WorldWideScience

Sample records for hemisphere baseline air

  1. Astrometry of 25 Southern Hemisphere Radio Sources From A VLBI Short-Baseline Survey

    Fey, Alan

    2004-01-01

    .... These positions are derived from Mark III Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations made between 2003 September and 2004 May on the intra-Australia baseline connecting Hobart, Tasmania and Parkes, New South Wales...

  2. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extending the Applicability of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model to Hemispheric Scales: Motivation, Challenges, and Progress

    The adaptation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to simulate O3, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions over the northern hemisphere is presented. Hemispheric simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (...

  4. Mitigation of multipath effect in GNSS short baseline positioning by the multipath hemispherical map

    Dong, D.; Wang, M.; Chen, W.; Zeng, Z.; Song, L.; Zhang, Q.; Cai, M.; Cheng, Y.; Lv, J.

    2016-03-01

    Multipath is one major error source in high-accuracy GNSS positioning. Various hardware and software approaches are developed to mitigate the multipath effect. Among them the MHM (multipath hemispherical map) and sidereal filtering (SF)/advanced SF (ASF) approaches utilize the spatiotemporal repeatability of multipath effect under static environment, hence they can be implemented to generate multipath correction model for real-time GNSS data processing. We focus on the spatial-temporal repeatability-based MHM and SF/ASF approaches and compare their performances for multipath reduction. Comparisons indicate that both MHM and ASF approaches perform well with residual variance reduction (50 %) for short span (next 5 days) and maintains roughly 45 % reduction level for longer span (next 6-25 days). The ASF model is more suitable for high frequency multipath reduction, such as high-rate GNSS applications. The MHM model is easier to implement for real-time multipath mitigation when the overall multipath regime is medium to low frequency.

  5. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report

  7. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: a northern hemisphere perspective.

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Omasa, Kenji; Paoletti, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies.

  8. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Omasa, Kenji; Paoletti, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies. - Simultaneous addressing air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies in future research and monitoring

  9. Are Changing Emission Patterns Across the Northern Hemisphere Influencing Long-range Transport Contributions to Background Air Pollution?

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emissio...

  10. Tracking Oxidation During Transport of Trace Gases in Air from the Northern to Southern Hemisphere

    Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F. L.; Atlas, E. L.; Parrish, D. D.; Miller, B. R.; Sweeney, C.; McKain, K.; Hall, B. D.; Siso, C.; Crotwell, M.; Hintsa, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Claxton, T.; Hossaini, R.

    2017-12-01

    Trace gas mole fractions contain the imprint of recent influences on an air mass such as sources, transport, and oxidation. Covariations among the many gases measured from flasks during ATom and HIPPO, and from the ongoing NOAA cooperative air sampling program enable recent influences to be identified from a wide range of sources including industrial activity, biomass burning, emissions from wetlands, and uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. In this work we explore the evolution of trace gas concentrations owing to atmospheric oxidation as air masses pass through the tropics, the atmospheric region with the highest concentrations of the hydroxyl radical. Variations in C2-C5 hydrocarbon concentrations downwind of source regions provide a measure of photochemical ageing in an air mass since emission, but they become less useful when tracking photochemical ageing as air is transported from the NH into the SH owing to their low mixing ratios, lifetimes that are very short relative to transport times, non-industrial sources in the tropics (e.g., biomass burning), and southern hemispheric sources. Instead, we consider a range of trace gases and trace gas pairs that provide a measure of photochemical processing as air transits the tropics. To be useful in this analysis, these trace gases would have lifetimes comparable to interhemispheric transport times, emissions arising from only the NH at constant relative magnitudes, and concentrations sufficient to allow precise and accurate measurements in both hemispheres. Some anthropogenically-emitted chlorinated hydrocarbons meet these requirements and have been measured during ATom, HIPPO, and from NOAA's ongoing surface sampling efforts. Consideration of these results and their implications for tracking photochemical processing in air as it is transported across the tropics will be presented.

  11. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  12. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    Severs, Y. D

    2006-01-01

    .... This trial thus represents a baseline habitability evaluation of Canada's Victoria class submarines to confirm compliance with the current maximum permissible contaminant limits stipulated in the Air...

  13. Shift of subtropical transport barriers explains observed hemispheric asymmetry of decadal trends of age of air

    G. P. Stiller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to global warming, the Brewer–Dobson circulation in the stratosphere is expected to accelerate and the mean transport time of air along this circulation to decrease. This would imply a negative stratospheric age of air trend, i.e. an air parcel would need less time to travel from the tropopause to any point in the stratosphere. Age of air as inferred from tracer observations, however, shows zero to positive trends in the northern mid-latitude stratosphere and zonally asymmetric patterns. Using satellite observations and model calculations we show that the observed latitudinal and vertical patterns of the decadal changes of age of air in the lower to middle stratosphere during the period 2002–2012 are predominantly caused by a southward shift of the circulation pattern by about 5°. After correction for this shift, the observations reveal a hemispherically almost symmetric decrease of age of air in the lower to middle stratosphere up to 800 K of up to −0.25 years over the 2002–2012 period with strongest decrease in the northern tropics. This net change is consistent with long-term trends from model predictions.

  14. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001–2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically signific...

  15. Data sets used in the analysis presented in the manuscript “Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and Ozone over the Northeast US”

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset documents that all of the data analyzed in the manuscript "Regional and Hemispheric Influences on Temporal Variability in Baseline Carbon Monoxide and...

  16. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Othman, M. N. K., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S., E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz, E-mail: najibkhir86@gmail.com, E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: hazry@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: shahriman@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: syedfaiz@unimap.edu.my, E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my [Centre of Excellence for Unmanned Aerial Systems, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  17. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  18. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity

  19. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  20. Chaotic Behaviour Investigation of a Front Opposed-Hemispherical Spiral-Grooved Air Bearing System

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, spiral-grooved air bearing systems have attracted much attention and are especially useful in precision instruments and machines with spindles that rotate at high speed. Load support can be multidirectional and this type of bearing can also be very rigid. Studies show that some of the design problems encountered are dynamic and include critical speed, nonlinearity, gas film pressure, unbalanced rotors, and even poor design, all of which can result in the generation of chaotic aperiodic motion and instability under certain conditions. Such irregular motion on a large scale can cause severe damage to a machine or instrument. Therefore, understanding the conditions under which aperiodic behaviour and vibration arise is crucial for prevention. In this study, numerical analysis, including the Finite Difference and Differential Transformation Methods, is used to study these effects in detail in a front opposed-hemispherical spiral-grooved air bearing system. It was found that different rotor masses and bearing number could cause undesirable behaviour including periodic, subperiodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motion. The results obtained in this study can be used as a basis for future bearing system design and the prevention of instability.

  1. Are changing emission patterns across the Northern Hemisphere influencing long-range transport contributions to background air pollution?

    Mathur, R.; Kang, D.; Napelenok, S. L.; Xing, J.; Hogrefe, C.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution reduction strategies for a region are complicated not only by the interplay of local emissions sources and several complex physical, chemical, dynamical processes in the atmosphere, but also hemispheric background levels of pollutants. Contrasting changes in emission patterns across the globe (e.g. declining emissions in North America and Western Europe in response to implementation of control measures and increasing emissions across Asia due to economic and population growth) are resulting in heterogeneous changes in the tropospheric chemical composition and are likely altering long-range transport impacts and consequently background pollution levels at receptor regions. To quantify these impacts, the WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations are performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ, a first- and higher-order sensitivity calculation technique, is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the Northern Hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 are then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. These source region sensitivities estimated from DDM are then combined with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. This characterization of changing long-range transport contributions is critical for the design and implementation of tighter national air quality standards

  2. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  3. A baseline evaluation of casino air quality after enactment of Nevada's Clean Indoor Air Act.

    York, Nancy L; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General reports that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The purpose of this study was to measure levels of fine particulate matter in nonsmoking casino restaurants after enactment of Nevada's Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA). Fine particulate mattercasino hotel restaurants and gaming areas for a total of 32 venues. A battery-operated SidePak aerosol monitor was discreetly used for at least 30 min in each venue. Nonsmoking restaurant PM2.5 levels ranged from 5 to 101 microg/m3 (M=31; SD=22.9) while gaming areas ranged from 20 to 73 microg/m3 (M=48; SD=15.9). There was a significant difference in PM2.5 between restaurants and gaming areas, t30=-2.54, p=.017. There was also a strong correlation between the levels of restaurant PM2.5 and gaming area PM2.5 (r=.71; p=.005). Fine PM2.5 in all casino areas was above what the Environmental Protection Agency recommends as healthy. This information can be used to educate policy decision makers when discussing potential strengthening of the law.

  4. Baseline Studies of Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Air of the Nandamojo Watershed, Costa Rica

    Geesey, Mary Sophia

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a number of common household and commercial products around the world. PBDEs enter the environment in a variety of ways, such as through emissions, leaching from end-of-life electronics in landfills, and incineration. While many countries have phased out the manufacturing of penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDEs or have banned the manufacture and use of these congeners altogether, these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to be detected in humans and the environment. This study investigates spatial and temporal variations of selected PBDEs in the air of the Nandamojo watershed area in Costa Rica by comparing air concentrations of PBDEs in the dry winter vs. wet summer seasons and rural vs. urban areas and also investigates the impact of anthropogenic activities on air concentration of PBDEs. This study is significant to the field, because there are no baseline studies nor are there currently any monitoring programs to assess the environmental levels of PBDEs or other POPs for this region of the Guanacaste province. Baseline information is needed to track spatial and temporal trends as well as evaluate the effectiveness of control measures employed nationally and internationally. Samples obtained from passive air sampling devices were analyzed via GC/MS for a number of congeners. PBDE-47 and -99 were found to be the congeners present in greatest concentration in air samples from the Nandamojo watershed area. Air concentrations were estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day and ranged as follows: SigmaPBDE5 35.20-1549.25 pg/m3 over the entire study. The presence of PBDEs in remote and pristine environments indicates that PBDEs are now a global concern. This study suggests that the spatial and temporal distribution patterns observed are strongly related to anthropogenic activities and presence of a population similar to that observed in other studies. The presence of

  5. Effects of Northern Hemisphere Sea Surface Temperature Changes on the Global Air Quality

    Yi, K.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The roles of regional sea surface temperature (SST) variability on modulating the climate system and consequently the air quality are investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform SST anomalies of +/- 1 °C are superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian Oceans individually. Ignoring the response of natural emissions, our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability of surface O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in response to SST anomalies, especially during boreal summers. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv while increases the anthropogenic PM2.5 concentrations from 0.5 to 3 µg m-3. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing air pollutant perturbations in most cases. During boreal summers, the increase in tropical SST over different ocean basins enhances deep convection, which significantly increases the air temperature over the upper troposphere and trigger large-scale subsidence over nearby and remote regions. These processes tend to increase tropospheric stability and suppress rainfall at lower mid-latitudes. Consequently, it reduces the vertical transport of O3 to the surface while facilitating the accumulation of PM2.5 concentrations over most regions. In addition, this regional SST warming may also considerably suppress intercontinental transport of air pollution as confirmed with idealized CO-like tracers. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST variability and regional air quality, which can help local air quality management.

  6. Examining Air Quality-Meteorology Interactions on Regional to Hemispheric Scales

    This presentation provides motivation for coupling the atmospheric dynamics and chemistry calculations in air pollution modeling systems, provides an overview of how this coupling is achieved in the WRF-CMAQ 2-way coupled model, presents results from various applications of the m...

  7. Characteristics of GaN-based 500 nm light-emitting diodes with embedded hemispherical air-cavity structure

    Zhang, Minyan; Li, Yufeng; Li, Qiang; Su, Xilin; Wang, Shuai; Feng, Lungang; Tian, Zhenhuan; Guo, Maofeng; Zhang, Guowei; Ding, Wen; Yun, Feng

    2018-03-01

    GaN-based 500 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an air-cavity formed on a laser-drilled hemispherical patterned sapphire substrate (HPSS) were investigated. The cross-section transmission electron microscopy image of the HPSS-LED epilayer indicated that most of the threading dislocations were bent towards the lateral directions. It was found that in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) of HPSS-LEDs, there were fewer V-pits and lower surface roughness than those of conventional LEDs which were grown on flat sapphire substrates (FSSs). The high-resolution x-ray diffraction showed that the LED grown on a HPSS has better crystal quality than that grown on a FSS. Compared to FSS-LEDs, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity, the light output power, and the external quantum efficiency at an injected current of 20 mA for the HPSS-LED were enhanced by 81%, 65%, and 62%, respectively, such enhancements can be attributed to better GaN epitaxial quality and higher light extraction. The slightly peak wavelength blueshift of electroluminescence for the HPSS-LED indicated that the quantum confined Stark effect in the InGaN/GaN MQWs has been reduced. Furthermore, it was found that the far-field radiation patterns of the HPSS-LED have smaller view angles than that of the FSS-LED. In addition, the scanning near field optical microscope results revealed that the area above the air-cavity has a larger PL intensity than that without an air-cavity, and the closer to the middle of the air-cavity the stronger the PL intensity. These nano-light distribution findings were in good agreement with the simulation results obtained by the finite difference time domain method.

  8. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; King, D.A.; Parker, S.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-08-01

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption on the base. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Patrick AFB. It is a comparison report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profile information to be used to improve the characterization of energy use on the base. The characteristics of electricity, natural gas, and No. 2 fuel oil are analyzed for on-base facilities and housing. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Patrick AFB facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985-1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the north and south substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  9. Influence of the sunspot cycle on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation from long upper-air data sets

    Y. Brugnara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a study of the 11 yr sunspot cycle's imprint on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, using three recently developed gridded upper-air data sets that extend back to the early twentieth century. We find a robust response of the tropospheric late-wintertime circulation to the sunspot cycle, independent from the data set. This response is particularly significant over Europe, although results show that it is not directly related to a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO modulation; instead, it reveals a significant connection to the more meridional Eurasian pattern (EU. The magnitude of mean seasonal temperature changes over the European land areas locally exceeds 1 K in the lower troposphere over a sunspot cycle. We also analyse surface data to address the question whether the solar signal over Europe is temporally stable for a longer 250 yr period. The results increase our confidence in the existence of an influence of the 11 yr cycle on the European climate, but the signal is much weaker in the first half of the period compared to the second half. The last solar minimum (2005 to 2010, which was not included in our analysis, shows anomalies that are consistent with our statistical results for earlier solar minima.

  10. Satellite-Surface Perspectives of Air Quality and Aerosol-Cloud Effects on the Environment: An Overview of 7-SEAS BASELInE

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Buntoung, Sumaman; Chantara, Somporn; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Gabriel, Philip M.; Goodloe, Colby S.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of 7-SEASBASELInE (Seven SouthEast Asian Studies Biomass-burning Aerosols and Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) campaigns in spring 2013-2015 were to synergize measurements from uniquely distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)), MPLNET ( NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network)) and sophisticated platforms (e.g.,SMARTLabs (Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research and Testbed Laboratories), regional contributing instruments), along with satellite observations retrievals and regional atmospheric transport chemical models to establish a critically needed database, and to advance our understanding of biomass-burning aerosols and trace gases in Southeast Asia (SEA). We present a satellite-surface perspective of 7-SEASBASELInE and highlight scientific findings concerning: (1) regional meteorology of moisture fields conducive to the production and maintenance of low-level stratiform clouds over land; (2) atmospheric composition in a biomass-burning environment, particularly tracers-markers to serve as important indicators for assessing the state and evolution of atmospheric constituents; (3) applications of remote sensing to air quality and impact on radiative energetics, examining the effect of diurnal variability of boundary-layer height on aerosol loading; (4) aerosol hygroscopicity and ground-based cloud radar measurements in aerosol-cloud processes by advanced cloud ensemble models; and (5) implications of air quality, in terms of toxicity of nanoparticles and trace gases, to human health. This volume is the third 7-SEAS special issue (after Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, 2013; and Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, 2013) and includes 27 papers published, with emphasis on air quality and aerosol-cloud effects on the environment. BASELInE observations of stratiform clouds over SEA are unique, such clouds are embedded in a heavy aerosol-laden environment and feature characteristically greater

  11. Lichen bioindication of biodiversity, air quality, and climate: baseline results from monitoring in Washington, Oregon, and California.

    Sarah. Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Lichens are highly valued ecological indicators known for their sensitivity to a wide variety of environmental stressors like air quality and climate change. This report summarizes baseline results from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Lichen Community Indicator covering the first full cycle of data collection (...

  12. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    Matthews, T.G.; Fung, K.W.; Tromberg, B.J.; Hawthorne, A.R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH 2 O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH 2 O concentration, (2) CH 2 O emission rates from primary CH 2 O emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-space. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH 2 O concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppM for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20 0 C, 30% RH and 29 0 C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH 2 O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH 2 O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies

  13. AQMEII3: the EU and NA regional scale program of the Hemispheric Trasport of Air Pollution Task Force

    The presentation builds on the work presented last year at the 14th CMAS meeting and it is applied to the work performed in the context of the AQMEII-HTAP collaboration. The analysis is conducted within the framework of the third phase of AQMEII (Air Quality Model Evaluation Inte...

  14. The Last Permafrost Maximum (LPM) map of the northern hemisphere: permafrost extent and mean annual air temperatures, 25-17 ka BP

    Vandenberghe, J.; French, H.M.; Gorbunov, A.; Velichko, A.A.; Jin, H.; Cui, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wan, X.

    2014-01-01

    This paper accompanies a map that shows the extent of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere between 25 and 17 thousand years ago. The map is based upon existing archival data, common throughout the Northern Hemisphere, that include ice-wedge pseudomorphs, sand wedges and large cryoturbations. Where

  15. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the Northern Hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    Xing, J.; Mathur, R.; Pleim, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wong, D. C.; Wei, C.; Gilliam, R.; Pouliot, G.

    2015-03-01

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990-2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations and internally consistent historical emission inventories obtained from EDGAR. Thorough comparison with several ground observation networks mostly over Europe and North America was conducted to evaluate the model performance as well as the ability of CMAQ to reproduce the observed trends in air quality over the past 2 decades in three regions: eastern China, the continental United States and Europe. The model successfully reproduced the observed decreasing trends in SO2, NO2, 8 h O3 maxima, SO42- and elemental carbon (EC) in the US and Europe. However, the model fails to reproduce the decreasing trends in NO3- in the US, potentially pointing to uncertainties of NH3 emissions. The model failed to capture the 6-year trends of SO2 and NO2 in CN-API (China - Air Pollution Index) from 2005 to 2010, but reproduced the observed pattern of O3 trends shown in three World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG) sites over eastern Asia. Due to the coarse spatial resolution employed in these calculations, predicted SO2 and NO2 concentrations are underestimated relative to all urban networks, i.e., US-AQS (US - Air Quality System; normalized mean bias (NMB) = -38% and -48%), EU-AIRBASE (European Air quality data Base; NMB = -18 and -54%) and CN-API (NMB = -36 and -68%). Conversely, at the rural network EU-EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme), SO2 is overestimated (NMB from 4 to 150%) while NO2 is simulated well (NMB within ±15%) in all seasons. Correlations between simulated and observed O3 wintertime daily 8 h maxima (DM8) are poor compared to other seasons for all networks. Better correlation between simulated and observed SO42- was found compared to that for SO2. Underestimation of summer SO42- in

  16. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  17. A closer look at the relationships between meridional mass circulation pulses in the stratosphere and cold air outbreak patterns in northern hemispheric winter

    Yu, Yueyue; Cai, Ming; Ren, Rongcai; Rao, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between continental-scale cold air outbreaks (CAOs) in the mid-latitudes and pulse signals in the stratospheric mass circulation in Northern Hemisphere winter (December-February) is investigated using ERA-Interim data for the 32 winters from 1979 to 2011. Pulse signals in the stratospheric mass circulation include "PULSE_TOT", "PULSE_W1", and "PULSE_W2" events, defined as a period of stronger meridional mass transport into the polar stratosphere by total flow, wavenumber-1, and wavenumber-2, respectively. Each type of PULSE event occurs on average 4-6 times per winter. A robust relationship is found between two dominant patterns of winter CAOs and PULSE_W1 and PULSE_W2 events. Cold temperature anomalies tend to occur over Eurasia with the other continent anomalously warm during the 2 weeks before the peak dates of PULSE_W1 events, while the opposite temperature anomaly pattern can be found after the peak dates; and during the 1-2 weeks centered on the peak dates of PULSE_W2 events, a higher probability of occurrence of CAOs is found over both continents. These relationships become more robust for PULSE_W1 and PULSE_W2 events of larger peak intensity. PULSE_TOT events are classified into five types, which have a distinct coupling relationship with PULSE_W1 and PULSE_W2 events. The specific pattern of CAOs associated with each type of PULSE_TOT event is found to be a combination of the CAO patterns associated with PULSE_W1 and PULSE_W2 events. The percentage of PULSE_TOT events belonging to the types that are dominated by PULSE_W2 events increases with the peak intensity of PULSE_TOT events. Accordingly, the related CAO pattern is close to that associated with PULSE_W1 for PULSE_TOT events with small-to-medium intensity, but tends to resemble that associated with PULSE_W2 events as the peak intensity of PULSE_TOT events increases.

  18. Numerical investigation on the combustion characteristics of methane/air in a micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body

    Zhang, Li; Zhu, Junchen; Yan, Yunfei; Guo, Hongliang; Yang, Zhongqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-combustor with a hollow hemisphere bluff body is developed. • Blow-off limit of reactor is expanded 2.5 times by the hollow hemisphere bluff body. • Methane conversion rate of combustor sharply increases at the location of bluff body. • Methane conversion rate is mainly affected by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. • Recirculation zone expands blow-off limit and increases methane conversion rate. - Abstract: The combustion characteristics of methane in a cube micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body were numerically investigated. The blow-off limit, recirculation zone length and methane conversion rate were examined. The results illustrate that the blow-off limit of the micro-combustor with a hollow hemispherical bluff body is 2.5 times higher than that without bluff body, which are 24.5 m/s and 9.5 m/s at the same equivalence ratio (ϕ = 1), respectively. With the use of hollow hemispherical bluff body, methane conversion sharply increases from 0.24% to 17.95% at 3 mm along the inlet-flow direction, where is the location of bluff-body, which is not affected by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. The recirculation zone size has determined influence on residence time of the mixture gas, which increases with the increase of inlet velocity. Methane conversion rate is determined by equivalence ratio and inlet velocity. Methane conversion rate firstly increases and then decreases when the equivalence ratio and inlet velocity increase, reaching the maximum value (97.84%) at ϕ = 1 and 0.02 m/s. Methane conversion rate sharply increases from 45% to 97.84% when the inlet velocity increases from 0.008 m/s to 0.02 m/s

  19. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  20. Baseline rationing

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...... the family is associated with a standard rule and we show that if the latter obeys some properties reflecting principles of impartiality, priority and solidarity, the former obeys them too....

  1. Unilateral Hemispheric Encephalitis

    Mohan Leslie Noone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 10 year old boy presented with history of mild fever and upper respiratory symptoms followed by recurrent seizures and loss of consciousness on the next day. Normal blood counts and abnormal hepatic transaminases were noted. MRI of the brain, done on the fourth day of illness, showed extensive involvement of the cortex in the right hemisphere. Lumbar CSF was normal. The EEG showed bilateral slowing with frontal sharp wave discharges and marked attenuation over the entire right hemisphere. The patient succumbed to the illness on the ninth day. A similar pattern of acute unilateral hemispheric cortical involvement is described in the hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE syndrome, which is typically described to occur in children below 4 years of age. This case of fulminant acute unilateral encaphilitic illness could represent the acute phase of HHE syndrome.

  2. Seasonal variation in outdoor, indoor, and personal air pollution exposures of women using wood stoves in the Tibetan Plateau: Baseline assessment for an energy intervention study.

    Ni, Kun; Carter, Ellison; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Zhang, Yuanxun; Niu, Hongjiang; Lai, Alexandra M; Shan, Ming; Wang, Yuqin; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-09-01

    Cooking and heating with coal and biomass is the main source of household air pollution in China and a leading contributor to disease burden. As part of a baseline assessment for a household energy intervention program, we enrolled 205 adult women cooking with biomass fuels in Sichuan, China and measured their 48-h personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in winter and summer. We also measured the indoor 48-h PM2.5 concentrations in their homes and conducted outdoor PM2.5 measurements during 101 (74) days in summer (winter). Indoor concentrations of CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) were measured over 48-h in a subset of ~80 homes. Women's geometric mean 48-h exposure to PM2.5 was 80μg/m(3) (95% CI: 74, 87) in summer and twice as high in winter (169μg/m(3) (95% CI: 150, 190), with similar seasonal trends for indoor PM2.5 concentrations (winter: 252μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295; summer: 101μg/m(3); 95% CI: 91, 112). We found a moderately strong relationship between indoor PM2.5 and CO (r=0.60, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.72), and a weak correlation between personal PM2.5 and CO (r=0.41, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.71). NO2/NO ratios were higher in summer (range: 0.01 to 0.68) than in winter (range: 0 to 0.11), suggesting outdoor formation of NO2 via reaction of NO with ozone is a more important source of NO2 than biomass combustion indoors. The predictors of women's personal exposure to PM2.5 differed by season. In winter, our results show that primary heating with a low-polluting fuel (i.e., electric stove or wood-charcoal) and more frequent kitchen ventilation could reduce personal PM2.5 exposures. In summer, primary use of a gaseous fuel or electricity for cooking and reducing exposure to outdoor PM2.5 would likely have the greatest impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-10-31

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Technology Assessment Program (TAP) was developed to provide detailed, comparable data for environmental technologies and to disseminate this data to D&D professionals in a manner that will facilitate the review and selection of technologies to perform decontamination and decommissioning. The objectives for this project include the following: Determine technology needs through review of the Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) information and other applicable websites and needs databases; Perform a detailed review of industries that perform similar activities as those required in D&D operations to identify additional technologies; Define the technology assessment program for characterization and waste management problem sets; Define the data management program for characterization, dismantlement, and waste management problem sets; Evaluate baseline and innovative technologies under standard test conditions at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) and other locations and collect data in the areas of performance, cost, health and safety, operations and maintenance, and primary and secondary waste generation; Continue to locate, verify, and incorporate technology performance data from other sources into the multimedia information system; and Develop the conceptual design for a dismantlement technology decision analysis tool for dismantlement technologies.

  4. 40 CFR 74.20 - Data for baseline and alternative baseline.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data for baseline and alternative baseline. 74.20 Section 74.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... baseline and alternative baseline. (a) Acceptable data. (1) The designated representative of a combustion...

  5. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  6. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  7. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Hrousis, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.

  8. Detonation in TATB hemispheres

    Druce, Robert L.; Souers, P. Clark; Chow, Charles; Roeske, Franklin; Vitello, Peter; Hrousis, Constantine [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB (triamino-trinitrobenzene) hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54 at ambient temperatures and 42 at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0 . The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. The problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably present, but it cannot be quantified. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. The Effectiveness of 1 Hz rTMS Over the Primary Motor Area of the Unaffected Hemisphere to Improve Hand Function After Stroke Depends on Hemispheric Dominance.

    Lüdemann-Podubecká, Jitka; Bösl, Kathrin; Theilig, Steven; Wiederer, Ralf; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of motor cortex excitability of the contralesional hemisphere may improve dexterity of the affected hand after stroke. 40 patients (17 dominant hemispheric stroke, 23 non-dominant hemispheric stroke) with a mild to moderate upper limb motor impairment were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel-groups. Both groups received 15 daily sessions of motor training preceded by either 1 Hz rTMS or sham rTMS. Behavioral and neurophysiological evaluations were performed at baseline, after the first week and after the third week of treatment, and after a 6 months follow-up. In both groups motor function of the affected hand improved significantly. Patients with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement, regardless of whether the motor training was preceded by sham or 1 Hz rTMS. Patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere had a less favorable improvement than those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere after motor training preceded by sham rTMS. However, when 1 Hz rTMS preceded the motor training, patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere made a similar improvement as those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Motor recovery of the affected upper limb after stroke is determined by dominance of the affected hemisphere. Stroke of the dominant hemisphere is associated with per se poorer improvement of the affected hand. 1 Hz rTMS over the contralesional M1 significantly improves dexterity of the affected hand in patients with stroke of the dominant hemisphere, but not in those with stroke of the non-dominant hemisphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  11. Total hemispherical emissivity of Inconel 718

    Keller, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Shawn E.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K., E-mail: LoyalkaS@missouri.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We have measured the total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 from about 600–1250 K. • Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity. • Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase in the emissivity. • Coating of graphite powder onto the 220 grit sandblasted Inconel 718 did show an increase in emissivity. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity for Inconel 718 was measured in anticipation of its application in Very High Temperature Gas Reactors (VHTRs). A majority of current emissivity data for Inconel 718 is in the form of spectral measurements. The data presented here were obtained with an experimental apparatus based on the standard ASTM C835-06 for total hemispherical emittance. Measurements of Inconel 718 were made for four different surface types including: (i) ‘as-received’ from the manufacturer, (ii) oxidized in air and humidified helium, (iii) sandblasted with aluminum oxide powder, and (iv) with a thin coating of nuclear grade graphite powder (grade NGB-18). The emissivity for the ‘as-received’ sample ranged from 0.21 to 0.28 in the temperature interval from 760 K to 1275 K. Oxidation in air at 1073 K resulted in an increase in emissivity into the range from 0.2 at 650 K to 0.52 at 1200 K. There was no dependence on the oxidation times studied here. Oxidation with humidified helium at 1073 K produced less of an increase in emissivity than the oxidation in air but there was an increase up to the range from 0.2 at 600 K to 0.35 at 1200 K. Sandblasting of Inconel 718 was also observed to increase the emissivity up to the range from 0.43 at 780 K to 0.53 at 1270 K when 60 grit sized powder was used and up to the range from 0.45 at 683 K to 0.57 at 1267 K when 120 and 220 grit sized powders were used. Coating of graphite powder onto the ‘as-received’ Inconel 718 showed no increase

  12. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  13. Modeling the Influence of Hemispheric Transport on Trends in ...

    We describe the development and application of the hemispheric version of the CMAQ to examine the influence of long-range pollutant transport on trends in surface level O3 distributions. The WRF-CMAQ model is expanded to hemispheric scales and multi-decadal model simulations were recently performed for the period spanning 1990-2010 to examine changes in hemispheric air pollution resulting from changes in emissions over this period. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations across the U.S. and the northern hemisphere over the past two decades are compared with those inferred from available measurements during this period. Additionally, the decoupled direct method (DDM) in CMAQ is used to estimate the sensitivity of O3 to emissions from different source regions across the northern hemisphere. The seasonal variations in source region contributions to background O3 is then estimated from these sensitivity calculations and will be discussed. A reduced form model combining these source region sensitivities estimated from DDM with the multi-decadal simulations of O3 distributions and emissions trends, is then developed to characterize the changing contributions of different source regions to background O3 levels across North America. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas

  14. Hemisphere partition function and monodromy

    Erkinger, David; Knapp, Johanna [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-29

    We discuss D-brane monodromies from the point of view of the gauged linear sigma model. We give a prescription on how to extract monodromy matrices directly from the hemisphere partition function. We illustrate this procedure by recomputing the monodromy matrices associated to one-parameter Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted projected space.

  15. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Air

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  17. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    Thakur, P.; Ballard, S.; Nelson, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of 131 I/ 137 Cs and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights: • We report

  18. An overview of Fukushima radionuclides measured in the northern hemisphere

    Thakur, P., E-mail: pthakur@cemrc.org [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Ballard, S. [Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States); Nelson, R. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office, 4021, National Parks Hwy, Carlsbad, NM 88220 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011 resulted in the tragic accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and subsequently uncontrolled release of radioactive contaminants into the atmosphere. This review article attempts to compile and interpret data collected by various national and international monitoring networks in response to the Fukushima releases across the northern hemisphere. The majority of the releases occurred during the period March 12–22 with a maximum release phase from March 14–17, 2011. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases (xenon and krypton), iodine, cesium, and tellurium. The radioactive gases and particles released in the accident were dispersed over the middle latitudes of the entire northern hemisphere and for the first time also measured in the southern Hemisphere. Isotopes of iodine and cesium were detected in air, water, milk and food samples collected across the entire northern hemisphere. Elevated levels of fission products were detected from March to May 2011 at many locations over the northern hemisphere. This article focuses on the most prevalent cesium and iodine isotopes, but other secondary isotopes are also discussed. Spatial and temporal patterns and differences are contrasted. The activity ratios of {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs measured at several locations are evaluated to gain an insight into the fuel burn-up, the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor and the isotopic signature of the accident. It is important to note that all of the radiation levels detected outside of Japan have been very low and are well below any level of public and environmental hazard. - Graphical abstract: The trace levels of radioactivity in air, water, and milk samples collected across the northern hemisphere between March–May, 2011 from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan are discussed. Highlights

  19. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  20. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  1. Hemispheric processing asymmetries: implications for memory.

    Funnell, M G; Corballis, P M; Gazzaniga, M S

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that memory for words elicits left hemisphere activation, faces right hemisphere activation, and nameable objects bilateral activation. This pattern of results was attributed to dual coding of information, with the left hemisphere employing a verbal code and the right a nonverbal code. Nameable objects can be encoded either verbally or nonverbally and this accounts for their bilateral activation. We investigated this hypothesis in a callosotomy patient. Consistent with dual coding, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in memory for words, whereas the right was superior for faces. Contrary to prediction, performance on nameable pictures was not equivalent in the two hemispheres, but rather resulted in a right hemisphere superiority. In addition, memory for pictures was significantly better than for either words or faces. These findings suggest that the dual code hypothesis is an oversimplification of the processing capabilities of the two hemispheres.

  2. Handedness results from Complementary Hemispheric Dominance, not Global Hemispheric Dominance: Evidence from Mechanically Coupled Bilateral Movements.

    Woytowicz, Elizabeth J; Westlake, Kelly P; Whitall, Jill; Sainburg, Robert L

    2018-05-09

    Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e.g. slicing) using the other hand. We designed an experimental equivalent of this task, performed in a virtual environment with the unseen arms supported by frictionless air-sleds. The hands were connected by a spring, and the task was to maintain the position of one hand, while moving the other hand to a target. Thus, the reaching hand was required to take account of the spring load to make smooth and accurate trajectories, while the stabilizer hand was required to impede the spring load to keep a constant position. Right-handed subjects performed two task sessions (right hand reach and left hand stabilize; left hand reach and right hand stabilize) with the order of the sessions counterbalanced between groups. Our results indicate a hand by task-component interaction, such that the right hand showed straighter reaching performance while the left showed more stable holding performance. These findings provide support for the complementary dominance hypothesis and suggest that the specializations of each cerebral hemisphere for impedance and dynamic control mechanisms are expressed during bilateral interactive tasks.

  3. HEMISPHERIC CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-09-30

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) demonstration of the diamond wire cutting technology on the surrogate of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Figure 1, was performed from August 23-September 3, 1999. The plated diamond wire, Figure 2, was successful in cutting through all components of the TFTR surrogate including stainless steel, inconel and graphite. The demonstration tested three different void fill materials (mortar with sand, Rheocell-15, and foam) and three cooling systems (water, air, and liquid nitrogen). The optimum combination was determined to be the use of the low-density concrete void fill, Rheocell-15 with an average density of 52 lbs/ft{sup 3}, using a water coolant. However, the liquid nitrogen performed better than expected with only minor problems and was considered to be a successful demonstration of the Bluegrass Concrete Cutting, Inc. proprietary liquid-nitrogen coolant system. Data from the demonstration is being calculated and a summary of the technology demonstration will be included in the October monthly report. An ITSR will be written comparing the diamond wire saw to the plasma arc (baseline) technology. The MTR Chemical Protective Suit, a proprietary new suit from Kimberly Clark, was evaluated from 8/9/99 to 8/12/99 at Beaver, WV. This particular suit was tested on subjects performing three different tasks: climbing through a horizontal confined space, vertical confined space (pit), and loading and unloading material using a wheel barrow. Multiple test subjects performed each task for 20 minutes each. Performance of the innovative suit was compared to two commonly used types of protective clothing. Vital statistics, including body temperature and heart rate, were continuously monitored and recorded by an authorized physician. A summary of the demonstration will be included in the October monthly report. Along with the MTR Chemical Protective Suit, the VitalSense{trademark} Telemetric Monitoring System from Mini Mitter

  4. Program reference schedule baseline

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  5. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  6. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Historical Trends in Pm2.5-Related Premature Mortality During 1990-2010 Across the Northern Hemisphere

    Background: Air quality across the northern hemisphere over the past two decades has witnessed dramatic changes, with continuous improvement in developed countries in North America and Europe, but a contrasting sharp deterioration in developing regions of Asia. Objective: This...

  8. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: benis@iesl.forth.gr; Zouros, T.J.M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R{sub 0} and the nominal value of the potential V(R{sub 0}) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD.

  9. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R 0 and the nominal value of the potential V(R 0 ) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD

  10. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  11. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  12. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  13. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  14. Personality, Hemispheric Dominance, and Cognitive Style.

    Hylton, Jaime; Hartman, Steve E.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that 154 medical students and 526 undergraduates (samples treated separately) who were judged left- or right-hemisphere dominant (by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator) were found to have very different personalities (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). Considers some of the practical ramifications of the psychometric overlap of…

  15. Interaction of cerebral hemispheres and artistic thinking

    Nikolaenko, Nikolay N.

    1998-07-01

    Study of drawings by patients with local lesions of the right or left hemisphere allows to understand how artistic thinking is supported by brain structures. The role of the right hemisphere is significant at the early stage of creative process. The right hemisphere is a generator of nonverbal visuo-spatial thinking. It operates with blurred nonverbal images and arrange them in a visual space. With the help of iconic signs the right hemisphere reflects the world and creates perceptive visual standards which are stored in the long-term right hemisphere memory. The image, which appeared in the `inner' space, should be transferred into a principally different language, i.e. a left hemispheric sign language. This language operates with a number of discrete units, logical succession and learned grammar rules. This process can be explained by activation (information) transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one. Thus, natural and spontaneous creative process, which is finished by a conscious effort, can be understood as an activation impulse transfer from the right hemisphere to the left one and back.

  16. Task Specific Inter-Hemispheric Coupling in Human Subthalamic Nuclei

    Felix eDarvas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical networks and quantitative measures of connectivity are integral to the study of brain function. Despite lack of direct connections between left and right subthalamic nuclei (STN, there are apparent physiological connections. During clinical examination of patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD, this connectivity is exploited to enhance signs of PD, yet our understanding of this connectivity is limited. We hypothesized that movement leads to synchronization of neural oscillations in bilateral STN, and we implemented phase coherence, a measure of phase-locking between cortical sites in a narrow frequency band, to demonstrate this synchronization. We analyzed task specific phase synchronization and causality between left and right STN local field potentials (LFP recorded from both hemispheres simultaneously during a cued movement task in four subjects with PD who underwent Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS surgery. We used a data driven approach to determine inter-hemispheric channel pairs and frequencies with a task specific increase in phase locking.We found significant phase locking between hemispheres in alpha frequency (8-12 Hz in all subjects concurrent with movement of either hand. In all subjects, phase synchronization increased over baseline upon or prior to hand movement onset and lasted until the motion ceased. Left and right hand movement showed similar patterns. Granger causality at the phase-locking frequencies between synchronized electrodes revealed a unidirectional causality from right to left STN regardless of which side was moved.Phase synchronization across hemispheres between basal ganglia supports existence of a bilateral network having lateralized regions of specialization for motor processing. Our results suggest this bilateral network is activated by a unilateral motor program. Understanding phase synchronization in natural brain functions is critical to development of future DBS systems that augment goal directed

  17. Rationing with baselines

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  18. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  19. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance and sarcoidosis.

    Ravi Kumar, A; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2004-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites: endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins) and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to hemispheric dominance was studied. The isoprenoid pathway-related cascade was assessed in patients with systemic sarcoidosis with pulmonary involvement. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric and bihemispheric dominance for comparison to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. In patients with sarcoidosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in the cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in the glycoconjugate level of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in this group of patients. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. In individuals with left hemispheric dominance the patterns were reversed. Endogenous digoxin, by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T cells, can contribute to immune activation in sarcoidosis. An altered glycoconjugate metabolism can lead to the generation of endogenous self-glycoprotein antigens in the lung as well as other tissues. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. The role of a dysfunctional isoprenoid pathway and endogenous digoxin in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in relation to right hemispheric chemical dominance is discussed. All the patients with sarcoidosis were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant according to the dichotic listening test, but their biochemical patterns

  20. Atmospheric mercury in the Southern Hemisphere tropics: seasonal and diurnal variations and influence of inter-hemispheric transport

    Howard, Dean; Nelson, Peter F.; Edwards, Grant C.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Ward, Jason; Harnwell, James; van der Schoot, Marcel; Atkinson, Brad; Chambers, Scott D.; Griffiths, Alan D.; Werczynski, Sylvester; Williams, Alastair G.

    2017-09-01

    Mercury is a toxic element of serious concern for human and environmental health. Understanding its natural cycling in the environment is an important goal towards assessing its impacts and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Due to the unique chemical and physical properties of mercury, the atmosphere is the dominant transport pathway for this heavy metal, with the consequence that regions far removed from sources can be impacted. However, there exists a dearth of long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury, particularly in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. This paper presents the first 2 years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements taken at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in northern Australia, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS). Annual mean GEM concentrations determined at ATARS (0.95 ± 0.12 ng m-3) are consistent with recent observations at other sites in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with GEM data from other Australian monitoring sites suggests a concentration gradient that decreases with increasing latitude. Seasonal analysis shows that GEM concentrations at ATARS are significantly lower in the distinct wet monsoon season than in the dry season. This result provides insight into alterations of natural mercury cycling processes as a result of changes in atmospheric humidity, oceanic/terrestrial fetch, and convective mixing, and invites future investigation using wet mercury deposition measurements. Due to its location relative to the atmospheric equator, ATARS intermittently samples air originating from the Northern Hemisphere, allowing an opportunity to gain greater understanding of inter-hemispheric transport of mercury and other atmospheric species. Diurnal cycles of GEM at ATARS show distinct nocturnal depletion events that are attributed to dry deposition under stable boundary layer conditions. These cycles provide strong further evidence supportive of a multi-hop model of GEM

  1. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  2. Hemispheric resource limitations in comprehending ambiguous pictures.

    White, H; Minor, S W

    1990-03-01

    Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.

  3. PSD Determination - Baseline

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. PSD Increment Baseline

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. PMID:25624815

  6. Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico

    2003-04-07

    La Seguridad Internacional, la Nueva Geopolitica Continental y Mexico ,” Seminario Internacional sobre Misiones de Paz, Seguridad y Defensa, Rio de...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMISPHERIC SECURITY FOR MEXICO by LTC Enrique Garcia Jaramillo Cavalry, Mexican Army COL Joseph R...xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance of Hemispheric Security for Mexico Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. “Impact of RACM2, halogen chemistry, and updated ozonedeposition velocity on hemispheric ozone predictions”

    We incorporate the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM2) into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) hemispheric model and compare model predictions to those obtained using the existing Carbon Bond chemical mechanism with updated toluene chemistry (CB05TU). The RA...

  8. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and sleep.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The isoprenoid path way produces endogenous digoxin, a substance that can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in individuals with chronic insomnia. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The activity of HMG GoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in individuals with chronic insomnia and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism (increased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine), and downregulated tyrosine catabolism (decreased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with chronic insomnia and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism (decreased levels of serotonin, strychnine, and nicotine) and upregulated tyrosine catabolism (increased levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine) in those with normal sleep patterns and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin plays a central role in the regulation of sleep behavior. Hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to digoxin status is also crucial.

  9. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and spirituality.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-03-01

    The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in atheistic and spiritually inclined individuals. The pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to assess whether hemispheric dominance has a correlation with spiritual and atheistic tendency. HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, and tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns were assessed in spiritual/atheistic individuals and in those differing hemispheric dominance. In spiritually-inclined individuals, there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in spiritually-inclined individuals correlated with right hemispheric chemical dominance. In atheistic individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolities (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in atheistic individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to spirituality or atheism.

  10. Northern Hemisphere forcing of Southern Hemisphere climate during the last deglaciation.

    He, Feng; Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; Carlson, Anders E; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L; Kutzbach, John E

    2013-02-07

    According to the Milankovitch theory, changes in summer insolation in the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere caused glacial cycles through their impact on ice-sheet mass balance. Statistical analyses of long climate records supported this theory, but they also posed a substantial challenge by showing that changes in Southern Hemisphere climate were in phase with or led those in the north. Although an orbitally forced Northern Hemisphere signal may have been transmitted to the Southern Hemisphere, insolation forcing can also directly influence local Southern Hemisphere climate, potentially intensified by sea-ice feedback, suggesting that the hemispheres may have responded independently to different aspects of orbital forcing. Signal processing of climate records cannot distinguish between these conditions, however, because the proposed insolation forcings share essentially identical variability. Here we use transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to identify the impacts of forcing from changes in orbits, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, ice sheets and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on hemispheric temperatures during the first half of the last deglaciation (22-14.3 kyr BP). Although based on a single model, our transient simulation with only orbital changes supports the Milankovitch theory in showing that the last deglaciation was initiated by rising insolation during spring and summer in the mid-latitude to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere and by terrestrial snow-albedo feedback. The simulation with all forcings best reproduces the timing and magnitude of surface temperature evolution in the Southern Hemisphere in deglacial proxy records. AMOC changes associated with an orbitally induced retreat of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is the most plausible explanation for the early Southern Hemisphere deglacial warming and its lead over Northern Hemisphere temperature; the ensuing rise in atmospheric CO(2

  11. Sustainable Design of EPA's Campus in Research Triangle Park, NC—Environmental Performance Specifications in Construction Contracts—Section 01445 Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials

    More information on testing for maximum indoor pollutant concentrations for acceptance of the facility, as well as requirements for Independent Materials Testing of specific materials anticipated to have major impact on indoor air quality.

  12. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  13. Baseline conditions at Olkiluoto

    2003-09-01

    The main purpose of this report is to establish a reference point - defined as the data collected up until the end of year 2002 - for the coming phases of the Finnish spent nuclear fuel disposal programme. The focus is: to define the current surface and underground conditions at the site, both as regards the properties for which a change is expected and for the properties which are of particular interest for long-term safety or environmental impact; to establish, as far as possible, the natural fluctuation of properties that are potentially affected by construction of the underground laboratory, the ONKALO, and to provide references to data on parameters or use in model development and testing and to use models to assist in understanding and interpreting the data. The emphasis of the baseline description is on bedrock characteristics that are relevant to the long-term safety of a spent fuel repository and, hence, to include the hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, rock mechanical, tectonic and seismic conditions of the site. The construction of the ONKALO will also affect some conditions on the surface, and, therefore, a description of the main characteristics of the nature and the man-made constructions at Olkiluoto is also given. This report is primarily a road map to the available information on the prevailing conditions at the Olkiluoto site and a framework for understanding of data collected. Hence, it refers to numerous available background reports and other archived information produced over the past 20 years or more, and forms a recapitulation and revaluation of the characterisation data of the Olkiluoto site. (orig.)

  14. Southern hemisphere solar radio heliograph

    Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Stephany, S.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Ludke, E.; Subramanian, K. R.; Ramesh, R.; Sundrarajan, M. S.; Sankararaman, M. R.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Swarup, G.; Boas, J. W. V.; Botti, L. C. L.; Moron, C. E.; Saito, J. H.; Karlický, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) is being developed at National Institute for Space Research (INPE) as an international collaborative program. Initially, the BDA will operate in the tuneable frequency range of 1.2-1.7 GHz. The initial planned baseline for BDA 'T' array is 256×144 m and will be extended to 2.2×1.1 km. In this paper, we present the results of developments concerning the prototype of BDA (PBDA). The PBDA will initially operate in the frequency range of 1.2-1.7 GHz, with a five-antenna array, using 4-meter parabolic dishes with altitude and azimuth mountings and complete tracking capability. The spatial resolution for solar images with the PBDA will be about 3.5 arc-minutes leading to a sensitivity of ≍2×104 mJy/beam for an integration time of 1 sec. The array will be installed at -22°41'19" latitude and 45°0'22" W longitude and it is under operation between 9 and 21 UT for continuous solar flux monitoring. Details of the PBDA system are presented.

  15. 40 CFR 80.1285 - How does a refiner apply for a benzene baseline?

    2010-07-01

    ... baseline? 80.1285 Section 80.1285 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (abt) Program § 80.1285 How does a refiner apply for a benzene baseline? (a) A benzene baseline... credits. (b) For U.S. Postal delivery, the benzene baseline application shall be sent to: Attn: MSAT2...

  16. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and creativity.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-04-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which regulates neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in creative and non-creative individuals, as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance, in order to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect. The activity of HMG CoA reductase and serum levels of digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in creative/non-creative individuals, and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In creative individuals there was increased digoxin synthesis, decreased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, increased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and decreased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). The pattern in creative individuals correlated with right hemispheric dominance. In non-creative individuals there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern in non-creative individuals correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to creative tendency.

  17. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  18. Dominant hemisphere lateralization of cortical parasympathetic control as revealed by frontotemporal dementia

    Guo, Christine C.; Sturm, Virginia E.; Zhou, Juan; Gennatas, Efstathios D.; Trujillo, Andrew J.; Hua, Alice Y.; Crawford, Richard; Stables, Lara; Kramer, Joel H.; Rankin, Katherine; Levenson, Robert W.; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Seeley, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The brain continuously influences and perceives the physiological condition of the body. Related cortical representations have been proposed to shape emotional experience and guide behavior. Although previous studies have identified brain regions recruited during autonomic processing, neurological lesion studies have yet to delineate the regions critical for maintaining autonomic outflow. Even greater controversy surrounds hemispheric lateralization along the parasympathetic–sympathetic axis. The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), featuring progressive and often asymmetric degeneration that includes the frontoinsular and cingulate cortices, provides a unique lesion model for elucidating brain structures that control autonomic tone. Here, we show that bvFTD is associated with reduced baseline cardiac vagal tone and that this reduction correlates with left-lateralized functional and structural frontoinsular and cingulate cortex deficits and with reduced agreeableness. Our results suggest that networked brain regions in the dominant hemisphere are critical for maintaining an adaptive level of baseline parasympathetic outflow. PMID:27071080

  19. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  20. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  1. Heat transfer from internally heated hemispherical pools

    Gabor, J.D.; Ellsion, P.G.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on heat transfer from internally heated ZnSO 4 -H 2 O pools to the walls of hemispherical containers. This experimental technique provides data for a heat transfer system that has to date been only theoretically treated. Three different sizes of copper hemispherical containers were used: 240, 280, 320 mm in diameter. The pool container served both as a heat transfer surface and as an electrode. The opposing electrode was a copper disk, 50 mm in diameter located at the top of the pool in the center. The top surface of the pool was open to the atmosphere

  2. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  3. Investment in the Western Hemisphere energy market

    Gillam, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find

  4. Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system

    Ilana eMolochnikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e. the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods remains controversial, however, if confirmed, may provide a valuable noninvasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance.

  5. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  6. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Tracing Fukushima Radionuclides in the Northern Hemisphere -An Overview

    Thakur, Punam; Ballard, Sally; Nelson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    A massive 9.0 earthquake and ensuing tsunami struck the northern coast of the Honshu-island, Japan on March 11, 2011 and severely damaged the electric system of the Fukushima- Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems. Subsequent fires, a hydrogen explosion and possible partial core meltdowns released radioactive fission products into the atmosphere. The atmospheric release from the crippled Fukushima NPP started on March 12, 2011 with a maximum release phase from March 14 to 17. The radioactivity released was dominated by volatile fission products including isotopes of the noble gases xenon (Xe-133) and krypton (Kr-85); iodine (I-131,I-132); cesium (Cs-134,Cs-136,Cs-137); and tellurium (Te-132). The non-volatile radionuclides such as isotopes of strontium and plutonium are believed to have remained largely inside the reactor, although there is evidence of plutonium release into the environment. Global air monitoring across the northern hemisphere was increased following the first reports of atmospheric releases. According to the source term, declared by the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) of Japan), approximately 160 PBq (1 PBq (Peta Becquerel = 10^15 Bq)) of I-131 and 15 PBq of Cs-137 (or 770 PBq "iodine-131 equivalent"), were released into the atmosphere. The 770 PBq figure is about 15% of the Chernobyl release of 5200 PBq of "iodine-131 equivalent". For the assessment of contamination after the accident and to track the transport time of the contaminated air mass released from the Fukushima NPP across the globe, several model calculations were performed by various research groups. All model calculations suggested long-range transport of radionuclides from the damaged Fukushima NPP towards the North American Continent to Europe and to Central Asia. As a result, an elevated level of Fukushima radionuclides were detected in air, rain, milk, and vegetation samples across the northern

  8. Natural radioactivity balance in the atmosphere of the southern hemisphere

    Lambert, G.; Ardouin, B.; Polian, G.; Sanak, J.

    1972-01-01

    It is well known that radon-222 is a radioactive rare gas, continuously produced in the soil by the disintegration of radium-226. Radon can diffuse in the soil and is outgassed into the atmosphere from the surface of the continents at the rate of about 0.7 atoms/ (cm 2 -second). Whenever the soil is covered by snow or even an iceshelf, the flux of radon becomes negligible. Surficial sea water also contains radium-226 and the oceans could release into the atmosphere a part of the produced radon. Therefore a small flux of 10 -2 atoms/(cm 2 -second) can be expected from the surface of the oceans. The radon-222 half-life of 3.8 days is long enough so that the measured radon is usually of continental origin even in the middle of any main ocean. However, below 50 0 South, it is difficult to attribute the radon to either a continental or oceanic origin. Data are presented on seasonal and altitudinal variations in radon-220, lead-210, polonium-210, and radon-222 concentrations in air samples from various locations in the Southern Hemisphere. The relation of air mass circulation in the Antartic to radioactivity in air is discussed. (U.S.)

  9. DairyBISS Baseline report

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  10. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-01-01

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel coun...

  11. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  12. Behavioral evidence for left-hemisphere specialization of motor planning

    Janssen, L.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the left hemisphere is dominant for the planning of motor actions. This left-hemisphere specialization hypothesis was proposed in various lines of research, including patient studies, motor imagery studies, and studies involving neurophysiological techniques. However,

  13. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  14. The Transit-Time Distribution from the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Surface

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan; Steenrod, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of transit times from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude surface is a fundamental property of tropospheric transport. Here we present an analysis of the transit time distribution (TTD) since air last contacted the northern midlatitude surface layer, as simulated by the NASA Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model. We find that throughout the troposphere the TTD is characterized by long flat tails that reflect the recirculation of old air from the Southern Hemisphere and results in mean ages that are significantly larger than the modal age. Key aspects of the TTD -- its mode, mean and spectral width -- are interpreted in terms of tropospheric dynamics, including seasonal shifts in the location and strength of tropical convection and variations in quasi-isentropic transport out of the northern midlatitude surface layer. Our results indicate that current diagnostics of tropospheric transport are insufficient for comparing model transport and that the full distribution of transit times is a more appropriate constraint.

  15. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  16. Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.

    2000-01-01

    Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body

  17. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  18. The Influence of Context on Hemispheric Recruitment during Metaphor Processing

    Diaz, Michele T.; Hogstrom, Larson J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere's prominence in language is well established, less emphasis has been placed on possible roles for the right hemisphere. Behavioral, patient, and neuroimaging research suggests that the right hemisphere may be involved in processing figurative language. Additionally, research has demonstrated that context can modify…

  19. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  20. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  1. An Evaluative Review of Hemispheric Learning Potential

    1985-10-01

    Multiple resources in divided attention : a cross-modal te&t o£ the independence of hemispheric resources. Journal of < Experimental Psychology...found, for example, in a pianist who could play melodies without difficulty, compose new melodies at the piano, and write them down accurately...of the pair at the oppo- site ear; this procedure, referred to as dichotic presentation, has its origins in experiments on selective attention

  2. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    Trenberth, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  3. Volumetric Analysis of Cerebral Peduncles and Cerebellar Hemispheres for Predicting Hemiparesis After Hemispherectomy.

    Mullin, Jeffrey P; Soni, Pranay; Lee, Sungho; Jehi, Lara; Naduvil Valappi, Ahsan Moosa; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    In some cases of refractory epilepsy, hemispherectomy is the final invasive treatment option. However, predictors of postoperative hemiparesis in these patients have not been widely studied. To investigate how the volumetric analysis of cerebral peduncles and cerebellar hemispheres in patients who have undergone hemispherectomy may determine prognostic implications for postoperative hemiparesis. Twenty-two patients who underwent hemispherectomy at our institution were retrospectively included. Using iPlan/BrainLAB (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) imaging software and a semiautomatic voxel-based segmentation method, we calculated the preoperative cerebral peduncle and cerebellar hemisphere volumes. Cerebral peduncle and cerebellar hemisphere ratios were compared between patients with worsened or unchanged/better hemiparesis postoperatively. The ratios of ipsilateral/contralateral cerebral peduncles (0.570 vs 0.828; P = .02) and contralateral/ipsilateral cerebellar hemispheres (0.885 vs 1.031; P = .009) were significantly lower in patients who had unchanged/improved hemiparesis postoperatively compared with patients who had worsened hemiparesis. Relative risk of worsening hemiparesis was significantly higher in patients with a cerebral peduncle ratio hemiparesis using only standard volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. This information could be used in preoperative discussions with patients and families to help better understand that chance of retaining baseline motor function. CST, corticospinal tractfMRI, functional magnetic resonance imagingTMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  4. Water. Unresolved emergency of the Southern hemisphere

    Lotti, C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the serious dramas in the Southern hemisphere, the most serious relates to health, and the most serious health problem is dysentery among the rural population, caused by the lack of unpolluted water. Bad management frustrates much of the aid sent to this part of the world, including projects to help the water crisis. In view of the success, it would appear that a concrete solution could be found within a decade, at a cost that can easily be sustained by the rich world, so long as funds are managed honestly. Much more ambitious and, at least for the moment, beyond all concrete possibility, is the project to provide a barrel of water per head to each person in the southern hemisphere. Providing unpolluted water and facilitating farming development through minor irrigation and family cattle-raising schemes is an idea that appears entirely Utopian. The conclusion provides a critical analysis of the major hydraulic works essential for true development, but effective only if the human environment is ready to receive them, whereas minor works are useful in any case - at village level - to resolve the thirst of the southern hemisphere [it

  5. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  6. Tracking the complete revolution of surface westerlies over Northern Hemisphere using radionuclides emitted from Fukushima

    Hernández-Ceballos, M.A.; Hong, G.H.; Lozano, R.L.; Kim, Y.I.; Lee, H.M.; Kim, S.H.; Yeh, S.-W.; Bolívar, J.P.; Baskaran, M.

    2012-01-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were released from the nuclear reactors located in Fukushima (northeastern Japan) between 12 and 16 March 2011 following the earthquake and tsunami. Ground level air radioactivity was monitored around the globe immediately after the Fukushima accident. This global effort provided a unique opportunity to trace the surface air mass movement at different sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on surface air radioactivity measurements around the globe and the air mass backward trajectory analysis of the Fukushima radioactive plume at various places in the Northern Hemisphere by employing the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, we show for the first time, that the uninterrupted complete revolution of the mid-latitude Surface Westerlies took place in less than 21 days, with an average zonal velocity of > 60 km/h. The position and circulation time scale of Surface Westerlies are of wide interest to a large number of global researchers including meteorologists, atmospheric researchers and global climate modellers. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of the South Korea contamination with released radiocesium from Fukushima. ► Field samples and air mass analysis were utilized to elucidate the transport of those radionuclides. ► Characterization of the air mass movements at different sites at the Earth's surface. ► Verification of the uninterrupted complete revolution of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima. ► Quantification of the velocity of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima.

  7. Tracking the complete revolution of surface westerlies over Northern Hemisphere using radionuclides emitted from Fukushima

    Hernandez-Ceballos, M.A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Hong, G.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lozano, R.L. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Kim, Y.I. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Uljin 767-813 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.M.; Kim, S.H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, S.-W. [Department of Environmental Marine Science, Hanyang University, Ansan, 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Bolivar, J.P., E-mail: bolivar@uhu.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Baskaran, M. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Massive amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides were released from the nuclear reactors located in Fukushima (northeastern Japan) between 12 and 16 March 2011 following the earthquake and tsunami. Ground level air radioactivity was monitored around the globe immediately after the Fukushima accident. This global effort provided a unique opportunity to trace the surface air mass movement at different sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on surface air radioactivity measurements around the globe and the air mass backward trajectory analysis of the Fukushima radioactive plume at various places in the Northern Hemisphere by employing the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, we show for the first time, that the uninterrupted complete revolution of the mid-latitude Surface Westerlies took place in less than 21 days, with an average zonal velocity of > 60 km/h. The position and circulation time scale of Surface Westerlies are of wide interest to a large number of global researchers including meteorologists, atmospheric researchers and global climate modellers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of the South Korea contamination with released radiocesium from Fukushima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field samples and air mass analysis were utilized to elucidate the transport of those radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the air mass movements at different sites at the Earth's surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of the uninterrupted complete revolution of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of the velocity of the artificial radionuclides released in Fukushima.

  8. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  9. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  10. Inter-hemispheric gradient of atmospheric trace gases in the Pacific

    Lowe, D.; Manning, M.; Brailsford, G.; Bromley, T.; Moss, R.; Ferretti, D.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of atmospheric trace gases show that the concentrations and isotopic compositions of these species can change dramatically across the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) separating the two hemispheres. Because the anthropogenic sources of virtually all trace gases are greater in the northern than in the southern hemisphere, concentrations of the species are lower in the southern hemisphere. Typically the concentration gradient is inversely proportional to the lifetime of the trace gas in the atmosphere. Hence understanding the transport across the ITCZ is crucial to determining the variation of important trace gases in the New Zealand region. Container ships are being used to collect large clean air samples on voyages across the Pacific on great circle routes between Auckland (New Zealand), Honolulu (Hawaii) and Los Angeles and Seattle on the US West coast. Measurements on these samples are being used to supplement extensive carbon isotope measurements of atmospheric methane made at fixed sites in the southern hemisphere: Baring Head (New Zealand), Suva (Fiji) and Scott Base (Antarctica) to provide information on the global methane cycle. The authors present the first results of high precision measurements of the stable isotopes of atmospheric carbon monoxide and methane in transects across the equator. These have been obtained using a Finnigan MAT 252 high precision isotope ratio mass spectrometer with a modified miniature inlet system and a stringent calibration protocol. Overall precision for δ 13 C in ambient methane and carbon monoxide in clean air approaches 0.02 per thousand which helps provide information on several subtle processes controlling the abundance of the trace gases in the atmosphere. The 13 C in methane and carbon dioxide data show remarkable seasonal variations across the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and may be used to infer aspects of transport of gases to extra tropical regions in the southern hemisphere

  11. Long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index

    Feng Song; Deng Lin-Hua; Xu Shi-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index is investigated. It is found that, (1) the phase difference of the flare index between the northern and southern hemispheres is about 6–7 months, which is near the time delay between flare activity and sunspot activity; (2) both the dominant and phase-leading hemisphere of the flare index is the northern hemisphere in the considered time interval, implying that the hemispheric asynchrony of solar activity has a close connection with the N-S asymmetry of solar activity. (research papers)

  12. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. 40 CFR 80.290 - How does a refiner apply for a sulfur baseline?

    2010-07-01

    ... baseline? 80.290 Section 80.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... (abt) Program-General Information § 80.290 How does a refiner apply for a sulfur baseline? (a) The... accordance with § 80.217. (b) The sulfur baseline request must be sent to: U.S. EPA, Attn: Sulfur Program...

  14. 40 CFR 80.910 - How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline?

    2010-07-01

    ... for a toxics baseline? 80.910 Section 80.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.910 How does a refiner or importer apply for a toxics baseline? (a)(1) A refiner or importer...

  15. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and eating behavior.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neurotransmitter and amino acid transport. Digoxin synthesis and neurotransmitter patterns were assessed in eating disorders. The patterns were compared in those with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The serum HMG CoA reductase activity, RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, serum digoxin, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, strychnine, and nicotine), and tyrosine catabolites (morphine, dopamine, and noradrenaline) were measured in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. Digoxin synthesis was increased with upregulated tryptophan catabolism and downregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance. Digoxin synthesis was reduced with downregulated tryptophan catabolism and upregulated tyrosine catabolism in those with bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. The membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased in anorexia nervosa and right hemispheric chemical dominance while they were increased in bulimia nervosa and left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance play a central role in the regulation of eating behavior. Anorexia nervosa represents the right hemispheric chemically dominant/hyperdigoxinemic state and bulimia nervosa the left hemispheric chemically dominant/hypodigoxinemic state.

  16. Can a coupled meteorology–chemistry model reproduce the historical trend in aerosol direct radiative effects over the Northern Hemisphere?

    The ability of a coupled meteorology–chemistry model, i.e., Weather Research and Forecast and Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ), to reproduce the historical trend in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and clear-sky shortwave radiation (SWR) over the Northern Hemisphere h...

  17. Factors Influencing Right Hemisphere Engagement During Metaphor Comprehension

    Diaz, Michele T.; Eppes, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere is critical for language, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research suggest that the right hemisphere also contributes to language comprehension. In particular, research has suggested that figurative language may be one type of language that preferentially engages right hemisphere regions. However, there is disagreement about whether these regions within the right hemisphere are sensitive to figurative language per se or to other factors that co-vary with figurativeness. In this article, we will review the neuroimaging literature on figurative language processing, focusing on metaphors, within the context of several theoretical perspectives that have been proposed about hemispheric function in language. Then we will examine three factors that may influence right hemisphere engagement: novelty, task difficulty, and context. We propose that factors that increase integration demands drive right hemisphere involvement in language processing, and that such recruitment is not limited to figurative language. PMID:29643825

  18. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the northern hemispheric aerosol transport with the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the ranges of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and is 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The aerosol transport is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the intercontinental aerosol transport and its inter-annual variations are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions within the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the source regions of Europe, North America, South and East Asia vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the inter-annual aerosol variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations with the magnitudes from 6% to 20% is more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the intercontinental aerosols in El Niño- and La Niña-years respectively with the strong and weak transport of the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH.

  19. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    Cheng, Jing-Jy.

    1995-01-01

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  20. Phenological Changes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Altwegg, Res; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnard, Phoebe; Beaumont, Linda J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Durant, Joel M.; Hughes, Lesley; Keatley, Marie R.; Low, Matt; Morellato, Patricia C.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Vanstreels, Ralph E. T.; Woehler, Eric J.; Wolfaardt, Anton C.

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias), although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa) and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially and logistically

  1. Phenological changes in the southern hemisphere.

    Lynda E Chambers

    Full Text Available Current evidence of phenological responses to recent climate change is substantially biased towards northern hemisphere temperate regions. Given regional differences in climate change, shifts in phenology will not be uniform across the globe, and conclusions drawn from temperate systems in the northern hemisphere might not be applicable to other regions on the planet. We conduct the largest meta-analysis to date of phenological drivers and trends among southern hemisphere species, assessing 1208 long-term datasets from 89 studies on 347 species. Data were mostly from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand, South America and the Antarctic/subantarctic, and focused primarily on plants and birds. This meta-analysis shows an advance in the timing of spring events (with a strong Australian data bias, although substantial differences in trends were apparent among taxonomic groups and regions. When only statistically significant trends were considered, 82% of terrestrial datasets and 42% of marine datasets demonstrated an advance in phenology. Temperature was most frequently identified as the primary driver of phenological changes; however, in many studies it was the only climate variable considered. When precipitation was examined, it often played a key role but, in contrast with temperature, the direction of phenological shifts in response to precipitation variation was difficult to predict a priori. We discuss how phenological information can inform the adaptive capacity of species, their resilience, and constraints on autonomous adaptation. We also highlight serious weaknesses in past and current data collection and analyses at large regional scales (with very few studies in the tropics or from Africa and dramatic taxonomic biases. If accurate predictions regarding the general effects of climate change on the biology of organisms are to be made, data collection policies focussing on targeting data-deficient regions and taxa need to be financially

  2. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  3. Atypical hemispheric dominance for attention: functional MRI topography.

    Flöel, Agnes; Jansen, Andreas; Deppe, Michael; Kanowski, Martin; Konrad, Carsten; Sommer, Jens; Knecht, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The right hemisphere is predominantly involved in tasks associated with spatial attention. However, left hemispheric dominance for spatial attention can be found in healthy individuals, and both spatial attention and language can be lateralized to the same hemisphere. Little is known about the underlying regional distribution of neural activation in these 'atypical' individuals. Previously a large number of healthy subjects were screened for hemispheric dominance of visuospatial attention and language, using functional Doppler ultrasonography. From this group, subjects were chosen who were 'atypical' for hemispheric dominance of visuospatial attention and language, and their pattern of brain activation was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during a task probing spatial attention. Right-handed subjects with the 'typical' pattern of brain organization served as control subjects. It was found that subjects with an inverted lateralization of language and spatial attention (language right, attention left) recruited left-hemispheric areas in the attention task, homotopic to those recruited by control subjects in the right hemisphere. Subjects with lateralization of both language and attention to the right hemisphere activated an attentional network in the right hemisphere that was comparable to control subjects. The present findings suggest that not the hemispheric side, but the intrahemispheric pattern of activation is the distinct feature for the neural processes underlying language and attention.

  4. Hemispheric specialization in dogs for processing different acoustic stimuli.

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available Considerable experimental evidence shows that functional cerebral asymmetries are widespread in animals. Activity of the right cerebral hemisphere has been associated with responses to novel stimuli and the expression of intense emotions, such as aggression, escape behaviour and fear. The left hemisphere uses learned patterns and responds to familiar stimuli. Although such lateralization has been studied mainly for visual responses, there is evidence in primates that auditory perception is lateralized and that vocal communication depends on differential processing by the hemispheres. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether dogs use different hemispheres to process different acoustic stimuli by presenting them with playbacks of a thunderstorm and their species-typical vocalizations. The results revealed that dogs usually process their species-typical vocalizations using the left hemisphere and the thunderstorm sounds using the right hemisphere. Nevertheless, conspecific vocalizations are not always processed by the left hemisphere, since the right hemisphere is used for processing vocalizations when they elicit intense emotion, including fear. These findings suggest that the specialisation of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication is more ancient that previously thought, and so is specialisation of the right hemisphere for intense emotions.

  5. Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Gallagher, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I will review briefly the experimental results which established the existence of neutrino mixing, the current generation of long baseline accelerator experiments, and the prospects for the future. In particular I will focus on the recent analysis of the MINOS experiment. (author)

  6. Baseline Report on HB2320

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  7. Comparison of the two cerebral hemispheres in inhibitory processes operative during movement preparation

    Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest that in right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in praxis, relative to the right hemisphere. However hemispheric asymmetries assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has not shown consistent differences in corticospinal (CS) excitability of the two hemispheres during movements. In the current study, we systematically explored hemispheric asymmetries in inhibitory processes that are manifest during movement preparation and initiation. Single-pulse TMS was applied over the left or right primary motor cortex (M1LEFT and M1RIGHT, respectively) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the contralateral hand while participants performed a two-choice reaction time task requiring a cued movement of the left or right index finger. In Experiments 1 and 2, TMS probes were obtained during a delay period following the presentation of the preparatory cue that provided partial or full information about the required response. MEPs were suppressed relative to baseline regardless of whether they were elicited in a cued or uncued hand. Importantly, the magnitude of these inhibitory changes in CS excitability was similar when TMS was applied over M1LEFT or M1RIGHT, irrespective of the amount of information carried by the preparatory cue. In Experiment 3, there was no preparatory cue and TMS was applied at various time points after the imperative signal. When CS excitability was probed in the cued effector, MEPs were initially inhibited and then rose across the reaction time interval. This function was similar for M1LEFT and M1RIGHT TMS. When CS excitability was probed in the uncued effector, MEPs remained inhibited throughout the RT interval. However, MEPs in right FDI became more inhibited during selection and initiation of a left hand movement, whereas MEPs in left FDI remained relatively invariant across RT interval for the right hand. In addition to these task-specific effects, there

  8. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere Ocean Waters

    Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [Marine Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency (Monaco); Fukasawa, M. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology Yokosuka (Japan); Kim, C. -S. [Environment Laboratories, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria); Povinec, P. P. [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Roos, P. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Yim, S. A. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP-SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water of the central South Pacific (32.5{sup o}S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m{sup 3}. The {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20{sup o}S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic surface waters (30{sup o}S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The {sup 239}Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although {sup 239}Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging. (author)

  9. Hemispheric and facial asymmetry: faces of academe.

    Smith, W M

    1998-11-01

    Facial asymmetry (facedness) of selected academic faculty members was studied in relation to brain asymmetry and cognitive specialization. Comparisons of facedness were made among humanities faculty (H), faculty members of mathematics and physics (M-P), psychologists (P), and a group of randomly selected individuals (R). Facedness was defined in terms of the relative sizes (in square centimeters) of the two hemifaces. It was predicted that the four groups would show differences in facedness, namely, H, right face bias; M-P, left face bias; P, no bias; and R, no bias. The predictions were confirmed, and the results interpreted in terms of known differences in hemispheric specialization of cognitive functions as they relate to the dominant cognitive activity of each of the different groups. In view of the contralateral control of the two hemifaces (below the eyes) by the two hemispheres of the brain, the two sides of the face undergo differential muscular development, thus creating facial asymmetry. Other factors, such as gender, also may affect facial asymmetry. Suggestions for further research on facedness are discussed.

  10. HEMISPHERIC HELICITY TREND FOR SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Hao Juan; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on board Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions that occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to the outer penumbra, where the sign of penumbra agrees with the sign of the active region as a whole. From these results, we speculate that both the Σ-effect (turbulent convection) and the dynamo have contributed in the generation of helicity, whereas in both cases turbulence in the convection zone has played a significant role.

  11. Northern Hemisphere moisture variability during the Last Glacial period

    Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Lachniet, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    speleothem, although the match to the East Asian monsoon is inverse. The much diminished expression of stadials and interstadials and secular variations in the effective moisture proxy data that match insolation seem to be hemispherical in scale. In humid settings, such as east Asia monsoon regions, warm temperatures lead to northward shift of the ITCZ and increase in the strength of the Asian monsoon, while in the desert SW any increase in the strength in the North American monsoon is counterbalanced by decrease in winter moisture due to the northward shift of the polar jet stream and more importantly, the onset of more evaporative conditions. In contrast to the large and rapid shifts seen in the Greenland ice core data and the apparent shift in position in air masses, as indicated by our δ18O data, large-scale changes in moisture regimes in the Northern Hemisphere seem to be driven by changes in insolation. Locations that are sensitive to small changes in atmospheric pressure and/or sea surface temperature gradients may be the exception.

  12. A dual task priming investigation of right hemisphere inhibition for people with left hemisphere lesions

    Smith-Conway Erin R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal semantic processing, the left hemisphere (LH is suggested to restrict right hemisphere (RH performance via interhemispheric suppression. However, a lesion in the LH or the use of concurrent tasks to overload the LH's attentional resource balance has been reported to result in RH disinhibition with subsequent improvements in RH performance. The current study examines variations in RH semantic processing in the context of unilateral LH lesions and the manipulation of the interhemispheric processing resource balance, in order to explore the relevance of RH disinhibition to hemispheric contributions to semantic processing following a unilateral LH lesion. Methods RH disinhibition was examined for nine participants with a single LH lesion and 13 matched controls using the dual task paradigm. Hemispheric performance on a divided visual field lexical decision semantic priming task was compared over three verbal memory load conditions, of zero-, two- and six-words. Related stimuli consisted of categorically related, associatively related, and categorically and associatively related prime-target pairs. Response time and accuracy data were recorded and analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, and planned contrasts were performed to compare priming effects in both visual fields, for each of the memory load conditions. Results Control participants exhibited significant bilateral visual field priming for all related conditions (p Conclusions The results from the control group are consistent with suggestions of an age related hemispheric asymmetry reduction and indicate that in healthy aging compensatory bilateral activation may reduce the impact of inhibition. In comparison, the results for the LHD group indicate that following a LH lesion RH semantic processing can be manipulated and enhanced by the introduction of a verbal memory task designed to engage LH resources and allow disinhibition of RH processing.

  13. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  14. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  15. Hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind: is there an association?

    Herzig, Daniela A; Sullivan, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan; Corcoran, Rhiannon; Mohr, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In autism and schizophrenia attenuated/atypical functional hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind impairments have been reported, suggesting common underlying neuroscientific correlates. We here investigated whether impaired theory of mind performance is associated with attenuated/atypical hemispheric asymmetry. An association may explain the co-occurrence of both dysfunctions in psychiatric populations. Healthy participants (n=129) performed a left hemisphere (lateralised lexical decision task) and right hemisphere (lateralised face decision task) dominant task as well as a visual cartoon task to assess theory of mind performance. Linear regression analyses revealed inconsistent associations between theory of mind performance and functional hemisphere asymmetry: enhanced theory of mind performance was only associated with (1) faster right hemisphere language processing, and (2) reduced right hemisphere dominance for face processing (men only). The majority of non-significant findings suggest that theory of mind and functional hemispheric asymmetry are unrelated. Instead of "overinterpreting" the two significant results, discrepancies in the previous literature relating to the problem of the theory of mind concept, the variety of tasks, and the lack of normative data are discussed. We also suggest how future studies could explore a possible link between hemispheric asymmetry and theory of mind.

  16. The Evolution of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Wright, J. D.

    2001-05-01

    For much of the last 50 million years, high-latitude regions remained too warm to allow snow to accumulate and form ice sheets. Shackleton et al. (1984) published a landmark paper correlating the first occurrence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) observed at Rockall Plateau with a prominent increase in benthic foraminiferal d18O values during the late Pliocene. These late Pliocene to Pleistocene ice sheets were modulated on an orbital frequency and have characterized the global climate over the past 2.6 myr (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Shackleton et al., 1984; Ruddiman, et al., 1986). During the early Pliocene, northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) variations were less significant (Jansen et al., 1993). Our understanding of the Plio-Pleistocene ice sheet cycles can be viewed from two different perspectives. When viewed from the late Pleistocene, the fundamental question is what changed near the early/late Pliocene boundary to produce the large-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2.6 Ma. In contrast, the view from the middle to late Miocene is quite different. Since the pioneering work of Shackleton et al. (1984), the record of NHG has been extended further back in time with drilling in the Norwegian Sea (ODP Leg 104). At Sites 642 and 644, IRD was found throughout the late Miocene and back to ~12 Ma. More recent drilling in the high northern latitudes occurred on ODP Leg 151. Site 909 recovered a middle Miocene section from the Fram Straits with rounded quartz grains that were interpreted as IRD (Wolf-Welling et al., 1996). Age estimates for those sediments place the first northern hemisphere ice sheets at least as old as 14 Ma. The occurrence of sand-sized particles (>1000 μm) and coal below this level indicates the possibility of glacial activity in the Northern Hemisphere as early as 16 Ma. Thus, the late Pliocene to Pleistocene cycles appear to be the resumption of the glacial-interglacial pattern that began during the Miocene. While the Miocene ice

  17. Onsite-effects of dual-hemisphere versus conventional single-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation: A functional MRI study.

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-08-25

    We performed functional MRI examinations in six right-handed healthy subjects. During functional MRI scanning, transcranial direct current stimulation was delivered with the anode over the right primary sensorimotor cortex and the cathode over the left primary sensorimotor cortex using dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. This was compared to a cathode over the left supraorbital area using conventional single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. Voxel counts and blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensities in the right primary sensorimotor cortex regions were estimated and compared between the two transcranial direct current stimulation conditions. Our results showed that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation induced greater cortical activities than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation. These findings suggest that dual-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation may provide more effective cortical stimulation than single-hemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation.

  18. Lackland Air Force Base Phase II Uniform Issue: Baseline Report

    2011-05-01

    Lectures on uniform wearing and care are given 1-2 ORGANIZATION The remainder of this report includes two...sp ec ts al te ra tio ns A pp ro ve d to U S A F sp ec ? Tr ai ne es p ac k ite m s in d uf fle Y es A ll ite m s in sp ec te d? In ve nt...First alteration Second alteration Third alteration Pe rc en ta ge o f t ro us er s al te re d 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%

  19. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  20. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here......, including historical data. Pu-239 concentrations in surface water----of the central South Pacific (32.5 °S) in 2003 were around 1 mBq/m3. The 239Pu concentrations in the Indian Ocean surface waters (20°S) were similar to that in the South Pacific, whereas the 239Pu concentrations in the South Atlantic...... surface waters (30°S) were markedly lower than those in the South Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 239Pu vertical profile pattern was similar to that in the North Pacific subtropical gyre, although 239Pu concentrations in the deep South Pacific were significantly lower than those in the North Pacific. One...

  1. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  2. The right hemisphere in esthetic perception.

    Bromberger, Bianca; Sternschein, Rebecca; Widick, Page; Smith, William; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy) and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity) and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism, and animacy). Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of art.

  3. The Right Hemisphere in Aesthetic Perception

    Bianca eBromberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes (AAA, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism and animacy. Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of

  4. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    Ross, C T F; McLennan, A; Little, A P F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  5. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    Ross, C. T. F.; McLennan, A.; Little, A. P. F.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  6. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  7. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Fleming, Jon F.; Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts.

  8. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  9. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina; Pegg, Ian L.; Hight, Kenneth; Lai, Shan Tao; Buechele, Andrew; Rielley, Elizabeth; Gan, Hao; Muller, Isabelle S.; Cecil, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements

  10. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and mesenteric artery occlusion.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Paramesware Achutha

    2003-12-01

    The role of the isoprenoid pathway in vascular thrombosis, especially mesenteric artery occlusion and its relation to hemispheric dominance, was assessed in this study. The following parameters were measured in patients with mesenteric artery occlusion and individuals with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition. In patients with mesenteric artery occlusion there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, low ubiquinone, and elevated free radical levels. The RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in the serum. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The biochemical patterns obtained in mesenteric artery occlusion is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with mesenteric artery occlusion were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Mesenteric artery occlusion occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function. Hemispheric chemical dominance may thus control the risk for developing vascular thrombosis in individuals.

  11. Hemispheric Differences in the Effects of Context on Vowel Perception

    Sjerps, Matthias J.; Mitterer, Holger; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Listeners perceive speech sounds relative to context. Contextual influences might differ over hemispheres if different types of auditory processing are lateralized. Hemispheric differences in contextual influences on vowel perception were investigated by presenting speech targets and both speech and non-speech contexts to listeners' right or left…

  12. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  13. Assessment of Hemispheric Dominance for Language at Three Ages.

    Tegano, Deborah Walker

    The purposes of this study were to assess the development of hemispheric dominance for language function among children of 4, 7, and 10 years of age and to determine whether age predicts hemispheric dominance. Within 2 weeks of the beginning of data collection, middle-class subjects selected from private nursery schools and elementary schools…

  14. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset

    Jennifer Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker.

  15. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed

  16. The Joint Development of Hemispheric Lateralization for Words and Faces

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Consistent with long-standing findings from behavioral studies, neuroimaging investigations have identified a region of the inferior temporal cortex that, in adults, shows greater face selectivity in the right than left hemisphere and, conversely, a region that shows greater word selectivity in the left than right hemisphere. What has not been…

  17. Hemispheric lateralization of topological organization in structural brain networks.

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    The study on structural brain asymmetries in healthy individuals plays an important role in our understanding of the factors that modulate cognitive specialization in the brain. Here, we used fiber tractography to reconstruct the left and right hemispheric networks of a large cohort of 346 healthy participants (20-86 years) and performed a graph theoretical analysis to investigate this brain laterality from a network perspective. Findings revealed that the left hemisphere is significantly more "efficient" than the right hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere showed higher values of "betweenness centrality" and "small-worldness." In particular, left-hemispheric networks displayed increased nodal efficiency in brain regions related to language and motor actions, whereas the right hemisphere showed an increase in nodal efficiency in brain regions involved in memory and visuospatial attention. In addition, we found that hemispheric networks decrease in efficiency with age. Finally, we observed significant gender differences in measures of global connectivity. By analyzing the structural hemispheric brain networks, we have provided new insights into understanding the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops

  19. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed. (author)

  20. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    to ensure that the seasonal variations in parameters are considered. The data is generated for an area covering at least 30 km radium around the proposed location of the facility, in a manner, such that very dense data is generated close to the location and it becomes gradually sparce for the distant areas. Base-line data is generated with the help of local universities and institutions under constant interaction and supervision of the departmental personnel. The work is carried out as per the set protocols laid down by the department for such purposes. The protocols conform to the international practices for carrying out such work. The studies include measurement of concentrations of naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides and also heavy toxic metals and other pollutants in various environmental matrices such as air sub soil water, surface water, soil, sediment, biota and locally consumed food items including meat, fish, milk, eggs, vegetables and cereals. Studies on density and variety of flora and fauna in the region are carried out. Health status and demographic status is recorded in detail. Hydrogeological studies are carried out to establish ground water movement at the location. Based on the data so generated, a Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System is prepared to collate the data. For coastal locations, studies of the nearby marine environment are also carried out. The baseline data is a valuable set of information of the environmental status of a location prevailing before the start of the departmental activity. Its importance is two fold - firstly because, it can not be generated after the start of the activity at the given location and secondly because it is the most authentic data set which can be referred later to assess the environmental impact of the facility by way of evaluating the changes in the environmental parameters, if any. (author)

  1. Modulating transcallosal and intra-hemispheric brain connectivity with tDCS: Implications for interventions in Aphasia.

    Zheng, Xin; Dai, Weiying; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-07-25

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance or diminish cortical excitability levels depending on the polarity of the stimulation. One application of non-invasive brain-stimulation has been to modulate a possible inter-hemispheric disinhibition after a stroke. This disinhibition model has been developed mainly for the upper extremity motor system, but it is not known whether the language/speech-motor system shows a similar inter-hemispheric interaction. We aimed to examine physiological evidence of inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity changes induced by tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) using arterial-spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Using an MR-compatible DC-Stimulator, we applied anodal stimulation to the right IFG region of nine healthy adults while undergoing non-invasive cerebral blood flow imaging with arterial-spin labeling (ASL) before, during, and after the stimulation. All ASL images were then normalized and timecourses were extracted in regions of interest (ROIs), which were the left and right IFG regions, and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the inferior parietal lobule. Two additional ROIs (the right occipital lobe and the left fronto-orbital region) were taken as control regions. Using regional correlation coefficients as a surrogate marker of connectivity, we could show that inter-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with left IFG) decreased significantly (p < 0.05; r-scores from 0.67 to 0.53) between baseline and post-stimulation, while the intra-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with right SMG) increased significantly (p < 0.05;r-scores from 0.74 to 0.81). A 2 × 2 ANOVA found a significant main effect of HEMISPHERE (F(8) = 6.83, p < 0.01) and a significant HEMISPHERE-by-TIME interaction (F(8) = 4.24, p < 0.05) in connectivity changes. The correlation scores did not change significantly in the control region pairs (right IFG with right occipital and right IFG with left fronto-orbital) over

  2. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  3. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  4. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  5. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  6. Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope Accuracy Analysis Under Temperature Influence

    Boran LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequency splitting of hemispherical resonator gyroscope will change as system operating temperature changes. This phenomenon leads to navigation accuracy of hemispherical resonator gyroscope reduces. By researching on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamical model and its frequency characteristic, the frequency splitting formula and the precession angle formula of gyroscope vibrating mode based on hemispherical resonator gyroscope dynamic equation parameters are derived. By comparison, gyroscope precession angle deviation caused by frequency splitting can be obtained. Based on analysis of temperature variation against gyroscope resonator, the design of hemispherical resonator gyroscope feedback controller under temperature variation conditions is researched and the maximum theoretical fluctuation of gyroscope dynamical is determined by using a numerical analysis example.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetry in the influence of language on visual perception.

    Sun, Yanliang; Cai, Yongchun; Lu, Shena

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have shown that language can affect visual perception; however, our understanding of the neural basis of linguistic influence is inadequate. This can be investigated by examining the hemispheric asymmetry of linguistic influence. The left and right hemispheres are dominant in close and distant semantic processing, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to hemispheric asymmetry for concept priming on the detection of objects degraded by continuous flash suppression. We combined a priming paradigm with the divided visual field paradigm and used continuous flash suppression, which renders objects invisible. The results indicated that the hemispheric asymmetry of semantic processing led to a right lateralization in the influence of more abstract concepts on visual perception. The lateralization of brain connectomes may be the underlying neural basis of this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the neutron and gamma doses accumulated during commercial jet flights from Sydney to several major destinations in the northern and southern hemisphere

    Mukherjee, B.; Cross, P.; Alsop, R.

    2002-01-01

    As recommended by the ICRP, the European Union (EU) agreed to abide by mandatory monitoring of radiation doses to crew during civil aviation flights operated by the airlines of the EU member states. A large number of measured and theoretically predicted values for the in-flights radiation doses of northern hemisphere flight routes are available. On the other hand very few data have been published for the southern hemisphere. This paper will present the results of Australian domestic and international return flight routes originating from Sydney. The paper also presents results of trans-hemisphere air traffic routes. Neutron and gamma doses were measured using superheated bubble dosemeters and semiconductor detectors respectively. Based on our measurements a method is suggested whereby aircrew may share their personal radiation burden by flight crew hemisphere exchange. (author)

  9. When One Hemisphere Takes Control: Metacontrol in Pigeons (Columba livia)

    Adam, Ruth; Güntürkün, Onur

    2009-01-01

    Background Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection – a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different. Methodology/Principal Findings Homing pigeons (Columba livia) were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol. Conclusions/Significance We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the

  10. When one hemisphere takes control: metacontrol in pigeons (Columba livia.

    Ruth Adam

    Full Text Available Vertebrate brains are composed of two hemispheres that receive input, compute, and interact to form a unified response. How the partially different processes of both hemispheres are integrated to create a single output is largely unknown. In some cases one hemisphere takes charge of the response selection--a process known as metacontrol. Thus far, this phenomenon has only been shown in a handful of studies with primates, mostly conducted in humans. Metacontrol, however, is even more relevant for animals like birds with laterally placed eyes and complete chiasmatic decussation since visual input to the hemispheres is largely different.Homing pigeons (Columba livia were trained with a color discrimination task. Each hemisphere was trained with a different color pair and therefore had a different experience. Subsequently, the pigeons were binocularly examined with two additional stimuli that combined the positive color of one hemisphere with a negative color that had been shown to the other, omitting the availability of a coherent solution and confronting the pigeons with a conflicting situation. Some of the pigeons responded to both stimuli, indicating that none of the hemispheres dominated the overall preference. Some birds, however, responded primarily to one of the conflicting stimuli, showing that they based their choice on the left- or right-monocularly learned color pair, indicating hemispheric metacontrol.We could demonstrate for the first time that metacontrol is a widespread phenomenon that also exists in birds, and thus in principle requires no corpus callosum. Our results are closely similar to those in humans: monocular performance was higher than binocular one and animals displayed different modes of hemispheric dominance. Thus, metacontrol is a dynamic and widely distributed process that possibly constitutes a requirement for all animals with a bipartite brain to confront the problem of choosing between two hemisphere

  11. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  12. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    J. G. Tanner

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  13. Radiocarbon as a Novel Tracer of Extra-Antarctic Feeding in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whales.

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Mazumder, Debashish; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Holyoake, Carlysle Sian; Coughran, Douglas; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2017-06-29

    Bulk stable isotope analysis provides information regarding food web interactions, and has been applied to several cetacean species for the study of migration ecology. One limitation in bulk stable isotope analysis arises when a species, such as Southern hemisphere humpback whales, utilises geographically distinct food webs with differing isotopic baselines. Migrations to areas with different baselines can result in isotopic changes that mimic changes in feeding relations, leading to ambiguous food web interpretations. Here, we demonstrate the novel application of radiocarbon measurement for the resolution of such ambiguities. Radiocarbon was measured in baleen plates from humpback whales stranded in Australia between 2007 and 2013, and in skin samples collected in Australia and Antarctica from stranded and free-ranging animals. Radiocarbon measurements showed lower values for Southern Ocean feeding than for extra-Antarctic feeding in Australian waters. While the whales mostly relied on Antarctic-derived energy stores during their annual migration, there was some evidence of feeding within temperate zone waters in some individuals. This work, to our knowledge, provides the first definitive biochemical evidence for supplementary feeding by southern hemisphere humpback whales within temperate waters during migration. Further, the work contributes a powerful new tool (radiocarbon) for tracing source regions and geographical feeding.

  14. Prototype gauge for measuring contour and wall thicknesses of hemispherical parts

    Aarts, H.J.; Robertson, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype gauge (gage) was designed and fabricated using air bearings in a new configuration to provide less error and distortion during inspection of hemispherical parts. No wear occurs on the moving parts during operations and accuracy of alignment is maintained. The gauge will check outside radial distance, inside radial, and outside radial and wall, and inner radial and wall thicknesses of parts. The gauge contains only four moving parts, which increases the measuring accuracy. A horizontal table rotates. A table mounted on the horizontal table at 45 0 rotates through two transducers. All moving parts are mounted on hydrostatic gas bearings. Laser interferometric, air-bearing gauge heads are used to obtain the required data. Investigation of a hemispherical part is in any desired spiral path from equator to pole. Measurement information is obtained from two laser interferometric transducers using linear air bearings. The transducers use a Spectra Physics Model-120 helium and neon laser. Working range of each transducer is 1.5 inches. The fringe voltage signals are amplified and converted to inches to be displayed on a digital readout. A punched paper tape contains the nominal inside diameter (ID) and outside diameter (OD) information in Binary Coded Decimal form. The tape is fed into a digital computer which calculates error information on ID, OD, and wall thickness. This information is converted to analog form and displayed simultaneously on a strip-chart recorder

  15. Beyond Hemispheric Dominance: Brain Regions Underlying the Joint Lateralization of Language and Arithmetic to the Left Hemisphere

    Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2010-01-01

    Language and arithmetic are both lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of right-handed adults. Yet, does this similar lateralization reflect a single overall constraint of brain organization, such an overall "dominance" of the left hemisphere for all linguistic and symbolic operations? Is it related to the lateralization of specific…

  16. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew; Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M.; Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Parsons, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  17. Association between baseline peri-infarct magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regional white matter atrophy after stroke

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid; Donnan, Geoffrey A. [The University of Melbourne, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Cerebral atrophy after stroke is associated with poor functional outcome. The prediction and prevention of post-stroke brain atrophy could therefore represent a target for neurorestorative therapies. We investigated the associations between peri-infarct metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative MRS and brain volume change in the infarct hemisphere after stroke. Twenty patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients underwent 3T-MRI within 1 week of onset, and at 1 and 3 months. At the baseline scan, an MRS voxel was placed manually in the peri-infarct area and another in the corresponding contralateral region. Volumetric analysis of T1 images was performed using two automated processing packages. Changes in gray and white matter volume were assessed as percentage change between 1 and 3 months. Mean concentrations (institutional units) of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA) (6.1 vs 7.0, p = 0.039), total creatine (Cr+PCr) (5.4 vs 5.8, p = 0.043), and inositol (4.5 vs 5.0, p = 0.014), were significantly lower in the peri-infarct region compared with the contralateral hemisphere. There was a significant correlation between baseline peri-infarct NAA and white matter volume change in the infarct hemisphere between 1 and 3 months, with lower NAA being associated with subsequent white matter atrophy (Spearman's rho = 0.66, p = 0.010). The baseline concentration of Cr+PCr was also significantly correlated with white matter atrophy in the infarct hemisphere (Spearman's rho = 0.59, p = 0.027). Both of these associations were significant after adjustment for the false discovery rate and were validated using the secondary volumetric method. MRS may be useful in the prediction of white matter atrophy post-stroke and in the testing of novel neurorestorative therapies. (orig.)

  18. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  19. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  20. Diffuse scattering from hemispherical nanoparticles at the air–silicon interface

    Centeno, Anthony; Ahmed, Badar; Reehal, Haricharan; Xie, Fang

    2013-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the application of plasmonics to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells. In this paper we use finite difference time domain calculations to investigate the placement of hemispherical gold nanoparticles on the rear surface of a silicon solar cell. The results indicate that nanoparticles protruding into the silicon, rather than into air, have a larger scattering efficiency and diffuse scattering into the semiconductor. This finding could lead to improved light trapping within a thin silicon solar cell device. (paper)

  1. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-12-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  2. Climate change induced by Southern Hemisphere desertification

    Wang, Ye; Yan, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Some 10-20% of global dry-lands are already degraded, and the ongoing desertification threatens the world's poorest populations. Studies on desertification effects are essential for humans to adapt to the environmental challenges posed by desertification. Given the importance of the much larger southern ocean to the global climate and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate changes in phase with those in the north, the biogeophysical effects of the SH desertification on climate are assessed using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, MPM-2. This analysis focuses on differences in climate among the averages of simulations with desert expansion in different latitude bands by year 2000. The localized desertification causes significant global changes in temperature and precipitation as well as surface albedo. On the global scale, cooling dominates the SH desertification effects. However, the biogeophysical effects are most significant in regions with desertification, and the cooling is also prominent in northern mid-latitudes. Desert expansion in 15°-30°S reveals statistically most significant cooling and increased precipitation over the forcing regions during spring. The global and regional scale responses from desertification imply the climate teleconnection and address the importance of the effects from the SH which are contingent on the location of the forcing. Our study indicates that biogeophysical mechanisms of land cover changes in the SH need to be accounted for in the assessment of land management options especially for latitude band over 15°-30°S.

  3. Hemispheric processing of vocal emblem sounds.

    Neumann-Werth, Yael; Levy, Erika S; Obler, Loraine K

    2013-01-01

    Vocal emblems, such as shh and brr, are speech sounds that have linguistic and nonlinguistic features; thus, it is unclear how they are processed in the brain. Five adult dextral individuals with left-brain damage and moderate-severe Wernicke's aphasia, five adult dextral individuals with right-brain damage, and five Controls participated in two tasks: (1) matching vocal emblems to photographs ('picture task') and (2) matching vocal emblems to verbal translations ('phrase task'). Cross-group statistical analyses on items on which the Controls performed at ceiling revealed lower accuracy by the group with left-brain damage (than by Controls) on both tasks, and lower accuracy by the group with right-brain damage (than by Controls) on the picture task. Additionally, the group with left-brain damage performed significantly less accurately than the group with right-brain damage on the phrase task only. Findings suggest that comprehension of vocal emblems recruits more left- than right-hemisphere processing.

  4. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A; Druce, R L; Phillips, D; Lee, R; Mudge, S; Roeske, F

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data, including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.

  5. MR imaging features of hemispherical spondylosclerosis

    Vicentini, Joao R.T.; Martinez-Salazar, Edgar L.; Chang, Connie Y.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Hemispherical spondylosclerosis (HS) is a rare degenerative entity characterized by dome-shaped sclerosis of a single vertebral body that may pose a diagnostic dilemma. The goal of this study was to describe the MR imaging features of HS. We identified spine radiographs and CT examinations of subjects with HS who also had MR imaging for correlation. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently assessed sclerosis characteristics, presence of endplate erosions, marrow signal intensity, and disk degeneration (Pfirrmann scale). We identified 11 subjects (six males, five females, mean 48 ± 10 years) with radiographic/CT findings of HS. The most commonly affected vertebral body was L4 (6/11; 55%). On MR imaging, variable signal intensity was noted, being most commonly low on T1 (8/11, 73%) and high on fat-suppressed T2-weighted (8/11, 73%) images. In two subjects, diffuse post-contrast enhancement was seen in the lesion. Moderate disk degeneration and endplate bone erosions adjacent to sclerosis were present in all subjects. Erosions of the opposite endplate were present in two subjects (2/11, 18%). CT data from nine subjects showed the mean attenuation value of HS was 472 ± 96 HU. HS appearance on MR imaging is variable and may not correlate with the degree of sclerosis seen on radiographs or CT. Disk degenerative changes and asymmetric endplate erosions are consistent markers of HS. (orig.)

  6. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetry of electroencephalography-based functional brain networks.

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2014-11-12

    Electroencephalography (EEG)-based functional brain networks have been investigated frequently in health and disease. It has been shown that a number of graph theory metrics are disrupted in brain disorders. EEG-based brain networks are often studied in the whole-brain framework, where all the nodes are grouped into a single network. In this study, we studied the brain networks in two hemispheres and assessed whether there are any hemispheric-specific patterns in the properties of the networks. To this end, resting state closed-eyes EEGs from 44 healthy individuals were processed and the network structures were extracted separately for each hemisphere. We examined neurophysiologically meaningful graph theory metrics: global and local efficiency measures. The global efficiency did not show any hemispheric asymmetry, whereas the local connectivity showed rightward asymmetry for a range of intermediate density values for the constructed networks. Furthermore, the age of the participants showed significant direct correlations with the global efficiency of the left hemisphere, but only in the right hemisphere, with local connectivity. These results suggest that only local connectivity of EEG-based functional networks is associated with brain hemispheres.

  8. Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology

    Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.

  9. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  10. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  11. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  12. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  13. 75 FR 66748 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2010-10-29

    ...- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 22, 2010. ONEOK Gas Transportation, L.L.C Docket No. PR11-68... above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

  14. Globalization, energy and sustainable development in the hemisphere

    Villegas Rodriguez, Luis Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Presently paper, it is emphasized in the politics in the environmental and energetic field that has taken place in the hemisphere like consequence of the setting of the action plan agreed in the summit of the America in 1994

  15. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  16. Airpower's Role in Homeland Defense: A Western Hemisphere Perspective

    Witek, Roger

    2002-01-01

    .... The author assesses hemispheric historical cases such as antisubmarine warfare during World War II, the development of NORAD during the Cold War, and counterdrug operations during the last two decades...

  17. Reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion in two cases of SMART syndrome.

    Wai, Karmen; Balabanski, Anna; Chia, Nicholas; Kleinig, Timothy

    2017-09-01

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome manifests as prolonged episodes of cortical dysfunction, years after cranial irradiation. We present two cases demonstrating reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion. Case 1 presented with left hemispheric symptoms following previous similar episodes. CT perfusion (CTP) demonstrated reversible hemispheric hypoperfusion; subsequent investigations were consistent with SMART syndrome. Case 2 presented following the third episode of a hemispheric syndrome with near-identical CTP abnormalities. L-arginine was administered with rapid reversal of clinical and CTP abnormalities. We conclude that SMART syndrome may demonstrate significant hypoperfusion on hyperacute CTP without subsequent infarction. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation probably contributes to cortical dysfunction in SMART syndrome. L-arginine warrants investigation as a potential treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivation, affect, and hemispheric asymmetry: power versus affiliation.

    Kuhl, Julius; Kazén, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors examined to what extent information related to different social needs (i.e., power vs. affiliation) is associated with hemispheric laterality. Response latencies to a lateralized dot-probe task following lateralized pictures or verbal labels that were associated with positive or negative episodes related to power, affiliation, or achievement revealed clear-cut laterality effects. These effects were a function of need content rather than of valence: Power-related stimuli were associated with right visual field (left hemisphere) superiority, whereas affiliation-related stimuli were associated with left visual field (right hemisphere) superiority. Additional results demonstrated that in contrast to power, affiliation primes were associated with better discrimination between coherent word triads (e.g., goat, pass, and green, all related to mountain) and noncoherent triads, a remote associate task known to activate areas of the right hemisphere. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    Mitchell, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  20. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  1. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Reeder, R.J.; Cooper, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building. A total of 85 technical (100 square centimeter (cm 2 )) smears were collected from the Room 147 hoods, the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF), and the Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC). Exposure rate readings (window open and window closed) were taken at a distance of 2.5 centimeters (cm) and 30 cm from the surface of each smear. Gross beta-gamma and alpha counts of each smear were also performed. The smear samples were analyzed by gamma energy analysis (GEA). Alpha energy analysis (AEA) and strontium-90 analysis were also performed on selected smears. GEA results for one or more samples reported the presence of manganese-54, cobalt-60, silver-108m antimony-125, cesium-134, cesium-137, europium-154, europium-155, and americium-241. AEA results reported the presence of plutonium-239/240, plutonium-238/ 241 Am, curium-243/244, curium-242, and americium-243. Tables 5 through 9 present a summary by location of the estimated maximum removable and total contamination levels in the Room 147 hoods, the SMF, and the REC. The smear sample survey data and laboratory analytical results are presented in tabular form by sample in Appendix A. The Appendix A tables combine survey data documented in radiological survey reports found in Appendix B and laboratory analytical results reported in the 324 Building Physical and Radiological Characterization Study (Berk, Hill, and Landsman 1998), supplemented by the laboratory analytical results found in Appendix C.

  2. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and the tridosha theory.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian System of Medicine, deals with the theory of the three tridosha states (both physical and psychological): Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. They are the three major human constitutional types that both depend on psychological and physical characteristics. The Pitta state is described as a critical, discriminative, and rational psychological state of mind, while the Kapha state is described as being dominant for emotional stimuli. The Vata state is an intermediate unstable shifting state. The Pitta types are of average height and built with well developed musculature. The Vata types are thin individuals with low body mass index. The Kapha types are short stocky individuals that tend toward obesity, and who are sedentary. The study assessed the biochemical differences between right hemispheric dominant, bihemispheric dominant, and left hemispheric dominant individuals, and then compared this with the patterns obtained in the Vata, Pitta, and Kapha states. The isoprenoid metabolites (digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone), glycoconjugate metabolism, free radical metabolism, and the RBC membrane composition were studied. The hemispheric chemical dominance in various systemic diseases and psychological states was also investigated. The results showed that right hemispheric chemically dominant/Kapha state had elevated digoxin levels, increased free radical production and reduced scavenging, increased tryptophan catabolites and reduced tyrosine catabolites, increased glycoconjugate levels and increased cholesterol: phospholipid ratio of RBC membranes. Left hemispheric chemically dominant/Pitta states had the opposite biochemical patterns. The patterns were normal or intermediate in the bihemispheric chemically dominant/Vata state. This pattern could be correlated with various systemic and neuropsychiatric diseases and personality traits. Right hemispheric chemical dominance/Kapha state represents a hyperdigoxinemic state with membrane sodium

  3. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and chronic bronchitis emphysema.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor, immunomodulator, and regulator of neurotransmitter/amino acid transport), dolichol (regulates N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). This was assessed in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema. All the 15 patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. In patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol, and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate levels of RBC membrane in patients with chronic bronchitis emphysema. The same biochemical patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric dominance. Endogenous digoxin by activating the calcineurin signal transduction pathway of T-cell can contribute to immune activation in chronic bronchitis emphysema. Increased free radical generation can also lead to immune activation. Endogenous synthesis of nicotine can contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Altered glycoconjugate metabolism and membranogenesis can lead to defective lysosomal stability contributing to the disease process by increased release of lysosomal proteases. The role of an endogenous digoxin and hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of chronic bronchitis emphysema and in the regulation of lung structure/function is discussed. The biochemical patterns obtained in chronic bronchitis emphysema is similar to those obtained in left

  4. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and peptic ulcer disease.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), ubiquinone (free radical scavenger), and dolichol (regulator of glycoconjugate metabolism). The pathway was assessed in peptic ulcer and acid peptic disease and its relation to hemispheric dominance studied. The activity of HMG CoA reductase, serum levels of EDLF, magnesium, tryptophan catabolites, and tyrosine catabolites were measured in acid peptic disease, right hemispheric dominant, left hemispheric dominant, and bihemispheric dominant individuals. All the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The pathway was upregulated with increased EDLF synthesis in peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There was increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in these patients. The ubiquinone levels were low and free radical production increased. Dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were increased and lysosomal stability reduced in patients with acid peptic disease (APD). There was increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio with decreased glyco conjugate levels in membranes of patients with PUD. Acid peptic disease represents an elevated EDLF state which can modulate gastric acid secretion and the structure of the gastric mucous barrier. It can also lead to persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The biochemical pattern obtained in peptic ulcer disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listen ing test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Peptic ulcer disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  5. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  6. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-09-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and regional ileitis). Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway and the related cascade were also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. All the patients with inflammatory bowel disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The following parameters were measured in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free-radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition and RBC membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to immune activation, defective glycoprotein bowel antigen presentation, and autoimmunity and a schizophreniform psychosis important in its pathogenesis. The biochemical patterns obtained in inflammatory bowel disease is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with peptic ulcer disease were right

  7. Program Baseline Change Control Board charter

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Charter is to establish the Program Baseline Change Control Board (PBCCB) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program, and to describe its organization, responsibilities, and basic methods of operation. Guidance for implementing this Charter is provided by the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan (BMP) and OCRWM Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

  8. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  9. :Examination of Sulfate production by CB05TU, RACM2 & RACM2 with SCI initiated SO2,oxidation in the Northern Hemisphere"

    We employ the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to examine tropospheric sulfateproduction in the northern hemisphere using the Carbon Bond 2005 chemical mechanism withupdated toluene chemistry (CB05TU) and the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism(RACM2) without and with ...

  10. Air quality

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  11. PHASE RELATIONSHIPS OF SOLAR HEMISPHERIC TOROIDAL AND POLOIDAL CYCLES

    Muraközy, J., E-mail: murakozy.judit@csfk.mta.hu [Debrecen Heliophysical Observatory (DHO), Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences H-4010 Debrecen P.O.B. 30, H-4010 (Hungary)

    2016-08-01

    The solar northern and southern hemispheres exhibit differences in their intensities and time profiles of the activity cycles. The time variation of these properties was studied in a previous article covering the data from Cycles 12–23. The hemispheric phase lags exhibited a characteristic variation: the leading role was exchanged between hemispheres every four cycles. The present work extends the investigation of this variation using the data of Staudacher and Schwabe in Cycles 1–4 and 7–10 as well as Spörer’s data in Cycle 11. The previously observed variation cannot be clearly recognized using the data of Staudacher, Schwabe, and Spörer. However, it is more interesting that the phase lags of the reversals of the magnetic fields at the poles follow the same variations as those of the hemispheric cycles in Cycles 12–23, i.e., one of the hemispheres leads in four cyles and the leading role jumps to the opposite hemisphere in the next four cycles. This means that this variation is a long-term property of the entire solar dynamo mechanism, for both the toroidal and poloidal fields, which hints at an unidentified component of the process responsible for the long-term memory.

  12. Five-year records of mercury wet deposition flux at GMOS sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Angot, Helene; Barbante, Carlo; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Cairns, Warren; Comero, Sara; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Dommergue, Aurélien; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Feng, Xin Bin; Fu, Xuewu; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Hageström, Ulla; Hansson, Katarina; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Labuschagne, Casper; Magand, Olivier; Martin, Lynwill; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Mkololo, Thumeka; Munthe, John; Obolkin, Vladimir; Ramirez Islas, Martha; Sena, Fabrizio; Somerset, Vernon; Spandow, Pia; Vardè, Massimiliano; Walters, Chavon; Wängberg, Ingvar; Weigelt, Andreas; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) occurs via several mechanisms, including dry and wet scavenging by precipitation events. In an effort to understand the atmospheric cycling and seasonal depositional characteristics of Hg, wet deposition samples were collected for approximately 5 years at 17 selected GMOS monitoring sites located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project. Total mercury (THg) exhibited annual and seasonal patterns in Hg wet deposition samples. Interannual differences in total wet deposition are mostly linked with precipitation volume, with the greatest deposition flux occurring in the wettest years. This data set provides a new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation worldwide, particularly in regions such as the Southern Hemisphere and tropical areas where wet deposition as well as atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for future and additional simultaneous measurements across the GMOS network as well as new findings in future modeling studies.

  13. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to b...

  14. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations

    Andrej eKral

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness. The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. The data revealed that effects of hearing experience were more pronounced when stimulating the hearing ear. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive

  15. Unilateral hearing during development: hemispheric specificity in plastic reorganizations.

    Kral, Andrej; Heid, Silvia; Hubka, Peter; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the hemispheric contributions of neuronal reorganization following early single-sided hearing (unilateral deafness). The experiments were performed on ten cats from our colony of deaf white cats. Two were identified in early hearing screening as unilaterally congenitally deaf. The remaining eight were bilaterally congenitally deaf, unilaterally implanted at different ages with a cochlear implant. Implanted animals were chronically stimulated using a single-channel portable signal processor for two to five months. Microelectrode recordings were performed at the primary auditory cortex under stimulation at the hearing and deaf ear with bilateral cochlear implants. Local field potentials (LFPs) were compared at the cortex ipsilateral and contralateral to the hearing ear. The focus of the study was on the morphology and the onset latency of the LFPs. With respect to morphology of LFPs, pronounced hemisphere-specific effects were observed. Morphology of amplitude-normalized LFPs for stimulation of the deaf and the hearing ear was similar for responses recorded at the same hemisphere. However, when comparisons were performed between the hemispheres, the morphology was more dissimilar even though the same ear was stimulated. This demonstrates hemispheric specificity of some cortical adaptations irrespective of the ear stimulated. The results suggest a specific adaptation process at the hemisphere ipsilateral to the hearing ear, involving specific (down-regulated inhibitory) mechanisms not found in the contralateral hemisphere. Finally, onset latencies revealed that the sensitive period for the cortex ipsilateral to the hearing ear is shorter than that for the contralateral cortex. Unilateral hearing experience leads to a functionally-asymmetric brain with different neuronal reorganizations and different sensitive periods involved.

  16. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area

  17. Brain State-dependent Functional Hemispheric Specialization in Men but not in Women

    Mohr, Christine; Michel, Christoph M.; Lantz, Goran; Ortigue, Stephanie; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Landis, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    Hemispheric specialization is reliably demonstrated in patients with unilateral lesions or disconnected hemispheres, but is inconsistent in healthy populations. The reason for this paradox is unclear. We propose that functional hemispheric specialization in healthy participants depends upon functional brain states at stimulus arrival (FBS). Brain activity was recorded from 123 surface electrodes while 22 participants (11 women) performed lateralized lexical decisions (left hemisphere processi...

  18. Interindividual variability in the hemispheric organization for speech.

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Josse, G; Crivello, F; Mazoyer, B

    2004-01-01

    A PET activation study was designed to investigate hemispheric specialization during speech comprehension and production in right- and left-handed subjects. Normalized regional cerebral blood flow (NrCBF) was repeatedly monitored while subjects either listened to factual stories (Story) or covertly generated verbs semantically related to heard nouns (Gener), using silent resting (Rest) as a common control condition. NrCBF variations in each task, as compared to Rest, as well as functional asymmetry indices (FAI = right minus left NrCBF variations), were computed in anatomical regions of interest (AROIs) defined on the single-subject MNI template. FAIs were predominantly leftward in all regions during both tasks, although larger FAIs were observed during Gener. Subjects were declared "typical" for language hemispheric specialization based on the presence of significant leftward asymmetries (FAI Gener, and in the middle and inferior temporal AROIs during Story. Six subjects (including five LH) showed an atypical language representation. Among them, one presented a right hemisphere specialization during both tasks, another a shift in hemispheric specialization from production to comprehension (left during Gener, right during Story). The group of 14 typical subjects showed significant positive correlation between homologous left and right AROIs NrCBF variations in temporal areas during Story, and in temporal and inferior frontal areas during Gener, almost all regions presenting a leftward FAI. Such correlations were also present in deactivated areas with strong leftward asymmetry (supramarginalis gyrus, inferior parietal region). These results suggest that entry into a language task translates into a hemispheric reconfiguration of lateral cortical areas with global NrCBF increase in the dominant hemisphere and decrease in the minor hemisphere. This can be considered as the setting up of a "language mode", under the control of a mechanism that operates at a perisylvian

  19. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  20. Apraxia and spatial inattention dissociate in left hemisphere stroke.

    Timpert, David C; Weiss, Peter H; Vossel, Simone; Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-10-01

    Theories of lateralized cognitive functions propose a dominance of the left hemisphere for motor control and of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Accordingly, spatial attention deficits (e.g., neglect) are more frequently observed after right-hemispheric stroke, whereas apraxia is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Clinical reports of spatial attentional deficits after left hemisphere (LH) stroke also exist, but are often neglected. By applying parallel analysis (PA) and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to data from a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of 74 LH stroke patients, we here systematically investigate the relationship between spatial inattention and apraxia and their neural bases. PA revealed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits loaded on one common component, while deficits in attention tests were explained by another independent component. Statistical lesion analyses with the individual component scores showed that apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits were significantly associated with lesions of the left superior longitudinal fascicle (SLF). Data suggest that in LH stroke spatial attention deficits dissociate from apraxic (and language comprehension) deficits. These findings contribute to models of lateralised cognitive functions in the human brain. Moreover, our findings strongly suggest that LH stroke patients should be assessed systematically for spatial attention deficits so that these can be included in their rehabilitation regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Holocene sea-level fluctuation in the southern hemisphere

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    If rising sea levels dominate in the northern hemisphere (NH), falling or fluctuating sea levels predominate in the southern hemisphere (SH). Endogenic processes (tectonics, isostasy or geoidal changes) could explain local or regional mean sea level (MSL) fluctuations but not an hemispherical one. Evidence from South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans suggest that the Holocene transgression rose above the present MSL, in higher latitudes before the tropics. By plotting latitude against the age of MSL arrival at present coasts, good correlation is observed. Oceanic salinity mixing has been already proposed to explain this mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Climate could be the only factor responsible for this hemisphere-wide behavior of MSL. It has been suggested previously that the climate of the SH precedes that of the NH by 3000 years. The climatic optimum, or maximum warmth, occurred predominantly about 6000 BP in the NH, but about 10-9000 BP in the SH. Short-term climatic effects on the sea level (monsoons, southern oscillation/El Niño phenomena) should have significant occurrences during the past in the windiest oceanic hemisphere. This latitudinal trend in former MSL should be considered when using shorelines as reference points for measuring vertical crustal movements.

  2. Taxonomic and ad hoc categorization within the two cerebral hemispheres.

    Shen, Yeshayahu; Aharoni, Bat-El; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    A typicality effect refers to categorization which is performed more quickly or more accurately for typical than for atypical members of a given category. Previous studies reported a typicality effect for category members presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH), suggesting that the RH applies a similarity-based categorization strategy. However, findings regarding the typicality effect within the left hemisphere (LH) are less conclusive. The current study tested the pattern of typicality effects within each hemisphere for both taxonomic and ad hoc categories, using words presented to the left or right visual fields. Experiment 1 tested typical and atypical members of taxonomic categories as well as non-members, and Experiment 2 tested typical and atypical members of ad hoc categories as well as non-members. The results revealed a typicality effect in both hemispheres and in both types of categories. Furthermore, the RH categorized atypical stimuli more accurately than did the LH. Our findings suggest that both hemispheres rely on a similarity-based categorization strategy, but the coarse semantic coding of the RH seems to facilitate the categorization of atypical members.

  3. Classification of hemispheric monthly mean stratospheric potential vorticity fields

    R. Huth

    Full Text Available Monthly mean NCEP reanalysis potential vorticity fields at the 650 K isentropic level over the Northern and Southern Hemispheres between 1979 and 1997 were studied using multivariate analysis tools. Principal component analysis in the T-mode was applied to demonstrate the validity of such statistical techniques for the study of stratospheric dynamics and climatology. The method, complementarily applied to both the raw and anomaly fields, was useful in determining and classifying the characteristics of winter and summer PV fields on both hemispheres, in particular, the well-known differences in the behaviour and persistence of the polar vortices. It was possible to identify such features as sudden warming events in the Northern Hemisphere and final warming dates in both hemispheres. The stratospheric impact of other atmospheric processes, such as volcanic eruptions, also identified though the results, must be viewed at this stage as tentative. An interesting change in behaviour around 1990 was detected over both hemispheres.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; general circulation; climatology

  4. The Science benefits and preliminary design of the southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO

    Blair, D G; Barriga, P; Coward, D; Dumas, J-C; Fan, Y; Gras, S; Howell, E; Ju, L; Miao, H [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Brooks, A F; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Veitch, P J [Department of Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 Australia (Australia); Charlton, P [School of Computing and Mathematics, Charles Sturt University, NSW 2678 (Australia); Galloway, D [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Hughes, S [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J [Department of Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Melatos, A [School of Physics University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3010 Australia (Australia)], E-mail: dgb@physics.uwa.edu.au (and others)

    2008-07-15

    The proposed southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO increases the projected average baseline of the global array of ground based gravitational wave detectors by a factor {approx}4. This allows the world array to be substantially improved. The orientation of AIGO allows much better resolution of both wave polarisations. This enables better distance estimates for inspiral events, allowing unambiguous optical identification of host galaxies for about 25% of neutron star binary inspiral events. This can allow Hubble Law estimation without optical identification of an outburst, and can also allow deep exposure imaging with electromagnetic telescopes to search for weak afterglows. This allows independent estimates of cosmological acceleration and dark energy as well as improved understanding of the physics of neutron star and black hole coalescences. This paper reviews and summarises the science benefits of AIGO and presents a preliminary conceptual design.

  5. The Science benefits and preliminary design of the southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO

    Blair, D G; Barriga, P; Coward, D; Dumas, J-C; Fan, Y; Gras, S; Howell, E; Ju, L; Miao, H; Brooks, A F; Hosken, D J; Munch, J; Veitch, P J; Charlton, P; Galloway, D; Hughes, S; McClelland, D E; Scott, S M; Slagmolen, B J J; Melatos, A

    2008-01-01

    The proposed southern hemisphere gravitational wave detector AIGO increases the projected average baseline of the global array of ground based gravitational wave detectors by a factor ∼4. This allows the world array to be substantially improved. The orientation of AIGO allows much better resolution of both wave polarisations. This enables better distance estimates for inspiral events, allowing unambiguous optical identification of host galaxies for about 25% of neutron star binary inspiral events. This can allow Hubble Law estimation without optical identification of an outburst, and can also allow deep exposure imaging with electromagnetic telescopes to search for weak afterglows. This allows independent estimates of cosmological acceleration and dark energy as well as improved understanding of the physics of neutron star and black hole coalescences. This paper reviews and summarises the science benefits of AIGO and presents a preliminary conceptual design

  6. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  7. Integrated planning: A baseline development perspective

    Clauss, L.; Chang, D.

    1994-01-01

    The FEMP Baseline establishes the basis for integrating environmental activity technical requirements with their cost and schedule elements. The result is a path forward to successfully achieving the FERMCO mission. Specific to cost management, the FEMP Baseline has been incorporate into the FERMCO Project Control System (PCS) to provide a time-phased budget plan against which contractor performance is measured with an earned value management system. The result is the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), an important tool for keeping cost under control

  8. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  9. Optimization of a scintillation detector with hemispherical configuration

    Saules Mendonca, A.C. de.

    1980-08-01

    A hemispherical configuration for scintillation detectors, is introduced so as to minimize the dispersion in light collection by reducing the number of reflexions. Better results in the process of light collection appear explicitly in the gain in the amplitude of the pulse and a better resolution in time and energy when a comparative analysis is made between the cylindrical and hemispherical geometries. The measurements were made using NE102, a plastic scintillator with cylindrical and hemispherical forms, comparing the results of pulse amplitude and energy resolution. The results were quite significant showing a 13% improvement in pulse amplitude and more than 10% in energy resolution for some values of energies from 511 KeV to 1275 KeV. (Author) [pt

  10. Topographic brain mapping of emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries.

    Roschmann, R; Wittling, W

    1992-03-01

    The study used topographic brain mapping of visual evoked potentials to investigate emotion-related hemisphere asymmetries. The stimulus material consisted of color photographs of human faces, grouped into two emotion-related categories: normal faces (neutral stimuli) and faces deformed by dermatological diseases (emotional stimuli). The pictures were presented tachistoscopically to 20 adult right-handed subjects. Brain activity was recorded by 30 EEG electrodes with linked ears as reference. The waveforms were averaged separately with respect to each of the two stimulus conditions. Statistical analysis by means of significance probability mapping revealed significant differences between stimulus conditions for two periods of time, indicating right hemisphere superiority in emotion-related processing. The results are discussed in terms of a 2-stage-model of emotional processing in the cerebral hemispheres.

  11. Hemispheric asymmetry of liking for representational and abstract paintings.

    Nadal, Marcos; Schiavi, Susanna; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-10-13

    Although the neural correlates of the appreciation of aesthetic qualities have been the target of much research in the past decade, few experiments have explored the hemispheric asymmetries in underlying processes. In this study, we used a divided visual field paradigm to test for hemispheric asymmetries in men and women's preference for abstract and representational artworks. Both male and female participants liked representational paintings more when presented in the right visual field, whereas preference for abstract paintings was unaffected by presentation hemifield. We hypothesize that this result reflects a facilitation of the sort of visual processes relevant to laypeople's liking for art-specifically, local processing of highly informative object features-when artworks are presented in the right visual field, given the left hemisphere's advantage in processing such features.

  12. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  13. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric dominance, and neurobiology of love and affection.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-05-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, digoxin, which can regulate neuronal transmission. The digoxin status and neurotransmitter patterns were studied in individuals with a predilection to fall in love. It was also studied in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of cerebral dominance in this respect. In individuals with a predilection to fall in love there was decreased digoxin synthesis, increased membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity, decreased tryptophan catabolites (serotonin, quinolinic acid, and nicotine), and increased tyrosine catabolites (dopamine, noradrenaline, and morphine). This pattern correlated with that obtained in left hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric dominance and hypothalamic digoxin could regulate the predisposition to fall in love.

  14. Comparison of 'electrojet' indices from the northern and southern hemispheres

    Maclennan, C.G.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Akasofu, S. I.; Zaitzev, A.N.; Popov, V.; Wilkinson, P.J.; Wolfe, A.

    1991-01-01

    A unique data set of digital and digitized analog magnetic recordings from 22 stations in the Antarctic was used to construct the southern hemisphere equivalent of the northern hemisphere auroral electrojet index, AE, for two separate intervals of magnetic disturbance (totaling seven days) in June 1982. A second index constructed using only 9 stations between ∼ 60 degrees-70 degrees geomagnetic south latitude showed only small differences from that using all 22 stations. For the universal time interval (00-11 UT inclusive) when a reasonably good coverage of ground stations exists in the austral auroral zone, it is found that there is a good correlation between the northern and southern hemisphere indices; this is the case even though the southern ionosphere is largely in total darkness during the interval studied. No effect of the north-south direction of the interplanetary magnetic field is found on the correlation

  15. Design criteria for a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    A detector for the direct measurement of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in cylindrical geometry was developed by Brandan and DeLuca. The detector successfully measured the LET of protons and a fraction of the heavy charged particles generated in cylindrical A150 plastic and graphite walls by 14.8 MeV neutrons. In this report, we present design tests for the hemispherical LET detector which will measure the LET of charged particles in spherical geometry and allow comparison with calculated LET spectra. The hemispherical LET detector will also provide a data base for radiobiological predictions with the Track Structure Model by Katz. A comparison of predictions of radiobiological effects by the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and the Track Structure Model by Edwards and the authors indicate that the Track Structure Model predicts cell survival as a function of dose more accurately and hence an additional motivation for the present construction of the hemispherical LET detector

  16. Modeling and verification of hemispherical solar still using ANSYS CFD

    Panchal, Hitesh N. [KSV University, Gujarat Power Engineering and Research Institute, Mehsana (India); Shah, P.K. [Silver Oak College of Engineering and Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2013-07-01

    In every efficient solar still design, water temperature, vapor temperature and distillate output, and difference between water temperature and inner glass cover temperatures are very important. Here, two dimensional three phase model of hemispherical solar still is made for evaporation as well as condensation process in ANSYS CFD. Simulation results like water temperature, vapor temperature, distillate output compared with actual experimental results of climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23° 59’ and longitude of 72° 38) of hemispherical solar still. Water temperature and distillate output were good agreement with actual experimental results. Study shows that ANSYS-CFD is very powerful as well as efficient tool for design, comparison purpose of hemispherical solar still.

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry in holistic processing of words.

    Ventura, Paulo; Delgado, João; Ferreira, Miguel; Farinha-Fernandes, António; Guerreiro, José C; Faustino, Bruno; Leite, Isabel; Wong, Alan C-N

    2018-05-13

    Holistic processing has been regarded as a hallmark of face perception, indicating the automatic and obligatory tendency of the visual system to process all face parts as a perceptual unit rather than in isolation. Studies involving lateralized stimulus presentation suggest that the right hemisphere dominates holistic face processing. Holistic processing can also be shown with other categories such as words and thus it is not specific to faces or face-like expertize. Here, we used divided visual field presentation to investigate the possibly different contributions of the two hemispheres for holistic word processing. Observers performed same/different judgment on the cued parts of two sequentially presented words in the complete composite paradigm. Our data indicate a right hemisphere specialization for holistic word processing. Thus, these markers of expert object recognition are domain general.

  18. Detection of Northern Hemisphere transient eddies at Gale Crater Mars

    Haberle, Robert M.; Juárez, Manuel de la Torre; Kahre, Melinda A.; Kass, David M.; Barnes, Jeffrey R.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik

    2018-06-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Curiosity Rover is operating in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars and is detecting synoptic period oscillations in the pressure data that we attribute to Northern Hemisphere transient eddies. We base this interpretation on the similarity in the periods of the eddies and their seasonal variations with those observed in northern midlatitudes by Viking Lander 2 (VL-2) 18 Mars years earlier. Further support for this interpretation comes from global circulation modeling which shows similar behavior in the transient eddies at the grid points closest to Curiosity and VL-2. These observations provide the first in situ evidence that the frontal systems often associated with "Flushing Dust Storms" do cross the equator and extend into the Southern Hemisphere.

  19. Affective imposition influences risky choice: handedness points to the hemispheres.

    McElroy, Todd; Corbin, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    The study of risk preference has become a widely investigated area of research. The current study is designed to investigate the relationship between handedness, hemispheric predominance and valence imposition in a risky-choice decision task. Research into the valence hypothesis (e.g., Ahern & Schwartz, 1985; Davidson, 1984) has shown that the left hemisphere is more active in processing positively valenced stimuli, whereas the right hemisphere is more active in processing negatively valenced stimuli. A total of 520 individuals (343 female, 117 male) participated in a self-imposed framing task and took a degree of handedness questionnaire. The results of the framing task and handedness questionnaire showed that participants' degree of handedness significantly influenced the positive/negative valence they imposed onto the framing task as well as their level of risk preference.

  20. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. Experimental Study on CHF in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    Jeong, J.H.; Park, R.J.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the SONATA-IV program, KAERI is conducting an experimental investigation of critical heat flux(CHF) in hemispherical narrow gaps. A visualization experiment, VISU-II, was done as the first step to get a visual observation of the flow behaviour inside a hemispherical gap and to understand the CHF-triggering mechanism. It was observed that the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) phenomenon prevented water from wetting the heater surface and induced CHF. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) test is now being performed to measure the CHF and to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in hemispherical narrow gaps. Temperature measurements over the heater surface show that the two-phase flow behaviour inside the gaps could be quite different from the other usual CHF experiments. The measured CHF points are lower than the predictions by existing empirical correlations based on the data measured with small-scale horizontal plates and vertical annulus. (authors)

  2. Proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere

    Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong Gun [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we perform a proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere at Re = 300 to reduce its lift fluctuations by attenuating the strength of the vortex shedding. As a control input, blowing/suction is distributed on the surface of hemisphere before the separation, and its strength is linearly proportional to the transverse velocity at a sensing location in the centerline of the wake. The sensing location is determined based on a correlation function between the lift force and the time derivative of sensing velocity. The optimal proportional gains for the proportional control are obtained for the sensing locations considered. The present control successfully attenuates the velocity fluctuations at the sensing location and three dimensional vertical structures in the wake, resulting in the reduction of lift fluctuations of hemisphere.

  3. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  4. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    Lars Kuchinke

    Full Text Available A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  5. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  6. Hemispherical Scanning Imaging DOAS: Resolving nitrogen dioxide in the urban environment

    Leigh, R. J.; Graves, R. R.; Lawrence, J.; Faloon, K.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Imaging DOAS techniques have been used for nitrogen dioxide and sulfer dioxide for a number of years. This presentation describes a novel system which images concentrations of nitrogen dioxide by scanning an imaging spectrometer 360 degrees azimuthally, covering a region from 5 degrees below the horizon, to the zenith. The instrument has been built at the University of Leicester (UK), on optical designs by Surrey Satellite Technologies Ltd, and incorporates an Offner relay with Schwarzchild fore-optics, in a rotating mount. The spectrometer offers high fidelity spectroscopic retrievals of nitrogen dioxide as a result of a reliable Gaussian line shape, zero smile and low chromatic aberration. The full hemispherical scanning provides complete coverage of nitrogen dioxide concentrations above approximately 5 ppbv in urban environments. Through the use of multiple instruments, the three-dimensional structure of nitrogen dioxide can be sampled and tomographically reconstructed, providing valuable information on nitrogen dioxide emissions and downwind exposure, in addition to new understanding of boundary layer dynamics through the use of nitrogen dioxide as a tracer. Furthermore, certain aerosol information can be retrieved through absolute intensity measurements in each azimuthal direction supplemented by traditional techniques of O4 spectroscopy. Such measurements provide a new tool for boundary layer measurement and monitoring at a time when air quality implications on human health and climate are under significant scrutiny. This presentation will describe the instrument and tomographic potential of this technique. First measurements were taken as part of the international PEGASOS campaign in Bologna, Italy. Results from these measurements will be shown, including imaging of enhanced NO2 in the Bologna urban boundary layer during a severe thunderstorm. A Hemispherical Scanning Imaging DOAS instrument operating in Bologna, Italy in June 2012. Visible in the background

  7. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly

    O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.

  9. Opposed hemispheric specializations for human hypersexuality and orgasm?

    Suffren, Sabrina; Braun, Claude M J; Guimond, Anik; Devinsky, Orrin

    2011-05-01

    With a multiple case report analysis we demonstrate that hypersexuality more often results from right hemisphere (RH) (n=26) than left hemisphere (LH) (n=7) lesions, possibly because of LH release after the RH lesion, and that ictal orgasm more often occurs in patients with right-sided (n=23) than left-sided (n=8) seizure foci, with the symptom probably resulting from RH activation. The LH may be specialized for increasing sexual tension, whereas the RH may be specialized for release of this tension (orgasm), the former being catabolic and the latter anabolic. Several other interpretations of the findings are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plane and hemispherical potential structures in magnetically expanding plasmas

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Igarashi, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential structures are measured for different gas pressure in expanding argon plasma using permanent magnets, where the magnetic field is about 100 G in the source and several gauss in the diffusion chamber. The plane potential drop is observed near the source exit for 0.35 mTorr, while the potential structure becomes hemispherical when increasing up to 1 mTorr; the hemispherical structure results in the radial divergence of the ion beam. It is found that the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the electrons overcoming the potential drop are dominated by the potential structure and magnetic-field lines, respectively.

  11. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  12. SFR test fixture for hemispherical and hyperhemispherical camera systems

    Tamkin, John M.

    2017-08-01

    Optical testing of camera systems in volume production environments can often require expensive tooling and test fixturing. Wide field (fish-eye, hemispheric and hyperhemispheric) optical systems create unique challenges because of the inherent distortion, and difficulty in controlling reflections from front-lit high resolution test targets over the hemisphere. We present a unique design for a test fixture that uses low-cost manufacturing methods and equipment such as 3D printing and an Arduino processor to control back-lit multi-color (VIS/NIR) targets and sources. Special care with LED drive electronics is required to accommodate both global and rolling shutter sensors.

  13. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    ... a similar exam conducted by a health care professional during the season if an athlete has a suspected concussion. Baseline testing generally takes place during the pre-season—ideally prior to the first practice. It is important to note that some baseline ...

  14. 75 FR 74706 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings November 24, 2010. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC. Docket No. PR10-84-001. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  15. 76 FR 8725 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Docket No. PR10-97-002. Transportation, L.L.C.. EasTrans, LLC Docket No. PR10-30-001... revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311...

  16. 75 FR 57268 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-103-000; Docket No. PR10-104-000; Docket No. PR10-105- 000 (Not Consolidated)] Notice of Baseline Filings September 13..., 2010, and September 10, 2010, respectively the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing...

  17. 75 FR 65010 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2010-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-1-000; Docket No. PR11-2-000; Docket No. PR11-3-000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 14, 2010. Cranberry Pipeline Docket..., 2010, respectively the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of...

  18. 76 FR 5797 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-114-001; Docket No. PR10-129-001; Docket No. PR10-131- 001; Docket No. PR10-68-002 Not Consolidated] Notice of Baseline... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  19. 75 FR 70732 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-71-000; Docket No. PR11-72-000; Docket No. PR11-73- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings November 10, 2010. Docket No. PR11-71-000..., 2010, the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  20. Air Research

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  1. Post-Stroke Longitudinal Alterations of Inter-Hemispheric Correlation and Hemispheric Dominance in Mouse Pre-Motor Cortex.

    Vallone, Fabio; Lai, Stefano; Spalletti, Cristina; Panarese, Alessandro; Alia, Claudia; Micera, Silvestro; Caleo, Matteo; Di Garbo, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Limited restoration of function is known to occur spontaneously after an ischemic injury to the primary motor cortex. Evidence suggests that Pre-Motor Areas (PMAs) may "take over" control of the disrupted functions. However, little is known about functional reorganizations in PMAs. Forelimb movements in mice can be driven by two cortical regions, Caudal and Rostral Forelimb Areas (CFA and RFA), generally accepted as primary motor and pre-motor cortex, respectively. Here, we examined longitudinal changes in functional coupling between the two RFAs following unilateral photothrombotic stroke in CFA (mm from Bregma: +0.5 anterior, +1.25 lateral). Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the RFAs of both hemispheres in freely moving injured and naïve mice. Neural signals were acquired at 9, 16 and 23 days after surgery (sub-acute period in stroke animals) through one bipolar electrode per hemisphere placed in the center of RFA, with a ground screw over the occipital bone. LFPs were pre-processed through an efficient method of artifact removal and analysed through: spectral,cross-correlation, mutual information and Granger causality analysis. Spectral analysis demonstrated an early decrease (day 9) in the alpha band power in both the RFAs. In the late sub-acute period (days 16 and 23), inter-hemispheric functional coupling was reduced in ischemic animals, as shown by a decrease in the cross-correlation and mutual information measures. Within the gamma and delta bands, correlation measures were already reduced at day 9. Granger analysis, used as a measure of the symmetry of the inter-hemispheric causal connectivity, showed a less balanced activity in the two RFAs after stroke, with more frequent oscillations of hemispheric dominance. These results indicate robust electrophysiological changes in PMAs after stroke. Specifically, we found alterations in transcallosal connectivity, with reduced inter-hemispheric functional coupling and a fluctuating dominance

  2. Post-Stroke Longitudinal Alterations of Inter-Hemispheric Correlation and Hemispheric Dominance in Mouse Pre-Motor Cortex.

    Fabio Vallone

    Full Text Available Limited restoration of function is known to occur spontaneously after an ischemic injury to the primary motor cortex. Evidence suggests that Pre-Motor Areas (PMAs may "take over" control of the disrupted functions. However, little is known about functional reorganizations in PMAs. Forelimb movements in mice can be driven by two cortical regions, Caudal and Rostral Forelimb Areas (CFA and RFA, generally accepted as primary motor and pre-motor cortex, respectively. Here, we examined longitudinal changes in functional coupling between the two RFAs following unilateral photothrombotic stroke in CFA (mm from Bregma: +0.5 anterior, +1.25 lateral.Local field potentials (LFPs were recorded from the RFAs of both hemispheres in freely moving injured and naïve mice. Neural signals were acquired at 9, 16 and 23 days after surgery (sub-acute period in stroke animals through one bipolar electrode per hemisphere placed in the center of RFA, with a ground screw over the occipital bone. LFPs were pre-processed through an efficient method of artifact removal and analysed through: spectral,cross-correlation, mutual information and Granger causality analysis.Spectral analysis demonstrated an early decrease (day 9 in the alpha band power in both the RFAs. In the late sub-acute period (days 16 and 23, inter-hemispheric functional coupling was reduced in ischemic animals, as shown by a decrease in the cross-correlation and mutual information measures. Within the gamma and delta bands, correlation measures were already reduced at day 9. Granger analysis, used as a measure of the symmetry of the inter-hemispheric causal connectivity, showed a less balanced activity in the two RFAs after stroke, with more frequent oscillations of hemispheric dominance.These results indicate robust electrophysiological changes in PMAs after stroke. Specifically, we found alterations in transcallosal connectivity, with reduced inter-hemispheric functional coupling and a fluctuating

  3. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  4. Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons

    Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

  5. Gender and rapid alterations of hemispheric dominance during planning.

    Schuepbach, Daniel; Skotchko, Tatjana; Duschek, Stefan; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Mental planning and carrying out a plan provoke specific cerebral hemodynamic responses. Gender aspects of hemispheric laterality using rapid cerebral hemodynamics have not been reported. Here, we applied functional transcranial Doppler sonography to examine lateralization of cerebral hemodynamics of the middle cerebral arteries of 28 subjects (14 women and 14 men) performing a standard planning task. There were easy and difficult problems, and mental planning without motor activity was separated from movement execution. Difficult mental planning elicited lateralization to the right hemisphere after 2 or more seconds, a feature that was not observed during movement execution. In females, there was a dominance to the left hemisphere during movement execution. Optimized problem solving yielded an increased laterality change to the right during mental planning. Gender-related hemispheric dominance appears to be condition-dependent, and change of laterality to the right may play a role in optimized performance. Results are of relevance when considering laterality from a perspective of performance enhancement of higher cognitive functions, and also of psychiatric disorders with cognitive dysfunctions and abnormal lateralization patterns such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Age-related shifts in hemispheric dominance for syntactic processing.

    Leckey, Michelle; Federmeier, Kara D

    2017-12-01

    Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases. Results showed that the asymmetric pattern observed in right-handed adults without familial sinistrality indeed changes with age, such that P600 responses come to be elicited not only with left-hemisphere-biased but also with right-hemisphere-biased presentations in older adults. These findings suggest that, as with many other cognitive functions, syntactic processing becomes more bilateral with age. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Wave-current generated turbulence over hemisphere bottom roughness

    Barman, Krishnendu; Roy, Sayahnya; Debnath, Koustuv

    2018-03-01

    The present paper explores the effect of wave-current interaction on the turbulence characteristics and the distribution of eddy structure over artificially crammed rough bed prepared with hemispheres. The effect of the surface wave on temporal and spatial-averaged mean velocity, intensity, Reynolds shear stress over, within cavity and above the hemispherical bed are discussed. Detailed three-dimensional time series velocity components were measured in a tilting flume using 3-D Micro-Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) at a Reynolds number, 62 × 103. This study reports the fractional contributions of burst-sweep cycles dominating the total shear stress near hemispherical rough surface both for current only flow as well as for wave-induced cases. Wavelet analysis of the fluctuating velocity signal shows that the superimposed wave of frequency 1 Hz is capable of modulating the energy containing a range of velocity fluctuations at the mid-depth of the cavity region (formed due to the crammed arrangement of the hemispheres). As a result, the large-scale eddies (with large values of wavelet coefficients) are concentrated at a pseudo-frequency which is equal to the wave oscillating frequency. On the other hand, it is observed that the higher wave frequency (2 Hz) is incapable of modulating the eddy structures at that particular region.

  8. Hemispheric lateralization of motor thresholds in relation to stuttering.

    Per A Alm

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15 and in controls (n = 15. In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026, with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049. The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

  9. Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering

    Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930

  10. Hemispheric Lateralization of Verbal and Spatial Working Memory during Adolescence

    Nagel, Bonnie J.; Herting, Megan M.; Maxwell, Emily C.; Bruno, Richard; Fair, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Adult functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature suggests that a left-right hemispheric dissociation may exist between verbal and spatial working memory (WM), respectively. However, investigation of this type has been obscured by incomparable verbal and spatial WM tasks and/or visual inspection at arbitrary thresholds as means to…

  11. Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere

    Ian J. Kirk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  12. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  13. Experimental Study on Critical Power in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) has been performed to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in a hemispherical narrow gap. The objectives of the CHFG test are to measure critical power from a critical heat removal rate through the hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water with experimental parameters of system pressure and gap width. The CHFG test results have shown that a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) brings about local dryout at the small edge region of the upper part and finally global dryout in a hemispherical narrow gap. Increases in the gap width and pressure lead to an increase in critical power. The measured values of critical power are lower than the predictions made by other empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate, annuli, and small spherical gaps. The measured data on critical power in the hemispherical narrow gaps have been correlated using nondimensional parameters with a range of approximately ±20%. The developed correlation has been expanded to apply the spherical geometry using the Siemens/KWU correlation

  14. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    Forchhammer, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  15. optical analysis of a hemispheric concentrator with a manual ...

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    sophisticated system involving robotics, managed by a. PLC using algorithms of calculation for the orientation of each element is necessary. Studies on hemispheric concentrators were conducted, usually to show that they focus at a point just like a paraboloid concentrator (Bellel, 2011). The angle change does not cause a ...

  16. Shock stand off Calculations for Hemisphere in Hypersonic Flows

    Hanif, M.; Ghaffar, A.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The shape and location of shock has been studied by solving the axi symmetric Navier Stokes Equations for a hemisphere in hypersonic flow. The effect of Mach number on shock stand-off distance has been investigated. It is found that the shock location varies with Mach number and the free stream conditions at a given nose radius. (author)

  17. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  18. Reading the wrong way with the right hemisphere.

    Waldie, Karen E; Haigh, Charlotte E; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Buckley, Jude; Kirk, Ian J

    2013-07-17

    Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  19. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduct...

  20. Hemispheric Correlates of the Rod-And-Frame Test.

    Berlin, Donna F.; Languis, Marlin L.

    1981-01-01

    Right-handed sixth graders were administered the WISC Block Design and verbal and nonverbal versions of the Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT), measuring field dependence/independence. Results seemed to reflect a right hemisphere processing for the nonverbal RFT and a possible sex bias against girls in its traditional verbal administration. (Author/SJL)

  1. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  2. Operation of a hemispherical detector for LET measurements

    Schell, M.C.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A hemispherical ΔE/E detector has been constructed and tested for the measurement of linear-energy-transfer distributions of charged particles induced by fast neutrons. The initial performance test results and LET distributions from 14.8-MeV monoenergetic neutron irradiation in free space of carbon, lead, and Al50-plastic are presented

  3. Southern hemisphere coal characteristics and their impact on plant performance

    Chiou, Y Y; Dickson, A J; Lowe, A; Pearson, J M; Pitman, B L; Semark, P M [Taiwan Power Company (Taiwan)

    1992-09-01

    The paper reports performance information of specific utilities fired by coal mined in the Southern Hemisphere. It includes information from Pacific Power Services, Australia, the China Light and Power Company, Hong Kong, the Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan, and the South Africa Electricity Power Company, South Africa. 12 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  5. Hemispheric Specialization and the Growth of Human Understanding.

    Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1982-01-01

    Connectionistic notions of hemispheric specialization and use are incompatible with the network organization of the human brain. Although brain organization has correspondence with phenomena at more complex levels of analysis, the correspondence is not categorical in nature, as has been claimed by the left-brain/right-brain theorists. (Author/GC)

  6. Effects of memory load on hemispheric asymmetries of colour memory.

    Clapp, Wes; Kirk, Ian J; Hausmann, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in colour perception have been a matter of debate for some time. Recent evidence suggests that lateralisation of colour processing may be largely task specific. Here we investigated hemispheric asymmetries during different types and phases of a delayed colour-matching (recognition) memory task. A total of 11 male and 12 female right-handed participants performed colour-memory tasks. The task involved presentation of a set of colour stimuli (encoding), and subsequent indication (forced choice) of which colours in a larger set had previously appeared at the retrieval or recognition phase. The effect of memory load (set size), and the effect of lateralisation at the encoding or retrieval phases were investigated. Overall, the results indicate a right hemisphere advantage in colour processing, which was particularly pronounced in high memory load conditions, and was seen in males rather than female participants. The results suggest that verbal (mnemonic) strategies can significantly affect the magnitude of hemispheric asymmetries in a non-verbal task.

  7. Presentation of words to separate hemispheres prevents interword illusory conjunctions.

    Liederman, J; Sohn, Y S

    1999-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that division of inputs between the hemispheres could prevent interword letter migrations in the form of illusory conjunctions. The task was to decide whether a centrally-presented consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) target word matched one of four CVC words presented to a single hemisphere or divided between the hemispheres in a subsequent test display. During half of the target-absent trials, known as conjunction trials, letters from two separate words (e.g., "tag" and "cop") in the test display could be mistaken for a target word (e.g., "top"). For the other half of the target-absent trails, the test display did not match any target consonants (Experiment 1, N = 16) or it matched one target consonant (Experiment 2, N = 29), the latter constituting true "feature" trials. Bi- as compared to unihemispheric presentation significantly reduced the number of conjunction, but not feature, errors. Illusory conjunctions did not occur when the words were presented to separate hemispheres.

  8. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager

  9. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  10. Methods of dichotic listening as a research methodology for hemispheric interaction.

    Kovyazina M.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data was obtained from a dichotic listening test by patients with unilateral brain lesions and corpus callosum pathology (agenesis, cysts, degenerative changes, etc. Efficiency index analysis shows that interhemispheric interaction in the audioverbal sphere depends to a greater extent on the right hemisphere state. The dichotic listening technique is not an informative means of studying hemispheric interaction, since it does not allow a clear distinction between hemispheric symptoms and symptoms of pathology of the corpus callosum. Thus, violations of hemispheric relations caused by disorders of the corpus callosum and cerebral hemispheres change worth more right hemisphere activity.

  11. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    DiFilippo, F.; Mirtich, M.J.; Banks, B.A.; Stidham, C.; Kussmaul, M.

    1994-01-01

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements (± 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent

  12. Satellite Global and Hemispheric Lower Tropospheric Temperature Annual Temperature Cycle

    Michael A. Brunke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Earth’s annual cycle and its trends have utilized surface temperature data sets. Here we introduce a new analysis of the global and hemispheric annual cycle using a satellite remote sensing derived data set during the period 1979–2009, as determined from the lower tropospheric (LT channel of the MSU satellite. While the surface annual cycle is tied directly to the heating and cooling of the land areas, the tropospheric annual cycle involves additionally the gain or loss of heat between the surface and atmosphere. The peak in the global tropospheric temperature in the 30 year period occurs on 10 July and the minimum on 9 February in response to the larger land mass in the Northern Hemisphere. The actual dates of the hemispheric maxima and minima are a complex function of many variables which can change from year to year thereby altering these dates.Here we examine the time of occurrence of the global and hemispheric maxima and minima lower tropospheric temperatures, the values of the annual maxima and minima, and the slopes and significance of the changes in these metrics.  The statistically significant trends are all relatively small. The values of the global annual maximum and minimum showed a small, but significant trend. Northern and Southern Hemisphere maxima and minima show a slight trend toward occurring later in the year. Most recent analyses of trends in the global annual cycle using observed surface data have indicated a trend toward earlier maxima and minima.

  13. The Southern Oscillation and northern hemisphere temperature variability

    Ropelewski, C.F.; Halpert, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Southern Oscillation (SO) is the best defined and understood mode of interannual climate variability. The extreme phases of the SO have been identified with global-scale variations in the atmosphere/ocean circulation system and with the modulation of monsoon precipitation on the global scale. While SO-related precipitation has been the subject of several studies, the magnitude of the SO-related temperature variability on the global scale has not been well documented. In this paper the authors provide an estimate of the SO-related temperature variability in the context of monitoring global warming related to the increase in greenhouse gases. This analysis suggested that traditional time series of hemispheric and global temperature anomalies for the calendar year may confuse interannual temperature variability associated with the SO and perceived climate trend. Analyses based on calendar-year data are likely to split the effects of the SO-related temperature variability over two years. The Northern Hemisphere cold season (october through March) time series may be more appropriate to separate the SO-related effects on the hemispheric temperature from other modes of variability. mean interannual temperature anomaly differences associated with the extremes of the So are estimated to be 0.2 C for the October-to-March season in the Northern Hemisphere. In areas directly linked to the SO, the mean interannual differences amount to over 0.5 C. The So cannot account for all the variability in the hemispheric times series of surface temperature estimates, but the SO signal must be properly accounted for if these time series are to be understood

  14. Hemispheric surgery for refractory epilepsy in children and adolescents: outcome regarding seizures, motor skills and adaptive function.

    Hamad, Ana Paula; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Centeno, Ricardo; Costa, Livia Vianez; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Junior, Henrique Carrete; Gomez, Nicolas Garofalo; Marinho, Murilo; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to report the seizure outcome, motor skills and adaptive motor functions in a series of children and adolescents who underwent hemispheric surgery, analysing the risk-benefits of surgery. The clinical course, seizure and motor function outcomes of 15 patients who underwent hemispheric surgery were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 9.5, with 1-9 years follow-up. The underlying pathologies were Rasmussen encephalitis, vascular disorders, and hemimegalencephaly. All the patients presented with severe epilepsy and different degrees of hemiparesis, although motor functionality was preserved in 80% of the patients. At last follow-up, 67% were seizure free, and 20% rarely experienced seizures. Antiepileptic drugs were reduced in 60%, and complete withdrawal from such drugs was successful in 20% of the patients. The motor outcome following the surgery varied between the patients. Despite the motor deficit after surgery, the post-operative motor function showed unchanged for gross motor function in most (60%), while 27% improved. Similar results were obtained for the ability to handle objects in daily life activities. Sixty percent of the children were capable of handling objects, with somewhat reduced coordination and/or motor speed. Pre-surgical motor function continues to play a role in the pre-surgical evaluation process in order to provide a baseline for outcome. Hemispheric surgery, once regarded as a radical intervention and last treatment resource, may become routinely indicated for refractory hemispheric epilepsy in children and adolescents, with oftentime favourable motor outcomes. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hanford Site technical baseline database. Revision 1

    Porter, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report lists the Hanford specific files (Table 1) that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. Table 2 includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 0 of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database. This information is being managed and maintained on the Hanford RDD-100 System, which uses the capabilities of RDD-100, a systems engineering software system of Ascent Logic Corporation (ALC). This revision of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database uses RDD-100 version 3.0.2.2 (see Table 3). Directories reflect those controlled by the Hanford RDD-100 System Administrator. Table 4 provides information regarding the platform. A cassette tape containing the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database is available

  16. A climatology based on reanalysis of baroclinic developmental regions in the extratropical northern hemisphere.

    de la Torre, Laura; Nieto, Raquel; Noguerol, Marta; Añel, Juan Antonio; Gimeno, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Regions of the occurrence of different phenomena related to the development of baroclinic disturbances are reviewed for the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data. The occurrence of height lows appears to be related to the orography near the earth's surface and with surface- and upper-air cyclogenesis in the upper troposphere. Over the cyclone tracks, the surface maxima appear to be trapped by land masses, whereas over the Mediterranean Sea they are located on the lee side of mountain ranges. The forcing terms of the geopotential tendency and omega equations mark the genesis (and, by the vorticity advection terms, the path) of the extratropical cyclones on the storm track. They occur mostly over the western coast of the oceans, beginning and having maxima on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau. Their associated fronts form from the cold air coming from the continents and converging with the warm air over the Gulf and Kuroshio currents. Evident trends are found only for the Atlantic cyclone track (positive) and the Pacific cyclone track (negative) until the last decade when the tendency reverses. Over the southern Pacific, the number of fronts is lower during 1978-1997, coinciding with a period of strong El Niño Southern Oscillation episodes. This information is important for validating numerical models in order to predict changes associated with climate change and to study the behavior of extratropical cyclones and fronts.

  17. Neuropragmatics: Extralinguistic Pragmatic Ability is Better Preserved in Left-Hemisphere-Damaged Patients than in Right-Hemisphere-Damaged Patients

    Cutica, Ilaria; Bucciarelli, Monica; Bara, Bruno G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the pragmatic ability of right- and left-hemisphere-damaged patients excluding the possible interference of linguistic deficits. To this aim, we study extralinguistic communication, that is communication performed only through gestures. The Cognitive Pragmatics Theory provides the theoretical framework:…

  18. IceVeto: Extended PeV neutrino astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere with IceCube

    Auffenberg, Jan [Physikalisches Institut IIIB RWTH Aachen D-52056, Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    IceCube, the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the South Pole, recently reported evidence of an astrophysical neutrino flux extending to PeV energies in the Southern Hemisphere. This observation raises the question of how the sensitivity in this energy range could be further increased. In the down-going sector, in IceCube's case the Southern Hemisphere, backgrounds from atmospheric muons and neutrinos pose a challenge to the identification of an astrophysical neutrino flux. The IceCube analysis, that led to the evidence for astrophysical neutrinos, is based on an in-ice veto strategy for background rejection. One possibility available to IceCube is the concept of an extended surface detector, IceVeto, which could allow the rejection of a large fraction of atmospheric backgrounds, primarily for muons from cosmic ray (CR) air showers as well as from neutrinos in the same air showers. Building on the experience of IceTop/IceCube, possibly the most cost-effective and sensitive way to build IceVeto is as an extension of the IceTop detector, with simple photomultiplier based detector modules for CR air shower detection. Initial simulations and estimates indicate that such a veto detector will significantly increase the sensitivity to an astrophysical flux of ν{sub μ} induced muon tracks in the Southern Hemisphere compared to current analyses. Here we present the motivation and capabilities based on initial simulations. Conceptual ideas for a simplified surface array will be discussed briefly.

  19. THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY.

    BISHAI,M.

    2007-08-06

    The US Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment Study was commissioned jointly by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) to investigate the potential for future U.S. based long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments using MW class conventional neutrino beams that can be produced at FNAL. The experimental baselines are based on two possible detector locations: (1) off-axis to the existing FNAL NuMI beamline at baselines of 700 to 810 km and (2) NSF's proposed future Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at baselines greater than 1000km. Two detector technologies are considered: a megaton class Water Cherenkov detector deployed deep underground at a DUSEL site, or a 100kT Liquid Argon Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) deployed on the surface at any of the proposed sites. The physics sensitivities of the proposed experiments are summarized. We find that conventional horn focused wide-band neutrino beam options from FNAL aimed at a massive detector with a baseline of > 1000km have the best sensitivity to CP violation and the neutrino mass hierarchy for values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} down to 2{sup o}.

  20. Performance Analysis for Airborne Interferometric SAR Affected by Flexible Baseline Oscillation

    Liu Zhong-sheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The airborne interferometric SAR platform suffers from instability factors, such as air turbulence and mechanical vibrations during flight. Such factors cause the oscillation of the flexible baseline, which leads to significant degradation of the performance of the interferometric SAR system. This study is concerned with the baseline oscillation. First, the error of the slant range model under baseline oscillation conditions is formulated. Then, the SAR complex image signal and dual-channel correlation coefficient are modeled based on the first-order, second-order, and generic slant range error. Subsequently, the impact of the baseline oscillation on the imaging and interferometric performance of the SAR system is analyzed. Finally, simulations of the echo data are used to validate the theoretical analysis of the baseline oscillation in the airborne interferometric SAR.

  1. Callosal tracts and patterns of hemispheric dominance: a combined fMRI and DTI study.

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Corballis, Michael C

    2011-01-15

    Left-hemispheric dominance for language and right-hemispheric dominance for spatial processing are distinctive characteristics of the human brain. However, variations of these hemispheric asymmetries have been observed, with a minority showing crowding of both functions to the same hemisphere or even a mirror reversal of the typical lateralization pattern. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging and functional magnetic imaging to investigate the role of the corpus callosum in participants with atypical hemispheric dominance. The corpus callosum was segmented according to the projection site of the underlying fibre tracts. Analyses of the microstructure of the identified callosal segments revealed that atypical hemispheric dominance for language was associated with high anisotropic diffusion through the corpus callosum as a whole. This effect was most evident in participants with crowding of both functions to the right. The enhanced anisotropic diffusion in atypical hemispheric dominance implies that in these individuals the two hemispheres are more heavily interconnected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Air Pollution

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. A long baseline global stereo matching based upon short baseline estimation

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Li, Zigang; Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Zixin; Ma, Yueyang; Fang, Meiqi

    2018-05-01

    In global stereo vision, balancing the matching efficiency and computing accuracy seems to be impossible because they contradict each other. In the case of a long baseline, this contradiction becomes more prominent. In order to solve this difficult problem, this paper proposes a novel idea to improve both the efficiency and accuracy in global stereo matching for a long baseline. In this way, the reference images located between the long baseline image pairs are firstly chosen to form the new image pairs with short baselines. The relationship between the disparities of pixels in the image pairs with different baselines is revealed by considering the quantized error so that the disparity search range under the long baseline can be reduced by guidance of the short baseline to gain matching efficiency. Then, the novel idea is integrated into the graph cuts (GCs) to form a multi-step GC algorithm based on the short baseline estimation, by which the disparity map under the long baseline can be calculated iteratively on the basis of the previous matching. Furthermore, the image information from the pixels that are non-occluded under the short baseline but are occluded for the long baseline can be employed to improve the matching accuracy. Although the time complexity of the proposed method depends on the locations of the chosen reference images, it is usually much lower for a long baseline stereo matching than when using the traditional GC algorithm. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is examined by experiments based on benchmark datasets. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the traditional GC method in terms of efficiency and accuracy, and thus it is suitable for long baseline stereo matching.

  4. Effectiveness of early decompressive surgery for massive hemispheric embolic infarction

    Osada, Hideo; Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakao, Yasuaki; Oyama, Kazutaka; Esaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Mitsuya

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemispheric embolic infarction associated with acute brain swelling and rapid clinical deterioration is known as malignant infarction because of the significant rates of mortality and morbidity. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is effective; however, the timing and outcome still remain unclear. Ninety-four patients with massive embolic hemispheric infarctions (infarct volume >200 ml) were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: 29 patients, treated conservatively (conservative group); 33 patients, operated on after the appearance of signs of brain herniation (late surgery group); and 32 patients, operated on before the onset of signs of brain herniation signs (early surgery group). The mortality at 1 and 6 months in the late surgery group (15.2% and 24.2%, respectively) was significantly improved as compared to the conservative group (62.1% and 69.0%, respectively) (p 200 ml) should be performed before the onset of brain herniation. Early surgery may achieve a satisfactory functional recovery. (author)

  5. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    Ruth E Propper

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT, affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT.

  6. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  7. Agents with left and right dominant hemispheres and quantum statistics

    Ezhov, Alexandr A.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiagent model illustrating the emergence of two different quantum statistics, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac, in a friendly population of individuals with the right-brain dominance and in a competitive population of individuals with the left-brain hemisphere dominance, correspondingly. Doing so, we adduce the arguments that Lefebvre’s “algebra of conscience” can be used in a natural way to describe decision-making strategies of agents simulating people with different brain dominance. One can suggest that the emergence of the two principal statistical distributions is able to illustrate different types of society organization and also to be used in order to simulate market phenomena and psychic disorders, when a switching of hemisphere dominance is involved.

  8. Hemispheric Division of Function Is the Result of Independent Probabilistic Biases

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial abilities are typically subserved by different cerebral hemispheres: the left hemisphere for the former and the right hemisphere for the latter. However little is known of the origin of this division of function. Causal theories propose that functional asymmetry is an obligatory pattern of organisation, while statistical…

  9. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Meaning Selection: Evidence from the Disambiguation of Homophonic vs. Heterophonic Homographs

    Peleg, Orna; Markus, Andrey; Eviatar, Zohar

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating hemispheric asymmetries in meaning selection using homophonic homographs (e.g., "bank"), suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) quickly selects contextually relevant meanings, whereas the right hemisphere (RH) maintains a broader spectrum of meanings including those that are contextually irrelevant (e.g., Faust & Chiarello,…

  10. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  11. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  12. Communication Impairments in Patients with Right Hemisphere Damage

    Abusamra, Valeria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Right brain damages can manifest deficits of communicative skills, which sometimes cause an important inability.The communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage are distinct from those in aphasia and may affect discursive, lexico-semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic components of communication. It is calculated that this troubles affect almost a 50% of this patients.However, these impairments have essentially been studied separately and their possible coexistence in a same individual is still unknown. Moreover, the clinical profiles of communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage, including their correlation with underlying cognitive deficits, are still unreported. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the verbal communication deficits that can be found in right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. These deficits can interfere, at different levels, with prosody, the semantic processing of words and discourse and pragmatic abilities. In spite of the incapability that they produce, communicational impairments in right brain damaged are usually neglected. Probably, the sub-diagnostic is due to the lack of an appropriate classification or to the absent of adequate assessment tools. In fact, patients with right brain damages might present harsh communicational deficits but perform correctly on aphasia tests because the last ones are not designed to detect this kind of deficit but left brain damaged impairments. Increasing our knowledge about the role of the right-hemisphere in verbal communication will have major theoretical and clinical impacts; it could facilitate the diagnosis of right brain patients in the clinical circle and it will help to lay the foundations to elaborate methods and strategies of intervention.

  13. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  14. A new look for the Southern Hemisphere jet stream

    Gallego, D.; Ribera, P. [Facultad de CC Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville (Spain); Garcia-Herrera, R.; Hernandez, E. [Facultad de CC Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    A new jet stream description, defined as the geostrophic streamline of maximum average velocity is proposed. An objective algorithm for detecting and tracking the jet has been developed, tested and applied to the NCEP/NCAR 200-hPa geopotential height in the Southern Hemisphere for the period 1958-2002. The results show the variability of the double character of the Southern Hemisphere jet, with a marked seasonality. During the warm season, a single jet can be found around 40 S, while autumn and winter are characterized by a clear double jet structure, with a strong and dominant subtropical jet located around 30 S and a polar front jet, progressively displaced toward southern latitudes and reaching 60 S by the end of the cold season. In general, a trend toward slower subtropical jets and stronger polar front jets has been detected during the study period. The Southern Annular Mode appears as a main modulator of the latitude and strength of the polar front jet, influencing to a minor extent its subtropical counterpart. The ENSO cycle strongly modifies the latitude and specially the strength of the subtropical jet, affecting its preferred wavenumber as well. Nevertheless, the effect of this oscillation seems fairly restricted in the Pacific, thus limiting the ability of this jet to drive the El Nino teleconnections along the Southern Hemisphere. The consistency of the results, when compared with previous jet climatologies, suggests that the new approach is a reliable jet-tracking method, thus providing a new tool to analyze climatic variability at hemispheric scales.

  15. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  16. Hemispheric energy trade: agenda for the 21. century

    Inciarte, G. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-10-01

    The developments and perspectives of energy trade in the Western Hemisphere were discussed from a Venezuelan point of view. Agreements such as the ANDEAN PACT, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR were examples of economic integration which strengthen trade and investments between North America and Latin America. Other possibilities for collaboration between North America and Latin America were explored. Efforts made by Venezuela in contributing to opening the process, particularly in the oil industry, were highlighted. 1 tab., 13 figs.

  17. Hemispheric energy trade: agenda for the 21. century

    Inciarte, G.

    1996-01-01

    The developments and perspectives of energy trade in the Western Hemisphere were discussed from a Venezuelan point of view. Agreements such as the ANDEAN PACT, NAFTA, and MERCOSUR were examples of economic integration which strengthen trade and investments between North America and Latin America. Other possibilities for collaboration between North America and Latin America were explored. Efforts made by Venezuela in contributing to opening the process, particularly in the oil industry, were highlighted. 1 tab., 13 figs

  18. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience

    Phan, Mimi L.; Vicario, David S.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the r...

  19. Right-hemispheric dominance for visual remapping in humans.

    Pisella, L; Alahyane, N; Blangero, A; Thery, F; Blanc, S; Pelisson, D

    2011-02-27

    We review evidence showing a right-hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial processing and representation in humans. Accordingly, visual disorganization symptoms (intuitively related to remapping impairments) are observed in both neglect and constructional apraxia. More specifically, we review findings from the intervening saccade paradigm in humans--and present additional original data--which suggest a specific role of the asymmetrical network at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the right hemisphere in visual remapping: following damage to the right dorsal posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as part of the corpus callosum connecting the PPC to the frontal lobes, patient OK in a double-step saccadic task exhibited an impairment when the second saccade had to be directed rightward. This singular and lateralized deficit cannot result solely from the patient's cortical lesion and, therefore, we propose that it is due to his callosal lesion that may specifically interrupt the interhemispheric transfer of information necessary to execute accurate rightward saccades towards a remapped target location. This suggests a specialized right-hemispheric network for visuo-spatial remapping that subsequently transfers target location information to downstream planning regions, which are symmetrically organized.

  20. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds.

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M H; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C; Zandbergen, Matthijs A; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2015-03-12

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants.

  1. Left hemispheric dominance during auditory processing in a noisy environment

    Ross Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In daily life, we are exposed to different sound inputs simultaneously. During neural encoding in the auditory pathway, neural activities elicited by these different sounds interact with each other. In the present study, we investigated neural interactions elicited by masker and amplitude-modulated test stimulus in primary and non-primary human auditory cortex during ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral masking by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results We observed significant decrements of auditory evoked responses and a significant inter-hemispheric difference for the N1m response during both ipsi- and contra-lateral masking. Conclusion The decrements of auditory evoked neural activities during simultaneous masking can be explained by neural interactions evoked by masker and test stimulus in peripheral and central auditory systems. The inter-hemispheric differences of N1m decrements during ipsi- and contra-lateral masking reflect a basic hemispheric specialization contributing to the processing of complex auditory stimuli such as speech signals in noisy environments.

  2. Role of brain hemispheric dominance in anticipatory postural control strategies.

    Cioncoloni, David; Rosignoli, Deborah; Feurra, Matteo; Rossi, Simone; Bonifazi, Marco; Rossi, Alessandro; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cerebral functions are asymmetrically represented in the two hemispheres. Moreover, dexterity and coordination of the distal segment of the dominant limbs depend on cortico-motor lateralization. In this study, we investigated whether postural control may be also considered a lateralized hemispheric brain function. To this aim, 15 young subjects were tested in standing position by measuring center of pressure (COP) shifts along the anteroposterior axis (COP-Y) during dynamic posturography before and after continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (cTBS) intervention applied to the dominant or non-dominant M1 hand area as well as to the vertex. We show that when subjects were expecting a forward platform translation, the COP-Y was positioned significantly backward or forward after dominant or non-dominant M1 stimulation, respectively. We postulate that cTBS applied on M1 may have disrupted the functional connectivity between intra- and interhemispheric areas implicated in the anticipatory control of postural stability. This study suggests a functional asymmetry between the two homologous primary motor areas, with the dominant hemisphere playing a critical role in the selection of the appropriate postural control strategy.

  3. Gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry for face processing

    Matarazzo Silvia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. Results In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded in 40 healthy, strictly right-handed individuals (20 women and 20 men while they observed infants' faces expressing a variety of emotions. Early face-sensitive P1 and N1 responses to neutral vs. affective expressions were measured over the occipital/temporal cortices, and the responses were analyzed according to viewer gender. Along with a strong right hemispheric dominance for men, the results showed a lack of asymmetry for face processing in the amplitude of the occipito-temporal N1 response in women to both neutral and affective faces. Conclusion Men showed an asymmetric functioning of visual cortex while decoding faces and expressions, whereas women showed a more bilateral functioning. These results indicate the importance of gender effects in the lateralization of the occipito-temporal response during the processing of face identity, structure, familiarity, or affective content.

  4. Hemispheric specialization in the assessment of female physical attractiveness.

    Dural, Seda; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Gülbetekin, Evrim

    2015-01-01

    Female physical attractiveness has been widely related to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body weight (BW). The present study was conducted to examine the role of hemispheric specialization in the perception of physical attractiveness. Drawings of female figures that differed in BW (underweight, normal and overweight) and WHR (0.7 and 1.0) were presented to both male and female subjects using the visual half-field technique. The stimuli were presented for an unusually short duration (180 msec). Under these conditions, male but not female subjects rated the various female figures as differing in attractiveness. Thus, male judgements of female attractiveness depended on weight and WHR. Reaction time and accuracy scores obtained from male subjects suggested that the left hemisphere (LH) was slower but more accurate than the right hemisphere in detecting differences in the attractiveness of the figures. Additionally, the most attractive figure was detected significantly more accurately than the least attractive figure when the figures were presented to the LH. The findings were discussed in terms of evolutionary views of sex differences in mate selection.

  5. Hemispherical photography to estimate biophysical variables of cotton

    Ziany N. Brandão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Leaf Area Index (LAI is a key parameter to evaluate the vegetation spectral response, estimating plant nutrition and water requirements. However, in large fields is difficult to obtain accurate data to LAI determination. Therefore, the objective of this study was the estimation of LAI, biomass and yield of irrigated cotton through digital hemispherical photography. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen doses (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-1 and four phosphorus doses (0, 120, 240 and 360 kg ha-1. Digital hemispherical photographs were collected under similar sky brightness conditions at 60 and 75 days after emergence (DAE, performed by the Digital Plant Canopy Imager - CI-110® of CID Inc. Biomass and LAI measurements were made on the same dates. LAI was also determined by destructive and non-destructive methods through a leaf area integrator (LI-COR® -LI-3100C model, and by measurements based on the midrib length of all leaves, respectively. The results indicate that the hemispherical images were appropriate to estimate the LAI and biomass production of irrigated cotton, while for the estimation of yield, more research is needed to improve the method.

  6. Hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction.

    Wang, Qiang-Ping; Ma, Jun-Peng; Zhou, Zhang-Ming; Yang, Min; You, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy (DC) for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the results are controversial. Therefore, the following is a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. From January 2004 to June 2014, patients at two medical centres in south-west China, who underwent DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction, were included. The patients' clinical and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. A chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression model were used to identify the risk factors. A total of 128 patients were included in the study. The incidence of ventriculomegaly and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were 42.2% (54/128) and 14.8% (19/128), respectively. Lower preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were factors significantly associated with the development of post-operative hydrocephalus after DC. Cerebral infarction patients receiving DC have a moderate tendency to suffer from post-operative hydrocephalus. A poor GCS score and the presence of SAH were significantly associated with the development of hydrocephalus after DC.

  7. Temporal processing asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres: evidence and implications.

    Nicholls, M E

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews a large body of research which has investigated the capacities of the cerebral hemispheres to process temporal information. This research includes clinical, non-clinical, and electrophysiological experimentation. On the whole, the research supports the notion of a left hemisphere advantage for temporal resolution. The existence of such an asymmetry demonstrates that cerebral lateralisation is not limited to the higher-order functions such as language. The capacity for the resolution of fine temporal events appears to play an important role in other left hemisphere functions which require a rapid sequential processor. The functions that are facilitated by such a processor include verbal, textual, and fine movement skills. The co-development of these functions with an efficient temporal processor can be accounted for with reference to a number of evolutionary scenarios. Physiological evidence favours a temporal processing mechanism located within the left temporal cortex. The function of this mechanism may be described in terms of intermittency or travelling moment models of temporal processing. The travelling moment model provides the most plausible account of the asymmetry.

  8. Ex-vivo MR Volumetry of Human Brain Hemispheres

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.; Dawe, Robert J.; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E.; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this work were to: a) develop an approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in-vivo and ex-vivo. Methods An approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex-vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex-vivo was assessed. The relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both ante-mortem and postmortem. Results The presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than inter-subject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in-vivo and ex-vivo volumetric measurements. Conclusion Regional brain volumes measured with the presented approach for ex-vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in-vivo and ex-vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that the presented approach captures information linked to ante-mortem macrostructural brain characteristics. PMID:23440751

  9. Ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres.

    Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Dawe, Robert J; Golak, Tom; Leurgans, Sue E; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work were to (a) develop an approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres that does not contaminate the results of histopathological examination, (b) longitudinally assess regional brain volumes postmortem, and (c) investigate the relationship between MR volumetric measurements performed in vivo and ex vivo. An approach for ex vivo MR volumetry of human brain hemispheres was developed. Five hemispheres from elderly subjects were imaged ex vivo longitudinally. All datasets were segmented. The longitudinal behavior of volumes measured ex vivo was assessed. The relationship between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements was investigated in seven elderly subjects imaged both antemortem and postmortem. This approach for ex vivo MR volumetry did not contaminate the results of histopathological examination. For a period of 6 months postmortem, within-subject volume variation across time points was substantially smaller than intersubject volume variation. A close linear correspondence was detected between in vivo and ex vivo volumetric measurements. Regional brain volumes measured with this approach for ex vivo MR volumetry remain relatively unchanged for a period of 6 months postmortem. Furthermore, the linear relationship between in vivo and ex vivo MR volumetric measurements suggests that this approach captures information linked to antemortem macrostructural brain characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  11. Learning-related brain hemispheric dominance in sleeping songbirds

    Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; van de Kamp, Ferdinand C.; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Bolhuis, Johan J.

    2015-01-01

    There are striking behavioural and neural parallels between the acquisition of speech in humans and song learning in songbirds. In humans, language-related brain activation is mostly lateralised to the left hemisphere. During language acquisition in humans, brain hemispheric lateralisation develops as language proficiency increases. Sleep is important for the formation of long-term memory, in humans as well as in other animals, including songbirds. Here, we measured neuronal activation (as the expression pattern of the immediate early gene ZENK) during sleep in juvenile zebra finch males that were still learning their songs from a tutor. We found that during sleep, there was learning-dependent lateralisation of spontaneous neuronal activation in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a secondary auditory brain region that is involved in tutor song memory, while there was right hemisphere dominance of neuronal activation in HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor nucleus that is involved in song production and sensorimotor learning. Specifically, in the NCM, birds that imitated their tutors well were left dominant, while poor imitators were right dominant, similar to language-proficiency related lateralisation in humans. Given the avian-human parallels, lateralised neural activation during sleep may also be important for speech and language acquisition in human infants. PMID:25761654

  12. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. Objectives: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... Patients/Methods: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. Results...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  13. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at risk of developing polysensitization is not possible at present. An association between weak sensitizers and polysensitization has been hypothesized. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of 21 allergens in the European baseline series to polysensitization....... PATIENTS/METHODS: From a database-based study with 14 998 patients patch tested with the European baseline series between 1985 and 2005, a group of 759 (5.1%) patients were polysensitized. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the relative contribution of each allergen to polysensitization. RESULTS...... denominator for the association between the allergens and the polysensitization was apparent, and any association, whether positive or negative, was relatively low. Based on these results, sensitization to specific baseline allergens cannot be used as risk indicators for polysensitization....

  14. Reduced microvascular volume and hemispherically deficient vasoreactivity to hypercapnia in acute ischemia: MRI study using permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model.

    Suh, J Y; Shim, Woo H; Cho, Gyunggoo; Fan, Xiang; Kwon, Seon J; Kim, Jeong K; Dai, George; Wang, Xiaoying; Kim, Young R

    2015-06-01

    Vasoreactivity to hypercapnia has been used for assessing cerebrovascular tone and control altered by ischemic stroke. Despite the high prognostic potential, traits of hypercapnia-induced hemodynamic changes have not been fully characterized in relation with baseline vascular states and brain tissue damage. To monitor cerebrovascular responses, T2- and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were acquired alternatively using spin- and gradient-echo echo plannar imaging (GESE EPI) sequence with 5% CO2 gas inhalation in normal (n=5) and acute stroke rats (n=10). Dynamic relative changes in cerebrovascular volume (CBV), microvascular volume (MVV), and vascular size index (VSI) were assessed from regions of interest (ROIs) delineated by the percent decrease of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The baseline CBV was not affected by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) whereas the baseline MVV in ischemic areas was significantly lower than that in the rest of the brain and correlated with ADC. Vasoreactivity to hypercapnic challenge was considerably attenuated in the entire ipsilesional hemisphere including normal ADC regions, in which unsolicited, spreading depression-associated increases of CBV and MVV were observed. The lesion-dependent inhomogeneity in baseline MVV indicates the effective perfusion reserve for accurately delineating the true ischemic damage while the cascade of neuronal depolarization is probably responsible for the hemispherically lateralized changes in overall neurovascular physiology.

  15. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  16. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  17. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Lee, M.K.; Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  18. Delusions and the Right Hemisphere: A Review of the Case for the Right Hemisphere as a Mediator of Reality-Based Belief.

    Gurin, Lindsey; Blum, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating.

  19. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. I. History, theory, and baselines

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Development of portable infrared thermometers and the definition of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) have led to widespread interest in infrared thermometry to monitor water stress and schedule irrigations. But the CWSI concept is still new and poorly understood by many. The purpose of this paper is to review the definition of CWSI, and the determination and interpretation of the non-water-stressed baselines used to compute CWSI. The non-water-stressed baseline equation normalizes the canopy minus air temperature differential for variations in vapor pressure deficit. Non-water-stressed baselines can be determined empirically from measurements of canopy and air temperatures and vapor pressure deficit, made diurnally on a single day, or at a single time of day over many days, on well-watered plants. The value of the maximum canopy minus air temperature differential under maximum water stress should also be determined empirically. Causes for CWSI values falling outside of the defined 0 to 10 unit range are reviewed. Non-water-stressed baselines may shift with plant growth stage. Effective use of CWSI is dependent on understanding the definition of CWSI, and the proper determination and use of non-water-stressed baselines. (author)

  20. Inertial subsystem functional and design requirements for the orbiter (Phase B extension baseline)

    Flanders, J. H.; Green, J. P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The design requirements use the Phase B extension baseline system definition. This means that a GNC computer is specified for all command control functions instead of a central computer communicating with the ISS through a databus. Forced air cooling is used instead of cold plate cooling.

  1. The right hemisphere supports but does not replace left hemisphere auditory function in patients with persisting aphasia.

    Teki, Sundeep; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V J; Griffiths, Timothy D; Leff, Alexander P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics' speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired.

  2. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  3. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  4. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  5. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  6. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  7. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  8. Physics Potential of Long-Baseline Experiments

    Sanjib Kumar Agarwalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of neutrino mixing and oscillations over the past decade provides firm evidence for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Recently, θ13 has been determined to be moderately large, quite close to its previous upper bound. This represents a significant milestone in establishing the three-flavor oscillation picture of neutrinos. It has opened up exciting prospects for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments towards addressing the remaining fundamental questions, in particular the type of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible presence of a CP-violating phase. Another recent and crucial development is the indication of non-maximal 2-3 mixing angle, causing the octant ambiguity of θ23. In this paper, I will review the phenomenology of long-baseline neutrino oscillations with a special emphasis on sub-leading three-flavor effects, which will play a crucial role in resolving these unknowns. First, I will give a brief description of neutrino oscillation phenomenon. Then, I will discuss our present global understanding of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters and will identify the major unknowns in this sector. After that, I will present the physics reach of current generation long-baseline experiments. Finally, I will conclude with a discussion on the physics capabilities of accelerator-driven possible future long-baseline precision oscillation facilities.

  9. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  10. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  11. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean Francois Le

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference

  12. Accelerated Best Basis Inventory Baselining Task

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The baselining effort was recently proposed to bring the Best-Basis Inventory (BBI) and Question No.8 of the Tank Interpretive Report (TIR) for all 177 tanks to the current standards and protocols and to prepare a TIR Question No.8 if one is not already available. This plan outlines the objectives and methodology of the accelerated BBI baselining task. BBI baselining meetings held during December 2000 resulted in a revised BBI methodology and an initial set of BBI creation rules to be used in the baselining effort. The objectives of the BBI baselining effort are to: (1) Provide inventories that are consistent with the revised BBI methodology and new BBI creation rules. (2) Split the total tank waste in each tank into six waste phases, as appropriate (Supernatant, saltcake solids, saltcake liquid, sludge solids, sludge liquid, and retained gas). In some tanks, the solids and liquid portions of the sludge and/or saltcake may be combined into a single sludge or saltcake phase. (3) Identify sampling events that are to be used for calculating the BBIs. (4) Update waste volumes for subsequent reconciliation with the Hanlon (2001) waste tank summary. (5) Implement new waste type templates. (6) Include any sample data that might have been unintentionally omitted in the previous BBI and remove any sample data that should not have been included. Sample data to be used in the BBI must be available on TWINS. (7) Ensure that an inventory value for each standard BBI analyte is provided for each waste component. Sample based inventories for supplemental BBI analytes will be included when available. (8) Provide new means and confidence interval reports if one is not already available and include uncertainties in reporting inventory values

  13. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  14. Split-brain reveals separate but equal self-recognition in the two cerebral hemispheres.

    Uddin, Lucina Q; Rayman, Jan; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-09-01

    To assess the ability of the disconnected cerebral hemispheres to recognize images of the self, a split-brain patient (an individual who underwent complete cerebral commissurotomy to relieve intractable epilepsy) was tested using morphed self-face images presented to one visual hemifield (projecting to one hemisphere) at a time while making "self/other" judgments. The performance of the right and left hemispheres of this patient as assessed by a signal detection method was not significantly different, though a measure of bias did reveal hemispheric differences. The right and left hemispheres of this patient independently and equally possessed the ability to self-recognize, but only the right hemisphere could successfully recognize familiar others. This supports a modular concept of self-recognition and other-recognition, separately present in each cerebral hemisphere.

  15. Middle atmospheric thermal structures in Eastern and Western hemispheres over a solar cycle

    Mohanakumar, K.; Devanarayanan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Temperature variations of the 25-60 km region of the atmosphere over stations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres were compared for an 11-year solar cycle period (1971-1981). The temperature of the two hemispheres did not show similar variations at the same height and time. A cross-correlation analysis between the variations in temperature of the two hemispheres showed insignificant correlation, except at 30 km over the tropics and at 40 km over the midlatitude. Up to 40 km, the temperature changes in the two hemispheres are identical. At higher levels, Western Hemispheric temperatures were higher than those of the Eastern Hemisphere. The diurnal variation of minor constituents and their vertical transport in the middle atmosphere might be responsible for the differences in temperature observed in the two hemispheres. (author)

  16. The Lagrangian structure of ozone mini-holes and potential vorticity anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere

    P. M. James

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale area of strongly reduced column total ozone, which undergoes a growth-decay cycle in association with baroclinic weather systems. The tracks of mini-hole events recorded during the TOMS observation period over the Northern Hemisphere provide a database for building anomaly fields of various meteorological parameters, following each mini-hole center in a Lagrangian sense. The resulting fields provide, for the first time, a complete mean Lagrangian picture of the three-dimensional structure of typical ozone mini-holes in the Northern Hemisphere. Mini-holes are shown to be associated with anomalous warm anticyclonic flow in the upper troposphere and cold cyclonic anomalies in the middle stratosphere. Ascending air columns occur upstream and descent downstream of the mini-hole centers. Band-pass filtering is used to reveal the transient synoptic nature of mini-holes embedded within larger scale circulation anomalies. Significant correlations between ozone and Ertel’s potential vorticity on isentropes (IPV both near the tropopause and in the middle stratosphere are shown and then utilized by reconstructing the Lagrangian analysis to follow local IPV anomalies instead of ozone minima. By using IPV as a proxy for ozone, the geopotential anomaly dipolar structure in the vertical characteristic of mini-holes is shown to result from a superposition of two largely independent dynamical components, stratospheric and tropospheric, typically operating on different time scales. Hence, ozone mini-holes may be viewed primarily as phenomena of coincidence.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; synoptic-scale meteorology

  17. The Lagrangian structure of ozone mini-holes and potential vorticity anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere

    P. M. James

    Full Text Available An ozone mini-hole is a synoptic-scale area of strongly reduced column total ozone, which undergoes a growth-decay cycle in association with baroclinic weather systems. The tracks of mini-hole events recorded during the TOMS observation period over the Northern Hemisphere provide a database for building anomaly fields of various meteorological parameters, following each mini-hole center in a Lagrangian sense. The resulting fields provide, for the first time, a complete mean Lagrangian picture of the three-dimensional structure of typical ozone mini-holes in the Northern Hemisphere. Mini-holes are shown to be associated with anomalous warm anticyclonic flow in the upper troposphere and cold cyclonic anomalies in the middle stratosphere. Ascending air columns occur upstream and descent downstream of the mini-hole centers. Band-pass filtering is used to reveal the transient synoptic nature of mini-holes embedded within larger scale circulation anomalies. Significant correlations between ozone and Ertel’s potential vorticity on isentropes (IPV both near the tropopause and in the middle stratosphere are shown and then utilized by reconstructing the Lagrangian analysis to follow local IPV anomalies instead of ozone minima. By using IPV as a proxy for ozone, the geopotential anomaly dipolar structure in the vertical characteristic of mini-holes is shown to result from a superposition of two largely independent dynamical components, stratospheric and tropospheric, typically operating on different time scales. Hence, ozone mini-holes may be viewed primarily as phenomena of coincidence.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; synoptic-scale meteorology

  18. A 1372-element Large Scale Hemispherical Ultrasound Phased Array Transducer for Noninvasive Transcranial Therapy

    Song, Junho; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial therapy using high intensity focused ultrasound transducers has attracted high interest as a promising new modality for the treatments of brain related diseases. We describe the development of a 1372 element large scale hemispherical ultrasound phased array transducer operating at a resonant frequency of 306 kHz. The hemispherical array has a diameter of 31 cm and a 15.5 cm radius of curvature. It is constructed with piezoelectric (PZT-4) tube elements of a 10 mm in diameter, 6 mm in length and 1.4 mm wall thickness. Each element is quasi-air backed by attaching a cork-rubber membrane on the back of the element. The acoustic efficiency of the element is determined to be approximately 50%. The large number of the elements delivers high power ultrasound and offers better beam steering and focusing capability. Comparisons of sound pressure-squared field measurements with theoretical calculations in water show that the array provides good beam steering and tight focusing capability over an efficient volume of approximately 100x100x80 mm 3 with nominal focal spot size of approximately 2.3 mm in diameter at -6 dB. We also present its beam steering and focusing capability through an ex vivo human skull by measuring pressure-squared amplitude after phase corrections. These measurements show the same efficient volume range and focal spot sizes at -6 dB as the ones in water without the skull present. These results indicate that the array is sufficient for use in noninvasive transcranial ultrasound therapy.

  19. The FTAA and hemispheric integration: building a triple-win strategy for trade and sustainability in the hemisphere

    2001-04-01

    The concept of a trade and sustainability agenda for the Americas is explained and a historical account of the process of making this concept a reality is discussed in a background paper for the Hemispheric Trade and Sustainability Symposium held on April 18, 2001 in Quebec City. The Symposium was held in conjunction with the Third Summit of the Americas, where heads of 34 American nations discussed ways and means to encourage hemispheric cooperation. The object of the Symposium was to provide a constructive, policy-oriented, and knowledge-based open forum for dialogue on trade and sustainability issues; to identify policy options that can be mutually beneficial to trade, environment and development, and to increase public support for trade liberalisation in the Americas. The strategy aims to build a sustainable FTAA through the identification of a series of environmental provisions to be incorporated in the Agreement; strengthen environmental cooperation in the Americas, especially in trade-sensitive, or trade-related sectors, and create a high level hemispheric expert group on trade and sustainability for continuous and constructive dialogue with civil society and industry on these issues. The backgrounder provides a precis of the fundamental aspect of building a sustainable FTAA, explains the origin of the prevailing fear of unilateral environment-related trade sanctions by the United States, the fear of protectionist measures by Canada and the United States based on environmental provisions in the FTAA, and the fear that higher environmental standards and regulations would undermine the competitiveness of Latin American and Caribbean businesses. The paper attempts to dispel these fears by explaining the mechanism envisaged to be predominant in creating the triple-win strategy, namely impact assessment, transparency, participation and dispute resolution processes. The eventual agreement should also mention sustainable development as an overarching objective of

  20. Predicting hemispheric dominance for language production in healthy individuals using support vector machine.

    Zago, Laure; Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Genuer, Robin; Laurent, Alexandre; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Joliot, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to assess hemispheric pattern of language dominance of 47 individuals categorized as non-typical for language from their hemispheric functional laterality index (HFLI) measured on a sentence minus word-list production fMRI-BOLD contrast map. The SVM classifier was trained at discriminating between Dominant and Non-Dominant hemispheric language production activation pattern on a group of 250 participants previously identified as Typicals (HFLI strongly leftward). Then, SVM was applied to each hemispheric language activation pattern of 47 non-typical individuals. The results showed that at least one hemisphere (left or right) was found to be Dominant in every, except 3 individuals, indicating that the "dominant" type of functional organization is the most frequent in non-typicals. Specifically, left hemisphere dominance was predicted in all non-typical right-handers (RH) and in 57.4% of non-typical left-handers (LH). When both hemisphere classifications were jointly considered, four types of brain patterns were observed. The most often predicted pattern (51%) was left-dominant (Dominant left-hemisphere and Non-Dominant right-hemisphere), followed by right-dominant (23%, Dominant right-hemisphere and Non-Dominant left-hemisphere) and co-dominant (19%, 2 Dominant hemispheres) patterns. Co-non-dominant was rare (6%, 2 Non-Dominant hemispheres), but was normal variants of hemispheric specialization. In RH, only left-dominant (72%) and co-dominant patterns were detected, while for LH, all types were found, although with different occurrences. Among the 10 LH with a strong rightward HFLI, 8 had a right-dominant brain pattern. Whole-brain analysis of the right-dominant pattern group confirmed that it exhibited a functional organization strictly mirroring that of left-dominant pattern group. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5871-5889, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Water vapor increase in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphere by the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during TACTS campaign in 2012

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stephan; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in determining the radiative balance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and thus the climate of the Earth (Forster and Shine, 2002; Riese et al., 2012). Therefore a detailed knowledge about transport pathways and exchange processes between troposphere and stratosphere is required to understand the variability of water vapor in this region. The Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by deep convection over and India and east Asia is able to transport air masses from the troposphere into the nothern extra-tropical stratosphere (Müller et al. 2016, Vogel et al. 2016). These air masses contain pollution but also higher amounts of water vapor. An increase in water vapor of about 0.5 ppmv in the extra-tropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 by in-situ instrumentation above the European northern hemisphere during the HALO aircraft mission TACTS. Here, we investigated the origin of this water vapor increase with the help of the 3D Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). We can assign an origin of the moist air masses in the Asian region (North and South India and East China) with the help of model origin tracers. Additionally, back trajectories of these air masses with enriched water vapor are used to differentiate between transport from the Asia monsoon anticyclone and the upwelling of moister air in the tropics particularly from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

  2. Decadal variability and metastability in the Southern Hemisphere

    O'Kane, Terence; Risbey, James; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Illia; Monselesan, Didier

    2014-05-01

    An examination of systematic changes in the metastability of the southern hemisphere 500hPa circulation is performed using both cluster analysis techniques and split flow blocking indices. The cluster methodology is a purely data-driven approach for parametrisation whereby a multi-scale approximation to non-stationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast Vector Auto-Regressive Factor (VARX) processes and some slow (or persistent) hidden process switching between them. Comparison is made with blocking indices commonly used in weather forecasting and climate analysis to identify dynamically relevant metastable regimes in the 500hPa circulation in both reanalysis and AMIP model data sets. Our analysis characterises the metastable regime in both reanalysis and model data sets prior to 1978 as positive and negative phases of a hemispheric mid-latitude blocking state with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) associated with a transition state. Post 1978, SAM emerges as a true metastable state replacing the negative phase of the hemispheric blocking pattern. The hidden state frequency of occurrences exhibits strong trends. The blocking pattern dominates in the early 1980s then gradually decreases. There is a corresponding increase in the SAM frequency of occurrence. This trend is largely evident in the reanalysis summer and spring but was not evident in the AMIP data set. Non-stationary cluster analysis was then further used to identify the Southern Oceans response to the systematic changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation and identify dynamical regimes associated with subsurface thermocline anomalies which were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

  3. Reaching Across the Hemispheres with Science, Language, Arts and Technology

    Sparrow, E. B.; Zicus, S.; Miller, A.; Baird, A.; Page, G.

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Alaskan elementary and middle school classes (grades 3-8) partnered with twelve Australian middle school classes, with each pair using web-based strategies to develop a collaborative ice-mystery fictional book incorporating authentic polar science. Three professional development workshops were held, bringing together educators and polar scientists in two IPY education outreach projects. The Alaska workshop provided an opportunity to bring together the North American teachers for lessons on arctic and antarctic science and an earth system science program Seasons and Biomes measurement protocols, as well as methods in collaborative e-writing and art in Ice e-Mysteries: Global Student Polar e-books project. Teachers worked with University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Australian scientists to become familiar with Arctic science research, science artifacts and resources available at UAF and the University of Alaska Museum of the North. In Australia, teachers received a similar project training through the Tasmania Museum and Art Gallery (TMAG) Center for Learning and Discovery on Antarctic science and the University of Tasmania. The long-distance collaboration was accomplished through Skype, emails and a TMAG supported website. A year later, Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere teacher partners met in a joint workshop in Tasmania, to share their experiences, do project assessments and propose activities for future collaborations. The Australian teachers received training on Seasons and Biomes scientific measurements and the Alaskan teachers, on Tasmanian vegetation, fauna and indigenous culture, Antarctic and Southern ocean studies. This innovative project produced twelve e-polar books written and illustrated by students; heightened scientific literacy about the polar regions and the earth system; increased awareness of the environment and indigenous cultures; stronger connections to the scientific community; and lasting friendships. It also resulted in

  4. Predicting Baseline for Analysis of Electricity Pricing

    Kim, T. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Spurlock, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    To understand the impact of new pricing structure on residential electricity demands, we need a baseline model that captures every factor other than the new price. The standard baseline is a randomized control group, however, a good control group is hard to design. This motivates us to devlop data-driven approaches. We explored many techniques and designed a strategy, named LTAP, that could predict the hourly usage years ahead. The key challenge in this process is that the daily cycle of electricity demand peaks a few hours after the temperature reaching its peak. Existing methods rely on the lagged variables of recent past usages to enforce this daily cycle. These methods have trouble making predictions years ahead. LTAP avoids this trouble by assuming the daily usage profile is determined by temperature and other factors. In a comparison against a well-designed control group, LTAP is found to produce accurate predictions.

  5. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  6. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non- 3 He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge)

  7. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  8. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  9. Bilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) use.

    Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S

    2008-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.

  10. Update on Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Western Hemisphere

    Esther Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities yearly, around the globe. The largest burden of these diseases falls on communities with poor access to basic sanitation, healthcare facilities, and educational programs. This review focuses on advances in vaccination, treatment and control programs over the past decade for the major NTDs of the Western Hemisphere: malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, ankylostomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis, and onchocerciasis. The discussion centers on challenges for NTD eradication and prospects for the future.

  11. Grinding tool for making hemispherical bores in hard materials

    Duran, E.L.

    1985-04-03

    A grinding tool for forming hemispherical bores in hard materials such as boron carbide. The tool comprises a hemicircular grinding bit, formed of a metal bond diamond matrix, which is mounted transversely on one end of a tubular tool shaft. The bit includes a spherically curved outer edge surface which is the active grinding surface of the tool. Two coolant fluid ports on opposite sides of the bit enable introduction of coolant fluid through the bore of the tool shaft so as to be emitted adjacent the opposite sides of the grinding bit, thereby providing optimum cooling of both the workpiece and the bit.

  12. Workflow Generation from the Two-Hemisphere Model

    Gusarovs Konstantīns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD is a trend in Software Development that focuses on code generation from various kinds of models. To perform such a task, it is necessary to develop an algorithm that performs source model transformation into the target model, which ideally is an actual software code written in some kind of a programming language. However, at present a lot of methods focus on Unified Modelling Language (UML diagram generation. The present paper describes a result of authors’ research on Two-Hemisphere Model (2HM processing for easier code generation.

  13. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  14. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Sise, Omer, E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Dept. of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel Univ., 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Zouros, Theo J.M. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Lab, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, P.O. Box 60228, GR 15310 Ag. Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-02-15

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  15. Transit time spreads in biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers

    Sise, Omer; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The biased paracentric hemispherical deflection analyzers (HDAs) are an alternative to conventional (centric) HDAs maintaining greater dispersion, lower angular aberrations, and hence better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correctors. In the present work, the transit time spread of the biased paracentric HDA is computed over a wide range of analyzer parameters. The combination of high energy resolution with good time resolution and simplicity of design makes the biased paracentric analyzers very promising for both coincidence and singles spectroscopy applications.

  16. OCRWM baseline management procedure for document identifiers

    1993-03-01

    This procedure establishes a uniform numbering system (document identifier) for all Program and project technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management and procurement documents developed for and controlled by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The document identifier defined in this procedure is structured to ensure that the relational integrity between configuration items (CIs) and their associated documentation and software is maintained, traceable, categorical, and retrievable for the life of the program

  17. Information Technology Sector Baseline Risk Assessment

    2009-08-01

    alternative root be economically advantageous , an actor’s ability to exploit market forces and create an alternative root would be significantly improved...conduct their operations. Therefore, a loss or disruption to Internet services would not be advantageous for the desired outcomes of these syndicates.26... eCommerce Service loss or disruption [C] Traffic Redirection [C] = Undesired consequence Information Technology Sector Baseline Risk Assessment

  18. Impacts of climate change on air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere

    Hedegaard Brandt, G.

    2007-08-15

    The fate of a selected number of chemical species is inspected with respect to climate change. The coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM4-OPYC3 is providing future meteorology for the Chemical long-range Transport Model DEHM-REGINA. Three selected periods (1990s, 2040s and 2090s) are inspected. The 1990s are used as a control and validation period. In this decade the model results are tested against similar model simulations with MM5 meteorology and against observation from the EMEP monitoring sites in Europe. In the validation the emissions are held constant at the 1990 level in all simulations in order to separate out the effects from climate change. The overall performance of the ECHAM4-OPYC3 setup as meteorological input to the DEHM-REGINA model is acceptable according to the ranking method. It is concluded that running a chemical long-range transport model on data from a 'free run' climate model is scientifically sound! The absolute dominating impact from climate change on a large number of chemical species is found to be the predicted temperature increase. The temperature is by the ECHAM4-OPYC3 model predicted to increase 2-3 Kelvin on a global average with local maxima in the Arctic of 11 Kelvin. As a consequence of this temperature increase, the temperature dependent biogenic emission of isoprene is predicted to increase significantly in concentration over land in the DEHM-REGINA chemistry-transport model. This leads to an increase in the ozone production and in the number of free OH radicals. This again leads to a significant change in the typical life times of many species, since the hydroxyl radicals are participating in a large number of chemical reactions. It is e.g. found that more sulphate will be present in the future over the already polluted areas and this increase can be explained by an enhancement in the conversion of sulphur to sulphate. (au)

  19. Minimizing the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model simulations

    Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Bouarar, Idir; Clark, Hannah; Huijnen, Vincent; Gaudel, Audrey; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2015-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and is also produced from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. It is of interest as an indirect greenhouse gas and an air pollutant causing health effects and is thus subject to emission restrictions. CO acts as a major sink for the OH radical and as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and affects the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere as well as regional air quality. Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, CO concentrations remain underestimated during NH winter by most state-of-the-art chemical transport models. The resulting model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of sources and sinks with a series of MOZART chemistry transport model sensitivity simulations for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and from MOZAIC tropospheric profile measurements on passenger aircraft. Our base case simulation using the MACCity emission inventory (Granier et al. 2011) underestimates the near-surface Northern Hemispheric CO mixing ratios by more than 20 ppb from December to April with a maximal bias of 40 ppb in January. The bias is strongest for the European region (up to 75 ppb in January). From our sensitivity studies the mismatch between observed and modelled atmospheric CO concentrations can be explained by a combination of the following emission inventory shortcuts: (i) missing anthropogenic wintertime CO emissions from traffic or other combustion processes, (ii) missing anthropogenic VOC emissions, (iii) an exaggerated downward trend in the RCP8.5 scenario underlying the MACCity inventory, (iv) a lack of knowledge about the seasonality of emissions. Deficiencies in the parameterization of the dry deposition velocities can also lead to

  20. Air Abrasion

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  1. Hypothalamic-mediated model for systemic lupus erythematosis: relation to hemispheric chemical dominance.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-11-01

    The isoprenoid pathway including endogenous digoxin was assessed in systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). All the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. This was also studied for comparison in patients with right hemispheric and left hemispheric dominance. The isoprenoid pathway was upregulated with increased digoxin synthesis in patients with SLE and in those with right hemispheric dominance. In this group of patients (i) the tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites reduced, (ii) the dolichol and glycoconjugate levels were elevated, (iii) lysosomal stability was reduced, (iv) ubiquinone levels were low and free radical levels increased, and (v) the membrane cholesterol:phospholipid ratios were increased and membrane glycoconjugates reduced. On the other hand, in patients with left hemispheric dominance the reverse patterns were obtained. The biochemical patterns obtained in SLE is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. But all the patients with SLE were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. SLE occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals, and is a reflection of altered brain function. The role of the isoprenoid pathway in the pathogenesis of SLE and its relation to hemispheric dominance is discussed.

  2. Hemispheric biases and the control of visuospatial attention: an ERP study

    Banich Marie T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether individual differences in hemispheric utilization can interact with the intrinsic attentional biases of the cerebral hemispheres. Evidence suggests that the hemispheres have competing biases to direct attention contralaterally, with the left hemisphere (LH having a stronger bias than the right hemisphere. There is also evidence that individuals have characteristic biases to utilize one hemisphere more than the other for processing information, which can induce a bias to direct attention to contralateral space. We predicted that LH-biased individuals would display a strong rightward attentional bias, which would create difficulty in selectively attending to target stimuli in the left visual field (LVF as compared to right in the performance of a bilateral flanker task. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, flanker interference effects were found on the N2c event-related brain potential and error rate for LH-biased individuals in the Attend-LVF condition. The error rate effect was correlated with the degree of hemispheric utilization bias for the LH-Bias group. Conclusion We conclude that hemispheric utilization bias can enhance a hemisphere's contralateral attentional bias, at least for individuals with a LH utilization bias. Hemispheric utilization bias may play an important and largely unrecognized role in visuospatial attention.

  3. Reorganization of the Cerebro-Cerebellar Network of Language Production in Patients with Congenital Left-Hemispheric Brain Lesions

    Lidzba, K.; Wilke, M.; Staudt, M.; Krageloh-Mann, I.; Grodd, W.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere to assess…

  4. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetry of Global Warming Explained by a Conceptual Model

    Funke, C. S.; Alexeev, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Polar Amplification, the process of amplified warming at high latitudes, manifests itself differently in the Arctic and Antarctic. Not only is the temperature increase in the Arctic more pronounced than in the Antarctic but the dramatic sea ice decline in the Arctic over the last few decades also contrasts sharply with trendless to weak positive trend of Antarctic sea ice throughout the same period. This asymmetric behavior is often partly attributed to the differences in configuration of continents in the Arctic and Antarctic: the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by land while the Southern Ocean has a continent in the middle. A simple conceptual energy balance model of Budyko-Sellers type, accounting for differences between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, is applied to study the mechanisms of climate sensitivity to a variety of forcings. Asymmetry in major modes of variability is explained using an eigenmode analysis of the linearized model. Negative forcings over Antarctica such as from ozone depletion were found to have an amplified effect on southern hemisphere climate and may be an important cause of the muted warming and slightly positive Antarctic sea ice trend.

  6. Hemispheric asymmetries in speech perception: sense, nonsense and modulations.

    Stuart Rosen

    Full Text Available The well-established left hemisphere specialisation for language processing has long been claimed to be based on a low-level auditory specialization for specific acoustic features in speech, particularly regarding 'rapid temporal processing'.A novel analysis/synthesis technique was used to construct a variety of sounds based on simple sentences which could be manipulated in spectro-temporal complexity, and whether they were intelligible or not. All sounds consisted of two noise-excited spectral prominences (based on the lower two formants in the original speech which could be static or varying in frequency and/or amplitude independently. Dynamically varying both acoustic features based on the same sentence led to intelligible speech but when either or both acoustic features were static, the stimuli were not intelligible. Using the frequency dynamics from one sentence with the amplitude dynamics of another led to unintelligible sounds of comparable spectro-temporal complexity to the intelligible ones. Positron emission tomography (PET was used to compare which brain regions were active when participants listened to the different sounds.Neural activity to spectral and amplitude modulations sufficient to support speech intelligibility (without actually being intelligible was seen bilaterally, with a right temporal lobe dominance. A left dominant response was seen only to intelligible sounds. It thus appears that the left hemisphere specialisation for speech is based on the linguistic properties of utterances, not on particular acoustic features.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries and gender influence Rembrandt's portrait orientations.

    Schirillo, J A

    2000-01-01

    For centuries painters have predominantly painted portraits with the model's left-cheek facing the viewer. This has been even more prevalent with females ( approximately 68%) than males ( approximately 56%). Numerous portraits painted by Rembrandt typify this unexplained phenomenon. In a preliminary experiment, subjects judged 24 emotional and social character traits in 20 portraits by Rembrandt. A factor analysis revealed that females with their left cheek exposed were judged to be much less socially appealing than less commonly painted right-cheeked females. Conversely, the more commonly painted right-cheeked males were judged to be more socially appealing than either left-cheeked males or females facing either direction. It is hypothesized that hemispheric asymmetries regulating emotional facial displays of approach and avoidance influenced the side of the face Rembrandt's models exposed due to prevailing social norms. A second experiment had different subjects judge a different collection of 20 portraits by Rembrandt and their mirror images. Mirror-reversed images produced the same pattern of results as their original orientation counterparts. Consequently, hemispheric asymmetries that specify the emotional expression on each side of the face are posited to account for the obtained results.

  8. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere.

    Collins, Christine E; Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva Kille; Reed, Jamie L; Young, Nicole A; Flaherty, David K; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-19

    The density of cells and neurons in the neocortex of many mammals varies across cortical areas and regions. This variability is, perhaps, most pronounced in primates. Nonuniformity in the composition of cortex suggests regions of the cortex have different specializations. Specifically, regions with densely packed neurons contain smaller neurons that are activated by relatively few inputs, thereby preserving information, whereas regions that are less densely packed have larger neurons that have more integrative functions. Here we present the numbers of cells and neurons for 742 discrete locations across the neocortex in a chimpanzee. Using isotropic fractionation and flow fractionation methods for cell and neuron counts, we estimate that neocortex of one hemisphere contains 9.5 billion cells and 3.7 billion neurons. Primary visual cortex occupies 35 cm(2) of surface, 10% of the total, and contains 737 million densely packed neurons, 20% of the total neurons contained within the hemisphere. Other areas of high neuron packing include secondary visual areas, somatosensory cortex, and prefrontal granular cortex. Areas of low levels of neuron packing density include motor and premotor cortex. These values reflect those obtained from more limited samples of cortex in humans and other primates.

  10. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    Soenmezoglu, K.; Sperling, B.; Lassen, N.A.; Henriksen, T.; Tfelt-Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99m Tc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduction (average 10%) in contralateral hemispheric cortex. In all four cases clinical signs of unilateral cerebellar dysfunction were still present when rescanned 1 to 4 months later and the relative CBF decrease in the contralateral cortex of the forebrain also remained. The basal ganglia contralateral to the cerebellar lesion CBF showed variable alterations. A relative CBF decrease was seen in upper part of basal ganglia in all four cases, but it was not a constant phenomenon. A relative CBF increase in both early and late SPECT scans was seen at low levels of neostriatum in two cases. The remote CBF changes in cerebellar stroke seen in the forebrain are probably caused by reduced or abolished cerebellar output. The term ''Crossed Cerebral Diaschisis'' may be used to describe these CBF changes that would appear to reflect both decreased and increased neuronal activity. (au)

  11. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  12. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  13. Hemispherical F2-layer differences and the neutral atmosphere

    Kotadia, K.M.; Almaula, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of noon and early morning (05 h) critical frequencies of the F2-layer through one solar cycle (1958-1969) at 8 pairs of dip-conjugate stations at latitudes lower than +- 60 0 dip. The study reveals some characteristic features of the F2-layer, such as (1) at sunspot minimum the noon foF2 values exhibit a marked semiannual variation with equinoxial maxima in the north and a dominant annual variation with a maximum in December in the south; (2) the annual component of the foF2 variation increases appreciably with solar activity in the north, while the semiannual component increases in the south. They show maxima at latitudes near +- 40 0 dip and minima near the equator. The early morning foF2 values essentially go through an annual wave with maxima in local summer in both hemispheres; there is, however, a significant semiannual component in the south. The annual component is largest at +- 40 0 dip while the semiannual component has peaks at the equator and at 40 0 S dip. The differences between the behaviour of foF2 in the two hemispheres as reported in this paper appear to be in conformity with current thinking on the effects of (a) the global neutral wind pattern and (b) changes in the relative proportions of atomic and molecular gas species. (author)

  14. The USNO-UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey

    Dahm, Scott; Bruursema, Justice; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Vrba, Fred J.; Dorland, Bryan; Dye, Simon; Kerr, Tom; Varricatt, Watson; Irwin, Mike; Lawrence, Andy; McLaren, Robert; Hodapp, Klaus; Hasinger, Guenther

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and UKIRT K-band Hemisphere Survey (U2HS), currently underway using the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) installed on UKIRT on Maunakea. U2HS is a collaborative effort undertaken by USNO, the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) and the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU) in Edinburgh. The principal objective of the U2HS is to provide continuous northern hemisphere K-band coverage over a declination range of δ=0o – +60o by combining over 12,700 deg2 of new imaging with the existing UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS), Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and Galactic Cluster Survey (GCS). U2HS will achieve a 5-σ point source sensitivity of K~18.4 mag (Vega), over three magnitudes deeper than the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). In this contribution we discuss survey design, execution, data acquisition and processing, photometric calibration and quality control. The data obtained by the U2HS will be made publicly available through the Wide Field Science Archive (WSA) maintained by the WFAU.

  15. Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention in near space.

    Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Processing of unconventional stimuli requires the recruitment of the non-specialized hemisphere

    Yoed Nissan Kenett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional visual stimuli in the context of visual and verbal creative ability. In Experiment 1, we studied two unconventional visual recognition tasks – Mooney face and objects' silhouette recognition – and found a significant relationship between measures of verbal creativity and unconventional face recognition. In Experiment 2 we used the split visual field paradigm to investigate hemispheric processing of conventional and unconventional faces and its relation to verbal and visual characteristics of creativity. Results showed that while conventional faces were better processed by the specialized right hemisphere, unconventional faces were better processed by the non-specialized left hemisphere. In addition, only unconventional face processing by the non-specialized left hemisphere was related to verbal and visual measures of creative ability. Our findings demonstrate the role of the non-specialized hemisphere in processing unconventional stimuli and how it relates to creativity.

  17. The "Creative Right Brain" Revisited: Individual Creativity and Associative Priming in the Right Hemisphere Relate to Hemispheric Asymmetries in Reward Brain Function.

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    The idea that creativity resides in the right cerebral hemisphere is persistent in popular science, but has been widely frowned upon by the scientific community due to little empirical support. Yet, creativity is believed to rely on the ability to combine remote concepts into novel and useful ideas, an ability which would depend on associative processing in the right hemisphere. Moreover, associative processing is modulated by dopamine, and asymmetries in dopamine functionality between hemispheres may imbalance the expression of their implemented cognitive functions. Here, by uniting these largely disconnected concepts, we hypothesize that relatively less dopamine function in the right hemisphere boosts creativity by releasing constraining effects of dopamine on remote associations. Indeed, participants with reduced neural responses in the dopaminergic system of the right hemisphere (estimated by functional MRI in a reward task with positive and negative feedback), displayed higher creativity (estimated by convergent and divergent tasks), and increased associative processing in the right hemisphere (estimated by a lateralized lexical decision task). Our findings offer unprecedented empirical support for a crucial and specific contribution of the right hemisphere to creativity. More importantly our study provides a comprehensive view on potential determinants of human creativity, namely dopamine-related activity and associative processing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  19. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  20. Environmental Baseline File for National Transportation

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  1. Baseline-dependent averaging in radio interferometry

    Wijnholds, S. J.; Willis, A. G.; Salvini, S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the applicability and benefits of baseline-dependent averaging (BDA) in modern radio interferometers and in particular the Square Kilometre Array. We demonstrate that BDA does not affect the information content of the data other than a well-defined decorrelation loss for which closed form expressions are readily available. We verify these theoretical findings using simulations. We therefore conclude that BDA can be used reliably in modern radio interferometry allowing a reduction of visibility data volume (and hence processing costs for handling visibility data) by more than 80 per cent.

  2. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  3. Neutrino physics with short baseline experiments

    Zimmerman, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino physics with low- to medium-energy beams has progressed steadily over the last several years. Neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline (defined as 2 - -> 0.1eV 2 . One positive signal, from the LSND collaboration, exists and is being tested by the MiniBooNE experiment. Neutrino cross-section measurements are being made by MiniBooNE and K2K, which will be important for reducing systematic errors in present and future oscillation measurements. In the near future, dedicated cross- section experiments will begin operating at Fermilab. (author)

  4. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  5. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    Alcamo, J.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bollen, J.C.; Born, G.J. van den; Krol, M.S.; Toet, A.M.C.; Vries, H.J.M. de; Gerlagh, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  6. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  7. Evolution of Air Quality Model at the US EPA

    At the US EPA, we have developed an air quality model, CMAQ, in the past 20+ years. Throughout the years, the model has been upgraded with respect to advancement of science. We have extended the model from regional to hemispheric. We have coupled it with meteorological model, WR...

  8. Determination of hemispheric emotional valence in individual subjects: A new approach with research and therapeutic implications

    Schiffer, Fredric; Teicher, Martin H; Anderson, Carl; Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Navalta, Carryl P; Andersen, Susan L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Much has been theorized about the emotional properties of the hemispheres. Our review of the dominant hypotheses put forth by Schore, Joseph, Davidson, and Harmon-Jones on hemispheric emotional valences (HEV) shows that none are supported by robust data. Instead, we propose that individual's hemispheres are organized to have differing HEVs that can be lateralized in either direction. Methods Probe auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recorded during a neutral and an upsetting ...

  9. Hemispheric differences in the voluntary control of spatial attention: direct evidence for a right-hemispheric dominance within frontal cortex.

    Duecker, Felix; Formisano, Elia; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-08-01

    Lesion studies in neglect patients have inspired two competing models of spatial attention control, namely, Heilman's "hemispatial" theory and Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model. Both assume a functional asymmetry between the two hemispheres but propose very different mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies have identified a bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network underlying voluntary shifts of spatial attention. However, lateralization of attentional processes within this network has not been consistently reported. In the current study, we aimed to provide direct evidence concerning the functional asymmetry of the right and left FEF during voluntary shifts of spatial attention. To this end, we applied fMRI-guided neuronavigation to disrupt individual FEF activation foci with a longer-lasting inhibitory patterned TMS protocol followed by a spatial cueing task. Our results indicate that right FEF stimulation impaired the ability of shifting spatial attention toward both hemifields, whereas the effects of left FEF stimulation were limited to the contralateral hemifield. These results provide strong direct evidence for right-hemispheric dominance in spatial attention within frontal cortex supporting Heilman's "hemispatial" theory. This complements previous TMS studies that generally conform to Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model after disruption of parietal cortex, and we therefore propose that both theories are not mutually exclusive.

  10. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  11. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  12. Radioiodine (131I) in animal thyroids during nuclear tests in both hemispheres

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1975-01-01

    In mid-1974 a small increase of 131 I was observed in animal thyroids following a nuclear test in China. In late 1974 there was no public announcement of an atmospheric nuclear test in the Northern Hemisphere, but 131 I was readily measured in animal thyroids. This latter increase occurred while animals in the Southern Hemisphere accumulated 131 I from nuclear tests in the Southern Hemisphere. It is suggested that in late 1974 the Northern Hemisphere was contaminated by either late fallout from tests in June or by interhemispheric mixing or by a combination of these sources. (author)

  13. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  14. Structure of a traditional baseline data system

    1976-12-01

    Research was conducted to determine whether appropriate data exist for the development of a comprehensive statistical baseline data system on the human environment in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta. The existing data sources pertinent to the target area were first reviewed and discussed. Criteria were selected to assist the evaluation of data, including type of data collected, source, degree of detail, geographic identification, accessibility, and time frame. These criteria allowed assessing whether the data would be amenable to geographically-coded, continuous monitoring systems. It was found that the Statistics Canada Census provided the most detail, the most complete coverage of the target area, the smallest statistical areas, the greatest consistency in data and data collection, and the most regular collection. The local agency collection efforts were generally oriented toward specific goals and the data intended primarily for intra-agency use. The smallest statistical units in these efforts may be too large to be of value to a common small-area system, and data collection agencies did not generally use coterminous boundaries. Recommendations were made to give primary consideration to Statistics Canada data in the initial development of the baseline data system. Further development of such a system depends on the adoption by local agencies of a common small-area system for data collection. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments

    Crane, D.; Goodman, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no unambiguous definition for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The term is generally used for accelerator neutrino oscillation experiments which are sensitive to Δm 2 2 , and for which the detector is not on the accelerator site. The Snowmass N2L working group met to discuss the issues facing such experiments. The Fermilab Program Advisory Committee adopted several recommendations concerning the Fermilab neutrino program at their Aspen meeting immediately prior to the Snowmass Workshop. This heightened the attention for the proposals to use Fermilab for a long-baseline neutrino experiment at the workshop. The plan for a neutrino oscillation program at Brookhaven was also thoroughly discussed. Opportunities at CERN were considered, particularly the use of detectors at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The idea to build a neutrino beam from KEK towards Superkamiokande was not discussed at the Snowmass meeting, but there has been considerable development of this idea since then. Brookhaven and KEK would use low energy neutrino beams, while FNAL and CERN would plan have medium energy beams. This report will summarize a few topics common to LBL proposals and attempt to give a snapshot of where things stand in this fast developing field

  16. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Baseline Estimation and Outlier Identification for Halocarbons

    Wang, D.; Schuck, T.; Engel, A.; Gallman, F.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to build a baseline model for halocarbons and to statistically identify the outliers under specific conditions. In this paper, time series of regional CFC-11 and Chloromethane measurements was discussed, which taken over the last 4 years at two locations, including a monitoring station at northwest of Frankfurt am Main (Germany) and Mace Head station (Ireland). In addition to analyzing time series of CFC-11 and Chloromethane, more importantly, a statistical approach of outlier identification is also introduced in this paper in order to make a better estimation of baseline. A second-order polynomial plus harmonics are fitted to CFC-11 and chloromethane mixing ratios data. Measurements with large distance to the fitting curve are regard as outliers and flagged. Under specific requirement, the routine is iteratively adopted without the flagged measurements until no additional outliers are found. Both model fitting and the proposed outlier identification method are realized with the help of a programming language, Python. During the period, CFC-11 shows a gradual downward trend. And there is a slightly upward trend in the mixing ratios of Chloromethane. The concentration of chloromethane also has a strong seasonal variation, mostly due to the seasonal cycle of OH. The usage of this statistical method has a considerable effect on the results. This method efficiently identifies a series of outliers according to the standard deviation requirements. After removing the outliers, the fitting curves and trend estimates are more reliable.

  18. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of populations is of paramount importance to understanding responses oforganisms to global environmental change and to evaluating whether conservation practices are yielding intended results through time (Wiens 2009). The population status of many shorebird species, the focus of this volume, remain poorly known. Long-distance migrant shorebirds have proven particularly difficult to monitor, in part because of their highly migratory nature and ranges that extend into highly inaccessible regions. As migrant shorebirds travel the length of the hemisphere, they congregate and disperse in ways that vary among species, locations, and years, presenting serious challenges to designing and implementing monitoring programs. Rigorous field and quantitative methods that estimate population size and monitor trends are vitally needed to direct and evaluate effective conservation measures. Many management efforts depend on unbiased population size estimates; for example, the shorebird conservation plans for both Canada and the United States seek to restore populations to levels calculated for the 1970s based on the best information available from existing surveys. Further, federal wildlife agencies within the United States and Canada have mandates to understand the state of their nations' resources under various conventions for the protection of migratory birds. Accurate estimates of population size are vital statistics for a variety of conservation activities, such as prioritizing species for conservation action and setting management targets. Areas of essential habitat, such as those designated under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the Important Bird Areas program of BirdLife International and the National Audubon Society, or Canada's National Wildlife Areas program, are all evaluated on the basis ofproportions of species' populations which they contain. The size, and trends in size, ofa species' population are considered key information

  19. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of populations is of paramount importance to understanding responses of organisms to global environmental change and to evaluating whether conservation practices are yielding intended results through time (Wiens 2009). The population status of many shorebird species, the focus of this volume, remain poorly known. Long-distance migrant shorebirds have proven particularly difficult to monitor, in part because of their highly inaccessible regions. As migrant shorebirds travel the length of the hemisphere, the congregate and disperse in ways that vary among species, locations, and years, presenting serious challenges to designing and implementing monitoring programs. Rigorous field and quantitative methods that estimate population size and monitor trends are vitally needed to direct and evaluate effective conservation measures. Many management efforts depend on unbiased population size estimates; for examples, the shorebird conservation plans for both Canada and the United States seek to restore populations to levels calculated for the 1970s based on the best information available from existing surveys. Further, federal wildlife agencies within the United States and Canada have mandates to understand the state of their nations' resources under various conventions for the protection of migratory birds. Accurate estimates of population size are vital statistics for a variety of conservation activities, such as prioritizing species for conservation action and setting management targets. Areas of essential habitat, such as those designated under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the Important Bird Areas program of BirdLife Internationals and the National Audubon Society, or Canada's National Wildlife Areas program, are all evaluated on the basis of proportions of species' populations which they contain. The size, and trends in size, of a species' population are considered key information for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent

  20. Massive cerebral arterial air embolism following arterial catheterization

    Yang, C.W. [Northwestem University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yang, B.P. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Microscopic cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) has been described in many patients undergoing cardiac surgery as well as other invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, massive CAAE is rare. We report a 42-year-old woman who initially presented with thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Shortly after a radial arterial catheter was inserted, the patient suffered a generalized seizure and CT demonstrated intra-arterial air in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  1. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  2. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line.... Normally, the territorial sea baseline is the mean low water line along the coast of the United States...

  3. Empirically derived climate predictability over the extratropical northern hemisphere

    J. B. Elsner

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel application of a technique developed from chaos theory is used in describing seasonal to interannual climate predictability over the Northern Hemisphere (NH. The technique is based on an empirical forecast scheme - local approximation in a reconstructed phase space - for time-series data. Data are monthly 500 hPa heights on a latitude-longitude grid covering the NH from 20° N to the equator. Predictability is estimated based on the linear correlation between actual and predicted heights averaged over a forecast range of one- to twelve.month lead. The method is capable of extracting the major climate signals on this time scale including ENSO and the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  4. Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field σ. σ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of σ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to σ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component

  5. Southern Hemisphere extratropical circulation: Recent trends and natural variability

    Thomas, Jordan L.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2015-07-01

    Changes in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Southern Hemisphere (SH) westerly jet location, and magnitude are linked with changes in ocean circulation along with ocean heat and carbon uptake. Recent trends have been observed in these fields but not much is known about the natural variability. Here we aim to quantify the natural variability of the SH extratropical circulation by using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) preindustrial control model runs and compare with the observed trends in SAM, jet magnitude, and jet location. We show that trends in SAM are due partly to external forcing but are not outside the natural variability as described by these models. Trends in jet location and magnitude, however, lie outside the unforced natural variability but can be explained by a combination of natural variability and the ensemble mean forced trend. These results indicate that trends in these three diagnostics cannot be used interchangeably.

  6. Darwin as a plant scientist: a Southern Hemisphere perspective.

    Hopper, Stephen D; Lambers, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Events around the world this year celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the sesquicentenary of publication of his most important work, The Origin of Species (Darwin 1859). The associated plethora of books and papers now appearing to commemorate Darwin's work continue the traditional emphasis on his zoological and geological contributions. There has been some recent attention directed towards Darwin's relatively unsung but significant accomplishments as a botanist. Here, we bring together a review of Darwin's botanical discoveries and experiments and relevant aspects of his geological investigations, with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. This is a relatively unexplored aspect of Darwin's contributions that yields some new insights meriting future research.

  7. Towards a governance agenda for the emerging Atlantic Hemisphere

    Daniel S. Hamilton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Basin is re-emerging as an important subsystem within the global political economy: inter-linked flows of people and energy, money and weapons,goods and services, technology and terror,drugs and crime; greater access to each other’s markets, resources, and talent. Yet,growing interdependencies gene-rate new vulnerabilities and challenges: cooperation over resources and energy connections; promotion of trade and investment; migration and integration; building resilient societies; enhancement of good governance; investment in human development; and the fight against transnational criminal organisations and their growing links to terrorists and insurgents. However, while governance mechanisms and diplomatic cooperation based on a pan-Atlantic framework are in their infancy, a host of developments suggests that broadranging, interwoven hemispheric cooperation may be possible. In fact, the Atlantic Basin may emerge as a global laboratory for interregional, networked governance between developed and emerging countries.

  8. A quasi-hemispheric model of the Hermean's magnetic field

    Thebault, E.; Oliveira, J.; Langlais, B.; Amit, H.

    2015-10-01

    We analyse and process magnetic field measurements provided by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission. The vect or magnetic field measurements are modelled with a dedicated regional scheme expanded in space and in time. Compared to the widely used global Spherical Harmonics (SH), the regional approach is particularly well suited because the partial and quasi hemispheric distribution of the MESSENGER data represents no major numerical difficulty. We confirm that the internal magnetic field of Mercury is mostly axisymmetric with a magnetic equator shifted northward. However, we also observe a time dependency in the model that is at present hardly explained only by time variations of the external magnetic fields. We present the major spatial and temporal structures shown by the regional model.

  9. Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern Hemisphere temperatures

    Steinman, Byron A.; Mann, Michael E.; Miller, Sonya K.

    2015-02-01

    The recent slowdown in global warming has brought into question the reliability of climate model projections of future temperature change and has led to a vigorous debate over whether this slowdown is the result of naturally occurring, internal variability or forcing external to Earth’s climate system. To address these issues, we applied a semi-empirical approach that combines climate observations and model simulations to estimate Atlantic- and Pacific-based internal multidecadal variability (termed “AMO” and “PMO,” respectively). Using this method, the AMO and PMO are found to explain a large proportion of internal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperatures. Competition between a modest positive peak in the AMO and a substantially negative-trending PMO are seen to produce a slowdown or “false pause” in warming of the past decade.

  10. Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of landslides in the Western Hemisphere

    Schuster, Robert L.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2001-01-01

    In spite of improvements in recognition, prediction, mitigative measures, and warning systems, economic losses and casualties due to landslides in the Western Hemisphere appear to be growing as a result of increasing development of landslide-prone areas due to population pressures. This paper notes outstanding examples of socioeconomic losses in the Americas. Landslides impact the following elements of the natural environment: (1) the topography/morphology of both the subaerial and submarine surfaces of the Earth, (2) rivers, streams, forests, and grasslands, and (3) habitats of native fauna, both on the Earth?s surface and in its streams and oceans. Environmental disturbances are results of general tendency toward degradation of the Earth?s surface by gravitational mass wasting and erosion.

  11. Advocacy in the Western Hemisphere Region: some FPA success stories.

    Andrews, D J

    1996-01-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.

  12. Neural correlates supporting sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke

    Borstad, Alexandra; Schmalbrock, Petra; Choi, Seongjin; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly half of stroke patients have impaired sensory discrimination, however, the neural structures that support post-stroke sensory function have not been described. Objectives 1) To evaluate the role of the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex in post-stroke sensory discrimination and 2) To determine the relationship between post-stroke sensory discrimination and structural integrity of the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation (sSTR). Methods 10 healthy adults and 10 individuals with left hemisphere stroke participated. Stroke participants completed sensory discrimination testing. An fMRI was conducted during right, impaired hand sensory discrimination. Fractional anisotropy and volume of the sSTR were quantified using diffusion tensor tractography. Results Sensory discrimination was impaired in 60% of participants with left stroke. Peak activation in the left (S1) did not correlate with sensory discrimination ability, rather a more distributed pattern of activation was evident in post-stroke subjects with a positive correlation between peak activation in the parietal cortex and discrimination ability (r=.70, p=.023). The only brain region in which stroke participants had significantly different cortical activation than control participants was the precuneus. Region of interest analysis of the precuneus across stroke participants revealed a positive correlation between peak activation and sensory discrimination ability (r=.77, p=.008). The L/R ratio of sSTR fractional anisotropy also correlated with right hand sensory discrimination (r=.69, p=.027). Conclusions Precuneus cortex, distributed parietal lobe activity, and microstructure of the sSTR support sensory discrimination after left hemisphere stroke. PMID:22592076

  13. Phonotactic awareness deficit following left-hemisphere stroke

    Maryam Ghaleh

    2015-04-01

    Likert-type scale responses were z-transformed and coded accurate for positive z-values in condition 3 and negative z-values in condition 1 trials. Accuracy was analyzed using binomial mixed effects models and z-transformed scale responses were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. For both analyses, the fixed effects of stimulus, trial number, group (patient/control, education, age, response time, phonotactic regularity (1/3, and gender were examined along with all relevant interactions. Random effects for participant and stimuli as well as random slopes were also included. Model fitting was performed in a backward-stepwise iterative fashion, followed by forward fitting of maximal random effects structure. Models were evaluated by model fitness comparisons using Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion. Accuracy analysis revealed that healthy participants were significantly more accurate than patients [β = 0.47, p<0.001] in Englishness rating. Scale response analysis revealed a significant effect of phonotactic regularity [β = 1.65, p<0.0001] indicating that participants were sensitive to phonotactic regularity differences among non-words. However, the significant interaction of group and phonotactic regularity [β = -0.5, p= 0.02] further demonstrated that, compared to healthy adults, patients were less able to recognize the phonotactic regularity differences between non-words. Results suggest that left-hemisphere lesions cause impaired phonotactic processing and that the left hemisphere might be necessary for phonotactic awareness. These preliminary findings will be followed up by further analyses investigating the interactions between phonotactic processing and participants’ scores on other linguistic/cognitive tasks as well as lesion-symptom mapping.

  14. The determination of δ13C in atmospheric methane in the Southern Hemisphere

    Lowe, D.C.; Manning, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    A technique to make measurements of δ 13 C in atmospheric methane (δ 13 CH 4 ) to a precision of 0.02 per mille (1 sigma) is presented. Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 CH 4 from Baring Head, New Zealand and Scott Base, Antarctica are reviewed for the period 1989 to 1998. The data show persistent but irregular seasonal cycles in δ 13 CH 4 ranging from 0.1-0.3 per mille superimposed on an increasing secular trend of about 0.04 per mille.year -1 . In 1990/91 a 0.2 per mille positive anomaly appeared in this trend. The causes of the anomaly remain unresolved but, during 1992 when it disappeared, the decrease in δ 13 C was approximately coincident with a decrease in growth rate consistent with a decrease in biomass burning sources, which are relatively enriched in 13 CH 4 . δ 13 CH 4 data are also reported from large clean air samples collected every 2.5 deg. to 5 deg. of latitude on four voyages across the Pacific between New Zealand and the West Coast of the USA in 1996 and 1997. These data show that the inter-hemispheric gradient for δ 13 CH 4 was highly dependent on season, and varied from less than 0.1 per mille in June 1996 to more than 0.5 per mille in November 1996 with an estimated annual mean of 0.2-0.3 per mille. (author)

  15. Hemispherical Brillouin zone imaging of a diamond-type biological photonic crystal

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The brilliant structural body colours of many animals are created by three-dimensional biological photonic crystals that act as wavelength-specific reflectors. Here, we report a study on the vividly coloured scales of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis. Electron microscopy identified the chitin and air assemblies inside the scales as domains of a single-network diamond (Fd3m) photonic crystal. We visualized the topology of the first Brillouin zone (FBZ) by imaging scatterometry, and we reconstructed the complete photonic band structure diagram (PBSD) of the chitinous photonic crystal from reflectance spectra. Comparison with calculated PBSDs indeed showed a perfect overlap. The unique method of non-invasive hemispherical imaging of the FBZ provides key insights for the investigation of photonic crystals in the visible wavelength range. The characterized extremely large biophotonic nanostructures of E. imperialis are structurally optimized for high reflectance and may thus be well suited for use as a template for producing novel photonic devices, e.g. through biomimicry or direct infiltration from dielectric material. PMID:22188768

  16. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synoptic climate change as a driver of late Quaternary glaciations in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    Rother, H.; Shulmeister, J.

    2006-05-01

    The relative timing of late Quaternary glacial advances in mid-latitude (40-55° S) mountain belts of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) has become a critical focus in the debate on global climate teleconnections. On the basis of glacial data from New Zealand (NZ) and southern South America it has been argued that interhemispheric synchrony or asynchrony of Quaternary glacial events is due to Northern Hemisphere (NH) forcing of SH climate through either the ocean or atmosphere systems. Here we present a glacial snow-mass balance model that demonstrates that large scale glaciation in the temperate and hyperhumid Southern Alps of New Zealand can be generated with moderate cooling. This is because the rapid conversion of precipitation from rainfall to snowfall drives massive ice accumulation at small thermal changes (1-4°C). Our model is consistent with recent paleo-environmental reconstructions showing that glacial advances in New Zealand during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT) occurred under very moderate cooling. We suggest that such moderate cooling could be generated by changes in synoptic climatology, specifically through enhanced regional flow of moist westerly air masses. Our results imply that NH climate forcing may not have been the exclusive driver of Quaternary glaciations in New Zealand and that synoptic style climate variations are a better explanation for at least some late Quaternary glacial events, in particular during the LGIT (e.g. Younger Dryas and/or Antarctic Cold Reversal).

  18. Synoptic climate change as a driver of late Quaternary glaciations in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    H. Rother

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative timing of late Quaternary glacial advances in mid-latitude (40-55° S mountain belts of the Southern Hemisphere (SH has become a critical focus in the debate on global climate teleconnections. On the basis of glacial data from New Zealand (NZ and southern South America it has been argued that interhemispheric synchrony or asynchrony of Quaternary glacial events is due to Northern Hemisphere (NH forcing of SH climate through either the ocean or atmosphere systems. Here we present a glacial snow-mass balance model that demonstrates that large scale glaciation in the temperate and hyperhumid Southern Alps of New Zealand can be generated with moderate cooling. This is because the rapid conversion of precipitation from rainfall to snowfall drives massive ice accumulation at small thermal changes (1-4°C. Our model is consistent with recent paleo-environmental reconstructions showing that glacial advances in New Zealand during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT occurred under very moderate cooling. We suggest that such moderate cooling could be generated by changes in synoptic climatology, specifically through enhanced regional flow of moist westerly air masses. Our results imply that NH climate forcing may not have been the exclusive driver of Quaternary glaciations in New Zealand and that synoptic style climate variations are a better explanation for at least some late Quaternary glacial events, in particular during the LGIT (e.g. Younger Dryas and/or Antarctic Cold Reversal.

  19. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  20. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  1. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  2. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  3. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  4. Intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry and its relationships with handedness and language Lateralization.

    Joliot, M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Mazoyer, B

    2016-12-01

    Asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity, and its association with handedness and hemispheric dominance for language, were investigated in a sample of 290 healthy volunteers enriched in left-handers (52.7%). From the resting-state FMRI data of each participant, we derived an intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry (HICA) matrix as the difference between the left and right intra-hemispheric matrices of intrinsic correlation computed for each pair of the AICHA atlas ROIs. We defined a similarity measure between the HICA matrices of two individuals as the correlation coefficient of their corresponding elements, and computed for each individual an index of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry as the average similarity measure of his HICA matrix to those of the other subjects of the sample (HICAs). Gaussian-mixture modeling of the age-corrected HICAs sample distribution revealed that two types of HICA patterns were present, one (Typical_HICA) including 92.4% of the participants while the other (Atypical_HICA) included only 7.6% of them, mostly left-handers. In addition, we investigated the relationship between asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity and language hemispheric dominance, including a potential effect of handedness on this relationship, thanks to an FMRI acquisition during language production from which an hemispheric functional lateralization index for language (HFLI) and a type of hemispheric dominance for language, namely leftward, ambilateral, or rightward, were derived for each individual. There was a significant association between the types of language hemispheric dominance and of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry, occurrence of Atypical_HICAs individuals being very high in the group of individuals rightward-lateralized for language (80%), reduced in the ambilateral group (19%) and rare in individuals leftward-lateralized for language (less than 3%). Quantitatively, we found a

  5. Baseline Date in Determining Net Emissions Increases

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. BACT Baseline for Louisa Generating Station

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Baseline Value for PSD Increment Consumption

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Regional air pollution at a turning point.

    Grennfelt, Peringe; Hov, Oystein

    2005-02-01

    The control of transboundary air pollution in Europe has been successful. Emissions of many key pollutants are decreasing and there are signs of improvements in damaged ecosystems. The strategies under development within the CAFE programme under the European Commission and the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), aim to take regional air pollution control a large step further, in particular with respect to small particles. In this paper we highlight the new strategies but look primarily at socioeconomic trends and climate change feedbacks that may have a significant influence on the outcome of the strategies and which so far have not been considered. In particular, we point out the influence on air quality of increased summer temperatures in Europe and of increasing emissions including international shipping, outside of Europe. Taken together the further emissions reductions in Europe and the increasing background pollution, slowly cause a greying of the Northern Hemisphere troposphere rather than the traditional picture of dominant emissions in Europe and North America ('black') with much lower emission intensities elsewhere ('white'). A hemispheric approach to further combat air pollution will become necessary in Europe and elsewhere.

  9. Baseline cerebral oximetry values depend on non-modifiable patient characteristics.

    Valencia, Lucía; Rodríguez-Pérez, Aurelio; Ojeda, Nazario; Santana, Romen Yone; Morales, Laura; Padrón, Oto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate baseline regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) values and identify factors influencing preoperative rSO2 in elective minor surgery. Observational analysis post-hoc. Observational post-hoc analysis of data for the patient sample (n=50) of a previously conducted clinical trial in patients undergoing tumourectomy for breast cancer or inguinal hernia repair. Exclusion criteria included pre-existing cerebrovascular diseases, anaemia, baseline pulse oximetry values were recorded while the patient breathed room air, using the INVOS 5100C monitor™ (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). Thirty-seven women (72%) and 13 men (28%) 48 ± 13 years of age were enrolled in this study. Baseline rSO2 was 62.01 ± 10.38%. Baseline rSO2 was significantly different between men (67.6 ± 11.2%) and women (60 ± 9.4%), (P=0.023). There were also differences between baseline rSO2 and ASA physical status (ASA I: 67.6 ± 10.7%, ASA II: 61.6 ± 8.4%, ASA III: 55.8 ± 13.9%, P=0.045). Baseline rSO2 had a positive correlation with body weight (r=0.347, P=0.014) and height (r=0.345, P=0.014). We also found significant differences in baseline rSO2 among patients with and without chronic renal failure (P=0.005). No differences were found in any other studied variables. Non-modifiable patient characteristics (ASA physical status, sex, chronic renal failure, body weight and height) influence baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Baseline Year for the Baseline Year Test (in 40 CFR 93.119)

    EPA OTAQ's State and Local Transportation Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Updates on the adequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs), and transportation conformity regulations and guidance

  11. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Semantic Processing: Evidence from False Memories for Ambiguous Words

    Faust, Miriam; Ben-Artzi, Elisheva; Harel, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the left hemisphere (LH) focuses on strongly related word meanings; the right hemisphere (RH) may contribute uniquely to the processing of lexical ambiguity by activating and maintaining a wide range of meanings, including subordinate meanings. The present study used the word-lists false memory paradigm [Roediger,…

  12. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance in relation to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-08-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--digoxin (membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor and regulator of neurotransmitter transport), dolichol (regulator of N-glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). The isoprenoid pathway was assessed in patients with bronchial asthma. The pathway was also assessed in patients with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. The pathway was upregulated with increase in digoxin synthesis in bronchial asthma. There was an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites in patients with bronchial asthma. The ubiquinone levels were low and lipid peroxidation increased in these patients. There was increase in dolichol and glycoconjugate levels and reduction in lysosomal stability in these patients. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was increased and glycoconjugate levels were reduced in the membranes of these patients. The patterns noticed in bronchial asthma were similar to those in patients with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Bronchial asthma occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with bronchial asthma were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. But their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test.

  13. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Gaze-Triggered Reflexive Shift of Attention in Humans

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…

  14. Divergent Thinking and Hemispheric Dominance for Language Function among Preschool Children.

    Tegano, Deborah Walker; And Others

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship of hemispheric dominance (dichotic listening) and divergent thinking (Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) with 27 preschool children indicates that divergent thinking is associated with right hemispheric dominance in children as young as four years. (Author/PN)

  15. Hemispheric metacontrol and cerebral dominance in healthy individuals investigated by means of chimeric faces.

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2005-08-01

    Cerebral dominance and hemispheric metacontrol were investigated by testing the ability of healthy participants to match chimeric, entire, or half faces presented tachistoscopically. The two hemi-faces compounding chimeric or entire stimuli were presented simultaneously or asynchronously at different exposure times. Participants did not consciously detect chimeric faces for simultaneous presentations lasting up to 40 ms. Interestingly, a 20 ms separation between each half-chimera was sufficient to induce detection of conflicts at a conscious level. Although the presence of chimeric faces was not consciously perceived, performance on chimeric faces was poorer than on entire- and half-faces stimuli, thus indicating an implicit processing of perceptual conflicts. Moreover, the precedence of hemispheric stimulation over-ruled the right hemisphere dominance for face processing, insofar as the hemisphere stimulated last appeared to influence the response. This dynamic reversal of cerebral dominance, however, was not caused by a shift in hemispheric specialization, since the level of performance always reflected the right hemisphere specialization for face recognition. Thus, the dissociation between hemispheric dominance and specialization found in the present study hints at the existence of hemispheric metacontrol in healthy individuals.

  16. Hemispheric Specialization and Creative Thinking: A Meta-Analytic Review of Lateralization of Creativity

    Mihov, Konstantin M.; Denzler, Markus; Forster, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the literature to establish how creative thinking…

  17. Determination of hemispheric dominance with mental rotation using functional transcranial Doppler sonography and FMRI.

    Hattemer, Katja; Plate, Annika; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Haag, Anja; Keil, Boris; Klein, Karl Martin; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hamer, Hajo M; Rosenow, Felix; Knake, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this study was to investigate specific activation patterns and potential gender differences during mental rotation and to investigate whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) lateralize hemispheric dominance concordantly. regional brain activation and hemispheric dominance during mental rotation (cube perspective test) were investigated in 10 female and 10 male healthy subjects using fMRI and fTCD. significant activation was found in the superior parietal lobe, at the parieto-occipital border, in the middle and superior frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the right inferior frontal gyrus using fMRI. Men showed a stronger lateralization to the right hemisphere during fMRI and a tendency toward stronger right-hemispheric activation during fTCD. Furthermore, more activation in frontal and parieto-occipital regions of the right hemisphere was observed using fMRI. Hemispheric dominance for mental rotation determined by the 2 methods correlated well (P= .008), but did not show concordant results in every single subject. the neural basis of mental rotation depends on a widespread bilateral network. Hemispheric dominance for mental rotation determined by fMRI and fTCD, though correlating well, is not always concordant. Hemispheric lateralization of complex cortical functions such as spatial rotation therefore should be investigated using multimodal imaging approaches, especially if used clinically as a tool for the presurgical evaluation of patients undergoing neurosurgery. Copyright © 2009 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Bilateral versus ipsilesional cortico-subcortical activity patterns in stroke show hemispheric dependence.

    Vidal, Ana C; Banca, Paula; Pascoal, Augusto G; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Sargento-Freitas, João; Gouveia, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy. We used neuroimaging to probe brain activity with such a movement-dependent interhemispheric modulation paradigm. Methods We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging block design during which the plegic/paretic upper limb was recruited/mobilized to perform unilateral arm elevation, as a function of presence versus absence of contralateral limb restriction (n = 20, with balanced left/right lesion sites). Results Analysis of 10 right hemispheric stroke participants yielded bilateral sensorimotor cortex activation in all movement phases in contrast with the unilateral dominance seen in the 10 left hemispheric stroke participants. Superimposition of contralateral restriction led to a prominent shift from activation to deactivation response patterns, in particular in cortical and basal ganglia motor areas in right hemispheric stroke. Left hemispheric stroke was, in general, characterized by reduced activation patterns, even in the absence of restriction, which induced additional cortical silencing. Conclusion The observed hemispheric-dependent activation/deactivation shifts is novel and these pathophysiological observations suggest short-term neuroplasticity that may be useful for hemisphere-tailored neurorehabilitation.

  19. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  20. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia : A randomised clinical trial

    Donkervoort, M; Dekker, J; Stehmann-Saris, FC; Deelman, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated

  1. Motivation and motor control: hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handedness.

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Casasanto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH), according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the "sword hand," used preferentially to perform approach actions) and the nondominant hand (i.e., the "shield hand," used preferentially to perform avoidance actions). To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity) in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants' trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers. The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.

  2. Left and Right Memory Revisited: Electrophysiological Investigations of Hemispheric Asymmetries at Retrieval

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2009-01-01

    Hemispheric differences in the use of memory retrieval cues were examined in a continuous recognition design, using visual half-field presentation to bias the processing of test words. A speeded recognition task revealed general accuracy and response time advantages for items whose test presentation was biased to the left hemisphere. A second…

  3. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia: a randomised clinical trial.

    Donkervoort, M.; Dekker, J.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated

  4. Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia: a randomized clinical trial.

    Dekker, J.; Donkervoort, M.; Stehman, F.C.; Deelman, B.G.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. 113 Left hemisphere assigned to two treatment groups: i) strategy training integrated into usual occupational therapy and ii) usual

  5. [Sex differences in relationship between creativity and hemispheric information processing in global and local levels].

    Razumnikova, O M; Vol'f, N V

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in creativity related global-local hemispheric selective processing were examined by hierarchical letter presenting in conditions of their perception and comparison. Fifty-six right-handed males and 68 females (aged 17-22 years) participated in the experiments. Originality-imagery was assessed by a computer-based Torrance 'Incomplete Figures' test software. Verbal creativity was valued by original sentence using of three nouns from remote semantic categories. The results show that irrespectively of the sex factor and the type of creative thinking, its originality is provided by high speed of right-hemispheric processes of information selection on the global level and delay in the interhemispheric communication. Relationships between originality of ideas and hemispheric attentional characteristics are presented mostly in men while verbal creative problem solving, and in women while figurative original thinking. Originality of verbal activity in men is more associated with success of selective processes in the left hemisphere, but in women--with selective functions of both hemispheres. Figurative thinking in men is less related to hemispheric characteristics of attention compared with women. Increase of figurative originality in women is accompanied acceleration of processes of selection of the information in the right hemisphere, and also higher efficiency of local attention as well as speeds ofglobal processing in the left hemisphere.

  6. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  7. Aphasic Patients Exhibit a Reversal of Hemispheric Asymmetries in Categorical Color Discrimination

    Paluy, Yulia; Gilbert, Aubrey L.; Baldo, Juliana V.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Ivry, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) brain injury due to stroke were tested on a speeded, color discrimination task in which two factors were manipulated: (1) the categorical relationship between the target and the distracters and (2) the visual field in which the target was presented. Similar to controls, the RH patients…

  8. Moral judgement by the disconnected left and right cerebral hemispheres: a split-brain investigation.

    Steckler, Conor M; Hamlin, J Kiley; Miller, Michael B; King, Danielle; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the hemispheric isolation resulting from a severed corpus callosum, research on split-brain patients can help elucidate the brain regions necessary and sufficient for moral judgement. Notably, typically developing adults heavily weight the intentions underlying others' moral actions, placing greater importance on valenced intentions versus outcomes when assigning praise and blame. Prioritization of intent in moral judgements may depend on neural activity in the right hemisphere's temporoparietal junction, an area implicated in reasoning about mental states. To date, split-brain research has found that the right hemisphere is necessary for intent-based moral judgement. When testing the left hemisphere using linguistically based moral vignettes, split-brain patients evaluate actions based on outcomes, not intentions. Because the right hemisphere has limited language ability relative to the left, and morality paradigms to date have involved significant linguistic demands, it is currently unknown whether the right hemisphere alone generates intent-based judgements. Here we use nonlinguistic morality plays with split-brain patient J.W. to examine the moral judgements of the disconnected right hemisphere, demonstrating a clear focus on intent. This finding indicates that the right hemisphere is not only necessary but also sufficient for intent-based moral judgement, advancing research into the neural systems supporting the moral sense.

  9. Questions of Brain Hemispheric Specialization and Gender Difference in Spatial Tests.

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This paper presents a review of selected literature relevant to a general question of hemispheric specialization (right or left brain) and questions of gender differences in spatial abilities among a group of art students. Three basic questions for discussion are proposed: (1) is there a relationship between hemispheric dominance and spatial…

  10. Measuring right-hemisphere dysfunction in children: validity of two new computer tests

    Sips, H.J.W.A.; C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); H.R. van Dongen (Huug); van der Werff, P.J.J.; Brooke, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe validity of two new computer‐mediated tests for the detection of right‐cerebral hemisphere lesions in children–the Right‐hemisphere Dysfunction Test and the Visual Perception Test–was evaluated. Normative data were drawn from a group of 91 children (aged five to 14 years) and 14

  11. Mass and energy budget of the northern hemisphere. Der Massen- und Energiehaushalt der Nordhemisphaere

    Hacker, J M

    1981-01-01

    Seasonal budgets of moist static energy, dry static energy, latent energy, and mass m are calculated for mass-equal finite elements (boxes) over the northern hemisphere. For this purpose the hemispheric atmosphere is divided into 4 meridional belts, 12 zonal sectors and 4 vertical layers, which results in 48 atmospheric columns and a total of 192 boxes.

  12. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  13. Split-brain, the right hemisphere, and art: fact and fiction.

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2013-01-01

    The research studies of complete commissurotomy patients (split-brain) in Roger W. Sperry's psychobiology laboratory at Caltech, Pasadena, galvanized the scientific and intellectual world in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings had an important and enduring impact on brain research in countless areas. Interest in hemispheric specialization in particular was sparked by these studies and paved the way for countless discoveries. Right hemisphere specialization for visuospatial functions and facial processing was confirmed with these patients. The further unraveling of right-hemisphere cognition, the "mute" hemisphere, was a major goal in Sperry's laboratory, and much factual knowledge was learned that was not known previously. However, the linking of art and creativity with the right hemisphere was a nonempirically based inference made not by Sperry's lab but rather by others wishing to "assign" functional hemisphericity. The general assumption was that "art" is anchored in spatial cognition, that it is a nonverbal activity requiring imagery and thus must be controlled by the right, nonlanguage hemisphere. To this day, robust evidence that the right specializes in art expression or art perception is yet to be shown, if for no other reason than that art is not a single, unitary form of expression or cognition. The conjectured right hemisphere-art link turned into a popular story that filtered back into science, shaped future research of brain and art, and overlooked other avenues for insights. This chapter traces and explores this background. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  15. Hemispheric specialization and creative thinking: a meta-analytic review of lateralization of creativity

    Mihov, K.M.; Denzler, M.; Förster, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades research on the neurophysiological processes of creativity has found contradicting results. Whereas most research suggests right hemisphere dominance in creative thinking, left-hemisphere dominance has also been reported. The present research is a meta-analytic review of the

  16. Effect of Temporal Constraints on Hemispheric Asymmetries during Spatial Frequency Processing

    Peyrin, Carole; Mermillod, Martial; Chokron, Sylvie; Marendaz, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Studies on functional hemispheric asymmetries have suggested that the right vs. left hemisphere should be predominantly involved in low vs. high spatial frequency (SF) analysis, respectively. By manipulating exposure duration of filtered natural scene images, we examined whether the temporal characteristics of SF analysis (i.e., the temporal…

  17. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  18. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    2010-07-01

    ... baseline toxics value if it can determine an applicable toxics value for every batch of gasoline produced... of gasoline batch i produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. n...

  19. Pakistan, Sindh Province - Baseline Indicators System : Baseline Procurement Performance Assessment Report

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This document provides an assessment of the public procurement system in Sindh province using the baseline indicators system developed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD-DAC). This assessment, interviews and discussions were held with stakeholders from the public and private sectors as well as civil society. Developing...

  20. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand