of the Sun's far hemisphere and its applications in space weather forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles; Braun, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The interior of the Sun is filled acoustic waves with periods of about 5 min. These waves, called " p modes," are understood to be excited by convection in a thin layer beneath the Sun's surface. The p modes cause seismic ripples, which we call "the solar oscillations." Helioseismic observatories use Doppler observations to map these oscillations, both spatially and temporally. The p modes propagate freely throughout the solar interior, reverberating between the near and far hemispheres. They also interact strongly with active regions at the surfaces of both hemispheres, carrying the signatures of said interactions with them. Computational analysis of the solar oscillations mapped in the Sun's near hemisphere, applying basic principles of wave optics to model the implied p modes propagating through the solar interior, gives us seismic maps of large active regions in the Sun's far hemisphere. These seismic maps are useful for space weather forecasting. For the past decade, NASA's twin STEREO spacecraft have given us full coverage of the Sun's far hemisphere in electromagnetic (EUV) radiation from the far side of Earth's orbit about the Sun. We are now approaching a decade during which the STEREO spacecraft will lose their farside vantage. There will occur significant periods from thence during which electromagnetic coverage of the Sun's far hemisphere will be incomplete or nil. Solar seismology will make it possible to continue our monitor of large active regions in the Sun's far hemisphere for the needs of space weather forecasters during these otherwise blind periods.

  9. The Application of Chemical Foaming Method in the Fabrication of Micro Glass Hemisphere Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbing Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have studied the miniaturization of the hemisphere resonator gyroscope for decades. The hemisphere resonator (HSR, as the core component, has a size that has been reduced to the submillimeter level. We developed a method of batch production of micro-hemisphere shell resonators based on a glass-blowing process to obtain larger hemisphere shells with a higher ratio of height to diameter (H/D, we introduced the chemical foaming process (CFP and acquired an optimized hemisphere shell; the contrasted and improved H/D of the hemisphere shell are 0.61 and 0.80, respectively. Finally, we increased the volume of glass shell resonator by 51.48 times while decreasing the four-node wineglass resonant frequencies from 7.24 MHz to 0.98 MHz. The larger HSR with greater surface area is helpful for setting larger surrounding drive and sense capacitive electrodes, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of HSR to the rotation. This CFP method not only provides more convenience to control the shape of a hemisphere shell but also reduces non-negligible cost in the fabrication process. In addition, this method may inspire some other research fields, e.g., microfluidics, chemical analysis, and wafer level package (WLP.

  10. Cooperation or competition of the two hemispheres in processing characters presented at vertical midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Verleger

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the hemispheres interact in processing of stimuli presented at vertical midline. Processing might be mutually independent or cooperative. Here we measured target identification and visually evoked EEG potentials while stimulus streams containing two targets, T1 and T2, were either presented at vertical midline above and below fixation, or laterally, left and right. With left and right streams, potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were earlier at the right than the left visual cortex, and T2 was better identified left than right, confirming earlier results and suggesting better capabilities of the right hemisphere in this task. With streams above and below fixation, EEG potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were likewise earlier at the right than the left hemisphere, and T2 was generally identified as well as, but not better than left T2, in one target constellation even worse (T2 in lower stream preceded by T1 in upper stream. These results suggest right-hemisphere preference for this task even with stimuli at vertical midline, and no added value through hemispheric cooperation. Lacking asymmetry for T1 amidst asymmetries for filler stimuli and for T2 might indicate alternating access of the hemispheres to midline stimuli as one means of hemispheric division of labor.

  11. Hemispheric specialization varies with EEG brain resting states and phase of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Bischof, Paul; Deziegler, Dominique; Michel, Christoph M; Landis, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of behavioral studies has demonstrated that women's hemispheric specialization varies as a function of their menstrual cycle, with hemispheric specialization enhanced during their menstruation period. Our recent high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) study with lateralized emotional versus neutral words extended these behavioral results by showing that hemispheric specialization in men, but not in women under birth-control, depends upon specific EEG resting brain states at stimulus arrival, suggesting that hemispheric specialization may be pre-determined at the moment of the stimulus onset. To investigate whether EEG brain resting state for hemispheric specialization could vary as a function of the menstrual phase, we tested 12 right-handed healthy women over different phases of their menstrual cycle combining high-density EEG recordings and the same lateralized lexical decision paradigm with emotional versus neutral words. Results showed the presence of specific EEG resting brain states, associated with hemispheric specialization for emotional words, at the moment of the stimulus onset during the menstruation period only. These results suggest that the pre-stimulus EEG pattern influencing hemispheric specialization is modulated by the hormonal state.

  12. Models of hemispheric specialization in facial emotion perception--a reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najt, Pablo; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2013-02-01

    A considerable amount of research on functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) for facial emotion perception has shown conflicting support for three competing models: (i) the Right Hemisphere Hypothesis, (ii) the Valence-Specific Hypothesis, and (iii) the Approach/Withdrawal model. However, the majority of studies evaluating the Right Hemisphere or the Valence-Specific Hypotheses are rather limited by the small number of emotional expressions used. In addition, it is difficult to evaluate the Approach/Withdrawal Hypothesis due to insufficient data on anger and FCAs. The aim of the present study was (a) to review visual half field (VHF) studies of hemispheric specialization in facial emotion perception and (b) to reevaluate empirical evidence with respect to all three partly conflicting hypotheses. Results from the present study revealed a left visual field (LVF)/right hemisphere advantage for the perception of angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions and a right visual field (RVF)/left hemisphere advantage for the perception of happy expressions. Thus, FCAs for the perception of specific facial emotions do not fully support the Right Hemisphere Hypothesis, the Valence-Specific Hypothesis, or the Approach/Withdrawal model. A systematic literature review, together with the results of the present study, indicate a consistent LVF/right hemisphere advantage only for a subset of negative emotions including anger, fear and sadness, rather suggesting a "negative (only) valence model." PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  14. SYSTEMATIC REGULARITY OF HEMISPHERIC SUNSPOT AREAS OVER THE PAST 140 YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, L. H.; Xiang, Y. Y. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Qu, Z. N. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); An, J. M., E-mail: znqu@ynao.ac.cn [School of Software Engineering, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Solar magnetic activity varies with time in the two hemispheres in different ways. The hemispheric interconnection of solar activity phenomena provides an important clue to understanding the dynamical behavior of solar dynamo actions. In this paper, several analysis approaches are proposed to analyze the systematic regularity of hemispheric asynchronism and amplitude asymmetry of long-term sunspot areas during solar cycles 9–24. It is found that, (1) both the hemispheric asynchronism and the amplitude asymmetry of sunspot areas are prevalent behaviors and are not anomalous, but the hemispheric asynchronism exhibits a much more regular behavior than the amplitude asymmetry; (2) the phase-leading hemisphere returns back to the identical hemisphere every 8 solar cycles, and the secular periodic pattern of hemispheric phase differences follows 3 (south leading) + 5 (north leading) solar cycles, which probably corresponds to the Gleissberg cycle; and (3) the pronounced periodicities of (absolute and normalized) asymmetry indices and lines of synchronization (LOSs) are not identical: the significant periodic oscillations are 80.65 ± 6.31, 20.91 ± 0.40, and 13.45 ± 0.16 years for the LOS values, and 51.34 ± 2.48, 8.83/8.69 ± 0.07, and 3.77 ± 0.02 years for the (absolute and normalized) asymmetry indices. The analysis results improve our knowledge on the hemispheric interrelation of solar magnetic activity and may provide valuable constraints for solar dynamo models.

  15. The rod orientation test in patients with right-hemisphere infarction : a clinical study of spatial perception in 154 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Meerwaldt (Johannes David (Jan))

    1982-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a clinical study of disturbances of spatial perception. Chapter I gives a short review of hemispheric asymmetry. For a long time the right hemisphere was regarded as the minor hemisphere, of which substantial regions were thought to have no specific function.

  16. Isotopic source signatures for atmospheric lead: the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, A.; Rosman, K. J. R.

    2001-06-01

    Aerosols collected between 1994 and 1999 at more than 80 different sites affecting the atmospheric composition of the Northern Hemisphere have been measured for their 206Pb/ 207Pb, 208Pb/ 207Pb and 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios and Pb concentrations. The ratios are potentially useful for tracing sources of pollution and the movement of air-masses on a global scale. A change in isotopic composition compared to earlier measurements could be detected in the Western United States and parts of Europe, most probably due to long range transport of Pb pollution from China and Russia, respectively, and an increasing relative contribution of industrial Pb. The geographical variations found in the Pb isotopic composition of the aerosols made it possible to broadly characterize different regions via the 206Pb/ 207Pb ( 208Pb/ 207Pb) isotope ratios of the aerosols sampled: Eastern United States 1.173-1.231 (2.438-2.470); Western United States 1.159-1.188 (2.426-2.455); Canada 1.094-1.177 (2.365-2.438); Mexico 1.188-1.197 (2.452-2.463); Japan 1.153-1.162 (2.435-2.443); China 1.141-1.177 (2.435-2.465); Germany 1.133-1.165 (2.405-2.440); Spain & France 1.097-1.142 (2.372-2.410); Northern Italy 1.148-1.160 (2.419 -2.430); Southern Italy 1.108-1.121 (2.376-2.387); Eastern Europe and Russia 1.112-1.164 (2.388-2.446); North Africa & Arabian Peninsula 1.096-1.153 (2.361-2.431).

  17. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in False Color (Time Set 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers.This mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.North is at the top. The images are projected on a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the north. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on April 3, 1997, at a range of 1.4 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system (CCD) on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  18. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in False Color (Time Set 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers.This mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. The clouds and haze over the ovals are high, extending into Jupiter's stratosphere. Dark purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.North is at the top. The images are projected on a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the north. The planetary limb runs along the right edge of the mosaic. Cloud patterns appear foreshortened as they approach the limb. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on April 3, 1997, at a range of 1.4 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system (CCD) on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Cranioplasty of Hemispherical Defects Using High Impact Methylmethacrylic Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Girish; Rangarajan, H; Shourie, Pankaj

    2015-09-01

    Decompressive craniectomy is the most common neurosurgical procedure performed in today's scenario, usually posttrauma or a cerebrovascular event. Cranioplasty is the repair of a cranial defect or deformation. In the last decade, there has been an increase in the number of cranioplasties performed because of an increase in the number of decompressive craniectomies. Although the main purpose of cranioplasty is to protect the brain and restore aesthetics, it has been proved beyond doubt that there is also an improvement in function and patient self-esteem.Reconstructing the skull after a decompressive craniectomy is a challenge because of the size and contour of the defect, the projection of the brain outside in many cases, and the attendant risks of infection, hematoma, seizures, and CSF leak. In the last few decades, an enormous array of biomaterials has been used for cranioplasty, but there is no consensus on the best material. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Polymethylmethacrylate has been used for cranioplasty since the World War II and is still the most widely used reconstructive material. Patients requiring reconstruction of hemispherical cranial defects were taken up for the study. An impression of the defect was taken over the skin using impression compound first and then silicone impression material. The model was trimmed to size, and an acrylic plate was made from High Impact Acrylic. Under general anesthesia, the acrylic plate was fixed to the margins of the defect using titanium plates and screws. Suction drain was placed and the wound closed with Vicryl Rapid. All patients were followed up for 2 years to note any postoperative complications and change in neurological status. There were 12 male patients and 3 female patients. Age of the patients ranged between 8 and 55 years. All patients were happy with the aesthetic results. There were no complications in all our patients. A few patients showed dramatic improvement in their neurological

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF HEMISPHERICAL RESONATOR GYROSCOPE STANDING WAVE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sergeevna Khalyutina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the problem of autonomous navigation is solved by dead reckoning navigation flight parameters (NFP of the aircraft (AC. With increasing requirements to accuracy of definition NFP improved the sensors of the prima- ry navigation information: gyroscopes and accelerometers. the gyroscopes of a new type, the so-called solid-state wave gyroscopes (SSVG are currently developed and put into practice. The work deals with the problem of increasing the accu- racy of measurements of angular velocity of the hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG. The reduction in the accuracy characteristics of HRG is caused by the presence of defects in the distribution of mass in the volume of its design. The syn- thesis of control system for optimal damping of the distortion parameters of the standing wave due to the influence of the mass defect resonator is adapted. The research challenge was: to examine and analytically offset the impact of the standing wave (amplitude and frequency parameters defect. Research was performed by mathematical modeling in the environment of SolidWorks Simulation for the case when the characteristics of the sensitive element of the HRG met the technological drawings of a particular type of resonator. The method of the inverse dynamics was chosen for synthesis. The research re- sults are presented in graphs the amplitude-frequency characteristics (AFC of the resonator output signal. Simulation was performed for the cases: the perfect distribution of weight; the presence of the mass defect; the presence of the mass defects are shown using the synthesized control action. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm is deter- mined by the results of the resonator output signal simulation provided the perfect constructive and its performance in the presence of a mass defect in it. It is assumed that the excitation signals are standing waves in the two cases are identical in both amplitude and frequency. In this

  1. Projected climate impacts for the amphibians of the Western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Joshua J; Shafer, Sarah L; Bancroft, Betsy A; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2010-02-01

    Given their physiological requirements, limited dispersal abilities, and hydrologically sensitive habitats, amphibians are likely to be highly sensitive to future climatic changes. We used three approaches to map areas in the western hemisphere where amphibians are particularly likely to be affected by climate change. First, we used bioclimatic models to project potential climate-driven shifts in the distribution of 413 amphibian species based on 20 climate simulations for 2071-2100. We summarized these projections to produce estimates of species turnover. Second, we mapped the distribution of 1099 species with restricted geographic ranges. Finally, using the 20 future climate-change simulations, we mapped areas that were consistently projected to receive less seasonal precipitation in the coming century and thus were likely to have altered microclimates and local hydrologies. Species turnover was projected to be highest in the Andes Mountains and parts of Central America and Mexico, where, on average, turnover rates exceeded 60% under the lower of two emissions scenarios. Many of the restricted-range species not included in our range-shift analyses were concentrated in parts of the Andes and Central America and in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Much of Central America, southwestern North America, and parts of South America were consistently projected to experience decreased precipitation by the end of the century. Combining the results of the three analyses highlighted several areas in which amphibians are likely to be significantly affected by climate change for multiple reasons. Portions of southern Central America were simultaneously projected to experience high species turnover, have many additional restricted-range species, and were consistently projected to receive less precipitation. Together, our three analyses form one potential assessment of the geographic vulnerability of amphibians to climate change and as such provide broad-scale guidance for directing

  2. Clusters of interannual sea ice variability in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Massonnet, François; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-09-01

    We determine robust modes of the northern hemisphere (NH) sea ice variability on interannual timescales disentangled from the long-term climate change. This study focuses on sea ice thickness (SIT), reconstructed with an ocean-sea-ice general circulation model, because SIT has a potential to contain most of the interannual memory and predictability of the NH sea ice system. We use the K-means cluster analysis—one of clustering methods that partition data into groups or clusters based on their distances in the physical space without the typical constraints of other unsupervised learning statistical methods such as the widely-used principal component analysis. To adequately filter out climate change signal in the Arctic from 1958 to 2013 we have to approximate it with a 2nd degree polynomial. Using 2nd degree residuals of SIT leads to robust K-means cluster patterns, i.e. invariant to further increase of the polynomial degree. A set of clustering validity indices yields K = 3 as the optimal number of SIT clusters for all considered months and seasons with strong similarities in their cluster patterns. The associated time series of cluster occurrences exhibit predominant interannual persistence with mean timescale of about 2 years. Compositing analysis of the NH surface climate conditions associated with each cluster indicates that wind forcing seem to be the key factor driving the formation of interannual SIT cluster patterns during the winter. Climate memory in SIT with such interannual persistence could lead to increased predictability of the Artic sea ice cover beyond seasonal timescales.

  3. Was the extreme Northern Hemisphere greening in 2015 predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Ciais, Philippe; Park, Taejin; Zscheischler, Jakob; Yue, Chao; Barichivich, Jonathan; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Piao, Shilong; Zhu, Zaichun

    2017-04-01

    The year 2015 was, at the time, the warmest since 1880, and many regions in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) registered record breaking annual temperatures. Simultaneously, a remarkable and widespread growing season greening was observed over most of the NH in the record from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). While the response of vegetation to climate change (i.e. the long term trend) is assumed to be predictable, it is still unclear whether it is also possible to predict the interannual variability in vegetation activity. Here, we evaluate whether the unprecedented magnitude and extent of the greening observed in 2015 corresponds to an expected response to the 2015 climate anomaly, or to a change in the sensitivity of NH vegetation to climate. We decompose NDVI into the long-term and interannual variability components, and find that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) explain about half of NDVI interannual variability. This response is in addition to the long-term temperature and human-induced greening trend. We use a simple statistical approach to predict the NDVI anomaly in 2015, using the PDO and AMO states as predictors for interannual variability, and temperature and precipitation trends for the long-term component. We show that the 2015 anomaly can be predicted as an expected vegetation response to temperature and water-availability associated with the very strong state of the PDO in 2015. The link found between climate variability patterns and vegetation activity should contribute to increase the predictability of carbon-cycle processes at interannual time-scales, which may be relevant, for instance, for optimizing land-management strategies.

  4. Dynamic brain structural changes after left hemisphere subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengmei; Zhu, Chaozhe; Chen, Hai; Qin, Wen; Ji, Xunming; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yujin; Zhu, Litao; Yu, Chunshui

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify dynamic structural changes in the brain after subcortical stroke and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery of affected limbs. High-resolution structural MRI and neurological examinations were conducted at five consecutive time points during the year following stroke in 10 patients with left hemisphere subcortical infarctions involving motor pathways. Gray matter volume (GMV) was calculated using an optimized voxel-based morphometry technique, and dynamic changes in GMV were evaluated using a mixed-effects model. After stroke, GMV was decreased bilaterally in brain areas that directly or indirectly connected with lesions, which suggests the presence of regional damage in these "healthy" brain tissues in stroke patients. Moreover, the GMVs of these brain areas were not correlated with the Motricity Index (MI) scores when controlling for time intervals after stroke, which indicates that these structural changes may reflect an independent process (such as axonal degeneration) but cannot affect the improvement of motor function. In contrast, the GMV was increased in several brain areas associated with motor and cognitive functions after stroke. When controlling for time intervals after stroke, only the GMVs in the cognitive-related brain areas (hippocampus and precuneus) were positively correlated with MI scores, which suggests that the structural reorganization in cognitive-related brain areas may facilitate the recovery of motor function. However, considering the small sample size of this study, further studies are needed to clarify the exact relationships between structural changes and recovery of motor function in stroke patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in Violet Light (Time Set 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it.North is at the top. The images are projected on a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the north. The planetary limb runs along the right edge of the mosaic. Cloud patterns appear foreshortened as they approach the limb. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on April 3, 1997, at a range of 1.4 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system (CCD) on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in Violet Light (Time Set 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it.North is at the top. The images are projected on a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the north. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on April 3, 1997, at a range of 1.4 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Jupiter's Northern Hemisphere in Violet Light (Time Set 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaic of Jupiter's northern hemisphere between 10 and 50 degrees latitude. Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating eastward and westward jets from equatorial to polar latitudes. The direction and speed of these jets in part determine the color and texture of the clouds seen in this mosaic. Also visible are several other common Jovian cloud features, including large white ovals, bright spots, dark spots, interacting vortices, and turbulent chaotic systems. The north-south dimension of each of the two interacting vortices in the upper half of the mosaic is about 3500 kilometers. Light at 410 nanometers is affected by the sizes and compositions of cloud particles, as well as the trace chemicals that give Jupiter's clouds their colors. This mosaic shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck and the hazy cloud layer above it.North is at the top. The images are projected on a sphere, with features being foreshortened towards the north. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on April 3, 1997, at a range of 1.4 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  8. Synchronous marine pelagic regime shifts in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugrand, G.; Conversi, A.; Chiba, S.; Edwards, M.; Fonda-Umani, S.; Greene, C.; Mantua, N.; Otto, S. A.; Reid, P. C.; Stachura, M. M.; Stemmann, L.; Sugisaki, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts are characterized by sudden, substantial and temporally persistent changes in the state of an ecosystem. They involve major biological modifications and often have important implications for exploited living resources. In this study, we examine whether regime shifts observed in 11 marine systems from two oceans and three regional seas in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are synchronous, applying the same methodology to all. We primarily infer marine pelagic regime shifts from abrupt shifts in zooplankton assemblages, with the exception of the East Pacific where ecosystem changes are inferred from fish. Our analyses provide evidence for quasi-synchronicity of marine pelagic regime shifts both within and between ocean basins, although these shifts lie embedded within considerable regional variability at both year-to-year and lower-frequency time scales. In particular, a regime shift was detected in the late 1980s in many studied marine regions, although the exact year of the observed shift varied somewhat from one basin to another. Another regime shift was also identified in the mid- to late 1970s but concerned less marine regions. We subsequently analyse the main biological signals in relation to changes in NH temperature and pressure anomalies. The results suggest that the main factor synchronizing regime shifts on large scales is NH temperature; however, changes in atmospheric circulation also appear important. We propose that this quasi-synchronous shift could represent the variably lagged biological response in each ecosystem to a large-scale, NH change of the climatic system, involving both an increase in NH temperature and a strongly positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. Further investigation is needed to determine the relative roles of changes in temperature and atmospheric pressure patterns and their resultant teleconnections in synchronizing regime shifts at large scales.

  9. Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2012-07-31

    Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca's area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke's area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition, juvenile males showed left-sided dominance for tutor song but not for unfamiliar song in a Wernicke-like brain region (the caudomedial nidopallium). Thus, left-sided dominance in the caudomedial nidopallium was specific for the song-learning phase and was memory-related. These findings demonstrate a remarkable neural parallel between birdsong and human spoken language, and they have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of auditory-vocal learning and its neural mechanisms.

  10. Cluster analysis of tropical cyclone tracks in the Southern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, Hamish A. [Monash University, Monash Weather and Climate, School of Mathematical Sciences, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Camargo, Suzana J.; Kim, Daehyun [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2012-08-15

    A probabilistic clustering method is used to describe various aspects of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the Southern Hemisphere, for the period 1969-2008. A total of 7 clusters are examined: three in the South Indian Ocean, three in the Australian Region, and one in the South Pacific Ocean. Large-scale environmental variables related to TC genesis in each cluster are explored, including sea surface temperature, low-level relative vorticity, deep-layer vertical wind shear, outgoing longwave radiation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Composite maps, constructed 2 days prior to genesis, show some of these to be significant precursors to TC formation - most prominently, westerly wind anomalies equatorward of the main development regions. Clusters are also evaluated with respect to their genesis location, seasonality, mean peak intensity, track duration, landfall location, and intensity at landfall. ENSO is found to play a significant role in modulating annual frequency and mean genesis location in three of the seven clusters (two in the South Indian Ocean and one in the Pacific). The ENSO-modulating effect on genesis frequency is caused primarily by changes in low-level zonal flow between the equator and 10 S, and associated relative vorticity changes in the main development regions. ENSO also has a significant effect on mean genesis location in three clusters, with TCs forming further equatorward (poleward) during El Nino (La Nina) in addition to large shifts in mean longitude. The MJO has a strong influence on TC genesis in all clusters, though the amount modulation is found to be sensitive to the definition of the MJO. (orig.)

  11. Constrained motion control on a hemispherical surface: path planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Sigal; Liebermann, Dario G; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Surface-constrained motion, i.e., motion constraint by a rigid surface, is commonly found in daily activities. The current work investigates the choice of hand paths constrained to a concave hemispherical surface. To gain insight regarding paths and their relationship with task dynamics, we simulated various control policies. The simulations demonstrated that following a geodesic path (the shortest path between 2 points on a sphere) is advantageous not only in terms of path length but also in terms of motor planning and sensitivity to motor command errors. These stem from the fact that the applied forces lie in a single plane (that of the geodesic path). To test whether human subjects indeed follow the geodesic, and to see how such motion compares to other paths, we recorded movements in a virtual haptic-visual environment from 11 healthy subjects. The task comprised point-to-point motion between targets at two elevations (30° and 60°). Three typical choices of paths were observed from a frontal plane projection of the paths: circular arcs, straight lines, and arcs close to the geodesic path for each elevation. Based on the measured hand paths, we applied k-means blind separation to divide the subjects into three groups and compared performance indicators. The analysis confirmed that subjects who followed paths closest to the geodesic produced faster and smoother movements compared with the others. The "better" performance reflects the dynamical advantages of following the geodesic path and may also reflect invariant features of control policies used to produce such a surface-constrained motion.

  12. Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov Aleksei S.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

  13. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  14. Hemispheric specificity for proprioception: Postural control of standing following right or left hemisphere damage during ankle tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2015-11-02

    Right brain damage (RBD) following stroke often causes significant postural instability. In standing (without vision), patients with RBD are more unstable than those with left brain damage (LBD). We hypothesised that this postural instability would relate to the cortical integration of proprioceptive afferents. The aim of this study was to use tendon vibration to investigate whether these changes were specific to the paretic or non-paretic limbs. 14 LBD, 12 RBD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included. Displacement of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) was recorded during quiet standing, then during 3 vibration conditions (80 Hz - 20s): paretic limb, non-paretic limb (left and right limbs for control subjects) and bilateral. Vibration was applied separately to the peroneal and Achilles tendons. Mean antero-posterior position of the CoP, variability and velocity were calculated before (4s), during and after (24s) vibration. For all parameters, the strongest perturbation was during Achilles vibrations. The Achilles non-paretic condition induced a larger backward displacement than the Achilles paretic condition. This condition caused specific behaviour on the velocity: the LBD group was perturbed at the onset of the vibrations, but gradually recovered their stability; the RBD group was significantly perturbed thereafter. After bilateral Achilles vibration, RBD patients required the most time to restore initial posture. The reduction in use of information from the paretic limb may be a central strategy to deal with risk-of-fall situations such as during Achilles vibration. The postural behaviour is profoundly altered by lesions of the right hemisphere when proprioception is perturbed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconstructed North American, Eurasian, and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover Extent, 1915-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains time series of monthly snow cover extent (SCE) for North America, Eurasia, and the Northern Hemisphere from 1915 to 1997, based on snow cover...

  16. Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid 2.0 Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid 2.0 Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent Version 4 product combine snow cover and sea ice extent at weekly intervals from 23...

  17. Evolution of hemispheric specialisation of antagonistic systems of management of the body's energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Claude M J

    2007-09-01

    Excellent and rich reviews of lateralised behaviour in animals have recently been published indexing renewed interest in biological theorising about hemispheric specialisation and yielding rich theory. The present review proposes a new account of the evolution of hemispheric specialisation, a primitive system of "management of the body's energy resources". This model is distinct from traditionally evoked cognitive science categories such as verbal/spatial, analytic/holistic, etc., or the current dominant neuroethological model proposing that the key is approach/avoidance behaviour. Specifically, I show that autonomic, immune, psychomotor, motivational, perceptual, and memory systems are similarly and coherently specialised in the brain hemispheres in rodents and man. This energy resource management model, extended to human neuropsychology, is termed here the "psychic tonus" model of hemispheric specialisation.

  18. Northern Hemisphere Cyclone Locations and Characteristics from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises a 50-year record of daily extratropical cyclone statistics computed for the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclone locations and characteristics were...

  19. Magnetic Attraction of Gaze: Further Evidence of Hemispheric Imbalance in Schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Unnithan

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a young man with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and unusual oculo-motor abnormalities. The relationship between oculo-motor dysfunction and hemispheric balance in schizophrenia is discussed.

  20. Reliability of a novel paradigm for determining hemispheric lateralization of visuospatial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitehouse, A.J.O.; Badcock, N.A.; Groen, M.A.; Bishop, D.V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most individuals, language production and visuospatial skills are subserved predominantly by the left and right hemispheres, respectively. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) provides a noninvasive and relatively low-cost method for measuring functional lateralization. However, while the

  1. [Sex differences in hemispheric interference interaction during the memorizing of speech information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vol'f, N V

    1998-01-01

    Young men and women were monaurally and dichotically presented with 10-word lists which had to be afterwards reproduced in a written form. In dichotic pairs the signals were presented either synchronously or with time leads/lags in 50 ms between the ears. For each subject the interference effect was calculated of the right hemisphere to the left one and on the contrary. This index was taken as a measure of inhibitory interaction between the hemispheres. Lateral differences in hemispheric interference were well pronounced in men and absent in women. In women the interference effects on the first halves of the lists were stronger than in men and more pronounced than the effects on the second halves of the lists. The results are in agreement with the ideas about functional dissimilarity of processes underlying speech functions in the left and right brain hemispheres in men and women.

  2. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) is a record for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Snow Cover Extent (SCE) spanning from October 4, 1966 to present, updated monthly...

  3. Importance of tropospheric ClNO2 chemistry across the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field experiments have revealed that the heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide produces nitryl chloride and nitric acid in the presence of particulate chloride. We incorporate the heterogeneous chemistry of nitryl chloride into the hemispheric Community ...

  4. Hemispheric processing differences revealed by differential conditioning and reaction time performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellige, J B

    1975-12-01

    Two different experimental procedures were used to examine (a) information-processing differences between two groups of subjects (Cs versus Vs) identified by the form of their conditioned eyeblinks; (b) information-processing differences between the right and left cerebral hemispheres; and (c) parallels between hypothesized C-V differences and right-left hemisphere differences. In the first experiment, the evocative command words BLINK and DON'T BLINK served as positive and negative conditioned stimuli. It was found that Vs gave more conditioned eyeblinks than Cs and that differential eyelid conditioning of Vs more than Cs was influenced by the semantic content of the stimuli. More importantly, the conditioning performance of Cs was more influenced by the semantic attributes of the stimuli when they were presented directly to the right visual field (left hemisphere) than when they were presented directly to the left visual field (right hemisphere). In contrast, the conditioning performance of Vs was equally influenced by the semantic attributes regardless of which hemisphere received direct stimulation. A second experiment was designed to determine whether such hemisphere-of-presentation differences for Cs versus Vs could also be obtained in a very different task. Subjects classified as Cs or Vs during a differential eyelid conditioning task then performed two same-different reaction time (RT) tasks that required discrimination of complex polygons in one case and the names of letters in another. On each RT trial both stimuli of a pair appeared briefly either in the center, left, or right visual field. For both Cs and Vs RTs to complex polygon pairs averaged 20 msec faster on left visual field trials than on right visual field trials, consistent with current hypotheses about right-hemisphere specialization for visuospatial processing. In contrast, the results for letter pairs generally confirmed the C-V differences found in Experiment 1. That is, the right visual

  5. Communicating with the non-dominant hemisphere: Implications for neurological rehabilitation☆

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira de; Correia Marin, Sheilla de Medeiros; Ferreira Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic syndromes usually result from injuries to the dominant hemisphere of the brain. Despite the fact that localization of language functions shows little interindividual variability, several brain areas are simultaneously activated when language tasks are undertaken. Mechanisms of language recovery after brain injury to the dominant hemisphere seem to be relatively stereotyped, including activations of perilesional areas in the acute phase and of homologues of language areas in the non-do...

  6. Post-Surgical Language Reorganization Occurs in Tumors of the Dominant and Non-Dominant Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramescu-Murphy, M; Hattingen, E; Forster, M-T; Oszvald, A; Anti, S; Frisch, S; Russ, M O; Jurcoane, A

    2017-09-01

    Surgical resection of brain tumors may shift the location of cortical language areas. Studies of language reorganization primarily investigated left-hemispheric tumors irrespective of hemispheric language dominance. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how tumors influence post-surgical language reorganization in relation to the dominant language areas. A total of, 17 patients with brain tumors (16 gliomas, one metastasis) in the frontotemporal and lower parietal lobes planned for awake surgery underwent pre-surgical and post-surgical language fMRI. Language activation post-to-pre surgery was evaluated visually and quantitatively on the statistically thresholded images on patient-by-patient basis. Results were qualitatively compared between three patient groups: temporal, with tumors in the dominant temporal lobe, frontal, with tumors in the dominant frontal lobe and remote, with tumors in the non-dominant hemisphere. Post-to-pre-surgical distributions of activated voxels changed in all except the one patient with metastasis. Changes were more pronounced in the dominant hemisphere for all three groups, showing increased number of activated voxels and also new activation areas. Tumor resection in the dominant hemisphere (frontal and temporal) shifted the activation from frontal towards temporal, whereas tumor resection in the non-dominant hemisphere shifted the activation from temporal towards frontal dominant areas. Resection of gliomas in the dominant and in the non-dominant hemisphere induces postsurgical shifts and increase in language activation, indicating that infiltrating gliomas have a widespread influence on the language network. The dominant hemisphere gained most of the language activation irrespective of tumor localization, possibly reflecting recovery of pre-surgical tumor-induced suppression of these activations.

  7. Inter-hemispherical functional coupling of EEG rhythms during the perception of facial emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Babiloni, Claudio; Buffo, Paola; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Bertini, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Brain rhythms of both hemispheres are involved in the processing of emotional stimuli but their interdependence between the two hemispheres is poorly known. Here we tested the hypothesis that passive visual perception of facial emotional expressions is related to a coordination of the two hemispheres as revealed by the inter-hemispherical functional coupling of brain electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. To this aim, EEG data were recorded in 14 subjects observing emotional faces with neutral, happy or sad facial expressions (about 33% for each class). The EEG data were analyzed by directed transfer function (DTF), which estimates directional functional coupling of EEG rhythms. The EEG rhythms of interest were theta (about 4-6 Hz), alpha 1 (about 6-8 Hz), alpha 2 (about 8-10 Hz), alpha 3 (about 10-12 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (21-30 Hz), and gamma (31-44 Hz). In the frontal regions, inter-hemispherical DTF values were bidirectionally higher in amplitude across all frequency bands, during the perception of faces with sad compared to neutral or happy expressions. These results suggest that the processing of emotional negative facial expressions is related to an enhancement of a reciprocal inter-hemispherical flux of information in frontal cortex, possibly optimizing executive functions and motor control. Dichotomical view of hemispherical functional specializations does not take into account remarkable reciprocal interactions between frontal areas of the two hemispheres during the processing of negative facial expressions. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine anthropogenic radiotracers in the Southern Hemisphere: New sampling and analytical strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, I.; Povinec, P.P.; Aoyama, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology conducted in 2003–2004 the Blue Earth Global Expedition (BEAGLE2003) around the Southern Hemisphere Oceans, which was a rare opportunity to collect many seawater samples for anthropogenic radionuclide studies. We describe here sampling...... showed a reasonable agreement between the participating laboratories. The obtained data on the distribution of 137Cs and plutonium isotopes in seawater represent the most comprehensive results available for the Southern Hemisphere Oceans....

  9. Functional hemispheric asymmetries during the planning and manual control of virtual avatar movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Floegel

    Full Text Available Both hemispheres contribute to motor control beyond the innervation of the contralateral alpha motoneurons. The left hemisphere has been associated with higher-order aspects of motor control like sequencing and temporal processing, the right hemisphere with the transformation of visual information to guide movements in space. In the visuomotor context, empirical evidence regarding the latter has been limited though the right hemisphere's specialization for visuospatial processing is well-documented in perceptual tasks. This study operationalized temporal and spatial processing demands during visuomotor processing and investigated hemispheric asymmetries in neural activation during the unimanual control of a visual cursor by grip force. Functional asymmetries were investigated separately for visuomotor planning and online control during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 19 young, healthy, right-handed participants. The expected cursor movement was coded with different visual trajectories. During planning when spatial processing demands predominated, activity was right-lateralized in a hand-independent manner in the inferior temporal lobe, occipito-parietal border, and ventral premotor cortex. When temporal processing demands overweighed spatial demands, BOLD responses during planning were left-lateralized in the temporo-parietal junction. During online control of the cursor, right lateralization was not observed. Instead, left lateralization occurred in the intraparietal sulcus. Our results identify movement phase and spatiotemporal demands as important determinants of dynamic hemispheric asymmetries during visuomotor processing. We suggest that, within a bilateral visuomotor network, the right hemisphere exhibits a processing preference for planning global spatial movement features whereas the left hemisphere preferentially times local features of visual movement trajectories and adjusts movement online.

  10. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with enlargement of the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gous

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF is a rare disorder in which overgrowth of fatty tissue with infiltration of underlying structures leads to craniofacial deformities and asymmetry. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of underlying structures. To our knowledge, our case is the first to describe CILF associated with isolated enlargement of a cerebellar hemisphere in the absence of an enlarged ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere (hemimegalencephaly.

  11. Functional language shift to the right hemisphere in patients with language-eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio right dominant). Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning "all errors" and "all errors without hesitations", which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.

  12. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    North Greenland Ice Core Project members; Andersen, Katrine K.; Azuma, N.

    2004-01-01

    Two deep ice cores from central Greenland, drilled in the 1990s, have played a key role in climate reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere, but the oldest sections of the cores were disturbed in chronology owing to ice folding near the bedrock. Here we present an undisturbed climate record from......-saw between the hemispheres (which dominated the last glacial period) was not operating at this time....

  13. Characterization of loads on a hemispherical point absorber wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Beatty, Scott; Iglesias, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Slammingpressure on shell surface of hemisphere and comparison asymptotic theory. •Excitationforces from experiments and comparison with numerical inviscid boundary elementmodel. •Applicationof found coefficients in normal operation conditions for the wave energydevice.......Highlights •Slammingpressure on shell surface of hemisphere and comparison asymptotic theory. •Excitationforces from experiments and comparison with numerical inviscid boundary elementmodel. •Applicationof found coefficients in normal operation conditions for the wave energydevice....

  14. Hemispheric asymmetry in recognition memory: effects of retention level on the recognition of Portuguese words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Perea, Maria Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Gamito, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Early findings from Broca and Wernicke led to the classical view of hemispheric specialization, where the main idea relates to left-hemisphere language capabilities compared to right-hemisphere visual capabilities. Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) have suggested that semantic encoding for verbal information in the right hemisphere can be more effective when memory demands are higher. In light of this, our main goal was to study the effect of retention level of verbal information on hemispheric processes. However, regarding the cross-linguistic differences in orthography and their subsequent effects on word recognition (Frost, Katz, & Bentin, 1987), our intent was also to test prior predictions of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) for a "shallow" orthography language, where words have a clear correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, as opposed to English, which is a "deep" orthography language. Portuguese concrete nouns were selected. The participants were submitted to a visual half-field word presentation using a continuous recognition memory paradigm. The retention level included 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 or 40 words. Results showed that recognition accuracy was higher for words studied in the right visual field, compared to those studied in the left visual field, when the retention interval included 2, 4, or 20 words. No significant differences were found for the remaining intervals. Further analysis on accuracy data for intermediate retention levels showed that recognition accuracy was higher for the 2 words retention level than for the levels including 4, 8, or 20 words; it was higher for left-hemisphere encoding as well. Our results also indicated that reaction times were slower for left-hemisphere encoding and for the 40 words retention level when compared to that of 20 words. In summary, the current results are in partial agreement with those of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) and suggest different hemispheric memory strategies for the semantic encoding of verbal

  15. The dynamics of the warming hiatus over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianping; Xie, Yongkun; Guan, Xiaodan; Li, Dongdong; Ji, Fei

    2017-01-01

    A warming hiatus is a period of relatively little change in global mean surface air temperatures (SAT). Many studies have attributed the current warming hiatus to internal climate variability (ICV). But there is less work on discussion of the dynamics about how these ICV modes influence cooling over land in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Here we demonstrate the warming hiatus was more significant over the continental NH. We explored the dynamics of the warming hiatus from a global perspective and investigated the mechanisms of the reversing from accelerated warming to hiatus, and how ICV modes influence SAT change throughout the NH land. It was found that these ICV modes and Arctic amplification can excite a decadal modulated oscillation (DMO), which enhances or suppresses the long-term trend on decadal to multi-decadal timescales. When the DMO is in an upward (warming) phase, it contributes to an accelerated warming trend, as in last 20 years of twentieth-century. It appears that there is a downward swing in the DMO occurring at present, which has balanced or reduced the radiative forced warming and resulted in the recent global warming hiatus. The DMO modulates the SAT, in particular, the SAT of boreal cold months, through changes in the asymmetric meridional and zonal thermal forcing (MTF and ZTF). The MTF represents the meridional temperature gradients between the mid- and high-latitudes, and the ZTF represents the asymmetry in temperatures between the extratropical large-scale warm and cold zones in the zonal direction. Via the different performance of combined MTF and ZTF, we found that the DMO's modulation effect on SAT was strongest when both weaker (stronger) MTF and stronger (weaker) ZTF occurred simultaneously. And the current hiatus is a result of a downward DMO combined with a weaker MTF and stronger ZTF, which stimulate both a weaker polar vortex and westerly winds, along with the amplified planetary waves, thereby facilitating southward invasion of

  16. Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate patterns in the last 12 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Krusic, Paul J.; Sundqvist, Hanna S.; Zorita, Eduardo; Brattström, Gudrun; Frank, David

    2015-04-01

    Variations in local to continental-scale hydroclimate have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning, crop yields, and society's water resources. Consequently, the ability to model and predict with reasonable certainty the dynamic and spatial response of precipitation to global warming is essential. The uncertainty in hydroclimate projections from model simulations remains large as a consequence of significant gaps in our knowledge of preindustrial boundary conditions due to the short length of instrumental measurements of precipitation. In this study, we assembled an unprecedentedly large network of 196 records hydroclimatic records from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) to place recent hydrological changes and future precipitation scenarios in the context of spatially resolved and temporally persistent hydroclimatic variations over the last twelve centuries. The data from grid cells corresponding to the proxy locations were obtained from six CMIP5 last millennium simulations and treated in a similar way as the proxy data in order to facilitate a model-proxy comparison. The most extensive areas of low moisture availability are found during the 12th and 15th centuries. It is notable that the intensification of wet and dry anomalies during the 20th century shown in coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations is not supported by empirical evidence. Our results reveals that prominent hydroclimatic see-saw patterns, also observed in instrumental data, of alternating moisture regimes between the east and west Mediterranean, southwest vs. northwest United States, east vs. west China have been operating consistently during the past millennium. Key findings: - Dry as well as wet conditions can prevail under both warm and cold climate states in most regions. - In some regions a tendency can be seen for either increased aridity or wetness with increasing or decreasing temperatures. - Such changes can be expressed in localized wet-dry seesaw patterns that climate models seems unable

  17. Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Schefuß, Enno; Andò, Sergio; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Frenzel, Peter; Kugel, Martin; Meschner, Stephanie; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Zabel, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of southern Africa to climate change, a reliable understanding of its hydrological system is crucial. Recent studies of the regional climatic system have revealed a highly complex interplay of forcing factors on precipitation regimes. This includes the influence of the tropical easterlies, the strength of the southern hemispheric westerlies as well as sea surface temperatures along the coast of the subcontinent. However, very few marine records have been available in order to study the coupling of marine and atmospheric circulation systems. Here we present results from a marine sediment core, recovered in shallow waters off the Gouritz River mouth on the south coast of South Africa. Core GeoB18308-1 allows a closer view of the last ˜ 4 kyr. Climate sensitive organic proxies, like the distribution and isotopic composition of plant-wax lipids as well as indicators for sea surface temperatures and soil input, give information on oceanographic and hydrologic changes during the recorded time period. Moreover, the micropaleontology, mineralogical and elemental composition of the sediments reflect the variability of the terrigenous input to the core site. The combination of down-core sediment signatures and a catchment-wide provenance study indicate that the Little Ice Age ( ˜ 300-650 cal yr BP) was characterized by climatic conditions favorable to torrential flood events. The Medieval Climate Anomaly ( ˜ 950-650 cal yr BP) is expressed by lower sea surface temperatures in the Mossel Bay area and humid conditions in the Gouritz River catchment. These new results suggest that the coincidence of humid conditions and cooler sea surface temperatures along the south coast of South Africa resulted from a strengthened and more southerly anticyclonic circulation. Most probably, the transport of moisture from the Indian Ocean by strong subtropical easterlies was coupled with Agulhas Bank upwelling pulses, which were initiated by an increase in

  18. Changing Temperature Gradients Linked to Holocene Moisture Trends in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routson, C.; McKay, N.; Kaufman, D. S.; Ault, T.; Rodysill, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesize that latitudinal differences in Northern Hemisphere radiative energy balance led to both enhanced hemispheric monsoon strength and mid-latitude aridity during the early-to-mid-Holocene. The width of the Hadley cell and mean position of the subtropical jet stream are influenced by the temperature gradient between the equator and the pole. Climate change is expected to strengthen Hadley circulation while weakening the equator-to-pole temperature gradient, thus shifting the mean position of the subtropical jet northward and causing the sub-tropics to become drier. We analyzed the evolution of Northern Hemisphere latitudinal temperature gradients with moisture in a new compilation of Holocene-length paleoclimate records spanning from 10°S to 90°N latitude. The primary trends in the paleoclimate records agree with future projections showing that weaker early-to-mid Holocene Northern Hemisphere latitudinal temperature gradients (increased warming of the Arctic relative to the equator) are linked to substantial increases in zonally averaged mid-latitude (30°N-55°N) aridity, and simultaneous increases in Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength. These results are significant for current warming, as northern high latitudes are warming faster than the equator, decreasing the equator-to-pole temperature gradient to values comparable with the early Holocene. Our results support model-based projections of increased drought risk in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in the coming decades.

  19. Knowledge-based inferences across the hemispheres: domain makes a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Connie; Hawkins, Amanda; Varner, Andria; Lewis, Lindsey; Heatley, Jennifer; Twachtmann, Lisa

    2008-08-01

    Language comprehension occurs when the left-hemisphere (LH) and the right-hemisphere (RH) share information derived from discourse [Beeman, M. J., Bowden, E. M., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2000). Right and left hemisphere cooperation for drawing predictive and coherence inferences during normal story comprehension. Brain and Language, 71, 310-336]. This study investigates the role of knowledge domain across hemispheres, hypothesizing that the RH demonstrates inference processes for planning knowledge while the LH demonstrates inference processes for knowledge of physical cause and effect. In experiment 1, sixty-eight participants completed divided-visual-field reading tasks with 2-sentence stimuli that relied on these knowledge areas. Results showed that readers made more planning inferences from the RH and more physical inferences from the LH, indicating inference processes occur from each hemisphere dependent upon the knowledge domain required to support it. In experiment 2, sixty-four participants completed the same reading task with longer, story-length stimuli to demonstrate the effect in a more realistic setting. Experiment 2 results replicated the findings from experiment 1, extending previous findings, specifying that hemispheric differences for inferences rely on knowledge domains.

  20. Right hemisphere dysfunction is better predicted by emotional prosody impairments as compared to neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Chinar; Bang, Jee; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    Neurologists generally consider hemispatial neglect to be the primary cognitive deficit following right hemisphere lesions. However, the right hemisphere has a critical role in many cognitive, communication and social functions; for example, in processing emotional prosody (tone of voice). We tested the hypothesis that impaired recognition of emotional prosody is a more accurate indicator of right hemisphere dysfunction than is neglect. We tested 28 right hemisphere stroke (RHS) patients and 24 hospitalized age and education matched controls with MRI, prosody testing and a hemispatial neglect battery. Emotion categorization tasks assessed recognition of emotions from prosodic cues. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to compare tests in their ability to distinguish stroke patients from controls. ROC analyses revealed that the Prosody Score was more effective than the Neglect Battery Score in distinguishing stroke patients from controls, as measured by area under the curve (AUC); Prosody Score = 0.84; Neglect Battery Score =0. 57. The Prosody Score correctly classified 78.9%, while Neglect Score correctly classified 55.8% of participants as patients versus controls. The Prosody Score was similar to the total NIH Stroke Scale in identifying RHS patients (AUC=0.86, correctly classifying 80.1% of patients versus controls), but the tests only partially overlapped in the patients identified. Severe prosody impairment may be a better indicator of right hemisphere dysfunction than neglect. Larger studies are needed to determine if including a bedside test of Prosody with the NIH Stroke Scale would most efficiently and reliably identify right hemisphere ischemia.

  1. The Effects of Spatial Smoothing on Solar Magnetic Helicity Parameters and the Hemispheric Helicity Sign Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch Ocker, Stella; Petrie, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    The hemispheric preference for negative/positive helicity to occur in the northern/southern solar hemisphere provides clues to the causes of twisted, flaring magnetic fields. Previous studies on the hemisphere rule may have been affected by seeing from atmospheric turbulence. Using Hinode/SOT-SP data spanning 2006-2013, we studied the effects of two spatial smoothing tests that imitate atmospheric seeing: noise reduction by ignoring pixel values weaker than the estimated noise threshold, and Gaussian spatial smoothing. We studied in detail the effects of atmospheric seeing on the helicity distributions across various field strengths for active regions (ARs) NOAA 11158 and NOAA 11243, in addition to studying the average helicities of 179 ARs with and without smoothing. We found that, rather than changing trends in the helicity distributions, spatial smoothing modified existing trends by reducing random noise and by regressing outliers toward the mean, or removing them altogether. Furthermore, the average helicity parameter values of the 179 ARs did not conform to the hemisphere rule: independent of smoothing, the weak-vertical-field values tended to be negative in both hemispheres, and the strong-vertical-field values tended to be positive, especially in the south. We conclude that spatial smoothing does not significantly affect the overall statistics for space-based data, and thus seeing from atmospheric turbulence seems not to have significantly affected previous studies’ ground-based results on the hemisphere rule.

  2. Acquired dysgraphia in adults following right or left-hemisphere stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Carvalho Rodrigues

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the strengths and difficulties in word and pseudoword writing in adults with left- and right-hemisphere strokes, and discuss the profiles of acquired dysgraphia in these individuals.METHODS: The profiles of six adults with acquired dysgraphia in left- or right-hemisphere strokes were investigated by comparing their performance on word and pseudoword writing tasks against that of neurologically healthy adults. A case series analysis was performed on the patients whose impairments on the task were indicative of acquired dysgraphia.RESULTS: Two patients were diagnosed with lexical dysgraphia (one with left hemisphere damage, and the other with right hemisphere damage, one with phonological dysgraphia, another patient with peripheral dysgraphia, one patient with mixed dysgraphia and the last with dysgraphia due to damage to the graphemic buffer. The latter patients all had left-hemisphere damage (LHD. The patterns of impairment observed in each patient were discussed based on the dual-route model of writing.CONCLUSION: The fact that most patients had LHD rather than right-hemisphere damage (RHD highlights the importance of the former structure for word processing. However, the fact that lexical dysgraphia was also diagnosed in a patient with RHD suggests that these individuals may develop writing impairments due to damage to the lexical route, leading to heavier reliance on phonological processing. Our results are of significant importance to the planning of writing interventions in neuropsychology.

  3. Acquired dysgraphia in adults following right or left-hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Fontoura, Denise Ren; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the strengths and difficulties in word and pseudoword writing in adults with left- and right-hemisphere strokes, and discuss the profiles of acquired dysgraphia in these individuals. The profiles of six adults with acquired dysgraphia in left- or right-hemisphere strokes were investigated by comparing their performance on word and pseudoword writing tasks against that of neurologically healthy adults. A case series analysis was performed on the patients whose impairments on the task were indicative of acquired dysgraphia. Two patients were diagnosed with lexical dysgraphia (one with left hemisphere damage, and the other with right hemisphere damage), one with phonological dysgraphia, another patient with peripheral dysgraphia, one patient with mixed dysgraphia and the last with dysgraphia due to damage to the graphemic buffer. The latter patients all had left-hemisphere damage (LHD). The patterns of impairment observed in each patient were discussed based on the dual-route model of writing. The fact that most patients had LHD rather than right-hemisphere damage (RHD) highlights the importance of the former structure for word processing. However, the fact that lexical dysgraphia was also diagnosed in a patient with RHD suggests that these individuals may develop writing impairments due to damage to the lexical route, leading to heavier reliance on phonological processing. Our results are of significant importance to the planning of writing interventions in neuropsychology.

  4. ENSO elicits opposing responses of semi-arid vegetation between Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anzhi; Jia, Gensuo; Epstein, Howard E.; Xia, Jiangjiang

    2017-01-01

    Semi-arid ecosystems are key contributors to the global carbon cycle and may even dominate the inter-annual variability (IAV) and trends of the land carbon sink, driven largely by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The linkages between dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems and climate at the hemispheric scale however are not well known. Here, we use satellite data and climate observations from 2000 to 2014 to explore the impacts of ENSO on variability of semi-arid ecosystems, using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method. We show that the responses of semi-arid vegetation to ENSO occur in opposite directions, resulting from opposing controls of ENSO on precipitation between the Northern Hemisphere (positively correlated to ENSO) and the Southern Hemisphere (negatively correlated to ENSO). Also, the Southern Hemisphere, with a robust negative coupling of temperature and precipitation anomalies, exhibits stronger and faster responses of semi-arid ecosystems to ENSO than the Northern Hemisphere. Our findings suggest that natural coherent variability in semi-arid ecosystem productivity responded to ENSO in opposite ways between two hemispheres, which may imply potential prediction of global semi-arid ecosystem variability, particularly based on variability in tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures. PMID:28181570

  5. ENSO elicits opposing responses of semi-arid vegetation between Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anzhi; Jia, Gensuo; Epstein, Howard E; Xia, Jiangjiang

    2017-02-09

    Semi-arid ecosystems are key contributors to the global carbon cycle and may even dominate the inter-annual variability (IAV) and trends of the land carbon sink, driven largely by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The linkages between dynamics of semi-arid ecosystems and climate at the hemispheric scale however are not well known. Here, we use satellite data and climate observations from 2000 to 2014 to explore the impacts of ENSO on variability of semi-arid ecosystems, using the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method. We show that the responses of semi-arid vegetation to ENSO occur in opposite directions, resulting from opposing controls of ENSO on precipitation between the Northern Hemisphere (positively correlated to ENSO) and the Southern Hemisphere (negatively correlated to ENSO). Also, the Southern Hemisphere, with a robust negative coupling of temperature and precipitation anomalies, exhibits stronger and faster responses of semi-arid ecosystems to ENSO than the Northern Hemisphere. Our findings suggest that natural coherent variability in semi-arid ecosystem productivity responded to ENSO in opposite ways between two hemispheres, which may imply potential prediction of global semi-arid ecosystem variability, particularly based on variability in tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures.

  6. Hemispheric contributions to language reorganisation: An MEG study of neuroplasticity in chronic post stroke aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Bettina; MacGregor, Lucy J; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that efficient neurorehabilitation in post stroke aphasia leads to clinical language improvements and promotes neuroplasticity. Brain areas frequently implicated in functional restitution of language after stroke comprise perilesional sites in the left hemisphere and homotopic regions in the right hemisphere. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying therapy-induced language restitution are still largely unclear. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate neurophysiological changes in a group of chronic aphasia patients who underwent intensive language action therapy (ILAT), also known as constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). Before and immediately after ILAT, patients' language and communication skills were assessed and their brain responses were recorded during a lexical magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) paradigm, presenting familiar spoken words and meaningless pseudowords. After the two-week therapy interval, patients showed significant clinical improvements of language and communication skills. Spatio-temporal dynamics of neuronal changes revealed a significant increase in word-specific neuro-magnetic MMNm activation around 200ms after stimulus identification points. This enhanced brain response occurred specifically for words and was most pronounced over perilesional areas in the left hemisphere. Therapy-related changes in neuromagnetic activation for words in both hemispheres significantly correlated with performance on a clinical language test. The findings indicate that functional recovery of language in chronic post stroke aphasia is associated with neuroplastic changes in both cerebral hemispheres, with stronger left-hemispheric contribution during automatic stages of language processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in autumn senescence in northern hemisphere deciduous trees: a meta-analysis of autumn phenology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Allison L; Gallinat, Amanda S; Sanders-DeMott, Rebecca; Rigden, Angela J; Short Gianotti, Daniel J; Mantooth, Joshua A; Templer, Pamela H

    2015-11-01

    Many individual studies have shown that the timing of leaf senescence in boreal and temperate deciduous forests in the northern hemisphere is influenced by rising temperatures, but there is limited consensus on the magnitude, direction and spatial extent of this relationship. A meta-analysis was conducted of published studies from the peer-reviewed literature that reported autumn senescence dates for deciduous trees in the northern hemisphere, encompassing 64 publications with observations ranging from 1931 to 2010. Among the meteorological measurements examined, October temperatures were the strongest predictors of date of senescence, followed by cooling degree-days, latitude, photoperiod and, lastly, total monthly precipitation, although the strength of the relationships differed between high- and low-latitude sites. Autumn leaf senescence has been significantly more delayed at low (25° to 49°N) than high (50° to 70°N) latitudes across the northern hemisphere, with senescence across high-latitude sites more sensitive to the effects of photoperiod and low-latitude sites more sensitive to the effects of temperature. Delays in leaf senescence over time were stronger in North America compared with Europe and Asia. The results indicate that leaf senescence has been delayed over time and in response to temperature, although low-latitude sites show significantly stronger delays in senescence over time than high-latitude sites. While temperature alone may be a reasonable predictor of the date of leaf senescence when examining a broad suite of sites, it is important to consider that temperature-induced changes in senescence at high-latitude sites are likely to be constrained by the influence of photoperiod. Ecosystem-level differences in the mechanisms that control the timing of leaf senescence may affect both plant community interactions and ecosystem carbon storage as global temperatures increase over the next century. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  8. Widespread land surface wind decline in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, R.; Cattiaux, J.; Yiou, P.; Thépaut, J.-N.; Ciais, P.

    2010-09-01

    The decline of surface wind observed in many regions of the world is a potential source of concern for wind power electricity generation. It is also suggested as the main cause of decreasing pan evaporation. In China, a persistent and significant decrease of monsoon winds was observed in all seasons. Surface wind declines were also evidenced in several regions of the world (U.S., Australia, several European countries). Except over China, no clear explanation was given for the wind decrease in the regions studied. Whether surface winds decrease is due to changes in the global atmospheric circulation or its variability, in surface processes or to observational trends has therefore not been elucidated. The identification of the drivers of such a decline requires a global investigation of available surface and upper-air wind data, which has not been conducted so far. Here we use global datasets of in-situ wind measurements that contain surface weather stations wind data (hourly or three-hourly data acquisition time step) and rawinsonde vertical wind data profiles (monthly time step) prepared by the NCAR. A set of 822 worldwide surface stations with continuous wind records was selected after a careful elimination of stations with obvious breaks and large gaps. This dataset mostly covers the Northern mid latitudes over the period 1979-2008. Using this data set, we found that annual mean wind speeds have declined at 73% of the surface stations over the past 30 years. In the Northern Hemisphere, positive wind trends are found only in a few places. In Europe, Central Asia, Eastern Asia and in North America the annual mean surface wind speed has decreased on average at a rate of -2.9, -5.9, -4.2, and -1.8 %/decade respectively, i.e. a decrease of about 10% in 30 years and up to about 20% in Central Asia. These results are robust to changes in the station selection method and parameters. By contrast, upper-air winds observed from rawinsondes, geostrophic winds deduced from

  9. Schizophrenia as failure of left hemispheric dominance for the phonological component of language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Angrilli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T. J. Crow suggested that the genetic variance associated with the evolution in Homo sapiens of hemispheric dominance for language carries with it the hazard of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Individuals lacking the typical left hemisphere advantage for language, in particular for phonological components, would be at increased risk of the typical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and delusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve schizophrenic patients treated with low levels of neuroleptics and twelve matched healthy controls participated in an event-related potential experiment. Subjects matched word-pairs in three tasks: rhyming/phonological, semantic judgment and word recognition. Slow evoked potentials were recorded from 26 scalp electrodes, and a laterality index was computed for anterior and posterior regions during the inter stimulus interval. During phonological processing individuals with schizophrenia failed to achieve the left hemispheric dominance consistently observed in healthy controls. The effect involved anterior (fronto-temporal brain regions and was specific for the Phonological task; group differences were small or absent when subjects processed the same stimulus material in a Semantic task or during Word Recognition, i.e. during tasks that typically activate more widespread areas in both hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time how the deficit of lateralization in the schizophrenic brain is specific for the phonological component of language. This loss of hemispheric dominance would explain typical symptoms, e.g. when an individual's own thoughts are perceived as an external intruding voice. The change can be interpreted as a consequence of "hemispheric indecision", a failure to segregate phonological engrams in one hemisphere.

  10. Dependence of thermospheric zonal winds on solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and hemisphere as measured by CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Libo; Liu, Songtao

    2017-08-01

    The thermospheric zonal winds measured by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite are used to statistically determine the climatology under quiet and active geomagnetic conditions. By collectively analyzing the bin-averaged wind trend with F10.7 and the solar-induced difference in wind structures, the solar flux dependence of global thermosphere zonal wind is determined. The increase of solar flux enhances the eastward winds at low latitudes from dusk to midnight. The increased ion drag reduces the nighttime eastward wind in the subauroral latitudes, and the daytime westward winds from 06 to 08 MLT at all latitudes decrease with increasing solar flux. Zonal winds show coupled seasonal/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) dependency. The equatorial zonal winds from 18 to 04 magnetic local time (MLT) indicate weaker eastward winds during the June solstice at high solar flux levels. Quiet time eastward winds at subauroral latitudes from 16 to 20 MLT are further decreased in the winter hemisphere. Influenced by asymmetries in solar illumination and the magnetic field, zonal winds show hemispheric asymmetries. Quiet daytime winds are additionally influenced by solar illumination effects, and the westward winds at the middle and subauroral latitudes are always stronger in the summer. The nighttime eastward winds are higher in the winter hemisphere during the solstices, as in the Southern Hemisphere during equinoxes, with the winter-summer asymmetry lessened or receding at the solar maxima. Storm-induced subauroral westward disturbance winds are higher in the summer hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere during equinoxes. At a high level of solar flux, the westward disturbance winds are comparable in the two hemispheres during December solstice. Geomagnetic disturbance wind observations from CHAMP agree well with the empirical geomagnetic disturbance wind model, except for stronger subauroral westward jets. Westward winds during the afternoon may be enhanced in

  11. Functional hemispheric asymmetries during the planning and manual control of virtual avatar movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Both hemispheres contribute to motor control beyond the innervation of the contralateral alpha motoneurons. The left hemisphere has been associated with higher-order aspects of motor control like sequencing and temporal processing, the right hemisphere with the transformation of visual information to guide movements in space. In the visuomotor context, empirical evidence regarding the latter has been limited though the right hemisphere’s specialization for visuospatial processing is well-documented in perceptual tasks. This study operationalized temporal and spatial processing demands during visuomotor processing and investigated hemispheric asymmetries in neural activation during the unimanual control of a visual cursor by grip force. Functional asymmetries were investigated separately for visuomotor planning and online control during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 19 young, healthy, right-handed participants. The expected cursor movement was coded with different visual trajectories. During planning when spatial processing demands predominated, activity was right-lateralized in a hand-independent manner in the inferior temporal lobe, occipito-parietal border, and ventral premotor cortex. When temporal processing demands overweighed spatial demands, BOLD responses during planning were left-lateralized in the temporo-parietal junction. During online control of the cursor, right lateralization was not observed. Instead, left lateralization occurred in the intraparietal sulcus. Our results identify movement phase and spatiotemporal demands as important determinants of dynamic hemispheric asymmetries during visuomotor processing. We suggest that, within a bilateral visuomotor network, the right hemisphere exhibits a processing preference for planning global spatial movement features whereas the left hemisphere preferentially times local features of visual movement trajectories and adjusts movement online. PMID:28957344

  12. Schizophrenia as failure of left hemispheric dominance for the phonological component of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Spironelli, Chiara; Elbert, Thomas; Crow, Timothy J; Marano, Gianfranco; Stegagno, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    T. J. Crow suggested that the genetic variance associated with the evolution in Homo sapiens of hemispheric dominance for language carries with it the hazard of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Individuals lacking the typical left hemisphere advantage for language, in particular for phonological components, would be at increased risk of the typical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and delusions. Twelve schizophrenic patients treated with low levels of neuroleptics and twelve matched healthy controls participated in an event-related potential experiment. Subjects matched word-pairs in three tasks: rhyming/phonological, semantic judgment and word recognition. Slow evoked potentials were recorded from 26 scalp electrodes, and a laterality index was computed for anterior and posterior regions during the inter stimulus interval. During phonological processing individuals with schizophrenia failed to achieve the left hemispheric dominance consistently observed in healthy controls. The effect involved anterior (fronto-temporal) brain regions and was specific for the Phonological task; group differences were small or absent when subjects processed the same stimulus material in a Semantic task or during Word Recognition, i.e. during tasks that typically activate more widespread areas in both hemispheres. We show for the first time how the deficit of lateralization in the schizophrenic brain is specific for the phonological component of language. This loss of hemispheric dominance would explain typical symptoms, e.g. when an individual's own thoughts are perceived as an external intruding voice. The change can be interpreted as a consequence of "hemispheric indecision", a failure to segregate phonological engrams in one hemisphere.

  13. Rigidity, chaos and integration: hemispheric interaction and individual differences in metaphor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Kenett, Yoed N

    2014-01-01

    Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH) involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome (AS) and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger syndrome) or excessive (in schizophrenia) RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes left hemisphere (LH) hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with AS), and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia). In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language.

  14. Face gender categorization and hemispheric asymmetries: Contrasting evidence from connected and disconnected brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Giulia; Fabri, Mara; Foschi, Nicoletta; Tommasi, Luca

    2016-12-17

    We investigated hemispheric asymmetries in categorization of face gender by means of a divided visual field paradigm, in which female and male faces were presented unilaterally for 150ms each. A group of 60 healthy participants (30 males) and a male split-brain patient (D.D.C.) were asked to categorize the gender of the stimuli. Healthy participants categorized male faces presented in the right visual field (RVF) better and faster than when presented in the left visual field (LVF), and female faces presented in the LVF than in the RVF, independently of the participants' sex. Surprisingly, the recognition rates of D.D.C. were at chance levels - and significantly lower than those of the healthy participants - for both female and male faces presented in the RVF, as well as for female faces presented in the LVF. His performance was higher than expected by chance - and did not differ from controls - only for male faces presented in the LVF. The residual right-hemispheric ability of the split-brain patient in categorizing male faces reveals an own-gender bias lateralized in the right hemisphere, in line with the rightward own-identity and own-age bias previously shown in split-brain patients. The gender-contingent hemispheric dominance found in healthy participants confirms the previously shown right-hemispheric superiority in recognizing female faces, and also reveals a left-hemispheric superiority in recognizing male faces, adding an important evidence of hemispheric imbalance in the field of face and gender perception. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral evidence for inter-hemispheric cooperation during a lexical decision task: a divided visual field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Lemonnier, Sophie; Baciu, Monica

    2013-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTSThe redundant bilateral visual presentation of verbal stimuli decreases asymmetry and increases the cooperation between the two hemispheres.The increased cooperation between the hemispheres is related to semantic information during lexical processing.The inter-hemispheric interaction is represented by both inhibition and cooperation. This study explores inter-hemispheric interaction (IHI) during a lexical decision task by using a behavioral approach, the bilateral presentation of stimuli within a divided visual field experiment. Previous studies have shown that compared to unilateral presentation, the bilateral redundant (BR) presentation decreases the inter-hemispheric asymmetry and facilitates the cooperation between hemispheres. However, it is still poorly understood which type of information facilitates this cooperation. In the present study, verbal stimuli were presented unilaterally (left or right visual hemi-field successively) and bilaterally (left and right visual hemi-field simultaneously). Moreover, during the bilateral presentation of stimuli, we manipulated the relationship between target and distractors in order to specify the type of information which modulates the IHI. Thus, three types of information were manipulated: perceptual, semantic, and decisional, respectively named pre-lexical, lexical and post-lexical processing. Our results revealed left hemisphere (LH) lateralization during the lexical decision task. In terms of inter-hemisphere interaction, the perceptual and decision-making information increased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting the inhibition of one hemisphere upon the other. In contrast, semantic information decreased the inter-hemispheric asymmetry, suggesting cooperation between the hemispheres. We discussed our results according to current models of IHI and concluded that cerebral hemispheres interact and communicate according to various excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, all which depend on specific

  16. A rich fossil record yields calibrated phylogeny for Acanthaceae (Lamiales) and evidence for marked biases in timing and directionality of intercontinental disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Erin A; McDade, Lucinda A

    2014-09-01

    More than a decade of phylogenetic research has yielded a well-sampled, strongly supported hypothesis of relationships within the large ( > 4000 species) plant family Acanthaceae. This hypothesis points to intriguing biogeographic patterns and asymmetries in sister clade diversity but, absent a time-calibrated estimate for this evolutionary history, these patterns have remained unexplored. Here, we reconstruct divergence times within Acanthaceae using fossils as calibration points and experimenting with both fossil selection and effects of invoking a maximum age prior related to the origin of Eudicots. Contrary to earlier reports of a paucity of fossils of Lamiales (an order of ∼ 23,000 species that includes Acanthaceae) and to the expectation that a largely herbaceous to soft-wooded and tropical lineage would have few fossils, we recovered 51 reports of fossil Acanthaceae. Rigorous evaluation of these for accurate identification, quality of age assessment and utility in dating yielded eight fossils judged to merit inclusion in analyses. With nearly 10 kb of DNA sequence data, we used two sets of fossils as constraints to reconstruct divergence times. We demonstrate differences in age estimates depending on fossil selection and that enforcement of maximum age priors substantially alters estimated clade ages, especially in analyses that utilize a smaller rather than larger set of fossils. Our results suggest that long-distance dispersal events explain present-day distributions better than do Gondwanan or northern land bridge hypotheses. This biogeographical conclusion is for the most part robust to alternative calibration schemes. Our data support a minimum of 13 Old World (OW) to New World (NW) dispersal events but, intriguingly, only one in the reverse direction. Eleven of these 13 were among Acanthaceae s.s., which comprises > 90% of species diversity in the family. Remarkably, if minimum age estimates approximate true history, these 11 events occurred within

  17. Inter-hemispheric asymmetry in polar mesosphere summer echoes and temperature at 69° latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ray J.; Klekociuk, Andrew R.; Latteck, Ralph; Singer, Werner; Holdsworth, David A.; Murphy, Damian J.

    2009-03-01

    An inter-hemispheric asymmetry is found in the characteristics of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) and upper mesosphere temperatures at conjugate latitudes (~69°) above Antarctica and the Arctic. The second complete mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar summer observation season at Davis (68.6°S) revealed that PMSE occur less frequently, with lower strength and on average 1 km higher compared with their northern counterparts at Andenes (69.3°N). We consider the thermodynamic state of the mesosphere for conjoining hemispheric summers based on satellite and ground-based radar measurements, and show the mesopause region near ~80-87 km of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) to be up to 7.5 K warmer than its Northern Hemisphere (NH) counterpart. We show that this is consistent with our observation of asymmetries in the characteristics of PMSE and demonstrate how the mesosphere meridional wind field influences the existence and strength of the echoes in both hemispheres.

  18. Emotional prosody expression in acoustic analysis in patients with right hemisphere ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranski, Konstanty; Podemski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The role of the right cerebral hemisphere in nonverbal speech activities remains controversial. Most research supports the dominant role of the right hemisphere in the control of emotional prosody. There has been significant discussion of the participation of cortical and subcortical structures of the right hemisphere in the processing of various acoustic speech parameters. The aim of this study was an acoustic analysis of the speech parameters during emotional expression in right hemisphere ischemic strokes with an attempt to reference the results to lesion location. Acoustic speech analysis was conducted on forty-six right-handed patients with right-middle cerebral artery stroke, together with 34 age-matched people in the control group. We compared the results of acoustic studies between patients with varying infarct locations and the control group. Variations in fundamental frequency during verbal expression of joy, anger and sadness were significantly smaller in the patient group than in the control group. Cortical lesion caused more restrictions in fundamental frequency variation in the expression of joy and a lower voice intensity in expressions of anger and joy compared to those patients with subcortical lesions. Cortical lesion was associated with a more impaired expression of emotional prosody than subcortical lesion. The results indicate the leading role of the cortical structures of the right hemisphere in the expression of emotional prosody. Copyright © 2015 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Right Hemisphere Remapping of Naming Functions Depends on Lesion Size and Location in Poststroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Xing, Shihui

    2017-01-01

    The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion. PMID:28168061

  20. Language deficits as a possible symptom of right hemisphere dysfunctions in Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bryńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative communication disorders belong to the key symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. The severity of the symptoms of communication disorders varies depending on the type of PDD, from the lack of functional speech to overdeveloped verbal competencies measured by standardized scales. In Asperger’s syndrome (AS, observed language abnormalities include: pragmatics (application of language in social context, semantics (identifying different meanings of the same word and prosody (rhythm, intonation and modulation of speech. In the case of AS, the difference between formal language skills, i.e. within morphological, phonological and syntactic functions, and semantic and pragmatic deficits is clearly noticeable and distinctive. This situation arouses some questions about neurobiological conditions of these deficits. The language functions are among the first functions for which locations in the brain have been established. Traditionally they have been ascribed to some regions in the left hemisphere; they undergo lateralization and are accomplished owing to the activity of the primary, secondary and tertiary regions of associative cortex. However, there is also quite a lot of evidence suggesting that the right hemisphere plays an important role in communication processes, especially in some aspects of pragmatics and discourse. The analysis of communication deficits observed in patients with acquired right hemisphere damages and patients with AS as well as abnormal patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in this group of patients, suggest that the right hemisphere is involved in aetiology of PDD.

  1. Month of birth and offspring count of women: data from the Southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, S.; Didham, R.; Fieder, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several studies indicate that the month of birth affects later reproductive output of women in the Northern hemisphere. METHODS To investigate whether a comparable but time-shifted effect is also present in the Southern hemisphere where the seasonal variation of the environment is reversed, we analysed the association between birth month and offspring count in post-reproductive New Zealand women. We further examined whether this association differed with the hemisphere of birth as well as the socio-economic background. RESULTS We find that the association between birth month and offspring count of New Zealand women born in the Southern, albeit not Northern, hemisphere is a mirror image of the pattern reported from Austrian women: on average, women born during the Southern hemisphere summer months have fewer children than women born in winter. This association is highly significant within the lowest family income category but insignificant within higher family income categories. CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence for a causal link between the seasonality of the environment during the pre- and perinatal period and offspring count of women. It further indicates that the main contribution of the birth month effect found in the present study comes from the lowest family income category. PMID:18326861

  2. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  3. Right Hemisphere Remapping of Naming Functions Depends on Lesion Size and Location in Poststroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Skipper-Kallal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of language network plasticity following left hemisphere stroke is foundational to the understanding of aphasia recovery and neural plasticity in general. Damage in different language nodes may influence whether local plasticity is possible and whether right hemisphere recruitment is beneficial. However, the relationships of both lesion size and location to patterns of remapping are poorly understood. In the context of a picture naming fMRI task, we tested whether lesion size and location relate to activity in surviving left hemisphere language nodes, as well as homotopic activity in the right hemisphere during covert name retrieval and overt name production. We found that lesion size was positively associated with greater right hemisphere activity during both phases of naming, a pattern that has frequently been suggested but has not previously been clearly demonstrated. During overt naming, lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus led to deactivation of contralateral frontal areas, while lesions in motor cortex led to increased right motor cortex activity. Furthermore, increased right motor activity related to better naming performance only when left motor cortex was lesioned, suggesting compensatory takeover of speech or language function by the homotopic node. These findings demonstrate that reorganization of language function, and the degree to which reorganization facilitates aphasia recovery, is dependent on the size and site of the lesion.

  4. Hemispheric laterality assessment with dichotic digits testing in dyslexia and auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Kaprinis, Stergios; Kandylis, Dimitrios; Kaprinis, George St

    2010-03-01

    One of the widely used tests to evaluate functional asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres is the dichotic listening test with the usually prevailing right ear advantage. The current study aims at assessing hemispheric laterality in an adult sample of individuals with dyslexia, with auditory processing disorder (APD), and adults experiencing comorbidity of the two mentioned disorders against a control group with normal hearing and absence of learning disabilities. Results exhibit a right hemispheric dominance for the control and APD group, a left hemispheric dominance for the group diagnosed with both dyslexia and APD, and absence of dominance for the dyslexia group. Assessment of laterality was repeatable and produced stable results, indicating a true deficit. A component of auditory processing, specifically the auditory performance in competing acoustic signals, seems to be deficient in all three groups, and laterality of hemispheric functions influenced at least for auditory-language stimuli in the two of the three groups, one being adults with dyslexia and the other being adults with comorbidity of dyslexia and APD.

  5. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C; Small, Steven L

    2010-06-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury.

  6. Tracking reorganization of large-scale effective connectivity in aphasia following right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, David W; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the application of new effective connectivity analyses to characterize changing patterns of task-related directed interaction in large (25-55 node) cortical networks following the onset of aphasia. The subject was a left-handed woman who became aphasic following a right-hemisphere stroke. She was tested on an auditory word-picture verification task administered one and seven months after the onset of aphasia. MEG/EEG and anatomical MRI data were used to create high spatiotemporal resolution estimates of task-related cortical activity. Effective connectivity analyses of those data showed a reduction of bilateral network influences on preserved right-hemisphere structures, and an increase in intra-hemispheric left-hemisphere influences. She developed a connectivity pattern that was more left lateralized than that of right-handed control subjects. Her emergent left hemisphere network showed a combination of increased functional subdivision of perisylvian language areas and recruitment of medial structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Right-ear precedence and vocal emotion contagion: The role of the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Cornmell, Louise; Smith, Bethany; de Sa, Sabrina Lauren; Borwick, Ciara; Belfon-Thompson, Elisha

    2017-08-02

    Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. In both experiments, the results revealed that right ear lead stimuli received subtly but significantly higher evocation scores, suggesting a left hemisphere dominance for emotion contagion. A control experiment using an emotion identification task showed no effect of ear lead. The findings are discussed in relation to prior findings that have linked the processing of emotional prosody to left-hemisphere brain regions that regulate emotions, control orofacial musculature, are involved in affective empathy processing areas, or have an affinity for processing emotions socially. Future work is needed to eliminate alternative interpretations and understand the mechanisms involved. Our novel binaural asynchrony method may be useful in future work in auditory laterality.

  8. Inter-hemispheric wave propagation failures in traumatic brain injury are indicative of callosal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Sharma, Gaurav; Farivar, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 3.2-5.3 million Americans live with the consequences of a traumatic brain injury (TBI), making TBI one of the most common causes of disability in the world. Visual deficits often accompany TBI but physiological and anatomical evidence for injury in mild TBI is lacking. Axons traversing the corpus callosum are particularly vulnerable to TBI. Hemifield representations of early visual areas are linked by bundles of fibers that together cross the corpus callosum while maintaining their topographic relations. Given the increased vulnerability of the long visual axons traversing the corpus callosum, we hypothesized that inter-hemispheric transmission for vision will be impaired following mild TBI. Using the travelling wave paradigm (Wilson, Blake, & Lee 2001), we measured inter-hemispheric transmission in terms of both speed and propagation failures in 14 mild TBI patients and 14 age-matched controls. We found that relative to intra-hemispheric waves, inter-hemispheric waves were faster and that the inter-hemispheric propagation failures were more common in TBI patients. Furthermore, the transmission failures were topographically distributed, with a bias towards greater failures for transmission across the upper visual field. We discuss the results in terms of increased local inhibition and topographically-selective axonal injury in mild TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence from unilateral lesions of early uncompensable implementation of opposed response-biases in each hemisphere of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Anik; Braun, Claude M J; Daigneault, Sylvie; Delisle, Josée; Farmer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The intact right hemisphere presents an omissive response-bias and the left hemisphere a commissive response-bias in adults. This research sought to determine whether these hemispherically lateralized response-biases manifest early developmental and uncompensable brain implementation. Sixteen teenager and adult participants with focal left hemisphere lesions and fourteen with focal right hemisphere lesions (all with childhood onset: M=13 year recovery period) and 14 normal control participants were recruited. A computerized multitask high order working memory procedure was designed to generate many errors of omission and of commission. The expected double dissociation of response-bias distortion as a function of lesion side was significantly demonstrated on this task and was significantly frontal-lobe dependent. The hemispheres of the brain have an opposed response bias that is robustly implemented in infancy through adulthood.

  10. Role of local assembly in the hierarchical crystallization of associating colloidal hard hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qun-li; Hadinoto, Kunn; Ni, Ran

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchical self-assembly consisting of local associations of simple building blocks for the formation of complex structures widely exists in nature, while the essential role of local assembly remains unknown. In this work, by using computer simulations, we study a simple model system consisting of associating colloidal hemispheres crystallizing into face-centered-cubic crystals comprised of spherical dimers of hemispheres, focusing on the effect of dimer formation on the hierarchical crystallization. We found that besides assisting the crystal nucleation because of increasing the symmetry of building blocks, the association between hemispheres can also induce both reentrant melting and reentrant crystallization depending on the range of interaction. Especially when the interaction is highly sticky, we observe a novel reentrant crystallization of identical crystals, which melt only in a certain temperature range. This offers another axis in fabricating responsive crystalline materials by tuning the fluctuation of local association.

  11. Phantom Limb Pain: Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Unaffected Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Rollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantom limb pain is very common after limb amputation and is often difficult to treat. The motor cortex stimulation is a valid treatment for deafferentation pain that does not respond to conventional pain treatment, with relief for 50% to 70% of patients. This treatment is invasive as it uses implanted epidural electrodes. Cortical stimulation can be performed noninvasively by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. The stimulation of the hemisphere that isn't involved in phantom limb (unaffected hemisphere, remains unexplored. We report a case of phantom limb pain treated with 1 Hz rTMS stimulation over motor cortex in unaffected hemisphere. This stimulation produces a relevant clinical improvement of phantom limb pain; however, further studies are necessary to determine the efficacy of the method and the stimulation parameters.

  12. The phase shift between the hemispheres in the solar activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibalova, A. S.; Obridko, V. N.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    The shift between the solar activity cycles in the northern and southern hemispheres of the Sun is studied using data on sunspot number and area. The data obtained are compared with archival information on episodes of appreciable solar-cycle asymmetry. The small phase shift between recent activity cycles in the northern and southern solar hemispheres differs considerably from the shift for episodes of appreciable deviations from dipolar symmetry in the sunspot distribution detected with various degrees of confidence in archival astronomical data from the 17th-19th centuries. The current time shift between the hemispheres is insignificant, about 6-7 months. This shift has changed its sign twice in recent solar history; this probably corresponds to more or less periodic variations with a timescale close to the duration of the Gleissberg cycle.

  13. Magnetoencephalographic evidence of early right hemisphere overactivation during metaphor comprehension in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev-Wolf, Maor; Faust, Miriam; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Harpaz, Yuval; Goldstein, Abraham

    2015-06-01

    Whereas language processing in neurotypical brains is left lateralized, individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) display a bilateral or reversed pattern of lateralization. We used MEG to investigate the implications of this atypicality on fine (left hemisphere) versus coarse (right hemisphere) semantic processing. Ten SZ and 14 controls were presented with fine (conventional metaphor, literal, and unrelated expressions) and coarse (novel metaphor) linguistic stimuli. Results showed greater activation of the right hemisphere for novel metaphors and greater bilateral activation for unrelated expressions at the M170 window in SZ. Moreover, at the M350, SZ showed reduced bilateral activation. We conclude that SZ are overreliant on early-stage coarse semantic processing. As a result, they jump too quickly to remote conclusions, with limited control over the meanings they form. This may explain one of the core symptoms of the disorder-loose associations. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. The star book stargazing throughout the seasons in the Northern hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Stargazing Throughout the Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere is an excerpt from The Star Book that guides you through the night skies in the Northern Hemisphere, through wide-angle star charts. Looking at the main constellations, stars and celestial showpieces of the northern celestial sphere, beginning with constellations around the north pole and then taking a season by season view. Most northern constellations are as familiar to today's stargazers as they were to the ancient Greeks. Everyone is interested in the stars and on a clear night astonished by them. Stargazing Throughout the Seasons in the Northern Hemisphere will answer any questions you may have when you look up into the night sky.

  15. Hemispheric differences for identification of words and nonwords in Urdu-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Maheen Mausoof; Hellige, Joseph B

    2006-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for Urdu-English bilinguals identifying printed Urdu words and nonwords, separated Urdu letter strings, digits, and English nonwords. In all cases, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) than to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH). Qualitative error patterns suggested that separated Urdu letter strings were processed more serially than Urdu letter strings joined to form words or pronounceable nonwords and more serially on RVF/LH than on LVF/RH trials. This qualitative laterality effect is similar to that found for Hebrew and Arabic but opposite that found for English and suggests that the qualitative manner of processing printed verbal material is influenced by language-specific factors such as scanning direction, orthographic-to-phonological mapping rules, and morphology.

  16. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  17. The non-linear development of the right hemispheric specialization for human face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-06-24

    The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rigidity, Chaos and Integration: Hemispheric Interaction and Individual Differences in Metaphor Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eFaust

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger or excessive (in schizophrenia RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes LH hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with Asperger syndrome, and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia. In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language.

  19. Shape preferred orientation of iron grains compatible with Earth's uppermost inner core hemisphericity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Constraining the possible patterns of iron fabrics in the Earth's Uppermost Inner Core (UIC) is key to unravel the mechanisms controlling its growth and dynamics. In the framework of crystalline micro-structures composed of ellipsoidal, aligned grains, we discuss possible textural models of UIC compatible with observations of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Using recent results from multiple scattering theory in textured heterogeneous materials, we compute the P-wave phase velocity and scattering attenuation as a function of grain volume, shape, and orientation wrt to the propagation direction of seismic P-waves. Assuming no variations of the grain volume between the Eastern and Western hemisphere, we show that two families of texture are compatible with the degree-one structure of the inner core as revealed by the positive correlation between seismic velocity and attenuation. (1) Strong flattening of grains parallel to the Inner Core Boundary in the Western hemisphere and weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. (2) Strong radial elongation of grains in the Western hemisphere and again weak anisometry in the Eastern hemisphere. Both textures can quantitatively explain the seismic data in a limited range of grain volumes. Furthermore, the velocity and attenuation anisotropy locally observed under Africa demands that the grains be locally elongated in the direction of Earth's meridians. Our study demonstrates that the hemispherical seismic structure of UIC can be entirely explained by changes in the shape and orientation of grains, thereby offering an alternative to changes in grain volumes. In the future, our theoretical toolbox could be used to systematically test the compatibility of textures predicted by geodynamical models with seismic observations.

  20. The processing of chimeric and dichotic emotional stimuli by connected and disconnected cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Giulia; Marzoli, Daniele; Brancucci, Alfredo; Fabri, Mara; Foschi, Nicoletta; Tommasi, Luca

    2014-09-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries have been widely explored in both the visual and the auditory domain, but little is known about hemispheric asymmetries in audio-visual integration. We compared the performance of a partially callosotomized patient, a total split-brain patient and a control group during the evaluation of the emotional valence of chimeric faces and dichotic syllables (an emotional syllable in one ear and white noise in the other ear) presented unimodally (only faces or only syllables) or bimodally (faces and syllables presented simultaneously). Stimuli could convey happy and sad expressions and participants were asked to evaluate the emotional content of each presentation, using a 5-point Likert scale (from very sad to very happy). In unimodal presentations, the partially callosotomized patient's judgments depended on the emotional valence of the stimuli processed by the right hemisphere, whereas those of the total split-brain patient showed the opposite lateralization; in these conditions, the control group did not show asymmetries. Moreover, in bimodal presentations, results provided support for the valence hypothesis (i.e., left asymmetry for positive emotions and vice versa) in both the control group and the partially callosotomized patient, whereas the total split-brain patient showed a tendency to evaluate the emotional content of the right hemiface even when asked to focus on the acoustic modality. We conclude that partial and total hemispheric disconnections reveal opposite patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in auditory, visual and audio-visual emotion processing. These results are discussed in the light of the right-hemisphere hypothesis and the valence hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of radiometric and calorimetric methods for total hemispherical emissivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Hameury, Jacques; Ausset, Patrick; Hay, Bruno; Ibos, Laurent; Candau, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of infrared emissivity is important in applications such as surface temperature measurements by infrared thermography or thermal balance for building walls. A comparison of total hemispherical emissivity measurement was performed by two laboratories: the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE) and the Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Thermique, Environnement et Systèmes (CERTES). Both laboratories performed emissivity measurements on four samples, chosen to cover a large range of emissivity values and angular reflectance behaviors. The samples were polished aluminum (highly specular, low emissivity), bulk PVC (slightly specular, high emissivity), sandblasted aluminum (diffuse surface, medium emissivity), and aluminum paint (slightly specular surface, medium emissivity). Results obtained using five measurement techniques were compared. LNE used a calorimetric method for direct total hemispherical emissivity measurement [1], an absolute reflectometric measurement method [2], and a relative reflectometric measurement method. CERTES used two total hemispherical directional reflectometric measurement methods [3, 4]. For indirect techniques by reflectance measurements, the total hemispherical emissivity values were calculated from directional hemispherical reflectance measurement results using spectral integration when required and directional to hemispherical extrapolation. Results were compared, taking into account measurement uncertainties; an added uncertainty was introduced to account for heterogeneity over the surfaces of the samples and between samples. All techniques gave large relative uncertainties for a low emissive and very specular material (polished aluminum), and results were quite scattered. All the indirect techniques by reflectance measurement gave results within ±0.01 for a high emissivity material. A commercial aluminum paint appears to be a good candidate for producing samples with medium level of emissivity

  2. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Bilateral Hemispheres Enhances Motor Function and Training Effect of Paretic Hand in Patients After Stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Tada, Takeo; Toshima, Masahiko; Matsuo, Yuichiro; Ikoma, Katsunori

    2009-01-01

    ... or decreasing the excitability of the unaffected hemisphere. We investigated whether bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation might improve the paretic hand in patients after stroke. Design...

  4. Detection of spatial frequency in brain-damaged patients: influence of hemispheric asymmetries and hemineglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio Dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemispheric specialization for spatial frequency processing was investigated by measuring the contrast sensitivity curves of sine-wave gratings in 30 left or right brain-damaged patients using different spatial frequencies compared with healthy participants. The results showed that left brain-damaged patients were selectively impaired in processing high frequencies, whereas right brain-damaged patients were more impaired in the processing low frequencies, regardless of the presence of visuo-spatial neglect. These visual processing results can be interpreted in terms of spatial frequency discrimination, with both hemispheres participating in this process in different ways.

  5. Subsonic aircraft soot. A tracer documenting barriers to inter-hemispheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueschel, R.F. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Meridional observations of soot aerosols and radioactive {sup 14}C, and models of the geographic distribution of nuclear bomb-released {sup 14}C and aircraft-emitted NO{sub x}, all show strong gradients between the hemispheres. Reason for it are decade-long inter-hemispheric mixing times which are much in excess of yearlong stratospheric residence times of tracers. Vertical mixing of soot aerosol is not corroborated by {sup 14}C observations. The reason could be radiometric forces that act on strongly absorbing soot. (author) 10 refs.

  6. Southern Hemisphere Measurement of the Anisotropy in the CosmicMicrowave Background Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, George F.; Lubin, Phil M.

    1979-06-01

    A recent measurement of the anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation from the southern hemisphere (Lima, Peru) is essentially in agreement with previous measurements from the northern hemisphere. The net anisotropy can be described as a first order spherical harmonic (Doppler) anisotropy of amplitude 3.1 {+-} 0.4 m{sup o}K with a quadrupole anisotropy of less than 1 m{sup o}K. In addition, measurements of the linear polarization yield an upper limit of 1 m{sup o}K, or one part in 3000, at 95% C.L. for the amplitudes of any spherical harmonic through third order.

  7. Empirical orthogonal functions and multiple flow regimes in the Southern Hemisphere winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrara, John D.; Ghil, Michael; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Mo, Kingtse C.

    1989-01-01

    A new empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of winter 500 mb geopotential height anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere is presented. An earlier EOF analysis prefiltered the anomalies to exclude wavenumbers 5 and higher; the present analysis does not. The different preprocessing of data affects the results. All three distinct planetary flow regimes identified in the winter circulation of the Southern Hemisphere by a pattern correlation method are captured by the new set of EOFs; only two of those regimes were captured by the earlier set. The new results, therefore, lend further support to the idea that EOFs point to distinct planetary flow regimes.

  8. Southern Hemisphere anticyclonic circulation drives oceanic and climatic conditions in late Holocene southernmost Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high sensitivity of southern Africa to climate change, a reliable understanding of its hydrological system is crucial. Recent studies of the regional climatic system have revealed a highly complex interplay of forcing factors on precipitation regimes. This includes the influence of the tropical easterlies, the strength of the southern hemispheric westerlies as well as sea surface temperatures along the coast of the subcontinent. However, very few marine records have been available in order to study the coupling of marine and atmospheric circulation systems. Here we present results from a marine sediment core, recovered in shallow waters off the Gouritz River mouth on the south coast of South Africa. Core GeoB18308-1 allows a closer view of the last  ∼  4 kyr. Climate sensitive organic proxies, like the distribution and isotopic composition of plant-wax lipids as well as indicators for sea surface temperatures and soil input, give information on oceanographic and hydrologic changes during the recorded time period. Moreover, the micropaleontology, mineralogical and elemental composition of the sediments reflect the variability of the terrigenous input to the core site. The combination of down-core sediment signatures and a catchment-wide provenance study indicate that the Little Ice Age ( ∼  300–650 cal yr BP was characterized by climatic conditions favorable to torrential flood events. The Medieval Climate Anomaly ( ∼  950–650 cal yr BP is expressed by lower sea surface temperatures in the Mossel Bay area and humid conditions in the Gouritz River catchment. These new results suggest that the coincidence of humid conditions and cooler sea surface temperatures along the south coast of South Africa resulted from a strengthened and more southerly anticyclonic circulation. Most probably, the transport of moisture from the Indian Ocean by strong subtropical easterlies was coupled with Agulhas Bank

  9. Responses of surface ozone air quality to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanhong; Zhang, Lin; Tai, Amos P. K.; Chen, Youfan; Pan, Yuepeng

    2017-08-01

    Human activities have substantially increased atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to the Earth's surface, inducing unintentional effects on ecosystems with complex environmental and climate consequences. One consequence remaining unexplored is how surface air quality might respond to the enhanced nitrogen deposition through surface-atmosphere exchange. Here we combine a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a global land model (Community Land Model, CLM) to address this issue with a focus on ozone pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. We consider three processes that are important for surface ozone and can be perturbed by the addition of atmospheric deposited nitrogen - namely, emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone dry deposition, and soil nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. We find that present-day anthropogenic nitrogen deposition (65 Tg N a-1 to the land), through enhancing plant growth (represented as increases in vegetation leaf area index, LAI, in the model), could increase surface ozone from increased biogenic VOC emissions (e.g., a 6.6 Tg increase in isoprene emission), but it could also decrease ozone due to higher ozone dry deposition velocities (up to 0.02-0.04 cm s-1 increases). Meanwhile, deposited anthropogenic nitrogen to soil enhances soil NOx emissions. The overall effect on summer mean surface ozone concentrations shows general increases over the globe (up to 1.5-2.3 ppbv over the western US and South Asia), except for some regions with high anthropogenic NOx emissions (0.5-1.0 ppbv decreases over the eastern US, western Europe, and North China). We compare the surface ozone changes with those driven by the past 20-year climate and historical land use changes. We find that the impacts from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can be comparable to the climate- and land-use-driven surface ozone changes at regional scales and partly offset the surface ozone reductions due to land use changes reported in previous studies

  10. Considering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  11. The Biogeographic South-North Divide of Polygonatum (Asparagaceae Tribe Polygonateae) within Eastern Asia and Its Recent Dispersals in the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Yang, Yong-Ping; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun; Deng, Tao; Nie, Ze-Long; Meng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Eastern Asia (EA) is a key region for the diversification of flowering plants in the Northern Hemisphere, but few studies have focused on the biogeographic history within EA in the context of the other northern continents. Polygonatum is an important medicinal genus widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere with its highest species richness in EA, and it represents an excellent model for studying the evolution of biogeographic patterns in this region. Divergence time estimation was used to examine the biogeographic history of Polygonatum based on nuclear ITS and four plastid sequences (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) from 30 Polygonatum species and 35 outgroup taxa. The ancestral area of Polygonatum and subsequent dispersal routes were inferred using Bayes-Lagrange. Polygonatum was estimated to have originated in southern EA during the middle Miocene (14.34-13.57 Ma) with subsequent south-to-north expansion in the late Miocene. Multiple intercontinental dispersal events were inferred between EA and Europe or North America, and all of them have occurred recently in the late Miocene to Pliocene. The separation of Polygonatum into the south and north lineages and their subsequent diversifications in the late Miocene supports the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of EA that also coincides with the retreat and redevelopment of the arid zone in EA in the Neogene. Our results demonstrate the complexity of biogeographic history of Polygonatum in the Northern Hemisphere including early vicariance followed by frequent and recent dispersals in the Neogene.

  12. Temporal Sequence of Hemispheric Network Activation during Semantic Processing: A Functional Network Connectivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michal; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Calhoun, Vince; Kraut, Michael; Hart, John, Jr.; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2009-01-01

    To explore the temporal sequence of, and the relationship between, the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) during semantic memory (SM) processing we identified the neural networks involved in the performance of functional MRI semantic object retrieval task (SORT) using group independent component analysis (ICA) in 47 healthy individuals. SORT…

  13. Psychophysics reveals a right hemispheric contribution to body image distortions in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Porter, Gillian; Benton, Christopher P

    2007-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the right cerebral hemisphere contributes to the enhanced body image distortions seen in women when compared to men. Using classical psychophysics, 60 right-handed healthy participants (30 women) were briefly presented with size-distorted pictures of themselves, another person (an experimenter), and a non-corporal, familiar object (a coke bottle) to the central, right, and left visual field. Participants had to decide whether the presented stimulus was fatter or thinner than the real body/object, and thus compare the presented picture with the stored representation of the stimulus from memory. From these data we extracted the amount of image distortion at which participants judged the various stimuli to be veridical. We found that right visual field presentations (initial left hemisphere processing) revealed a general "fatter" bias, which was more evident for bodies than for objects. Crucially, a "fatter" bias with own body presentations in the left visual field (initial right hemisphere processing) was only found for women. Our findings suggest that right visual field presentation results in a general size overestimation, and that this overestimation is more pronounced for bodies than for objects. Moreover, the particular "fatter" bias after own body presentations to the left visual field in women supports the notion of a specific role of the right hemisphere in sex-specific body image distortion.

  14. Construction asymptotic solution while studying electrovortex flow in hemispherical container using Stokes approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, E. A.; Teplyakov, I. O.

    2017-11-01

    The flow generated in the conductive medium with the electromagnetic force appearing when non-uniform electric current interacts with the own magnetic field was considered. The problem was solved analytically using Stokes approximation in a hemispherical geometry. Also numerical solution was obtained and comparing with the oldest mode of analytical one was carried out. The numerical and asymptotic results are quite similar.

  15. Asymmetrical hemispheric EEG activation evoked by stimulus position during the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, Chiara; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2006-05-22

    The Simon effect has been previously shown to be asymmetric at both the behavioral and electrophysiological levels. The present investigation was aimed to clarify whether, during a Simon task, hemispheric asymmetry is also observed in the early phases of stimulus processing. In a group of healthy subjects performing the Simon task, we analyzed scalp potentials evoked by the first lateralized cue (left or right), instead of the classical readiness potential preceding the motor response. ERP results showed a significant left cortical activation to stimuli presented in the right visual field at the 140-160 ms time window. Instead, left stimuli elicited a significant activation of the right versus left hemisphere starting at the next 160-180 ms time interval. We linked this asymmetry to that observed in behavioral data: the Simon effect recorded with left stimuli is smaller than the Simon effect recorded with right stimuli. Results confirm the hypothesis that in right handed subjects, left hemisphere is specialized for motor response selection and is able to process right stimuli faster than the right hemisphere does for left stimuli.

  16. Hemispheric Processing of Idioms and Irony in Adults with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have pointed to difficulties in comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study examined hemispheric processing of idioms and irony in 23 adults with PDD and in 24 typically developing (TD) adults. The results show that…

  17. Number of Sense Effects of Chinese Disyllabic Compounds in the Two Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Ying; Lee, Chia-Ying; Huang, Hsu-Wen; Chou, Chia-Ju

    2011-01-01

    The current study manipulated the visual field and the number of senses of the first character in Chinese disyllabic compounds to investigate how the related senses (polysemy) of the constituted character in the compounds were represented and processed in the two hemispheres. The ERP results in experiment 1 revealed crossover patterns in the left…

  18. The effects of sad prosody on hemispheric specialization for words processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Rotem; Arzouan, Yossi; Armony-Sivan, Rinat

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effect of sad prosody on hemispheric specialization for word processing using behavioral and electrophysiological measures. A dichotic listening task combining focused attention and signal-detection methods was conducted to evaluate the detection of a word spoken in neutral or sad prosody. An overall right ear advantage together with leftward lateralization in early (150-170 ms) and late (240-260 ms) processing stages was found for word detection, regardless of prosody. Furthermore, the early stage was most pronounced for words spoken in neutral prosody, showing greater negative activation over the left than the right hemisphere. In contrast, the later stage was most pronounced for words spoken with sad prosody, showing greater positive activation over the left than the right hemisphere. The findings suggest that sad prosody alone was not sufficient to modulate hemispheric asymmetry in word-level processing. We posit that lateralized effects of sad prosody on word processing are largely dependent on the psychoacoustic features of the stimuli as well as on task demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Re-assessing acalculia: Distinguishing spatial and purely arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, S; Piva, D; Burgio, F; Passarini, L; Rolma, G; Meneghello, F; Semenza, C

    2017-03-01

    Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients have been traditionally considered secondary to visuo-spatial impairments, although the exact relationship between the two deficits has rarely been assessed. The present study implemented a voxelwise lesion analysis among 30 right-hemisphere damaged patients and a controlled, matched-sample, cross-sectional analysis with 35 cognitively normal controls regressing three composite cognitive measures on standardized numerical measures. The results showed that patients and controls significantly differ in Number comprehension, Transcoding, and Written operations, particularly subtractions and multiplications. The percentage of patients performing below the cutoffs ranged between 27% and 47% across these tasks. Spatial errors were associated with extensive lesions in fronto-temporo-parietal regions -which frequently lead to neglect- whereas pure arithmetical errors appeared related to more confined lesions in the right angular gyrus and its proximity. Stepwise regression models consistently revealed that spatial errors were primarily predicted by composite measures of visuo-spatial attention/neglect and representational abilities. Conversely, specific errors of arithmetic nature linked to representational abilities only. Crucially, the proportion of arithmetical errors (ranging from 65% to 100% across tasks) was higher than that of spatial ones. These findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions can directly affect core numerical/arithmetical processes, and that right-hemisphere acalculia is not only ascribable to visuo-spatial deficits as traditionally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study of Humour and Communicative Intention Following Right Hemisphere Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Henry S.; Pell, Marc D.

    2006-01-01

    This research provides further data regarding non-literal language comprehension following right hemisphere damage (RHD). To assess the impact of RHD on the processing of non-literal language, ten participants presenting with RHD and ten matched healthy control participants were administered tasks tapping humour appreciation and pragmatic…