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Sample records for hemiptera aphididae hallado

  1. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

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    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  2. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

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    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  3. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

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    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects.

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    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-12-17

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  5. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

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    Yuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  6. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

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    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  7. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

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    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  8. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

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    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  9. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

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    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  10. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

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    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  11. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  12. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

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    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  13. First record and establishment of Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) tianmushanensis Zang, (Hemiptera Aphididae) on ornamental cherry trees in Italy

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    G. Pellizzari; G. Frigimelica

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the Asiatic aphid Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) tianmushanensis Zang, (=Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) higansakurae hainnevilleae Remaudière and Sorin) (Hemiptera Aphididae) in Italy is reported. The species was first detected inside leaf galls of Prunus subhirtella cv. pendula trees growing outdoors at the University Botanical Garden of Padua (Italy). Further investigations demonstrated that the species is present in plant nurseries in the Veneto region. So far thi...

  14. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

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    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species

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    Kondo, Takumasa; Cortés, Ronald Simbaqueba

    2014-01-01

    The crape myrtle aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) collected on Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) is herein reported as a new invasive species in the city of Palmira, State of Valle del Cauca, and on San Andres island, in the State of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina, Colombia. The species is illustrated and diagnosed. A brief review of recent invasive species in Colombia, i.e., Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), Crypticerya multici...

  16. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile

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    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that is particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance very frequently develop insecticide resistance. Seven mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been des...

  17. First record and establishment of Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella tianmushanensis Zang, (Hemiptera Aphididae on ornamental cherry trees in Italy

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    G. Pellizzari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the Asiatic aphid Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella tianmushanensis Zang, (=Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella higansakurae hainnevilleae Remaudière and Sorin (Hemiptera Aphididae in Italy is reported. The species was first detected inside leaf galls of Prunus subhirtella cv. pendula trees growing outdoors at the University Botanical Garden of Padua (Italy. Further investigations demonstrated that the species is present in plant nurseries in the Veneto region. So far this species was considered eradicated in Europe, after its first incursion in France in 1993.

  18. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  19. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

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    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  1. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

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    Harrison, Katharine V; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum : Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  2. Preferensi dan Kecocokan Inang Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae terhadap Berbagai Varietas Pisang

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    Suparman Suparman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae is the only known vector of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV. The objective of this research was to study the preference and suitability of banana aphid P. nigronervosa to various banana genotypes. Survey conducted at Talang Betutu, South Sumatra indicates the existence of different preferences of the P. nigronervosa toward different varieties in the field. Host suitability test was conducted using 13 banana varieties that were invested with P. nigronervosa from taro plants. Preference test was conducted using a 200 cm x 200 cm x 150 cm mesh cage that were used to house 13 banana genotypes that were invested with P. nigronerosa. The numbers of aphids on different banana genotypes were observed. Result of the study showed that “kepok” genotype was more suitable for the growth of P. nigronervosa compared to other genotypes. The suitability was shown by higher population, faster population growth, lower mortality and the higher proportion of alate adults. Banana kepok infested with 20 aphids at the beginning of the test reached 324 individuals within 24 days with population growth rate of 8.27% per day, and produced 1.9% of alate imagoes appeared 6 days after infestation. Host preference test using the same genotypes suggested that the aphid prefer banana kepok more than to any other genotypes.

  3. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  4. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  5. Evaluation of Vaccinium spp. for Illinoia pepperi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) performance and phenolic content.

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    Ranger, Christopher M; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2006-08-01

    Host acceptance and population parameters of the aphid Illinoia pepperi (MacGillivray) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were measured on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott', and the wild species Vaccinium boreale Hall and Aalders, Vaccinium tenellum Aiton, Vaccinium pallidum Aiton, Vaccinium hirsutum Buckley, Vaccinium myrsinites Lamarck, and Vaccinium darrowi Camp. After 24 h of exposure, significantly fewer aphids remained in contact with V. boreale and V. hirsutum compared with V. corymbosum Elliott, V. darrowi, and V. pallidum. Length of the prereproductive period of I. pepperi was significantly longer on V. boreale and V. myrsinites, in contrast to V. corymbosum. Fecundity was also lower on V. boreale, V. hirsutum, V. myrsinites, and V. darrowi. Survivorship of I. pepperi 42 d after birth was significantly lower on V. hirsutum compared with the remaining Vaccinium spp. Reduced I. pepperi performance resulted in significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) values being associated with V. myrsinites, V. boreale, V. hirsutum, and V. darrowi, compared with V. corymbosum. Net reproductive rate (R(o)), generation time (T), and doubling time (T(d)) of I. pepperi also were affected by the Vaccinium spp. Total phenolic and flavonol content varied between Vaccinium spp., with some high phenolic content Vaccinium spp. having reduced aphid performance. However, no significant correlation between phenolics and I. pepperi performance was detected. Results from this study identified several potential sources of aphid resistance traits in wild Vaccinium spp.

  6. Role of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its secondary hosts in plum pox virus propagation.

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    Manachini, B; Casati, P; Cinanni, L; Bianco, P

    2007-08-01

    Plum pox virus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, PPV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of plants in the genus Prunus, particularly Prunus persica L. The role of the Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a vector of PPV-M, and its role in spreading PPV-M, was investigated. PPV-M-infected peach trees were used as inoculum sources, and transmission to 15 herbaceous species commonly present in and around peach orchards was evaluated. The presence of PPV-M in secondary hosts after aphid transmission was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The results indicate that Saponaria ocymoides L., Pisum sativum L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L., Lepidium sativum L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Centaurea cyanus L., Bellis perennis L., Papaver rhoeas L., and Zinnia elegans L. became infected. Although Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley, Taraxacum officinale L., Achillea millefolium L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Linum rubrum L. did not become infected, they are hosts of M. persicae. Among the 10 positive species that were infected, the species most common in peach orchards, T. pratense, T. repens, B. perennis, and M. chamomilla, were used as source plants for the transmission studies to the peach tree. Our study reveals the ability of M. persicae to transmit PPV-M from herbaceous hosts to peach trees, describes PPV-M symptoms in herbaceous species, and discusses the role of M. persicae and its hosts as a source of PPV-M in peach orchards.

  7. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

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    Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

    2010-08-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars.

  8. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): A New Pest on Sorghum in North America.

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    Bowling, Robert D; Brewer, Michael J; Kerns, David L; Gordy, John; Seiter, Nick; Elliott, Norman E; Buntin, G David; Way, M O; Royer, T A; Biles, Stephen; Maxson, Erin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum species in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in 4 states and 38 counties in the United States. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorghum-producing regions in Mexico. Ability to overwinter on living annual and perennial hosts in southern sorghum-producing areas and wind-aided movement of alate aphids appear to be the main factors in its impressive geographic spread in North America. Morphological characteristics of the sugarcane aphid include dark tarsi, cornicles, and antennae, allowing easy differentiation from other aphids on the crop. Sugarcane aphid damages sorghum by removing sap and covering plants with honeydew, causing general plant decline and yield loss. Honeydew and sooty mold can disrupt harvesting. The aphid's high reproductive rate on susceptible sorghum hybrids has resulted in reports of yield loss ranging from 10% to greater than 50%. In response, a combination of research-based data and field observations has supported development of state extension identification, scouting, and treatment guides that aid in initiating insecticide applications to prevent yield losses. Highly efficacious insecticides have been identified and when complemented by weekly scouting and use of thresholds, economic loss by sugarcane aphid can be minimized. Some commercial sorghum hybrids are partially resistant to the aphid, and plant breeders have identified other lines with sugarcane aphid resistance. A very diverse community of predators and parasitoids of sugarcane aphid has been identified, and their value to limit sugarcane aphid population growth is under investigation.

  9. Evidence for Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides in the Upper Midwestern United States.

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    Hanson, Anthony A; Menger-Anderson, James; Silverstein, Celia; Potter, Bruce D; MacRae, Ian V; Hodgson, Erin W; Koch, Robert L

    2017-10-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a damaging invasive pest of soybean in the upper Midwest. Threshold-based insecticide applications are the primary control method for soybean aphid, but few insecticide groups are available (i.e., pyrethroids, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids). To quantify current levels of soybean aphid susceptibility to pyrethroids in the upper Midwest and monitor for insecticide resistance, leaf-dip bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin in 2013-2015, and glass-vial bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin in 2015 and 2016. Soybean aphids were collected from 27 population-years in Minnesota and northern Iowa, and were compared with a susceptible laboratory colony with no known insecticide exposure since discovery of soybean aphid in North America in 2000. Field-collected aphids from some locations in leaf-dip and glass-vial bioassays had significantly lower rates of insecticide-induced mortality compared with the laboratory population, although field population susceptibility varied by year. In response to sublethal concentrations of λ-cyhalothrin, adult aphids from some locations required higher concentrations of insecticide to reduce nymph production compared with the laboratory population. The most resistant field population demonstrated 39-fold decreased mortality compared with the laboratory population. The resistance documented in this study, although relatively low for most field populations, indicates that there has been repeated selection pressure for pyrethroid resistance in some soybean aphid populations. Integrated pest management and insecticide resistance management should be practiced to slow further development of soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

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    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  11. Sublethal Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Demographic Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Li-Lin; Yang, Fan; Li, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lei, Chao-Liang; Si, Sheng-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6.80 mg liter-1. The duration of the preadult stage was not significantly affected in the sublethal bioassay. Additionally, the longevity and adult preoviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal thiamethoxam. However, sublethal thiamethoxam significantly increased fecundity (LC10) and prolonged the total preoviposition period (LC40). Consequently, the finite rate of increase (λ) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of aphids exposed to the LC40 were significantly lower than those of control aphids, whereas the net reproductive rate (R0) was higher, and the generation time (T) and the population doubling time (DT) were longer in the treated group. Based on these results, hormesis was induced by sublethal thiamethoxam in M. persicae, with the population growth of M. persicae negatively affected at higher sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam. Therefore, our study indicated that the possible effects of thiamethoxam on aphids require further study to develop optimized integrated pest management strategies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The biology and thermal requirements of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    José B Malaquias

    Full Text Available The relationship between the insect development rate and temperature was established very early and represents an important ecological variable for modeling the population dynamics of insects. The accurate determination of thermal constant values and the lower and upper developmental thresholds of Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller (Apiales: Apiaceae crops would obviously benefit the effective application of control measures. This paper is a study of the biology and thermal requirements of H. foeniculi. Winged insects were collected from fennel crops at the Embrapa Algodão in Campina Grande, Paraíba. Nymphs (age ≤24 h produced by winged insects were subjected to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 28, 30 or 33°C, a photophase of 12 h and a relative humidity of 70±10%. The results of the study showed that at temperatures between 15 and 30°C, H. foeniculi nymphs were able to develop normally. The four instars were found at all temperatures tested. However, temperatures of 3 and 33°C were lethal to the nymphs. The nymph stage development time varied from 5 (30°C to 19 (15°C days. The influence of temperature on the development time is dependent on the instar. The base temperature (Tb and the thermal constant (K for the nymph stage were estimated at 11.2°C and 107.5 degree-days, respectively. The shortest nymph development stage was observed at 30°C, and the highest nymph viability (85.0% was observed at 28°C. This information can be used for developing phenological models based on the temperature and development rate relationships so that outbreaks of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop can be predicted, therefore improving the application of control programs targeting this fennel pest.

  13. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Rubén Darío David Giraldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L., la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina. Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los animales domésticos en Colombia, es necesario registrar esta especie con el fin de tomar medidas en lo referente a programas de muestreo de sus poblaciones, estudio de su ciclo de vida y determinar los posibles controladores biológicos, que conduzcan al mejor conocimiento de este insecto y faciliten la toma de medidas de contención a su dispersión en el país.It is founded for the first time, the species of aphid Greenidea ficicola, Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae in the Antioquia Department (Colombia associated to guava plants (Psidium guajava L.. The species was collected during intensive sampling done during the first semester of 2008, in the Aburra Valley and near municipalities. The species of aphid was also collected on "false laurel" (Ficus benjamina. Due to the importance of guava as food for humans as well as wild and domestic animals, it is considered important to report this species so that contention measures can be taken specially related with more sampling, life cycle and potential biological control agents to get to know better this pest and control its spread in the country.

  14. Distribution, parasitoids and cyclic appearance of Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko, 1913 (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Algeria

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    Malik Laamari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This information on the Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphididae in those regions of Algeria where cereals are grown is based on a nineteen year study. This revealed that this aphid is widely distributed in the high plateaus and interior plains with semi-arid climates. The mummies of this aphid found among its colonies were collected and 4 parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae where identified. These were Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh, Aphidius matricariae (Haliday, Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Destefani and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, with D. rapae the most abundant. Moreover, this study also indicates that the cyclical appearance of this aphid is determined by the intensity of precipitation during winter and spring.

  15. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  16. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  17. Induction of resistance by silicon in wheat plants to alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P A S; Sampaio, M V; Rodrigues, M P; Korndörfer, A P; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, S E; Korndörfer, G H

    2014-08-01

    Despite the knowledge about the effects of silicon augmenting antibiosis and nonpreference of plants by apterous aphids, few studies exist on such effects with alate aphids. This study evaluated the effects of silicon fertilization on the biology of alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the effect on nonpreference by S. avenae alates for wheat plants with or without silicon fertilization. A method for rearing aphids on detached leaves was evaluated comparing the biology of apterous aphids reared on wheat leaf sections and on whole plants with and without silicon fertilization. Because the use of detached leaves was a reliable method, the effect of silicon fertilization on the biology of apterous and alate S. avenae was assessed using wheat leaf sections. Biological data of aphids were used to calculate a fertility life table. Finally, the effect of silicon fertilization on the nonpreference of alate aphids was carried out for both vegetative and reproductive phases of wheat. Thirty alate aphids were released in the center of a cage, and the number of aphids per whole plant with or without silicon fertilization was observed. Silicon fertilization induced antibiosis resistance in wheat plants to apterous morphs as shown by reduced fecundity, reproductive period, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, and net reproductive rate; however, alates were unaffected. Plants that received silicon fertilization had fewer alate aphids in both the vegetative and reproductive phases. Thus, silicon fertilization can reduce colonization by alates, enhancing nonpreference resistance, and population growth of apterous S. avenae in wheat plants.

  18. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Provides a General Benefit to Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Regardless of Host Plant Resistance (Rag).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), invokes substantial chemical treatment and economic cost in North America. Resistant soybean genotypes hold promise as a low-impact control methodology, but soybean aphid "biotypes" capable of development on resistant soy cast doubt on the durability of soy resistance. We hypothesized that variation in soybean aphid ability to colonize resistant soy is partially attributable to a bacterial symbiont of soybean aphid, Arsenophonus. We used microinjection to manipulate Arsenophonus infection in both virulent and avirulent aphid biotypes, resulting in five pairs of infected versus uninfected isolines. These isolines were subjected to various population growth rate assays on resistant Rag versus susceptible soybean. We found that aphid virulence on Rag soybean was not dependent on Arsenophonus: virulent aphid biotypes performed well on Rag soybean, and avirulent aphid biotypes performed poorly on Rag soybean, regardless of whether Arsenophonus was present or not. However, we did find that Arsenophonus-infected clones on average performed significantly better than their paired uninfected isolines. This pattern was not consistently evident on every date for every clone, either in the population assays nor when we compared lifetime fecundity of individual aphids in a separate experiment. Nevertheless, this overall benefit for infected aphids may be sufficient to explain the high frequency of Arsenophonus infection in soybean aphids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (F(ST) = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Induced senescence promotes the feeding activities and nymph development of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Assefh, Cristina R; Lucatti, Alejandro F; Alvarez, Adriana E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dark-induced senescence on Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants was assessed on the feeding behavior and performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Senescence was induced by covering the basal part of the plant with a black cloth for 5 d, avoiding the light passage, but keeping the apical buds uncovered. The basal part of control plants was covered with a white nonwoven cloth. The degree of senescence was determined by measuring the chlorophyll content of the covered leaves. The performance and feeding behavior of M. persicae were studied on the uncovered nonsenescent apical leaves. The aphid's performance was evaluated by measuring nymphal mortality and prereproductive time. Aphid feeding behavior was monitored by the electrical penetration graph technique. In plants with dark-induced senescence, the aphids showed a reduction in their prereproductive time. Aphids also spent more time ingesting sap from the phloem than in control plants and performed more test probes after the first sustained ingestion of phloem sap. These data suggest that M. persicae's phloem activities and nymph development benefit from the nutritional enrichment of phloem sap, derived from dark-induced senescence on potato plants. The induced senescence improved plant acceptance by M. persicae through an increase in sap ingestion that likely resulted in a reduction in developmental time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae: first record in Brazil, biological and morphometric parameters Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae: primeiro registro para o Brasil, parâmetros biológicos e morfométricos

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The species Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae was first detected in Brazil in 1998, in Curitiba, Paraná state, associated with the grass species Erianthus sp., Calamagrotis sp. and Paspalum urvilei. Both the field-collected and laboratory-reared specimens presented a noticeable intrapopulational variation in body and appendix length and in dorso-abdominal sclerotization. This species has been recorded in Malaysia, New Guinea, India, Philippines and Africa, where it colonizes several species of Poaceae. S. graminis differs from other Sitobion species from Brazil associated with grasses, as it presents black cauda and siphunculi and exhibits a constriction in the base of the last rostral segment. Biological data were obtained in the laboratory by rearing newborn nymphs on the inflorescence of the host plants. They passed through four nymphal instars. The mean duration of the nymphal stage was of 11.4 days, with a mortality ratio of 36.5%. The mean pre-larviposition period was of 1.8 days; mean longevity of the females was 25.2 days; and mean fecundity was 18.7 nymphs/female, ranging from 2 to 41 nymphs/female.A espécie Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez em 1998, em Curitiba, PR, associada às gramíneas Erianthus sp., Calamagrotis sp. e Paspalum urvilei. Os espécimes coletados e criados apresentavam uma notável variação intrapopulacional no comprimento do corpo e apêndices e na esclerotinização dorso-abdominal. Esta espécie é reconhecida na Malásia, Nova Guiné, Índia, Filipinas e África, colonizando várias espécies de Poaceae. S. graminis diferencia-se das demais espécies do gênero Sitobion associadas a gramíneas no Brasil, por apresentar a cauda e sifúnculos negros e o último segmento rostral constrito na base. Dados de biologia foram obtidos em laboratório, onde ninfas recém-nascidas criadas sobre as inflorescências das gram

  2. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of five aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae and phylogenetic implications.

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    Yuan Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes are of great interest in exploring molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Only two mitogenomes have been previously released in the insect group Aphididae, which consists of about 5,000 known species including some agricultural, forestry and horticultural pests. Here we report the complete 16,317 bp mitogenome of Cavariella salicicola and two nearly complete mitogenomes of Aphis glycines and Pterocomma pilosum. We also present a first comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of aphids. Results showed that aphid mitogenomes share conserved genomic organization, nucleotide and amino acid composition, and codon usage features. All 37 genes usually present in animal mitogenomes were sequenced and annotated. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed the lowest and highest rates for COI and ATP8, respectively. A unique repeat region exclusively in aphid mitogenomes, which included variable numbers of tandem repeats in a lineage-specific manner, was highlighted for the first time. This region may have a function as another origin of replication. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on protein-coding genes and the stem-loop structures of control regions confirmed a sister relationship between Cavariella and pterocommatines. Current evidence suggest that pterocommatines could be formally transferred into Macrosiphini. Our paper also offers methodological instructions for obtaining other Aphididae mitochondrial genomes.

  3. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raworth, D A; Pike, K S; Tanigoshi, L K; Mathur, S; Graf, G

    2008-04-01

    Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 +/- 0.024 and 0.090 +/- 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 degrees C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

  7. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  8. Historical biogeography of Eastern Asian-Eastern North American disjunct Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae) on Rhus hosts (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhumei; Zhong, Yang; Kurosu, Utako; Aoki, Shigeyuki; Ma, Enbo; von Dohlen, Carol D; Wen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Intercontinental biotic disjunctions have been documented and analyzed in numerous Holarctic taxa. Patterns previously synthesized for animals compared to plants suggest that the timing of animal disjunctions are mostly Early Tertiary and were generated by migration and vicariance events occurring in the North Atlantic, while plant disjunctions are mostly Mid-Late Tertiary and imply migration and vicariance over Beringia. Melaphidina aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Fordini) exhibit host-alternating life cycles comprising an obligate seasonal shift between Rhus subgenus Rhus species (Anacardiaceae) and mosses (Bryophyta). Similar to their Rhus hosts, melaphidines are distributed disjunctly between Eastern Asia and Eastern North America. We examined evolutionary relationships within Melaphidina to determine the position of the North American lineage, date its divergence from Asian relatives, and compare these results to a previous historical biogeographic study of Rhus. We sampled nine species and three subspecies representing all six genera of Melaphidina. Data included sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II+leucine tRNA, cytochrome b, and nuclear elongation factor 1α genes. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, parsimony) of the combined data (3282 bp) supported the monophyly of all genera except Nurudea and Schlechtendalia, due to the position of N. ibofushi. While the exact position of the North American Melaphis was not well resolved, there was high support for a derived position within Asian taxa. The divergence of Melaphis from Asian relatives centered on the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (~33-35Ma), which coincides with closure of Beringian Land Bridge I. This also corresponded to the Asian-North American disjunction previously estimated for subgenus Rhus spp. We suggest the late-Eocene Bering Land Bridge as the most likely migration route for Melaphis ancestors, as was also hypothesized for North American Rhus ancestors

  9. Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae under three temperatures

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    Josiane T. Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.

  10. Longevidade e parâmetros reprodutivos de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas

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    Michelotto Marcos Doniseti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O afídeo Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae é uma das principais pragas de diversas culturas em condições de campo ou em cultivo protegido. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas na longevidade e nos aspectos reprodutivos de M. persicae sobre berinjela (Solanum melongena L.. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas de temperatura (15, 20, 25 e 30degreesC, umidade relativa do ar (70 ? 10% e fotofase (12 horas. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo ágar-água solidificado (1%. Nestas placas, os afídeos foram mantidos individualmente sobre os discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro em uma das temperaturas (tratamentos, com 25 repetições. Foram determinadas as curvas mais ajustadas aos parâmetros biológicos de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². A temperatura influenciou todos os parâmetros avaliados. As durações dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo de M. persicae variaram de 0,46 dia (25degreesC a 1,12 dia (15degreesC e de 3,89 dias (25degreesC a 19,11 dias (15degreesC, respectivamente. A fecundidade total e diária foi de 17,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,38 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 25degreesC; 43,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,34 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 20degreesC; 60,65 ninfas/fêmea e 3,15 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 15degreesC. A 30degreesC, não houve reprodução. A duração do período pós-reprodutivo variou de 0,89 dia (25degreesC a 3,72 dias (15degreesC. A longevidade do afídeo diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura, de 23,95 dias (15degreesC para 5,06 dias (25degreesC. Temperaturas entre 15 e 20degreesC são mais favoráveis a M. persicae.

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae by RAPD markers Análise da diversidade genética de Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae por meio de marcadores RAPD

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    Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of host-races within aphids may constitute an obstacle to pest management by means of plant resistance. There are examples of host-races within cereals aphids, but their occurrence in Rose Grain Aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849, has not been reported yet. In this work, RAPD markers were used to assess effects of the hosts and geographic distance on the genetic diversity of M. dirhodum lineages. Twenty-three clones were collected on oats and wheat in twelve localitites of southern Brazil. From twenty-seven primers tested, only four primers showed polymorphisms. Fourteen different genotypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Five genotypes were collected only on wheat; seven only on oats and two were collected in both hosts. Genetic and geographical distances among all clonal lineages were not correlated. Analysis of molecular variance showed that some molecular markers are not randomly distributed among clonal lineages collected on oats and on wheat. These results suggest the existence of host-races within M. dirhodum, which should be further investigated using a combination of ecological and genetic data.A emergência de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos pode constituir um obstáculo ao manejo de pragas por meio de plantas resistentes. Existem exemplos de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos de cereais, embora a ocorrência de raça hospedeiro-especialista no pulgão-verde-pálido-do-trigo Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849 (Hemiptera, Aphididae não tenha sido relatada ainda. Marcadores RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da distância geográfica e do hospedeiro sobre a diversidade genética de linhas clonais de M. dirhodum. Vinte e três clones foram coletados em aveia e trigo em doze localidades do sul do Brasil. De vinte e sete iniciadores usados para a análise, apenas quatro iniciadores mostraram polimorfismos. A análise de agrupamento por similaridade genética revelou haver quatorze

  12. Within-field distribution of the damson-hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae and natural enemies on hops in Spain

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    Alicia Lorenzana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was performed in a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in order to determine the within-field distribution of Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae and its natural enemies. The distribution of P. humuli was directly affected by the position of the hop plants in the garden, with significantly higher concentrations of aphids (p=0.0122 in 2002 and p=0.0006 in 2003 observed along the edge. However, in 2004 the plants located on the marginal plots had similar populations to those on the more inner plots. This can be explained by a higher wind speed which made it more difficult to land on edge plants first. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, whose population was greatest where the aphids were most abundant with a significantly greater number of eggs (p=0.0230 and adults (p=0.0245 in 2003. Lacewing eggs were also frequently observed, with a significantly higher population (p=0.0221 in 2003 and p=0.0046 in 2004 where the aphid numbers were high. The number of winged aphids was greatest towards the margins of the garden in 2003. It is argued that the spatial distribution of the hop aphid and its natural enemies could be used to plan a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in integrated pest management programs.

  13. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  14. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  15. The fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China: a generic account, descriptions of one new genus, one new species, one new subspecies, and keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2014-02-11

    Fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China are represented by 13 species in 10 genera, including a new genus, Vietaphis gen nov., a new species, Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., from Guizhou and Tibet on Plagiogyria japonicum, and a new subspecies, Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., from Guizhou on Pentarhizidium intermedium. Two genera, Amphorophora Buckton and Idiopterus Davis, and four species or subspecies, Amphorophora ampullate ben-galensis Hille Ris Lambers and Basu, Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi, and Myzus filicis Basu, are reported for the first time in China. Apterae and alatae of Myzus filicis are redescribed herein, and with host plant notes. The fern-feeder aphid genus Ne-omacromyzus Lee is considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus. Furthermore, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to the genus Idiopterus, as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee), comb nov., which is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis. Keys to Chinese fern-feeder species are provided. Morphological figures and biometrical data of Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., and Myzus filicis are presented. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  16. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars.

  17. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  18. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined in Çanakkale Province with a new record for the aphid fauna of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KÖK, Şahin; KASAP, İsmail; ÖZDEMİR, Işıl

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a study conducted to determine aphid species on herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees in cultivated and uncultivated areas from 2013 to 2015 in Çanakkale Province, Turkey, 39 species and one subspecies in 24 genera of Aphididae family were determined. Of these species, Aphis sedi Kaltenbach, 1843 collected from Lampranthus sp. (Aizoaceae) was new record for the aphid fauna of Turkey. Also, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) and Pimpinella saxifraga L. (Apiaceae) were determined as...

  19. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

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    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  20. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.Efeito do silício e do acibenzolar-s-methyl em plantas de algodão colorido infestadas ou não com Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. O pulgão Aphis gossypii é um inseto-praga que causa danos principalmente no início do ciclo do algodoeiro. Foram pesquisados os efeitos dos indutores silício e acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM no desenvolvimento de plantas de algodão colorido, na presença e ausência de A. gossypii. Três cultivares de algodão colorido foram semeadas em vasos e individualmente infestadas com 25 pulgões ápteros, 13 dias após a aplicação dos indutores. Quinze dias após emergência das plantas o silício foi aplicado na dosagem equivalente a 3 t/ha e o acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM na solução 0,2% do produto BION 500®. Após 21 dias da infestação foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule

  1. Mapeo estacional de Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoides de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae en las principales zonas productoras de pimiento de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

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    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. es una de las hortalizas de fruto más importantes producidas bajo invernadero en la provincia de Corrientes. Entre las plagas que afectan a este cultivo se encuentran los áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae, los cuales provocan daños directos debidos a la succión de fotosintatos e indirectos por la transmisión de virosis. Los himenópteros parasitoides de la subfamilia Aphidiinae (Braconidae y de la familia Aphelinidae se destacan como los enemigos naturales más eficientes de esta plaga. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es analizar comparativamente la riqueza y abundancia de áfidos y la composición faunística de parasitoides asociados en cultivos de pimiento en invernadero de la provincia de Corrientes. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo muestreos en cultivos bajo cubierta, ubicados en los departamentos Bella Vista y Lavalle, provincia de Corrientes. Se designaron 14 sitios de muestreo, 11 correspondientes al departamento de Bella Vista y tres al departamento de Lavalle. De mayo a noviembre de 2013 se realizaron colectas mensuales de áfidos vivos y parasitoidizados, tomándose cinco estaciones de muestreo por sitio. La única especie de áfido hallada fue Myzus persicae (Sulzer. Sobre la asociación pimiento- M. persicae se registraron cuatro especies de parasitoides primarios y cuatro especies de hiperparasitoides. Aphidius colemani (Viereck y Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh fueron los parasitoides primarios dominantes en los departamentos de Lavalle y Bella Vista, respectivamente. Se discuten aspectos de consideración útil para el control de áfidos plaga del cultivo de pimiento.

  2. Potencial de alimentação de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae em diferentes densidades de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Auad Alexander M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding potential of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae in different densities of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The feeding potential of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 in relation to different densities of 30, 40 and 50 nymphs of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 at 3rd and 4th instars was evaluated. The treatments were individualized into 2.5 cm in diameter and 8.5 cm tall flat bottom glass vials and maintained in a controlled environmental chamber at 25±2 ºC temperature, 70±10% RH and 14 h photophase. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 replications was used. The consumption of the prey nymphs by the predator larvae was evaluated after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h from the beginning of the experiment and at every subsequent 24 h period until 2nd instar larvae molted or 3rd instar larvae pupated. Results have shown that for 2nd instar larvae, during the 1 h to 24 h period, there was a decreasing prey consumption at the 30 and 40 prey densities. However an increase in the consumption at the 50 prey density was observed. After this period, C. externa larvae presented a progressive increase on nymphs consumption as a function of the prey density. The same occurred with de 3rd instar predator larvae in all treatments. When daily mean consumption was evaluated the predator/prey ratio was 1:23, 1:27 and 1:33 for 2nd instar larvae and 1:27, 1:33 and 1:41 for 3rd instar larvae at 30, 40 and 50 nymph densities, respectively.

  3. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  4. A report on occurrence of aphidophagous predators of Aphis odinae (van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cashew ecosystem from Goa, India

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    Ramasamy Maruthadurai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aphid, Aphis odinae (Van der Goot (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a polyphagous, occasional insect pest of cashew.  A field survey was conducted from 2014 to 2015 in cashew plantations to record the incidence of aphid and its predators.  Periodical sampling revealed, the occurrence of six species of aphidophagous predators comprising three species of coccinellids, viz., Scymnus castaneus Sicard, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius and Pseudaspidimerus flaviceps (Walker and three species of syrphids, viz., Paragus serratus (Fabricius, Dideopsis aegrota (Fabricius and Ischidon scutellaris (Fabricius were found predating on A. odinae.  All the immature stages of predators were found predating on first, second, third and fourth instars of the aphid.  Among the coccinellids, the dominant species were S. castaneus (4.26 grubs/nut followed by C. sexmaculata (0.42 grubs/leaf and P. flaviceps (0.14 grubs/nut.  Of the syrphids, P. serratus 2.39 larvae/nut was the major predator. The species D. aegrota (1.2 larvae/leaf and I. scutellaris (0.5 larvae/nut were recorded as minor predators.  Seasonal abundance of predators was synchronized with the aphid with a maximum occurrence during February 2015.  The aphid population gradually reduced from April onwards due to the voracious feeding activity of the predators.  The study concluded that the aphidophagous predators, viz., coccinellids and syrphids play a  major role in managing the aphid A. odinae in cashew and could be encouraged for augmentation and conservation of these predators in a cashew based ecosystem.

  5. Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae have been observed attacking Pinus spp. in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The coccinellids, on the other hand, were found feeding on these aphids in the field, which can be regarded as potential biological control agents. The biological cycle and mortality rate of larvae of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae were evaluated using twenty larvae of each predator species fed with nymphs of Cinara. The vials with the insects were kept under 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, with 12h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The consumption was evaluated every 24 hours and the nymphs replaced. For C. sanguinea, the egg incubation time was 10.5, 5.0 and 4.0 days; the average larval development period was 33.3, 15.8 and 8.6 days and the larval mortality rate 20%,0% and 15%, respectively at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC. For H. convergens, the larval development time was 41.9, 19.3 and 10.9 days at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, respectively. The larval mortality rate was 35%, 15% and 0% under the three temperatures. Both species developed adequately when fed nymphs of Cinara, however, C. sanguinea performed better than H. convergens, even at 15 ºC, at which temperature the biological cycles of the coccinellids are prolonged, but the temperature is favorable for the development of Cinara populations in the field.

  6. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  7. Indutores de resistência e interação silício-inseticida sistémico no controle de Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosane Rodrigues da

    2014-01-01

    O pulgão-verde Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) é um dos principais insetos-praga da cultura do trigo, sendo capaz de levar a planta à morte pela sucção de seiva e injeção de toxina, além de transmitir vírus. Uma tática recomendada para o manejo de pulgões em trigo é a utilização de inseticidas seletivos, principalmente no tratamento de sementes. Além disso, estudos com indutores de resistência em plantas a insetos, como o silício e o acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM) são promissor...

  8. The relationships within the Chaitophorinae and Drepanosiphinae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) inferred from molecular-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Karina; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz; Kanturski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Chaitophorinae is a bionomically diverse Holarctic subfamily of Aphididae. The current classification includes two tribes: the Chaitophorini associated with deciduous trees and shrubs, and Siphini that feed on monocotyledonous plants. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily, based on molecular and morphological datasets. Molecular analyses were based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear gene elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). Phylogenetic inferences were obtained individually on each of genes and joined alignments using Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML). In phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes as well as a morphological dataset, the monophyly of Siphini and the genus Chaitophorus was supported. Periphyllus forms independent lineages from Chaitophorus and Siphini. Within this genus two clades comprising European and Asiatic species, respectively, were indicated. Concerning relationships within the subfamily, EF-1α and joined COI and EF-1α genes analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that Chaitophorini do not form a monophyletic clade. Periphyllus is a sister group to a clade containing Chaitophorus and Siphini. The Asiatic unit of Periphyllus also includes Trichaitophorus koyaensis. The analysis of morphological dataset under equally weighted parsimony also supports the view that Chaitophorini is an artificial taxon, as Lambersaphis pruinosae and Pseudopterocomma hughi, both traditionally included in the Chaitophorini, formed independent lineages. COI analyses support consistent groups within the subfamily, but relationships between groups are poorly resolved. These analyses were extended to include the species of closely related and phylogenetically unstudied subfamily Drepanosiphinae, which produced congruent results. Genera Drepanosiphum and Depanaphis are monophyletic and sister. The position of Yamatocallis tokyoensis differs in the

  9. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  10. Bioactivity of aqueous extracts of Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl. Baill. and Derris amazonica Killip on the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Bioatividade de extratos aquosos de Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl. Baill. e Derris amazonica Killip no controle do pulgão Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Camila Cramer Filgueiras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies with botanical insecticides have become more popular as an alternative to Integrated Pest Management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf and fruit aqueous extracts, from the species Clibadium sylvestre, and leaves and root of Derris amazonica species at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8%, in the control of the aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Four experiments were conducted; two tests with choice preference and two tests with no choice preference, giving nine treatments and five repetitions. Phytochemical screening was carried out from the leaves and fruit of the species C. sylvestre and leaves and root of D. amazonica. Evaluations of mortality, number of nymphs, and deterrence index of the insects were conducted 24, 48 and 72 h after the application of the extracts. The aqueous extracts tested from C. sylvestre fruit concentrations had the highest mortality compared to the control; in the analysis of the number of the nymphs, the aqueous extract from fruit at 8% concentration had a higher efficiency than the other treatments. The D. amazonica leaves extract at 1% concentration showed the highest mortality and the lowest number of nymphs. The D. amazonica root extracts increased mortality at all concentrations tested, and the 8% concentration had the fewest nymphs. All treatments showed a deterrent effect. The 72 h period showed the greatest effect of the extracts, on two species of insects.Estudos com inseticidas botânicos vêm ganhando espaço como alternativa no Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de folhas e frutos da espécie Clibadium sylvestre, e folhas e raízes da espécie Derris amazonica nas concentrações 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8%, no controle do pulgão Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Foram conduzidos quatro ensaios, dois testes de preferência sem chance de escolha e dois testes de preferência com chance de escolha

  11. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae); Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) em Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) e Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Robson Jose da; Bueno, Vanda Helena Paes; Silva, Diego Bastos [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico], e-mail: ecosbio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: vhpbueno@ufla.br; Sampaio, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Umuarama, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: mvsampaio@iciag.ufu.br

    2008-07-01

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively R{sub o}= 205.38 and 164.08 females; r{sub m}= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; {lambda}= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  12. Potencial inseticida de plantas medicinais encontradas na Amazônia Central contra o pulgão-da-couve Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamiris Sousa de Alencar Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial inseticida e a ação repelente sobre o pulgão-da-couve [Brevicoryne brassicae (L.] de extratos de cinco espécies de plantas ocorrentes e cultivadas na Amazônia Central: Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl Woodson, Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry, Schnella sp. e Protium sp. Os extratos foram utilizados na concentração de 10% e o inseticida botânico a base de azadiractina (Azamax® foi usado como controle. Para avaliação inseticida, discos de folhas de couve-manteiga com 3,5 cm de diâmetro foram individualizados em placas de Petri (6 cm ø e infestados com 10 ninfas de B. brassicae (até 48 h de idade. 1,0 mL de cada um dos tratamentos foi pulverizado sobre os discos e após 24 h foi avaliada a mortandade. Para avaliação da repelência, discos foliares (3,5 cm ø foram divididos em duas partes: 1,0 mL de cada tratamento foi pulverizado em uma das metades do disco, na mesma concentração empregada para avaliação da atividade inseticida. Uma hora após a pulverização, cinco adultos de B. brassicae foram transferidos para o centro do disco e após 24 h foi avaliado o número de adultos sobre a área tratada e não tratada do disco foliar. O resultados foram submetidos a teste de normalidade e análise de variância (ANOVA.  O contato direto e residual dos extratos de C. cujete, H. articulatus e Schnella sp. causaram uma mortalidade de ninfas entre 97,6 e 100%, resultados esses mais expressivos que S. malaccense (54,6% e Azamax® (35,1%.  Não foi detectada ação repelente dos extratos sobre B. brassicae. Insecticidal potential of medicinal plants found in Central Amazon region against cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae Abstract. The present work aimed to evaluate the insecticidal potential of five plant native or widely cultivated species of  Central Amazon, Brazil - Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus

  13. El género Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini en América, con la descripción de tres nuevas especies

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    Pérez Hidalgo, N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the specimens of genus Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 from the collection générale d’aphides del Muséum national d’Historie naturelle, Paris (France and the Colección de Aphididae de México at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México has allowed to establish 3 species: I. chiriquense n. sp. (with the description of the apterous and alate females from Panama, I. holmani n. sp. (with the description of the apterous and alate females and males and I. oaxacense n. sp. (with the description of the apterae from México. The viviparous alate females of I. americanum are described and knowledge of the apterous females of this species is improved. The generic position of the American species of Impatientinum is discussed. An identification key for the apterous females of the American species of Impatientinum is presented; this key can substitute the key by Blackman and Eastop for the World’s aphids on Cuphea P.Browne (Myrtales, Lythraceae.El estudio de los ejemplares del género Impatientinum Mordvilko, 1914 de la collection générale d’aphides del Muséum national d’Historie naturelle de París (Francia y de la Colección de Aphididae de México en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México ha permitido establecer 3 especies: I. chiriquense n. sp. (con la descripción de hembras ápteras y aladas de Panamá, I. holmani n. sp. (con la descripción de hembras ápteras, aladas y de machos e I. oaxacense n. sp. (con la descripción de ápteras de México. Se describen también las vivíparas aladas y se mejora el conocimiento de las vivíparas ápteras de I. americanum. Se discute la ubicación genérica de las especies del género presentes en América. Se facilita la clave para la identificación de las hembras vivíparas ápteras de las especies americanas del género, que puede sustituir a la clave de Blackman & Eastop para las especies de pulgones que viven sobre plantas del género Cuphea P.Browne (Myrtales

  14. Another look at the phylogenetic relationships and intercontinental biogeography of eastern Asian - North American Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae): Evidence from mitogenome sequences via genome skimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhumei; Harris, A J; Dikow, Rebecca B; Ma, Enbo; Zhong, Yang; Wen, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The Rhus gall aphids are sometimes referred to as subtribe Melaphidina (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae: Fordini) and comprise a unique group that forms galls on the primary host plants, Rhus. We examined the evolutionary relationships within the Melaphidina aphids using sequences of the complete mitochondrial genome and with samples of 11 of the 12 recognized species representing all six genera. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the mitochondrial genome data support five well-supported clades within Melaphidina: (1) Nurudea (except N. ibofushi), (2) Schlechtendalia-Nurudea ibofushi, (3) Meitanaphis-Kaburagia, (4) Floraphis, and (5) Melaphis. Nurudea shiraii and N. yanoniella are sister to each other, but N. ibofushi is nested within Schlechtendalia. The Nurudea shiraii-N. yanoniella clade is sister to the large clade of the remaining taxa of Melaphidina aphids. The Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses support the North American Melaphis rhois as sister to the clade of Floraphis-Kaburagia-Meitanaphis-Schlechtendalia from eastern Asia, whereas the parsimony analysis suggests Melaphis sister to Floraphis with low support (bootstrap support 38%), and the amino acid data weakly place it sister to Schlechtendalia-Nurudea ibofushi. The Melaphis position needs to be further tested with nuclear data. Meitanaphis flavogallis is sister to Kaburagia species instead of grouping with Meitanaphis elongallis. Using the Bayesian method, the North American Melaphis was estimated to have diverged from its closest Asian relatives around 64.6 (95% HPD 59.4-69.8) Ma, which is in the early Paleocene near the Cretaceous and Paleogene boundary (K/Pg boundary). At the K/Pg boundary, mass extinctions caused many types of insect-plant associations to disappear, and these extinctions may explain some of the difficulties in the phylogenetic placement of Melaphis within the analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Foraging behavior of the coccinellid Nephus includens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in response to Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with particular emphasis on larval parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of parasitism of Nephus includens (Col.: Coccinellidae) larvae by Homalotylus flaminius (Hym.: Encyrtidae) on the predation rates of the predator on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae) by deriving functional responses for second- and fourth-instar predators at prey densities ranging from 10 to 80 aphids per arena. The relationship between the functional and numerical responses of adult females of N. includens also was determined for prey densities ranging from 10 to 140 aphids per arena. Predation rates of unparasitized and parasitized second-instar N. includens were both fit by a type II functional response model with parameters as follows: unparasitized (a = 0.0768 hours(-1) and T(h) = 0.975 h) and parasitized (a = 0.0787 hours(-1) and T(h) = 0.8823 hours). Predation rates of unparasitized and parasitized fourth-instar N. includens were fit by type III and II models, respectively, with the following parameters: unparasitized (b = 0.1702 hours(-1) and T(h) = 0.2369 hours) and parasitized (a = 0.038 h(-1) and T(h) = 0.539 h). The unparasitized fourth-instar was the most voracious stage, having the highest attack rate and lowest handling time. Considering these attributes, it would seem to be the most effective stage of this predator against A. gossypii. Adult female lady beetles (N. includens) showed a type III functional response and their numerical response increase to prey density was curvilinearly related to prey density, with the highest number of eggs being produced at highest prey densities. The maximum saturation level for both predation and egg production for adult females occurred at a prey density of 120 aphids. Thus, a ratio 1:120 (predator:prey) should be used when releasing this species for augmentative biological control. Release of either fourth-instar or adult stage N. includens should be minimized the potentially negative effect of parasitism by H. flaminius on early developmental stages, and

  16. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined on herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to find out the Aphidoidea species feeding on herbaceous and shrub plants of Bartýn province. As a result, total of 28 aphid species belonging to 14 genus and 4 tribes of the super family Aphidoidea were determined. Of these determined species, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis farinosa J. F. Gmelin, Aphis ...

  17. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species determined on herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... This study aimed to find out the Aphidoidea species feeding on herbaceous and shrub plants of Bartın province. As a result, total of 28 aphid species belonging to 14 genus and 4 tribes of the super family. Aphidoidea were determined. Of these determined species, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis farinosa J. F..

  18. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  19. The pressure of Aphids (Aphididae, Hemiptera, vectors of potato viruses

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    Vučetić Anđa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant viruses and aphids as their vectors, are limiting factors in the production of healthy seed potato. Potato Virus Y (PVY and Potato Leafroll Virus (PLRV are the two most significant potato viruses in Europe, and seed quality depends directly on the infection level. In order to determine the possibilities for healthy seed potato production in Serbia, aphid flight activities have been monitored for four years in four localities. Over 6400 specimens of aphids have been collected. The number of aphids and vector pressure index varies depending on the localities’ altitude. In localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was in locality Kotraža in 2007, when the PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as was the vector pressure index. The lowest index values were recorded in localities on Mt. Golija at 1300 m a.s.l. where the indexes for both viruses never exceeded value 6. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  20. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  1. Life cycle variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulos, J T; Tsitsipis, J A; Goudoudaki, S; Blackman, R L

    2002-08-01

    During the years 1995-1999 the life cycle category of 2797 clones of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was examined. The clones originated from primary and secondary hosts from different localities of North and Central Greece and the island of Crete in the south. Four different overwintering life cycle strategies were found that have also been described for M. persicae and other heteroecious species previously. A geographical variation was found in the proportion of holocyclic clones from tobacco and other secondary hosts associated with the abundance of the primary host in the sampling regions. In Central Macedonia, around the main peach-growing regions, the proportion of holocyclic clones was mostly above 50% and in some cases reached 100%. In localities of East Macedonia, holocyclic clones were also frequent. On the other hand, further south or in north-eastern Greece, where peach is not common, the proportion of holocyclic clones varied between 0 and 33%. Fifty seven percent of examined anholocyclic clones produced males under short day conditions, suggesting that androcyclic clones in Greece represent an important factor of genetic variability. Intermediate clones were sampled from all host-plants but at low frequencies (3.6% of total examined clones and 6.9% of non-holocyclic ones). Moreover, a regional variation was found in different colour forms feeding on tobacco plants. Red clones were predominant in regions where aphids overwinter parthenogenetically on weeds or winter crops. However, almost all clones from the primary host were green. The ecological aspects of life cycle variation are discussed.

  2. Feeding by Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Facilitates Use of Sorghum by Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but Reciprocal Effects Are Negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Zhang, Yun; Bain, Clint

    2017-04-01

    In the process of feeding, aphids modify the physiology of their host plants in species-specific ways, and plant responses to these aggressions are often genotype- or cultivar-specific. Thus, different aphid species sharing a host can influence each other's fitness via plant-mediated interactions, usually with negative and asymmetric impacts. Here, we show that feeding by the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner, can improve the suitability of sorghum as a host plant for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. Whereas the reciprocal effects were generally negative for sugarcane aphid, the specific life history impacts varied with sorghum cultivar. Line 'PI 550610' was a more suitable host plant for both aphid species than the hybrid 'P8500', contrary to expectations based on the former representing a source of resistance to Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). Whereas coinfestation with sugarcane aphid had positive effects on bird cherry-oat aphid survival, development, and reproduction on both cultivars, the presence of bird cherry-oat aphid reduced the sugarcane aphid fecundity on both cultivars, although other negative effects (lower survival and delayed development) were evident only on the less suitable P8500. A second experiment using previously infested plants yielded similar results, although a gradual decay of aphid-induced effects postinfestation was apparent. Bird cherry-oat aphid is the second aphid species, after S. graminum, shown to benefit from sugarcane aphid facilitation on sorghum. We conclude that facilitation by sugarcane aphid at least partly accounts for the various aphid species forming mixed infestations with this invasive species in fields of susceptible sorghum cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Un depósito de proyectiles de catapulta hallado en Calahorra (La Rioja

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    Cinca, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available [es] El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el depósito de proyectiles de catapulta hallado en Calahorra (La Rioja, y analizar las hipótesis más verosímiles sobre el contexto histórico de estos documentos. [fr] L'objectif de ce travail est présenter le dépôt de projectiles de catapulte trouvé à Calahorra (La Rioja et d'analyser les hypothèses les plus vraisemblables autour du contexte historique de ces documents.

  4. Un depósito de proyectiles de catapulta hallado en Calahorra (La Rioja)

    OpenAIRE

    Cinca, José Luis; Ramírez Sádaba, José Luis; Velaza, Javier

    2003-01-01

    [es] El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el depósito de proyectiles de catapulta hallado en Calahorra (La Rioja), y analizar las hipótesis más verosímiles sobre el contexto histórico de estos documentos. [fr] L'objectif de ce travail est présenter le dépôt de projectiles de catapulte trouvé à Calahorra (La Rioja) et d'analyser les hypothèses les plus vraisemblables autour du contexte historique de ces documents.

  5. Accesorios metálicos de correas de cinturones militares altoimperiales hallados en Hispania

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    Aurrecoechea Fernández, Joaquín

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of roman military «aprons» found in Hispania, specially the specimens discovered in a tomb in Aznalcázar (prov. of Seville. This group is of special relevance due to the fact that there are very few pieces of this kind in funerary contexts.Estudio sobre los accesorios metálicos pertenecientes a «mandiles» militares de época romana hallados en Hispania. Entre ellos se documenta un conjunto completo aparecido en una tumba de Aznalcázar (Sevilla, hallazgo de excepcional importancia debido a la escasez de piezas semejantes en contextos sepulcrales. Finalmente, se interpreta el significado de estos bronces dentro del marco cronológico de la dinastía flavia.

  6. Aportaciones a la afidofauna íbero-balear (Hemiptera, Aphididae a partir de las fotografías (y de sus metadatos depositadas en el “Banco Taxonómico Faunístico Digital de los Invertebrados Ibéricos” (B.T.F.D.I.I

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    Pérez Hidalgo, N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the “Fauna Ibérica Project” we analyzed: 1 the trustworthiness in the identification from pictures of aphids deposited in the “Banco Taxonómico Faunístico Digital de los Invertebrados Ibéricos (B.T.F.D.I.I.”, 2 the utility of the faunistic information and the host plant-aphid relations; and 3 the possible slants in relation to the species photographed. 443 pictures of aphids realized for 53 photographers and deposited in the BT.F.D.I.I until April 2009 have been checked and the identification has been realized exclusively “online”. 277 (the 62.5% have been identified until species and 166 (the 37.5% until genera o family. In total 65 species have been identified and 28 species increased its known distribution area in the Iberian Peninsula. Moreover, six new host-plant-aphid relations have been established. The mayor pictures are making to polyphagous and common species, to species that present loud colorations and/or great size and to species that induced malformations (galls or pseudogalls in its hosts.

    En el contexto de los estudios taxonómicos y faunísticos de pulgones del proyecto Fauna Ibérica, analizamos: 1 el grado de fiabilidad que se puede alcanzar en la identificación de las fotografías de pulgones depositadas en el Banco Taxonómico Faunístico Digital de los Invertebrados Ibéricos (B.T.F.D.I.I., 2 la utilidad de la información faunística y las relaciones planta-pulgón; y 3 los posibles sesgos en cuanto a las especies fotografiadas. Se han revisado 443 fotografías de pulgones o áfidos realizadas por 53 fotógrafos y depositadas hasta abril de 2009 en la carpeta Aphididae del B.T.F.D.I.I. La identificación se ha realizado exclusivamente “online” y de las 443 fotografías analizadas, 277 (el 62,5% se han identificado hasta especie y 166 (el 37,5% hasta género o familia. Se han identificado 65 especies, cuyos datos permiten que 28 especies amplíen el área de distribuci

  7. Pengaruh Jenis Mangsa dan Suhu pada Perkembangan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dan Peranannya dalam Pengendalian Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

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    Tris Haris Ramadhan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the vector of citrus greening (Huanglongbing bacterium and the most serious impediment to citrus culture. Classical biological control of this psyllid vector should contribute to suppress their population. This research was conducted to determine the performance of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae when they were fed with D. citri. The larval performance index of M. sexmaculatus on D. citri compared with Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae diet was 1.3.M. sexmaculatus fed with D. citri had lower fitness than those fed with A. craccivora as shown by longer larval stadium, lower adult dry weight, less number of egg produced and lower percentage of egg hatched. M. sexmaculatus grew best at the temperature of 27oC. Employing the exclusion procedure under field condition,M. sexmaculatus could reduce the population of D. citri up to 90%. These findings showed that theM. sexmaculatus could be a potential predator in reducing D. citri, particularly when the more preferred prey A. craccivora was not present.   Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae merupakan kelompok Psyllid yang menularkan penyebab penyakit Huanglongbing yang sangat berbahaya pada tanaman jeruk. Pengendalian hayati klasik telah banyak memberikan kontribusi dalam pengendalian di lapangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat penampilan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dengan pakan D. citri. Indeks penampilan larva M. sexmaculatus dengan pakan D. citri dibandingkan dengan Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae adalah 1,3. M. sexmaculatus yang diberi pakan D. citri menunjukkan penurunan kebugaran dibandingkan jika diberi pakan A. craccivora seperti yang ditunjukkan dengan stadium larva lebih lama, penurunan berat kering serangga dewasa, telur yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit, dan penurunan jumlah telur yang menetas. Menggunakan metode eksklusi pada kondisi

  8. Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae en cebada Assessment of resistance against Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae in barley

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    Erica F. Tocho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada.Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani is one of the major pests of cereals around the world that is present in Argentina. Chemical control is the most widely used practice; however, the use of resistant varieties, one of the main components in IPM, is the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy of control. Since plants have different types of insect resistance that allow them to defend against pests, the aim of the current study was to characterize the resistance to Schizaphis graminum in a population of recombinant inbred lines of barley and to identify lines with improved characteristics that enable the development of commercial cultivars. Antixenosis was studied by the host free choice test. Antibiosis was assessed by means of aphid life cycle and developmental traits. Tolerance mechanism was analyzed by plant growth parameters. At least eight lines carrying antibiosis were more tolerant than their controls, with similar dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll contents, under infestation. These lines could provide resistance genes against this aphid pest and would be useful in plant breeding programs.

  9. Desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas Nymphal development of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on eggplant at different temperatures

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    Norton Rodrigues Chagas Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas no desenvolvimento ninfal de Myzus persicae sobre folhas de berinjela (Solanum melongena. O experimento foi desenvolvido em câmaras climatizadas, sob condições controladas de temperatura de 15, 20, 25 e 30 ± 1 ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70% ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A biologia de M. persicae foi acompanhada sobre discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro mantidos em placas de Petri contendo solução ágar-água a 1% geleificada. Foram estimadas as curvas mais ajustadas à duração dos estádios ninfais de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². O número de estádios ninfais foi afetado pela temperatura; a 15 e 20 ºC, respectivamente, em 30,4% e 4,2% das ninfas observou-se um estádio adicional. Afídeos mantidos a 30 ºC apresentaram a menor viabilidade na fase ninfal (8%. A duração da fase ninfal foi de 9,4; 7,6; 5,9 e 7,0 dias, respectivamente, a 15, 20, 25 e 30 ºC. As temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC foram as mais favoráveis para o desenvolvimento ninfal de M. persicae sobre discos de folha de berinjela.The objective of this work was to study the nymphal development of Myzus persicae on leaves of eggplant (Solanum melongena at four constant temperatures. The experiment was carried out in the bio-control laboratory, with the following controlled conditions: temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC ± 1 ºC; relative humidity (70% ± 10%, and photophase (12 hours. The biology of M. persicae was followed on leaf discs (3 cm diameter kept in Petri dishes containing a layer of agar-water (1%. It was evaluated the best fitted curve to the biological aspects of M. persicae, as well as their regression equations and respective determination coefficients (R². The number of nymphal stage was affected by temperature: 15 and 20 ºC, resulted in 30.4% and 4.2% of nymphs showing an 5th nymphal stage, respectively. At 15, 20, 25 and 30 ºC, nymphal phase lasted for 9.4; 7.6; 5.9 and 7.0 days, respectively. Temperatures of 15 and 20 ºC were more favorable to nymphal development of M. persicae on leaf discs of eggplant.

  10. Distribuição espacial de Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae na cultura de citros Spatial distribution of Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae in citrus orchards

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    Francisco Ricardo de Toledo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da distribuição espacial de pragas é fundamental para elaboração de planos de amostragem para o uso do manejo integrado de pragas. Para o afídeo Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, estudou-se a distribuição espacial em talhões de pomares de citros comerciais de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] da variedade Pêra, com 5; 9 e 15 anos de idade, durante o período de setembro de 2004 a abril de 2005. Foram realizadas 14 amostragens de número de T. citricida em intervalos aproximados de 15 dias entre as mesmas, utilizando-se de armadilhas adesivas de cor amarela (0,11 x 0,11 m fixadas à planta, a 1,5 m de altura aproximadamente. As armadilhas foram distribuídas na área, a cada cinco plantas na linha, em linhas alternadas, totalizando 137 armadilhas no talhão com 5 anos, 140 no talhão com 9 anos e 80 no talhão com 15 anos. Os índices de dispersão utilizados foram: razão variância média (I, índice de Morisita (Idelta, coeficiente de Green (Cx e expoente k da distribuição Binomial Negativa. O índice que melhor representou a agregação do pulgão foi o expoente k da distribuição Binomial Negativa, e a distribuição binomial negativa foi o modelo que melhor se ajustou aos dados. Através destas análises, verificou-se que a maioria das amostragens apresentou uma distribuição agregada da população de T. citricida.The study of insects' spatial distribution is fundamental to elaborate potential sampling plans to be used in integrated pest management. Spatial distribution of Toxoptera citricida was studied in plots of commercial orange orchards (Citrus sinensis from 'Pêra' variety of 5, 9 and 15 years old, respectively, from September 2004 to April 2005. It was carried through 14 fortnightlies Toxoptera citricida samplings numbers, utilizing yellow adhesive traps (0.11 x 0.11 m settled on the plant at 1.5 m of height approximately. The traps were distributed in the area each five plants in the line, in alternated lines, totalizing 137 traps in the 5 years plot, 140 in the 9 years plot and 80 in the 15 years plot. The dispersion indexes used were: variance/mean relationship (I, index of Morisita (Idelta, coefficient of Green (Cx and k exponent of negative binomial distribution. The best aggregation index was the k exponent of negative binomial distribution and negative binomial distribution was the best of the data models. Through these analyses it was verified that most of the samplings presented an aggregated distribution of the brown citrus aphid population.

  11. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  12. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  13. The development of an economic threshold for Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ignacio; Diaz, Beatriz María; Hermoso de Mendoza, Alfonso; Nebreda, Miguel; Fereres, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    This study reports economic thresholds for the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), based exclusively on cosmetic damage, that is, presence or absence of aphids at harvest time. Field trials were conducted in La Poveda Experimental Farm, Madrid (Spain) during autumn (2004 and 2005) and spring (2005 and 2006). Plants were arranged in plots and just before the formation of lettuce hearts they were infested with different densities of N. ribisnigri. Two days later, half of each plot was treated with tau-fluvalinate (Klartan24AF) and the other half remained as an untreated control. Economic thresholds were obtained from nonlinear regressions calculated between the percentage of commercial plants at the end of the crop cycle for both, treated and untreated semiplots, and the different initial densities of N. ribisnigri per plant. Two criteria were used to consider a commercial lettuce plant: a conservative estimate (0 aphids/plant) and a lax one (economic threshold was established for each season and criterium. The economic thresholds that were obtained with the most and least conservative criteria were in spring 0.06 and 0.12 aphids per plant, and in autumn 0.07 and 0.13 aphids per plant, respectively. These results show that to avoid cosmetic damage, insecticide sprays are required when a very low aphid density is detected in lettuce seedlings soon after transplant.

  14. DNA barcoding and elucidation of cryptic aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebijith, K B; Asokan, R; Kumar, N K Krishna; Krishna, V; Chaitanya, B N; Ramamurthy, V V

    2013-10-01

    Rapid, precise and timely identification of invasive pest insects such as aphids is important and a challenge worldwide due to their complex life cycles, parthenogenetic reproduction, sex and colour morphs. In this respect, DNA barcoding employing a 658 bp fragment of 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) gene is an effective tool in addressing the above. In the present study, we employed CO-I for discriminating 142 individuals representing 32 species of aphids from India. Sequence analyses revealed that the intraspecific and interspecific distances ranged from zero to 3.8% and 2.31 to 18.9%, respectively. In addition, the study also showed for the first time the prevalence of three cryptic species, namely Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus), Hyperomyzus carduellinus (Theobald) and Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach) from India. Our work has clearly demonstrated that DNA barcoding is an efficient and accurate method for identification of aphid species (including cryptic species), an approach that potentially could play an important role in formulating viable pest management strategies, more especially biocontrol.

  15. Comparative Life Histories of Greenbugs and Sugarcane Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Coinfesting Susceptible and Resistant Sorghums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Perumal, Ramaswamy; Michaud, J P

    2016-02-01

    Host-plant resistance has been a fundamental component of aphid management in cereal crops. Over decades, various sources of resistance to greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were bred into cultivars of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to counter recurring virulent greenbug biotypes. The recent invasion of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), raised questions about plant-mediated interactions between the two aphids and the possibility of using greenbug antibiosis against sugarcane aphid. The present work was undertaken to characterize the impact of PI 550610 resistance to 'biotype I' greenbug, expressed in seed parental line KS 116B, on aphid life histories and to observe plant-mediated interactions between aphid species in its presence and absence. At 23°C, sugarcane aphid nymphs matured 1.5 d faster than greenbug nymphs on susceptible hybrid P8500, but at similar rates on the resistant line, which delayed maturity by 1-1.5 d in both species and increased juvenile mortality by three- to fourfold. Sugarcane aphid reproductive rate was double that of greenbug on susceptible sorghum (4.45 vs. 2.30 nymphs per female per day), but not significantly different on the resistant one (3.09 vs. 2.27). Thus, PI 550610 expresses antibiosis, not tolerance, to these aphids. Coinfestation of P8500 had a positive effect on greenbug intrinsic rate of increase (rm), which changed to negative on KS 116B, whereas the rm of sugarcane aphid was unaffected by coinfestation with greenbug on either cultivar. The results indicate that KS 116B will be useful for producing sugarcane aphid-resistant hybrids, and that PI 550610 antibiosis changes the sugarcane aphid-greenbug interspecific relationship from commensalism to amensalism. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Host Range and Sorghum Resistance Including Cross-Resistance From Greenbug Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Rooney, William L; Peterson, Gary C; Villenueva, Raul T; Brewer, Michael J; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Resistance to Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Forage and Grain Sorghums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mbulwe, Lloyd; Sekula-Ortiz, Danielle; Villanueva, Raul T; Rooney, William L

    2017-02-01

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), has established itself as a perennial pest of grain and forage sorghums in the United States since the summer of 2013. We conducted traditional plant resistance studies that determine tolerance, antibiosis, and antixenosis in 32 sorghum genotypes when challenged with sugarcane aphids. The genotypes included one exotic plant introduction and 31 seed and pollinator parental lines that are used to produce grain, sudangrass, and forage sorghum hybrids. One seed parent (B11055) and one grain pollinator parent (R13219) expressed significant degrees of tolerance, antibiosis, and antixenosis and were top performers in all three resistance type experiments. An additional group of seed parents (B13045 and B1057) and grain pollinator parents (R11159, R13422, and RTx2908) and the plant introduction (PI 550610) resulted in an intermediate range of phenotypic resistance (i.e., 4.0 < 6.0) indicative of antibiosis from reduced fecundity, increased intrinsic rate of increase, and increased generation times. The forms of resistance expressed in these lines, especially B11055 and R13219, have great potential in breeding programs that can be integrated into useable forms of resistant sorghums. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Use of a mitochondrial COI sequence to identify species of the subtribe Aphidina (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng WANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids of the subtribe Aphidina are found mainly in the North Temperate Zone. The relative lack of diagnostic morphological characteristics has obscured the identification of species in this group. However, DNA-based taxonomic methods can clarify species relationships within this group. Sequence variation in a partial segment of the mitochondrial COI gene was highly effective for resolving species relationships within Aphidina. Forty-five species were correctly identified in a neighbor-joining tree. Mean intraspecific sequence divergence was 0.17%, with a range of 0.00% to 1.54%. Mean interspecific divergence within previously recognized genera or morphologically similar species groups was 4.54%, with variation mainly in the range of 3.50% to 8.00%. Possible reasons for anomalous levels of mean nucleotide divergence within or between some taxa are discussed.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained fro...

  20. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  1. Managing Macrosteles Near Severini (Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Florida Watercress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Hugh A; Nagle, Curtis A; Samuel-Foo, Michelle S; Vallad, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    .... Insecticide trials were carried out in the spring of 2014 to compare the efficacy of buprofezin, flonicamid, flupyradifurone, sulfoxaflor, and tolfenpyrad, none of which were registered for use...

  2. Efeito da azadiractina sobre Chaetosiphon fragaefolli (Cockerell, 1901 (Hemiptera: Aphididae na cultura do morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão-verde Chaetosiphon fragaefolli é o principal inseto-praga da cultura do morangueiro. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da azadiractina para o controle do inseto em laboratório e casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos avaliados foram a azadiractina (Azamax®, 100; 200 e 300 ml.100L-1 comparado com o tiametoxam (Actara 250 WG®, 10 g.100L-1, lambda-cialotrina (Karate Zeon 50 CS®, 80 ml.100L-1 e uma testemunha (água. Os produtos foram pulverizados sobre plantas de morangueiro da cultivar Aromas infestadas artificialmente em casa de vegetação. A azadiractina foi equivalente a lambda-cialotrina e ao tiametoxam no controle de C. fragaefolii desde que realizada uma segunda pulverização sete dias após a primeira. A persistência biológica dos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina e tiametoxam foi superior a 28 dias, com um controle de 75% da população de pulgões, enquanto azadiractina apresentou menor persistência biológica, controlando 70% da população por sete dias.

  3. Influence of Silicon on Resistance of Zinnia Elegans to Myzus Persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the effect of treating Zinnia elegans Jacq. with soluble silicon on the performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Zinnia elegans plants were irrigated every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment with a nutrient solution amended with ...

  4. Effect of reproductive mode on host plant utilization of melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Gao, Xue

    2010-12-01

    Variation in the reproductive mode of melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover occurred on the large geographic scale, but the performance of different reproductive modes to use host plant is poorly understood. Life tables of melon aphid population that undergo the anholocyclic, androcyclic, and intermediate reproductive mode were conducted on different host plants. The results showed that the anholocyclic and androcyclic strains could become adults and produce offspring on cotton Gossypium hirsutum L., whereas the intermediate strain could not. The survival rate, net reproductive rate (R(0)), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) of the androcyclic strain on cotton were significantly greater than that of the anholocyclic strain. The three strains could aptly use cucurbits host plants including cucumber Cucumis sativa L., pumpkin Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.), and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L.; survival rate and R(0) were not significantly different on these two host plants. Moreover, the r(m) of the anholocyclic strain on cucumber and the androcyclic strain on pumpkin and zucchini were significantly greater than that of the other two strains. The abilities of the three strains to use a host plant were flexible, because their r(m) on pumpkin or zucchini became equal after rearing for four successive generations; furthermore, the intermediate strain attained the ability to use cotton, and the performance of anholocyclic and intermediate strains to use cotton also significantly increased after feeding on pumpkin or zucchini for one or three generations. It was concluded that the reproductive mode and feeding experience affected the performance of melon aphid to use a host plant. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  5. Indigenous Aphid Predators Show High Levels of Preadaptation to a Novel Prey, Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares, Felipe; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2015-12-01

    The performance of four aphid predators, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens and Orius insidiosus Say was compared on three prey species: Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Species predatory in both life stages (all except Ch. carnea) were reared on E. kuehniella eggs and switched to aphid prey for assessment of reproduction. Differences were greater between the E. kuehniella and aphid diets than between the two aphid species. Juvenile survival was high for all predators on all prey, except for O. insidiosus, which had survival on E. kuehniella > S. graminum > M. sacchari. The fastest development of Ch. carnea and O. insidiosus was obtained on E. kuehniella, whereas H. convergens developed fastest on S. graminum, and C. maculata did not differ among diets. S. graminum also yielded the largest H. convergens adults, whereas the largest adults of other predators were obtained on E. kuehniella. Female fecundity and egg viability were similarly high on both aphid diets for H. convergens and C. maculata, whereas, on E. kuehniella, 50% of the former entered reproductive diapause and the latter species had reduced fecundity. Reproductive success of Ch. carnea was S. graminum = M. sacchari > E. kuehniella, but it was similar among treatments for O. insidiosus, although female infertility ranged from 25 to 37.5%. We concluded that all the predators studied are preadapted to utilize sugarcane aphid as prey and have excellent potential to provide sustainable biological control of this newly invasive pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  7. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae en cebada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F. TOCHO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada.

  9. Afidos en plantas ornamentales de Córdoba, Argentina (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Delfino, Miguel A.; Buffa, Liliana M.

    2008-01-01

    La calidad de las plantas ornamentales se relaciona estrechamente con su estado fitosanitario, que se ve afectado por la actividad de los insectos. Entre los principales insectos plagas se destacan los pulgones o áfidos. La fauna asociada con los áfidos que colonizan plantas ornamentales, incluye hormigas melívoras (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) que establecen relaciones de mutualismo; además, los microhimenópteros parasitoides de áfidos (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) contribuyen al control...

  10. Plant resistance in sorghums to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated ten sorghum lines that were near or in commercial release with the intent of identifying phenotypic expression of host-plant resistance to the sugarcane aphid. Two of the ten entries OL2042 and SP7715 expressed a high degree of resistance to the sugarcane aphid with damage ratings <3.0...

  11. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Parasitization of commercially available parasitoid species against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, G; Skovgård, H; Enkegaard, A

    2014-12-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. Little documentation exists for the control efficacy of aphid parasitoids against N. ribisnigri. This laboratory study evaluated three commercially available parasitoid species: Aphidius colemani (Viereck), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), and Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) for their mortality impact on N. ribisnigri. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was included as a reference aphid. The study showed that A. abdominalis successfully parasitized 39 and 13% of the offered N. ribisnigri and M. persicae, respectively, within a 24-h exposure period. In contrast, none of the lettuce aphids exposed to Ap. colemani or L. testaceipes were successfully parasitized, whereas 60 and 3.5% of M. persicae, respectively, were successfully parasitized within a 6-h exposure period. Lettuce aphid mortality due to incomplete parasitization was 26 and 31% when exposed to Ap. colemani and L. testaceipes, respectively, with corresponding values for M. persicae being 5 and 10%, respectively. Mortality as a result of incomplete parasitization when aphids were exposed to A. abdominalis was low for both aphid species. The total mortality inflicted by A. abdominalis within a 24-h exposure period was 51% for the lettuce aphids and significantly less (19%) for green peach aphids. In contrast, Ap. colemani inflicted a higher mortality in M. persicae (65%) compared with N. ribisnigri (26%) within a 6-h exposure period. L. testaceipes caused a greater mortality in N. ribisnigri as compared with M. persicae. This study concludes that A. abdominalis has the potential to be used against N. ribisnigri in inoculative biocontrol programs as compared with the other parasitoid species based on successful parasitization.

  13. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  14. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  15. Macrosiphoniella remaudierei, a new species of aphid on Helichrysum in Iran (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Barbagallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of aphid, belonging to the genus Macrosiphoniella Del Guercio, 1911, is described using three samples collected in Iran on Helichrysum armenium (Asteraceae, Inuleae by the late Prof. G. Remaudière. Both apterous and alate viviparous females of the new taxon, M. remaudierei sp. n., are described and compared to corresponding morphs of the closely allied M. aetnensis and to other congeneric aphid species on Helichrysum in the Palaearctic region. Type specimens are now stored in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris.

  16. Rapid Cold Hardening Capacity and Its Impact on Performance of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Fatemeh; Moharramipour, Saeid; Mikani, Azam

    2017-08-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is one of the most important pests of wheat and barley in most wheat-producing countries. Rapid cold hardiness (RCH) is a capacity of insects to develop, within hours, protection against subfreezing temperatures that plays an important role in aphid survival in response to sudden decreases in air temperature. In this research, we investigated the duration and rate of cooling on the induction of RCH of D. noxia and the costs of RCH on aphid development and fecundity. By transferring aphids directly from 20 °C to a range of subzero temperatures for 2 h, the lower lethal temperature for 80% mortality (LT80) was determined to be - 11.9 °C. Preconditioning the aphids at 0 °C for 1-3 h prior to exposure at (LT80) (-11.9 °C) resulted in a sharp increase in survival, with little change with longer durations of preconditioning. The slowest cooling rate (0.05 °C/min) increased survival fourfold, whereas rates from 0.1 to 1 °C/min increased survival twofold compared with a direct transfer to 0 °C, regardless of aphid stage used. Deleterious effects of RCH were not observed on aphid development, longevity, or fecundity. The present study indicates that RCH is induced in D. noxia in just a few hours in response to sudden lowering of temperatures to freezing, with little or no cost in reproductive capacity. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The morphological variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae from peach and tobacco in Serbia and Montenegro

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    Vučetić Anđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate morphometric analysis was used to compare nine characteristics of 47 populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer originating from two host-plants, peach and tobacco, from 13 localities in 2004 and 34 localities in 2005, in Serbia and Montenegro. Multivariant discriminant analysis showed there to be a distinct discrimination between the populations from the peach and tobacco host-plants. The most important discrimination characteristics are the ultimate rostral segment length and processes terminalis length, which are greater in the aphids from tobacco than in those from peach. This is the first indication that in this part of Europe there are two subspecies: M. persicae (Sulzer and M. persicae nicotianae Blackman. .

  20. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification. Our results emphasize the value of microarray studies to search for regulated genes in insects, but also highlights the many ways those different genotypes can assemble resistant phenotypes depending on the environmental pressure. PMID:22685538

  1. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae II: Costs and benefits.

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    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we (i evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus the unfavorable host and (ii examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m. Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations had a higher r(m on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The r(m relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher r(m, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar r(m on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher r(m than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among resistance mechanisms might be quite complex, with a multiplicity of costs and benefits depending on the environment.

  2. Susceptibility of Australian Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to Three Recently Registered Insecticides: Spirotetramat, Cyantraniliprole, and Sulfoxaflor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Little, Siobhan C; Umina, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a significant agricultural pest that has developed resistance to a large number of insecticides globally. Within Australia, resistance has previously been confirmed for multiple chemical groups, including pyrethroids, carbamates, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids. In this study, we use leaf-dip and topical bioassays to investigate susceptibility and potential cross-resistance of 12 field-collected populations of Australian M. persicae to three recently registered insecticides: sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, and cyantraniliprole. Despite all 12 populations carrying known resistance mechanisms to carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids, and two populations also exhibiting low-level metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids, we found little evidence of variation in susceptibility to sulfoxafor, spirotetramat, or cyantraniliprole. This provides further evidence that cross-resistance to spirotetramat, cyantraniliprole, and sulfoxaflor in M. persicae is not conferred by the commonly occurring resistance mechanisms MACE, super-kdr, amplification of the E4 esterase gene, or enhanced expression and copy number of the P450 gene, CYP6CY3. Importantly, this study also established toxicity baseline data that will be important for future monitoring of insecticide responses of M. persicae from both broadacre and horticultural crops. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) II: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Luna-Rudloff, Manuela; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we (i) evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM) in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum) a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus) the unfavorable host and (ii) examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm). Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations) had a higher rm on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The rm relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher rm, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar rm on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. Conclusions/Significance Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher rm than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among resistance mechanisms might be quite complex, with a multiplicity of costs and benefits depending on the environment. PMID:22685539

  4. Chromosomal mapping reveals a dynamic organization of the histone genes in aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    M. Mandrioli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite their involvement in different processes, histone genes have been analysed in few insects. In order to improve the knowledge about this important gene family, genes coding for histones have been analysed in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum showing that at the amino acid level, aphid histones are highly conserved. In particular, data from A. pisum confirm that H1 is the most variable of the five histones, whereas histones H3 and H4 are highly conserved with the H3 almost identical from insects to vertebrates. A. pisum histone genes are organized in a quintet with the H1 gene followed by H2A and H2B genes that are adjacent and transcribed in same directions, in the opposite strand in respect to the H1 gene. At the 3’ end of the histone cluster, genes H3 and H4 constitute an oppositely transcribed pair. The span of the aphid histone genes (more than 7 kb is greater than the average length of the histone cluster till now reported in insects (about 5 kb. Furthermore, spacers that separate the aphid histone genes vary in length. The histone genes have been mapped in A. pisum and successively in the aphids Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi showing that they are present in a single large cluster located in an interstitial position of autosomes 1, differently from what reported in the Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia, where histone genes have been localized in a telomere of the two X chromosomes suggesting a dynamic organization of this multigene family in aphids.

  5. Characterization and Distribution Analysis of a Densovirus Infecting Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihao; Song, Xueru; Xue, Lin; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Xiufang; Xu, Pengjun; Ren, Guangwei

    2016-04-01

    Densoviruses (DVs) are a group of viruses that contain a linear single-stranded DNA genome between 4–6 kb in length. Herein, we report a DV with a 5,480-nt genome, isolated from tobacco aphid (Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman), named MpnDV. Unlike the genome of M. persicae densovirus (MpDV), which possesses five open reading frames (ORFs), the genome of MpnDV contains four putative ORFs—the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and NS2 from MpnDV are 98- and 52-amino acids longer than those of MpDV, respectively, at the N-terminus, and the capsid proteins (VP) are 102 amino acids longer at the C-terminus than those of MpDV. Mapping of the MpnDV transcripts by RACE method indicated that the ORF of NS2 started at nt 340 and the right two putative ORFs were combined together by deleting two introns, one of 95 bp located at nt 2,932–3,026 and the other of 145 bp located at nt 4,715–4,859, suggesting transcript mapping was necessary for analyzing of genome organization. Alignment analysis indicated that MpnDV shows 97% sequence identity with MpDV, and that the shortened ORFs resulted from nucleotide indels, suggesting MpnDV and MpDV were two isolates of the same virus. Thus, MpnDV and MpDV clustered together in a tree-based analysis. The prevalence of MpnDV infection in wild populations of tobacco aphids differed among 29 locations; 34% of the 622 individuals sampled were positive. The genome organization, transcript strategy, and widespread distribution in wild populations suggest that MpnDV might possess a biological function different from that of MpDV.

  6. [Pathogenicity of hyphomycet fungi to aphids Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elisângela de S; oino, Alcides

    2006-01-01

    The aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae are cosmopolitan, poliphagous and damage cultivated plants. The effects of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (isolate IBCB 66), Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate IBCB 121), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (isolate IBCB 141) and Lecanicillium (= Verticillium) lecanii (isolate JAB 02) on third instar nymphs of A. gossypii and M. persicae were evaluated in the laboratory at 25 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH and 12h photophase. The aphids were transferred to petri dishes with a foliar disk (cotton or pepper) with a layer of 1 cm tick of agar-water. The fungi were applied in a suspension containing 1.0 x 106 to 1.0 x 108 conidia/ml. In the control treatment 1 ml of sterilized water was added to the foliar disks. The mortality of aphids was evaluated daily. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae caused 100% mortality at the seventh day after inoculation, for both species. L. lecanii was the fungus that provided mortality later in the aphids and M. persicae was more susceptible to both fungi than A. gossypii.

  7. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M. Nieto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented. PMID:22328859

  8. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae from Costa Rica

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    Nicolás Pérez-Hidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica. The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α. The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae is presented.

  9. A new species of Rhopalosiphum (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Chusquea tomentosa (Poaceae, Bambusoideae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Nicolás Pérez; Martínez-Torres, David; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Muller, William Villalobos; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

    2012-01-01

    The new species Rhopalosiphum chusqueae Pérez Hidalgo & Villalobos Muller, is described from apterous viviparous females caught on Chusquea tomentosa in Cerro de la Muerte (Costa Rica). The identity of the species is supported both by the morphological features and by a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA containing the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and on the nuclear gene coding for the Elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). The taxonomic position of the new species is discussed. An identification key to the Aphidinae species living on plants of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) is presented.

  10. A new genus and species of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae from China, living on Isodon eriocalyx

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    Bin Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aphid genus Nigritergaphis gen. n. is described, and N. crassisetosa sp.n. on Isodon eriocalyx (Dunn Kudô (Lamiaceae from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. The new species curls and distorts the leaves of this important traditional Chinese medicinal plant, and is evidently specific to this host. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

  11. New invasive species of aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Serbia and Montenegro

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    Petrović-Obradović Olivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new invasive species of aphids have been found in Serbia: Chaitophorus populifolli Essig, Myzocallis walshii (Monell and Trichosiphonaphis polygonifoliae (Shinji and two have been found in Montenegro: Aphis illinoisensis Shimer and Tinocallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy. A. illinoisensis is a pest of the grapevine, T. polygonifoliae, feeds on a decorative shrub (Lonicera and the other three feed on trees (Populus, Quercus and Lagerostroemia. Three of the species are American aphids and two are of Asian origin. Their morphology, illustrated by original drawings and data on the biology and distribution are given. .

  12. Two new species of Aphidini Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjadze, Shalva; Özdemir, Işil; Blackman, Roger

    2014-10-15

    Apterous and alate viviparous females of Protaphis kvavadzei sp. n. on Eryngium campestre (Apiaceae) and Aphis matricariae sp. n. on Matricaria sp. (Asteraceae) from Turkey are described. The new species are differentiated from other aphids colonising these host plants and from species with similar morphology.

  13. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed.

  14. A new species of Chucallis Tao (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Calaphidinae) from China

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Yun Jiang; Jing Chen; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2011-01-01

    A new species in the aphid genus Chucallis Tao, Chucallis latusigladius Qiao, Jiang & Chen, sp. n. feeding on a species of bamboo, Indocalamus tessellatus (Munro) Keng f., is described. It differs from the only other known species in the genus byremarkably large marginal processes on abdominal tergite IV. A key to species, morphological descriptions, distributional data and host plant information are provided. The type specimens studied are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of C...

  15. Characterization and virulence of Chilean Lecanicillium (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) isolates on Cinara cupressi (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi, is considered to be one of the hundred most important invasive pests in the world. In Chile, it was first detected thirteen years ago, and its populations have been expanding throughout the country. In the course of a survey of entomopathogenic fungi of this pest ...

  16. Host preference of the crapemyrtle aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and host suitability of crapemyrtle cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John J; Mizell, R F; McAuslane, H J

    2009-08-01

    Crapemyrtle aphids, Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy), are a common pest of crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) throughout the southeastern United States. Breeding programs have produced >100 crapemyrtle cultivars that vary in floral color, plant height, and disease resistance, but these programs did not evaluate insect resistance as part of the selection process. In this study, the host suitability of crapemyrtle cultivars and host preference of the crapemyrtle aphid were tested using the following seven crapemyrtle cultivars: 'Carolina Beauty', 'Byers Wonderful White', 'Apalachee', 'Lipan', 'Tuscarora', 'Sioux', and 'Natchez'. Host suitability or aphid preference may be affected by cultivar attributes of plant parentage, source of Lagerstroemia fauriei Koehne germplasm, and mature plant height. Host suitability was evaluated by measuring daily and total fecundity under no-choice conditions. Host preference of the crapemyrtle aphid was tested in a choice experiment that used eight crapemyrtle cultivars; the seven used in the no-choice experiment plus Lagerstroemia speciosa L. In the no-choice experiment, aphid daily fecundity was not different among the crapemyrtle cultivars, but aphid total fecundity was different for the factors cultivar, plant parentage, source of germplasm, and mature plant height. Crapemyrtle aphid host preference in the choice experiment indicated that there were differences among cultivar, parentage, source of germplasm, and mature plant height. Results from this study are useful for plant breeding programs that have the objective of producing aphid resistant cultivars.

  17. Las hormigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae asociadas a pulgones (Hemiptera, Aphididae en la provincia de Valencia

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    Suay-Cano, V. A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six species of ants associated with aphids, belonging to twelve genera, are collected. Three subfamilies are identified, being the Formicinae the more represented about number of samples, genera and species. On the other hand, Lasius niger has been the species that is found with a more number of aphids (fifty eight species, and it seems to be the ant with a more capacity to establish associations with the different species of aphids. 224 different associations between the ants and the aphids are established and 164 of them are not recorded in the bibliography consulted for Spain.

    Se han recogido veintiséis especies de hormigas asociadas a pulgones, pertenecientes a doce géneros. De las tres subfamilias identificadas, Formicinae ha sido la más representada en cuanto a número de muestras, géneros y especies. Lasius niger, por otra parte, ha sido la especie que se ha encontrado junto a un mayor número de pulgones (cincuenta y ocho especies, demostrando ser la hormiga con mayor capacidad para establecer asociaciones con las diferentes especies de pulgones. Se han establecido un total de 224 asociaciones diferentes entre las hormigas y los áfidos, de las cuales 164 no se han encontrado citadas en la bibliografía consultada para España.

  18. New data on aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamari, Malik; d’Acier, Armelle Coeur; Jousselin, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A survey of aphids was carried out during the period 2008-2011 in different regions of Algeria by collecting and identifying aphids and their host plants. Aphids were collected from 46 host plants. Forty-six species were reported including thirty-six species which were recorded for the first time in this country and thirty species which were recorded for the first time in the Maghreb (North Africa). This study extends the number of known Algerian aphid to 156 species. PMID:24039520

  19. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae I: A transcriptomic survey.

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    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation, up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase, up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification. Our results emphasize the value of microarray studies to search for regulated genes in insects, but also highlights the many ways those different genotypes can assemble resistant phenotypes depending on the environmental pressure.

  20. Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Identificación de los biotipos presentes en poblaciones argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica RICCI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento de líneas de trigo y cultivares diferenciales, portadores de genes de resistencia, a fin de determinar la composición biotípica del áfido Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, “Pulgón Ruso del Trigo” (PRT, en Argentina; y se identifican aquellos hospederos con resistencia genética al PRT. Los 18 cultivares diferenciales y líneas Novel, se sembraron en invernáculo, en un diseño aleatorio con 2 repeticiones. Las observaciones se realizaron a los 21 y 51 días de la infestación, se determinó el grado de clorosis y de enrollamiento foliar. Los resultados se analizaron con ANOVA y el Test de Tuckey (=0,05. A los 21 días, las líneas 14 y 1 (Noveles presentaron el mejor comportamiento, pero se desconocen sus genes de resistencia. Los cultivares portadores de Dn2 y Dn7 resultaron con un alto nivel de tolerancia, mientras que Dn1 y dn3 fueron moderadamente tolerantes y las portadoras de Dn4 y Dn5, muy dañados por las poblaciones Argentinas de PRT. A los 51 días, solo Dn7 y las líneas 14 y 1 mantuvieron un comportamiento de tolerancia al áfido. Se infiere que en el país se encontrarían los biotipos 1, 2* y 5*, estos dos últimos con características diferentes a los identificados en EE.UU. Se concluye que los cultivares mejorados en otros países, pueden comportarse como susceptibles frente a las poblaciones locales.

  1. Seasonal phenology of Amphorophora agathonica (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and spread of viruses in red raspberry in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightle, D M; Quito-Avila, D; Martin, R R; Lee, J C

    2014-04-01

    Amphorophora agathonica (Hottes) is the primary vector of aphid-transmitted viruses in red raspberry in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. To better understand the biology of the aphid, we estimated the lower developmental threshold and studied the seasonal activity of A. agathonica in commercial fields in northern Washington state. In addition, we monitored the spread of raspberry viruses (raspberry latent virus and raspberry leaf mottle virus, RLMV) to determine how rapidly fields became infected and whether there was a relationship between aphid presence and infection. The lower developmental threshold of A. agathonica was estimated to be 2.7°C. In the field, apterous and alate aphid populations began rapidly increasing at ≍800 growing degree-days and peaked at 1,050 growing degree-days. RLMV spread rapidly, with 30-60% of plants in four different commercial fields testing positive after three growing seasons. There was no discernible relationship between the presence or abundance of aphids based on 10 leaves sampled per plant location, and the odds of that plant becoming infected with RLMV.

  2. Characterization of Peroxidase Changes in Tolerant and Susceptible Soybeans Challenged by Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, L; Heng-Moss, T M; Hunt, T E; Baldin, E L L; Baird, L M

    2014-10-01

    Changes in protein content, peroxidase activity, and isozyme profiles in response to soybean aphid feeding were documented at V1 (fully developed leaves at unifoliate node, first trifoliate leaf unrolled) and V3 (fully developed leaf at second trifoliate node, third trifoliate leaf unrolled) stages of soybean aphid-tolerant (KS4202) and -susceptible (SD76R) soybeans. Protein content was similar between infested and control V1 and V3 stage plants for both KS4202 and SD76R at 6, 16, and 22 d after aphid introduction. Enzyme kinetics studies documented that control and aphid-infested KS4202 V1 stage and SD76R V1 and V3 stages had similar levels of peroxidase activity at the three time points evaluated. In contrast, KS4202 aphid-infested plants at the V3 stage had significantly higher peroxidase activity levels than control plants at 6 and 22 d after aphid introduction. The differences in peroxidase activity observed between infested and control V3 stage KS4202 plants at these two time points suggest that peroxidases may be playing multiple roles in the tolerant plant. Native gels stained for peroxidase were able to detect differences in the isozyme profiles of aphid-infested and control plants for both KS4202 and SD76R. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  3. Examining the competitive advantage of Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 over biotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Michels, G J; Walker, C B

    2014-08-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is a serious pest of small grains, such as wheat and barley. High population growth rates and a broad gramineae host range have allowed this aphid to successfully establish and become pestiferous across much of North America since its invasion in the mid-1980s. Resistant wheat cultivars were developed and provided control ofD. noxia until 2003, when a new biotype (designated RWA2, as contrasted with the original biotype's designation, RWA1) emerged and rapidly spread through dryland winter wheat-growing regions. RWA2 displaced RWA1 more quickly than expected, based on RWA2's advantage in RWA1-resistant wheat cultivars. Previous research suggested that RWA2 may out-compete RWA1 in cooler temperatures. Thus, we sought to determine if RWA2 had a competitive advantage over RWA1 during the overwintering period. We placed a known distribution of RWA1 and RWA2 aphids in the field for the winter at three sites across a latitudinal gradient (from northern Colorado to Texas) to test for a competitive advantage between these biotypes. We found overwhelming support for an overwintering competitive advantage by RWA2 over RWA1, with evidence suggesting a > 10-fold advantage even at our Texas site (i.e., the site with the mildest winter). This substantial overwintering advantage helps explain the quick dispersion and displacement of RWA1 by RWA2.

  4. Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Erica F. TOCHO; Ana M. Marino de Remes Lenicov; De Castro, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP) es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de est...

  5. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species.

  6. Several nomenclatural clarifications on genus-group names in the Aphididae (Hemiptera Sternorrhyncha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aphidologists attending the Eighth International Symposium on Aphids, held in Fremantle (Western Australia, 2005), charged us with the preparation of a Part of the List of Available Names in Zoology devoted to the aphid genus-group names. Our work was greatly facilitated by reference to the list...

  7. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi (Entomophthoromycota) of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of cereal crops in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spectrum of entomophthoroid fungal species parasitizing aphids of cereal crops and a study of the phenology and prevalence of these pathogens was investigated in Argentina. The studies were conducted at six different sites cultivated with crops of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Avena sativa L. (o...

  8. Influência do silício na indução de resistência a Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididade) e na proteção de plantas de batata inglesa cultivadas em sistema orgânico

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Flávia Batista

    2014-01-01

    O pulgão Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) é considerado praga chave da bataticultura, pois além de danificar diretamente as plantas através da extração contínua de seiva, é vetor de fitovírus. Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a influência do silício na indução de resistência a M. persicae; avaliar o efeito do silício e do inseticida imidaclopride na colonização da batateira por M. persicae e no desenvolvimento vegetativo desta cultura; e avaliar seu efeito na incid...

  9. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae e Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Bipogical aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 (Hemiptera: Aphididae (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema citrícola abriga muitas espécies de inimigos naturais, entre eles Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 que apresenta um grande potencial como agente de controle biológico de pragas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avapar o efeito das presas Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 e Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 sobre o desenvolvimento das fases de larva e pupa de C. externa. O ensaio foi conduzido em sala cpmatizada a uma temperatura de 25±1ºC, 70±10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelo fornecimento contínuo e alternado dessas duas presas em cada ínstar do predador, além de ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879, utilizados para fins de comparação. Foram avaliados o tempo de vida e a viabilidade das fases de larva, pupa e do período larva-adulto de C. externa. Constatou-se que T. citricida fornecido isoladamente ao longo do desenvolvimento larval ou em dois ínstares consecutivos do predador, não foi uma presa adequada, constatando-se 100% de mortalidade no período larva-adulto. Quando as larvas alimentaram-se de P. citri fornecida em dois ínstares do predador, a viabilidade no período larva-adulto foi semelhante à dieta constituída por apenas ovos de A. kuehniella, exceto quando se alimentaram de T. citricida no primeiro ínstar.The citrus-growing ecosystem houses a great deal of species of natural enemies, among them Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, which presents a great potential for use in the bipogical contrp of pests. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the preys Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 on the development of larva and pupa of C. externa. The trial was carried out in an accpmatized room at 25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12-hour photophase, the treatments consisting of the continuous and alternate supply of those two preys in each instar of the predator, in apition to eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 utilized for comparison purposes. Both the white mealybug and the aphids were given in sufficient amounts to the C. externa larvae to be able to feed ad libitum. The pfetime and the survival rate of the phases of larva, pupa and the larval-adult period of C. externa were evaluated. It was found that T. citricida given either singly along the larval development or in two consecutive instars of the predator was not an adequate prey, 100% of mortapty over the larval-adult period being found. When the larvae fed on P. citri, given in two instars of the predator, the survival rate in the larval-adult period was similar to the diet constituted of only A. kuehniella eggs, except when fed with T. citricida in the first instar.

  10. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-07-01

    Recent widespread infestations of the invasive sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in sorghum fields in the southern USA have created demand for insecticides that will provide effective control of sugarcane aphid, while conserving those beneficial species that contribute to biological control of the pest. We tested the susceptibility of both adult and immature stages of two aphid predators, the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), to three aphicides, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone. Flonicamid was innocuous to both species regardless of life stage or route of exposure. Lacewing adults were more susceptible to sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone than were larvae, and had higher mortality when fed contaminated honey solution than when contacting residues on an inert surface. When laid in sunflower stems treated with these two materials, eggs of O. insidiosus hatched successfully, but nymphs experienced significant mortality when exposed to treated stems, likely due to phytophagous behavior that resulted in some insecticide ingestion. Despite these impacts, we conclude that both sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are likely to be relatively innocuous in comparison to more broad-spectrum insecticides and are thus potentially compatible with biological control and overall management of M. sacchari in grain sorghum.

  11. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

    2010-01-01

    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species.

  12. New record of the Genus Muscaphis (Sternorhyncha, Aphididae) in the Eastern Palearctic Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S.; Havelka, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2001), s. 315-323 ISSN 1225-0104 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Sternorhyncha * Aphididae * Muscaphis stroyani Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  14. Aspectos da biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quatro cultivares dealgodoeiro, em laboratório Biological aspects of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on four cotton cultivars, in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar alguns aspectos biológicos de Aphis gossypii Glover alimentado nas cultivares de algodoeiro Allen, IPEACO-SL 21-61131, JPM 781-88-3 e Auburn SM 310, em experimentos conduzidos a 25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% UR e foto-fase de 12 horas, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Fêmeas adultas obtidas após a última ecdise foram individualizadas em discos foliares dessas cultivares durante 24 horas e das ninfas produzidas, uma foi escolhida ao acaso para condução do experimento. Avaliaram-se também a densidade e os tipos de tricomas em cada cultivar. A JPM 781-88-3 permitiu o melhor desenvolvimento do pulgão, com uma produção diária de 4,2 ± 0,1 ninfas/fêmea e um total de 69,2 ± 2,1. Na cultivar IPEACO-SL 2261131, ocorreram um prolongamento da fase ninfal e redução na fecundidade, com uma média diária de 3,0 ± 0,3 ninfas/fêmea e um total de 54,9 ± 2,2 ninfas/fêmea. A cultivar Auburn SM 310 afetou o ciclo biológico desse afídeo, reduzindo a sua duração em relação às demais cultivares. Com relação aos tipos de tricomas, foram identificadas estruturas não glandulares de formas estreladas e glandulares, com predominância do primeiro tipo. As maiores densidades de tricomas não glandulares foram observadas nas cultivares Allen e IPEACO-SL 21-61131, enquanto os glandulares ocorreram em maior número nas cultivares JPM 78188-3 e Allen. Na Auburn SM 310, não foi encontrado nenhum tipo de tricoma.It was aimed to study some biological aspects of Aphis gossypii Glover fed on cotton cultivars Allen, IPEACO-SL 21-61131, JPM 781-88-3 and Auburn SM 310 in experiments conducted at 25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% of RH and 12-hour photophase in a completely randomized design. Adult females obtained after the last ecdysis were mantained on leaf disks of those cultivars for 24 hours and from the produced nymphs, one was chosen at random for the conduction of the experiment. The density and the sorts of trichomes on each cultivar were evaluated. The cultivar JPM 781-88-3 enabled the best development of the aphid with a daily production of 4.2 ± 0.1 nymphs/female and a total of 69.2 ± 2.1. On the cultivar IPEACO-SL 22-61131, a lenghtening of the nymphal stage and reduced fecundity took place with a daily mean of 3.0 ± 0.3 nymphs/female and a whole of 54.9 ± 2.2 nymphs/female. The cultivar Auburn SM 310 affected the biological cycle of this aphid, reducing its duration. As regards the sorts of trichome, star-shaped non-glandular and glandular structures were identified, with the predominance of the first type. The highest densities of non-glandular trichomes were found on the cultivars Allen and IPEACO-SL 21-61131 while the glandular ones occurred in a greater number on the cultivars JPM 781-88-3 and Allen. On Auburn SM 310 no sort of trichom was found.

  15. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used (0.075% and the essential oils of Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (DC Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill and Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtin and C. zeylanicum showed the highest percentage of repellence, 100, 84, 66.67, 64, 60.87 and 48% respectively, and reduced nymph production by 100, 92, 42.9, 87.5, 80.65 and 89, 74%, with significant results from the χ2 test at 10% probability. In tests with F. vulgare (χ2 = 3.66, P = 0.05 females of A. gossypii were significantly attracted to the treated discs, and there was an increase in the production of nymphs in the results obtained for F. vulgare (χ2 = 5.87, P = 0.02 and C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14.31, P = 0.001.

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology; Efeitos da adubacao nitrogenada em algodoeiro sobre a biologia de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias]. E-mail: rbarrosufms@yahoo.com.br, degrande@ufgd.edu.br

    2007-09-15

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  17. Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Uso de silicio como indutor de resistencia em batata a Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Flavia B.; Moraes, Jair C.; Antunes, Cristiana [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia; Santos, Custodio D. dos [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-03-15

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato. (author)

  18. Efeito da temperatura na biologia de Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae criado em pimentão = Effect of temperature on biology of Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae reared in sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de temperaturas constantes e variáveis sobre a biologia de M. persicae em pimentão. As ninfas foram individualizadas em discos foliares de pimentão mantidos em placas de Petri às temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC. Em casa de vegetação, as temperaturas foram oscilantes, com média de 24,9ºC, e as ninfas foram colocadas em gaiolas apropriadas e fixadas em folhas de pimentão. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 45 e 30 repetições para os ensaios em laboratório e em casa de vegetação, respectivamente. Ficou evidenciado que as temperaturas constantes de 20ºC e 25ºC foram mais favoráveis para M. persicae, por proporcionarem redução do ciclo biológico e maior fecundidade do que as temperaturas oscilantes em casa de vegetação.The influence of constant and variable temperatures on biology of M. persicae in sweet pepper was evaluated. The nymphs were individualized on pepper leaf discs and maintained in Petri dishes at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30ºC. In greenhouse the temperature was variable with an average of 24.9ºC and the nymphs were kept in appropriate cages and fixed in sweet pepper leaves. The experimental design was completely randomized with 45 and 30 replicates for the laboratory and greenhouse assays, respectively. It was evidenced that constant temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were more favorable to M. persicae, decreasing the biological cycle and increasing the fecundity, than the oscillatory temperatures in the greenhouse.

  19. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation; Danos de Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) no trigo em funcao da duracao e da densidade de infestacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F. [Rua Pedro Roso, 42, Nonoai, RS, (Brazil)]. E-mail: margafrg@brturbo.com.br; Salvadori, Jose R. [Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jrsalva@cnpt.embrapa.b; Schons, Jurema [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria]. E-mail: schons@upf.br

    2008-09-15

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  20. Insecticied effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii Boyer of fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae Efecto insecticida de nanopartículas de plata y zinc contra Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rouhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, is one of the common pests of ornamental plants in the families of Apocynaceae and Sclepiadaceae and distributed throughout the world, which has been responsible for the mortality of a large number of oleander (Nerium oleander L. shrubs each year. In this research, the insecticidal activity of Ag nanoparticles against the A. nerii was investigated. Nanoparticles of Ag and Ag-Zn were synthesized through a solvothermal method, and using them, insecticidal solutions of different concentrations were prepared and tested on A. nerii. For comparison purposes, imidacloprid was also used as a conventional insecticide. In the experiments, the LC50 value for imidacloprid, Ag and Ag-Zn nanoparticles were calculated to be 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, and 539.46 mg mL-1, respectively. The result showed that Ag nanoparticles can be used as a valuable tool in pest management programs of A. nerii. Additionally, the study showed that imidacloprid at 1 μL mL-1 and nanoparticles at 700 mg mL-1 had the highest insect mortality effect.El áfido de la adelfa, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, es una de las plagas más comunes de plantas ornamentales en las familias Apocynaceae y Sclepiadaceae y tiene distribución mundial, ha sido responsable de la mortalidad de un gran número de arbustos de adelfa (Nerium oleander L. cada ano. En este estudio se investigó la actividad insecticida de nanopartículas de Ag contra A. nerii. Nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn fueron sintetizadas a través de un método solvotérmico, y con ellas se prepararon soluciones insecticidas de diferentes concentraciones y se probaron contra A. nerii. Con fines de comparación, también se usó imidacloprid como un insecticida convencional. En los experimentos, el valor LC50 para imidacloprid, nanopartículas de Ag y Ag-Zn se calculó como 0.13 μL mL-1, 424.67 mg mL-1, y 539.46 mg mL-1, respectivamente. El resultado mostró que nanopartículas de Ag pueden ser usadas como una herramienta valiosa en programas de manejo de plagas de A. nerii. Adicionalmente, el estudio mostró que 1 μL mL¹ imidacloprid y 700 mg mL-1 de nanopartículas tuvieron el mayor efecto en mortalidad de los insectos.

  1. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  2. Estimating the development of the fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphiididae), using non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B; Ramalho, Francisco S; Lira, Aline C S; Oliveira, Flávia Q; Fernandes, Francisco S; Zanuncio, José C; Godoy, Wesley A C

    2015-05-01

    Non-linear models making it possible to predict agricultural pest outbreaks and optimise control tactics are of primary importance for integrated pest management. The development period for immature stages of the fennel aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at constant temperatures was modelled in order to determine mathematical functions for simulating the aphid's development. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between temperature and development rates of H. foeniculi subjected to constant temperatures. The models used were found to be good fits for estimating H. foeniculi development rates as a function of temperature, with the exception of the Davidson model. The development time of H. foeniculi nymphs ranged from 2.73 days (first instar) to 6.18 days (fourth instar) at 15 °C, from 2.57 days (first instar) to 4.52 days (fourth instar) at 20 °C and from 1.53 days (first instar) to 2.05 days (fourth instar) at 28 °C. These models provide important tools for better elucidation of the relationship between temperature and development rates in H. foeniculi. The results could be used for predicting the occurrence of the various immature stages of H. foeniculi in the fennel crop in Brazil, making it possible to predict more accurately the best periods for implementing pest control. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Host Plant Resistance on Population Growth of the Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Ashley R; Nechols, James R; McCornack, Brian P; Margolies, David C; Sandercock, Brett K; Yan, Donglin; Murray, Leigh

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans. To assess indirect (plant-mediated) effects, soybean aphids were reared under a range of temperatures (15-30 °C) on soybean seedlings from a line expressing a Rag1 gene for resistance, and life history traits were quantified and compared to those obtained for soybean aphids on a susceptible soybean line. Direct effects of temperature were obtained by comparing relative differences in the magnitude of life-history traits among temperatures on susceptible soybeans. We predicted that temperature and host plant resistance would have a combined, but asymmetrical, effect on soybean aphid fitness and population growth. Results showed that temperature and plant resistance influenced preimaginal development and survival, progeny produced, and adult longevity. There also appeared to be a complex interaction between temperature and plant resistance for survival and developmental rate. Evidence suggested that the level of plant resistance increased at higher, but not lower, temperature. Soybean aphids required about the same number of degree-days to develop on resistant and susceptible plants. Our results will be useful for making predictions of soybean aphid population growth on resistant plants under different seasonal temperatures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information on ...

  5. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  6. A comparative study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on imidacloprid-resistant and -susceptible Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-07-01

    The melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is a polyphagous insect pest. This study compared the development, reproduction, DNA damage, recovery, and gene expression in imidacloprid-resistant (IMI-R) and -susceptible (S) strains of A. gossypii by electron beam irradiation. When 1st instar nymphs were irradiated with 100 Gy, the fecundity (nymphs of F1 generation) of the resultant adults were completely inhibited. When adults were irradiated with 200 Gy, the number of total 1st instar nymphs produced per adult was 3.0±1.7 and 1.9±1.4 in the S and IMI-R strains, respectively, but adult development was completely suppressed. However, electron beam irradiation did not affect adult longevity in either the S or IMI-R strain. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of irradiation on the S and IMI-R strains. Therefore, electron beam irradiation at 200 Gy could be used as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment for both S and IMI-R strains of A. gossypii. The DNA damage caused by electron beam irradiation was evaluated by an alkaline comet assay. Exposure to an electron beam (50 Gy) induced DNA damage that was repaired to a similar level as the untreated control group (0 Gy) over time. However, at more than 100 Gy, the DNA damage was not completely repaired. The expression of P450, HSP70, cuticle protein, and elongation factor genes were higher in the IMI-R strain than in the S strain.

  7. Feeding behavior of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 on soybean PI 243540, the source of Rag2 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an effective means of controlling populations of this introduced pest species in the U.S. Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes identified in soybean germplasm have been incorporated into commercial cultivars, but differenti...

  8. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J.; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America. PMID:26372106

  9. Productos naturales para el control de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en cebada

    OpenAIRE

    Iribarne, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    La cebada es una planta monocotiledónea, perteneciente a la familia de las Poáceas (gramíneas) y al género Hordeum vulgare var. Distichum. Es un cultivo de gran difusión en el mundo, ya que ocupa el cuarto lugar en superficie sembrada. La cebada está expuesta desde la siembra hasta la cosecha al ataque de diferentes plagas, siendo los áfidos uno de los principales problemas en toda la región pampeana. Los pulgones generan daños directos, producidos por el aparato picador suctor e indirectos...

  10. Parasitism of Autumnal Morphs of the Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Buckthorn

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark K. Asplen; Kris A. G. Wyckhuys; George E. Heimpel

    2011-01-01

    ... to A. glycines throughout the aphid life cycle and follow it to its primary host; and, if it does, 2) is parasitoid migration facilitated by phoretic movement within buckthorn-specific winged aphids...

  11. Keefektifan fosfin formulasi cair terhadap Aphis gossypii Glover dan Macrosiphoniella sanborni Gillette (Hemiptera: Aphididae pada bunga potong krisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rachman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flower of chrysanthemum has high aesthetic and economic values. Export volume of chrysanthemums from Indonesia are lower than other countries, due to the impact of insect pest. Insect pests, Aphis gossypii Glover and Macrosiphoniella sanborni Gillette are currently associated with cut flowers  especially chrysanthemum. One control measures usually taken in quarantine is fumigation. Alternative fumigant, liquified phosphine formulations may potentially be applied for quarantine treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration and exposure time of liquified phosphine against these species and to evaluate the effect of fumigant on the physical quality of cut flowers. The experiment was conducted in four steps: (1 identification and mass rearing of A. gossypii and M. sanborni; (2 preliminary tests on adult and third instar nymphs; (3 determination of liquified phosphine with various concentration and exposure time against adult and third instar nymphs of A. gosspypii and M. sanborni and; (4 validation test of effective concentration of fumigant and exposure time and the effect on quality of cut flowers. The results of study showed concentration of fumigant causing 100% mortality A. gossypii and M. sanborni  ere 500 ppm and 700 ppm, respectively with exposure time 12 hours. Concentrations of 700 ppm and exposure time up to 18 hours did not cause negative impact to the quality of chrysanthemum cut flowers.

  12. A new parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of the invasive bamboo aphids Takecallis spp. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Western Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakhshani, E.; Pons, X.; Lumbierres, B.; Havelka, Jan; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; Tomanović, Ž.; Starý, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, 21-22 (2017), s. 1237-1248 ISSN 0022-2933 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aphid parasitoid * arboretum * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2016

  13. Sequential sampling of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on cotton crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M G; Spessoto, R R; Degrande, P E; Rodrigues, T R

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to use the sequential probability ratio test to establish a sequential sampling plan for Aphis gossypii Glover and Frankliniella schultzei Trybom infesting cotton. Field work was conducted at the agricultural experimental station of the Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados during the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 agricultural years. Aphid colonies and individual thrips in the sampling area were counted and their numbers were recorded. The spatial distribution pattern of A. gossypii and F. schultzei in the cotton culture was aggregated. Sequential sampling plans were developed for aphids and thrips with type I and type II errors set at 0.1, common Kc = 0.6081 (aphids) and = 0. 9449 (thrips), and safety and management levels of 20% (aphids) and 40% (thrips) of infested plants. The sampling plans resulted in two decision boundaries for each species, as follows: the upper boundary, indicating when management (population control) is recommended: S1 = 4.6546 + 0.2849n (aphids), and S1 = 3.6514 + 0.1435n (thrips); and the lower boundary, indicating when population control is not necessary: S0 = -4.6546 + 0.2849n (aphids) and S0 = - 3.6514 + 0.1435n (thrips). The highest probability of error when making a decision was 3% for aphids and 2% for thrips, respectively. The maximum number of samples required to reach a decision was 63 for aphids and 95 for thrips.

  14. Multivariate approach to quantitative analysis of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their natural enemy populations at different cotton spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Dos S. Dias, Carlos T.; Brugger, Bruno P.; S. Lira, Aline Cristina; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between pests and natural enemies using multivariate analysis on cotton in different spacing has not been documented yet. Using multivariate approaches is possible to optimize strategies to control Aphis gossypii at different crop spacings because the possibility of a better use of the aphid sampling strategies as well as the conservation and release of its natural enemies. The aims of the study were (i) to characterize the temporal abundance data of aphids and its natural enemies using principal components, (ii) to analyze the degree of correlation between the insects and between groups of variables (pests and natural enemies), (iii) to identify the main natural enemies responsible for regulating A. gossypii populations, and (iv) to investigate the similarities in arthropod occurrence patterns at different spacings of cotton crops over two seasons. High correlations in the occurrence of Scymnus rubicundus with aphids are shown through principal component analysis and through the important role the species plays in canonical correlation analysis. Clustering the presence of apterous aphids matches the pattern verified for Chrysoperla externa at the three different spacings between rows. Our results indicate that S. rubicundus is the main candidate to regulate the aphid populations in all spacings studied.

  15. Testing the fecundity advantage hypothesis with Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding on ten wheat accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thieme, Thomas; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhao, Hui-Yan

    2015-12-18

    The fecundity advantage hypothesis suggests that females with a large body size produce more offspring than smaller females. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the correlations between life-history traits of three aphid species feeding on ten wheat accessions at three levels of analysis with respect to the host plant: overall, inter-accession, and intra-accession. We found that fecundity was significantly correlated with mean relative growth rate (MRGR), weight gain, and development time, and that the faster aphid develops the greater body and fecundity, depending on aphid species, wheat accession, and analyses level. Larger aphids of all three species produced more offspring overall; this held true for Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum at the inter-accession level, and for S. avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and S. graminum for three, five, and eight accessions respectively at the intra-accession level. Only one correlation, between intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) and MRGR, was significant for all aphid species at all three analysis levels. A more accurate statement of the fecundity advantage hypothesis is that cereal aphids with greater MRGR generally maintain higher rm on wheat. Our results also provide a method for exploring relationships between individual life-history traits and population dynamics for insects on host plants.

  16. Seasonal changes in the flight apparatus of winged females and sexual males of the aphid Tuberculatus quercicola (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) feeds on Quercus dentata Thunberg, and exhibits mutualistic interactions with ants. Tuberculatus quercicola has two winged morphs in its life cycle, winged females appear in summer and sexual males appear in autumn. Previous studies have shown that winged females exhibit higher wing loading (ratio of body volume to wing area) due to ant attendance, resulting in extremely low dispersal rates. It is known that the nutritional quality of host plants is high in...

  17. Effects of static electric fields on growth and development of wheat aphid Sitobion aveanae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) through multiple generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Cao, Zhu; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Pan, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Insects show a variety of responses to electric fields and most of them are associated with immediate effects. To investigate the long-term effects of static electric field on the wheat aphid Sitbion avenae, the insert was exposed to 4 min of a static electric field at intensities of 0, 2, 4, or 6 kV/cm. Development effects over 30 consecutive generations of the insect were studied. The results showed that the electric field could exert adverse effects on the developmental duration and total longevity of S. avenae nymphs regardless of exposure intensities or generations. The effects appeared to be more intense and fluctuated at higher electric field intensities and more insect generations. The most favorable exposure for development was 6 kV/cm for 4 min while the most detrimental electric fields were 2 kV/cm for 4 min and 4 kV/cm for 4 min. Among the treatments, the first instar duration was significantly prolonged while the adult longevities were significantly shortened in the sixth generation. The intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate in the sixth generation were also the lowest among the 30 consecutive generations studied. Based on the results, the adverse effects of electric fields on insects may be used in the bio-control of pest insects in terms of pest management.

  18. Biological cycle and predation of three coccinellid species (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) on giant conifer aphid Cinara atlantica (Wilson) (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Nádia Cristina de [UNESP; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico [UNESP; Matos, Carlos Alberto O. de [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    Afídeos do gênero Cinara Curtis são importantes pragas de coníferas em vários países. No Brasil Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919) tem causado danos em plantações comerciais de Pinus spp. e o controle biológico com predadores pode ser uma opção melhor que o controle químico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a biologia e a capacidade de predação dos coccinelídeos Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763) e Eriopis connexa (German, 1824) (Coleoptera,...

  19. Development of biological control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) and Phorodon humuli (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Oregon Hop yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal development of biological control of arthropod pests in perennial cropping systems is largely unreported. In this study, the development of biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) in a new planting of hop in Oregon...

  20. Comparison of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences between old and new world strains of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial DNA provides useful tools for inferring population genetic structure within a species and phylogenetic relationships between species. The complete mitogenome sequences were assembled from strains of the cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora, from the old (15,308 bp) and new world (15,305 bp...

  1. Mitochondrial COI and morphological specificity of the mealy aphids (Hyalopterus ssp. collected from different hosts in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty three European population samples of mealy aphids from various winter and summer host plants were attributed to respective species of Hyalopterus by means of their partial sequences of mitochondrial COI gene. Used Hyalopterus samples emerged as monophyletic relative to outgroup and formed three major clades representing three host specific mealy aphid species in the Neighbor joining, Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees. H. pruni and H. persikonus emerged as a sister species, whilst H. amygdali was located basally. Samples representing different clades in the molecular trees were used for canonical discrimination analysis based on twenty two morphological characters. Length of the median dorsal head hair enabled a 97.3 % separation of H. amygdali from the remaining two species. No single character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of H. pruni and H. persikonus. A modified key for the morphological identification of Hyalopterus species is suggested and their taxonomic status discussed.

  2. Antibiosis and tolerance discovered in USDA-ARS sorghums resistant to the sugarcane aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, was discovered infesting grain sorghum near Beaumont, TX, close to the Texas and Louisiana state line a few miles inland from the Gulf coast in the late summer of 2013, and has been a perennial pest of sorghum through 2016. Our research was aimed at identif...

  3. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  4. The attack of the clones: tracking the movement of insecticide-resistant peach-potato aphids Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, B; Malloch, G; Woodford, J A T; Foster, S P; Anstead, J; Denholm, I; King, L; Pickup, J

    2005-10-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) collected in Scotland were characterized for four microsatellite loci, intergenic spacer fingerprints and the resistance mechanisms modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE), overproduced carboxylesterase and knockdown resistance (kdr). Microsatellite polymorphisms were used to define a limited number of clones that were either fully susceptible to insecticides or possessed characteristic combinations of resistance mechanisms. Within these clones, intergenic spacer fingerprints could either be very consistent or variable, with the latter indicating ongoing evolution within lineages, most likely derived from the same zygote. Two clones (termed A and B) possessed all three resistance mechanisms and predominated at sites treated with insecticides. Their appearance on seed potatoes and oilseed rape in Scotland in 2001 coincided with extensive insecticide use and severe control failures. Clones C, I and J, with no or fewer resistance mechanisms, were found in samples from 1995 and were dominant at untreated sites in 2001. A comparison of Scottish collections with those from other UK and non-UK sites provides insight into the likely origins, distribution and dynamics of M. persicae clones in a region where asexual (anholocyclic) reproduction predominates, but is vulnerable to migration by novel genotypes from areas of Europe where sexual (holocyclic) reproduction occurs.

  5. The occurrence of two species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  6. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres.

  7. Age-Specific Functional Response of Aphidius matricariae and Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazerouni, Z; Talebi, A A; Fathipour, Y; Soufbaf, M

    2016-12-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is one of the most important aphid pests on pepper. Aphidius matricariae Haliday and Praon volucre (Haliday) are known as biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops. In this research, age-specific functional responses of these two parasitoids were evaluated on different densities of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 green peach aphids. Type of functional response varied from type II to type III for different ages of A. matricariae, but type of functional response was not affected by female age for P. volucre. The functional response of P. volucre was determined as type II in the whole parasitoid lifetime. The searching efficiency (a), b, and handling time (T h ) were estimated using the Rogers equations. The highest searching efficiency (a) and lowest handling time were observed during the first half of lifetime of A. matricariae and P. volucre. Aphidius matricariae and P. volucre caused reasonable mortality of the green peach aphid by parasitism of 52.17 and 47.05 host aphids, respectively, in 24 h. Therefore, they are suggested as suitable candidates for control of M. persicae in pepper greenhouses.

  8. Insecticide resistance monitoring and metabolic mechanism study of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xu, Zhifeng; Shi, Li; Shen, Guangmao; He, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is one of the most important agricultural pests in China, which caused serious losses every year. For resistance monitoring, twelve populations of this pest were collected from tobacco field in Chongqing, China, and their sensitivities to 4 insecticides were tested. Results showed that only WL (RR=6.51) and FJ (RR=6.03) populations have developed minor resistance to imidacloprid, and the others still remained susceptible. One population (NC) has reached a high resistance level to cyhalothrin (RR=41.28), five populations showed medium level (10.36≤RR≤20.45), and the other six remained susceptible (0.39≤RR≤3.53). As regards carbosulfan, three populations have developed medium resistance, four populations showed only minor resistance, and the other five (0.81≤RR≤3.97) were still susceptible. Population SZ developed a medium level (RR=14.83) to phoxim, the other 11 were susceptible (0.29≤RR≤2.41). To analysis the potential resistance mechanism, inhibition effects of synergists and detoxifying enzyme activities were detected. The results indicated that the MFO was the most important detoxifying enzyme conferring imidacloprid resistance, and CarE was most important to cyhalothrin, carbosulfan and phoxim. Our study provided a comprehensive survey of insecticide resistance of M. persicae in Chongqing, and suggested that different counties should take corresponding management to delay the insecticide resistance development and prolong the usefulness of insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota, Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissem Ben Fekih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1 was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota, Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  10. Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species composition and potential aphid vectors of plum pox virus in Pennsylvania peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, C M; Fleischer, S J; Luster, D; Gildow, F E

    2005-10-01

    Plum pox, an invasive disease recently identified in Pennsylvania stone fruit orchards, is caused by the aphid-transmitted Plum pox virus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, PPV). To identify potential vectors, we described the aphid species communities and the seasonal dynamics of the dominant aphid species within Pennsylvania peach orchards. Aphids were trapped weekly in 2002 and 2003 from mid-April through mid-November within two central Pennsylvania orchards by using yellow and green water pan traps. In total, 42 aphid species were identified from both orchards over 2 yr. Within orchards, actual species richness ranged from 24 to 30 species. The Abundance Based Coverage Estimator predicted species richness to range from 30 to 36 species, indicating that trap catches were identifying most aphid species expected to occur in the orchard. Three species, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), Aphis spiraecola Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), were consistently dominant across locations and years. Orchard-trapped populations of these three species peaked in a similar chronological sequence each year. As expected, trap color influenced the total number and distribution of the predominate species collected. However, the same dominant species occurred in both yellow and green traps. Based on the seasonal population dynamics reported here and on published vector efficacy studies, the most probable significant PPV vector was identified as A. spiraecola. If the PPV pathogen escapes current quarantine or if subsequent reintroductions of PPV occur, these data will be useful for developing plum pox management strategies.

  11. First record of the aphid genus Neonipponaphis Takahashi (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) from China, with a description of one new species

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2012-01-01

    The aphid genus Neonipponaphis Takahashi is reviewed and reported in China for the first time, with a description of one new species, Neonipponaphis pustulosis sp. n. on Castanopsis eyrei from Fujian. A key to species, morphological descriptions, features, host plants, and distributions are provided. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

  12. A review of Aleurodaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Hormaphidinae) with the description of one new species and keys to species

    OpenAIRE

    Ge-Xia Qiao; Li-Yun Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The genus Aleurodaphis van der Goot is reviewed. One new species Aleurodaphis sinojackiae Qiao & Jiang, sp. n. on Sinojackia xylocarpa from Jiangsu and Zhejiang, China is described. Aleurodaphis sinisalicis Zhang, 1982 is synonymised with A. blumeae van der Goot, 1917. Keys to species, morphological description and features of the new species, host plants, and distribution are provided. The specimens including types are deposited in British Natural History Museum, London (BMNH), Kôgakkan ...

  13. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome and the reproduction-related genes for the aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Yang, Z X; Chen, X M; Yang, P

    2017-03-22

    Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant. However, the sexual and asexual modes of reproduction are poorly understood on the molecular level. We aimed to identify genes that respond to changes in temperature that may be related to the reproduction process. We compared the transcriptome of two samples of S. chinensis, which had been reared at different temperatures. Using gene ontology analysis, a total of 51 evolutionary conserved genes related to reproduction determination in insects were identified. Of these genes, S. chinensis harbors 42 genes. When we analyzed aphids that had asexually or sexually produced offspring, eight out of these 42 genes were identified and expressed differently in two temperature conditions. This is the first report on genes associated with reproduction determination in S. chinensis, which has a complex life cycle. Genes, expressed differently in response to different temperature conditions will be helpful to understand the mechanism of aphid reproductive determination.

  14. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasitóides nos afídeos mumificados ao longo deste estudo.

  15. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  16. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  17. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. López Ciruelos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi; Yan, Fengming; Wang, Jianyun; Song, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Here, we reconstructed the Hemiptera phylogeny based on the expanded mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, separately. The differential rates of change across lineages may associate with long-branch attraction (LBA) effect and result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny from different types of data. To reduce the potential effects of systematic biases on inferences of topology, various data coding schemes, site removal method, and different algorithms were utilized in phylogenetic reconstruction. We show that the outgroups Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, and the ingroup Sternorrhyncha share similar base composition, and exhibit "long branches" relative to other hemipterans. Thus, the long-branch attraction between these groups is suspected to cause the failure of recovering Hemiptera under the homogeneous model. In contrast, a monophyletic Hemiptera is supported when heterogeneous model is utilized in the analysis. Although higher level phylogenetic relationships within Hemiptera remain to be answered, consensus between analyses is beginning to converge on a stable phylogeny.

  19. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  20. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Song; Ai-Ping Liang; Cui-Ping Bu

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of tw...

  1. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  2. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93–100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  3. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  4. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  5. Effects of Manduca sexta allatostatin and an analogue on the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (hemiptera: aphididae) and degradation by enzymes in the aphid gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H June; Down, Rachel E; Audsley, Neil

    2010-11-01

    The oral toxicity of the C-type allatostatin, Manduca sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS) and the analogue δR³δR⁵Manse-AS, where R residues were replaced by their D-isomers, were tested against the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae by incorporation into an artificial diet. Both peptides had significant dose-dependent effects on mortality, growth, and fecundity compared with control insects. The analogue, δR³δR⁵Manse-AS, had an estimated LC₅₀ of 0.31 µg/µl diet and was more potent than Manse-AS (estimated LC₅₀ of 0.58 µg/µl diet). At a dose of 0.35 µg δR³δR⁵Manse-AS/µl diet, 76% of the aphids were dead after 6 days and all were dead after 10 days. In comparison, three times the dose of Manse-AS was required to achieve 74% mortality after 8 days and 98% mortality after 16 days. The degradation of both peptides by extracts prepared from the gut of M. persicae was investigated. The estimated half-life of Manse-AS, when incubated with the gut extract from M. persicae, was 31 min. Degradation was due to a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease, carboxypeptidase-like activity, endoprotease activity with glutamine specificity, pyroglutamate aminopeptidase activity, and possibly trypsin-like proteases. The half-life of the δR³δR⁵ Manse-AS analogue was enhanced (73 min) with the D-isomers of R appearing to prevent cleavage around the R residues by cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases or from trypsin-like proteases. The greater stability of the analogue may explain its increased potency in M. persicae. This work demonstrates the potential use of Manse-AS and analogues, with greater resistance to enzymatic attack, in aphid control strategies. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oral activity of FMRFamide-related peptides on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and degradation by enzymes from the aphid gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Matthews, H June; Audsley, Neil

    2011-11-10

    Insect myosuppressins and myosuppressin analogues were tested for oral toxicity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) by incorporation into an artificial diet. Acyrthosiphon pisum myosuppressin (Acypi-MS) and leucomyosuppressin (LMS) had significant dose-dependent effects (0.1-0.5μg peptide/μl diet) on feeding suppression, mortality, reduced growth and fecundity compared with control insects, but Acypi-MS was more potent than LMS. One hundred percent of aphids had died after 10days of feeding on 0.5μg Acypi-MS/μl diet whereas 40% of aphids feeding on 0.5μg LMS/μl diet were still alive after 13days. Myosuppressins were degraded by aphid gut enzymes; degradation was most likely due to a carboxypeptidase-like protease, an aminopeptidase and a cathepsin L cysteine protease. The estimated half-life of Acypi-MS in a gut extract was 30min, whereas LMS was degraded more slowly (t½=54min). No toxicity was observed when the analogues δR(9) LMS and citrolline(9) Acypi-MS or FMRFamide were fed to the pea aphid. These findings not only help to better understand the biological effects of myosuppressins in aphids but also demonstrate the potential use of myosuppressins in a strategy to control aphid pests. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Manduca sexta allatostatin and an analog on the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and degradation by enzymes from the aphid gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Matthews, H June; Audsley, Neil

    2010-03-01

    The C-type allatostatin, Manduca sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS) and the analog delta R(3)delta R(5)Manse-AS, where R residues were replaced by their d-isomers, were tested for oral toxicity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) by incorporation into an artificial diet. Both peptides had significant dose-dependent feeding suppression effects, resulting in mortality, reduced growth and fecundity compared with control insects. The delta R(3)delta R(5)Manse-AS analog had an estimated LC(50) of 0.18 microg/microl diet, and was more potent than Manse-AS. At a dose of 0.35 microg delta R(3)delta R(5)Manse-AS/microl diet, 98% of aphids were dead within 3 days, at a rate similar to those aphids that had been starved (no diet controls). On comparison, it required 13 days and three times the dose of Manse-AS fed to aphids to attain 96% mortality. It is possible that the feeding suppression effects of Manse-AS on aphids are due to the inhibition of gut motility. The estimated half-life of Manse-AS when incubated with a gut extract from A. pisum was 54 min. Degradation was most likely due to cathepsin L cysteine and/or trypsin-like proteases, by an unidentified glutamine-specific protease and by a carboxypeptidase-like enzyme. The d-isomers of R in the Manse-AS analog appeared to prevent hydrolysis by cathepsin L cysteine and trypsin-like enzymes, and enhance its half-life (145 min). However delta R(3)delta R(5)Manse-AS was cleaved by enzymes with carboxypeptidase-like and chymotrypsin-like activity. The increased stability of the Manse-AS analog may explain its enhanced feeding suppression effects when continually fed to aphids, and demonstrates the potential use of Manse-AS in a strategy to control aphid pests. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potencial inseticida de plantas medicinais encontradas na Amazônia Central contra o pulgão-da-couve Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Thamiris Sousa de Alencar Silva; Juliana Erica Cirino Nascimento; Mariana Vieira Porsani; Leandro Lacerda Giacomin; Alex Sandro Poltronieri; Maria Aparecida Cassilha Zawadneak; Ida Chapaval Pimentel; Leopoldo Clemente Baratto

    2017-01-01

    Resumo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial inseticida e a ação repelente sobre o pulgão-da-couve [Brevicoryne brassicae (L.)] de extratos de cinco espécies de plantas ocorrentes e cultivadas na Amazônia Central: Crescentia cujete L., Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson, Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Schnella sp. e Protium sp. Os extratos foram utilizados na concentração de 10% e o inseticida botânico a base de azadiractina (Azamax®) foi usado como controle. Pa...

  9. The use of refuge in host plant resistance systems for the control of virulent biotype adaptation in the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob; Ramstad, Monica; Mian, M A Rouf; Michel, Andy

    2014-08-01

    Host plant resistant (HPR) crop varieties offer control of many insect pest species. However, the evolution of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance poses challenges for the implementation of HPR. Widespread planting of HPR crops further reduces HPR efficacy by increasing selection pressure on pests, favoring the rapid proliferation of virulence. An analogous situation occurs in managing insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops, where planting of susceptible refuges effectively delays the evolution and spread of Bt resistance. We investigated the applicability of susceptible refuges in HPR as a tactic to manage virulent biotypes, using the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a model system. The virulent biotype 3 and avirulent biotype 1 were reared in greenhouse microcosms using a variety of refuge size, HPR gene, and biotype mixture treatments, allowing us to discern how the presence of a refuge alters the relative fitness and movement of biotypes both by themselves and in competition. The virulent biotype had greater relative fitness in 10 of 12 tested microcosms, with the greatest advantage observed in refuge-free microcosms. In microcosms with a refuge, avirulent fitness increased significantly as these biotypes moved to and used refuge plants. When the two biotypes were reared in the same microcosm, biotype 3's fitness increased significantly relative to when reared in isolation, while biotype 1's fitness was slightly, but not significantly, increased. Our findings suggested that while susceptible refuges would be incapable of reversing the proliferation of virulent biotypes, they could slow the spread of virulence by maintaining avirulence.

  10. An exponential growth model with decreasing r captures bottom-up effects on the population growth of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costamagna, A.C.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Landis, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    1 There is ample evidence that the life history and population dynamics of aphids are closely linked to plant phenology. Based on life table studies, it has been proposed that the growth of aphid populations could be modeled with an exponential growth model, with r decreasing linearly with time.

  11. The effect of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Budia, F; Medina, P; Morales, I; Fereres, A; Viñuela, E

    2015-02-01

    The effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea and adults of Adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. Natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central CMV-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector were evaluated in the short and long term (1 and 5 days) in the presence and absence of the natural enemy. The spatial analysis by distance indices methodology together with other indices measuring the dispersal around a single focus was used to assess the spatial pattern and the degree of association between the virus and its vector. Both natural enemies significantly reduced the number of aphids in the CMV-source plant after 5 days but not after 1 day. The CMV transmission rate was generally low, especially after 1 day, due to the limited movement of aphids from the central CMV-source plant, which increased slightly after 5 days. Infected plants were mainly located around the central virus-infected source plant, and the percentage of aphid occupation and CMV-infected plants did not differ significantly in absence and presence of natural enemies. The distribution patterns of A. gossypii and CMV were only coincident close to the central plant. The complexity of multitrophic interactions and the role of aphid predators in the spread of CMV are discussed.

  12. Molecular and morphological differentiation between Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and related species, with particular reference to the North American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lagos-Kutz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is one of the most biologically diverse species of aphids; a polyphagous species in a family where most are host specialists. It is economically important and belongs to a group of closely related species that has challenged aphid taxonomy. The research presented here seeks to clarify the taxonomic relationships and status of species within the A. gossypii group in the North American Midwest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI, nuclear elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α, and nuclear sodium channel para-type (SCP genes were used to differentiate between A. gossypii and related species. Aphis monardae, previously synonymised with A. gossypii, is re-established as a valid species. Phylogenetic analyses support the close relationship of members of the A. gossypii group native to North America (A. forbesi, A. monardae, A. oestlundi, A. rubifolii, and A. rubicola, Europe (A. nasturtii, A. urticata and A. sedi, and Asia (A. agrimoniae, A. clerodendri, A. glycines, A. gossypii, A. hypericiphaga, A. ichigicola, A. ichigo, A. sanguisorbicola, A. sumire and A. taraxicicola. The North American species most closely related to A. gossypii are A. monardae and A. oestlundi. The cosmopolitan A. gossypii and A. sedi identified in the USA are genetically very similar using COI and EF1-α sequences, but the SCP gene shows greater genetic distance between them. We present a discussion of the biological and morphological differentiation of these species.

  13. Impact of Agroecological Infrastructures on the Dynamics of Dysaphis plantaginea (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Its Natural Enemies in Apple Orchards in Northwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Laurence; Franck, Pierre; Gilles, Yann; Plantegenest, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods. Consequently, setting-up agroecological infrastructures in the vicinity of or within orchards could increase natural enemy presence and thus improve the biological control of pests. In this study, we focused on Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), one of the major pests in apple orchards in Europe, which causes important economic production losses. During two years (2014 and 2015), we monitored the population dynamics of D. plantaginea, its natural enemies, and mutualistic ants in commercial production cider-apple orchards. The influences of the cider-apple cultivar, insecticide use, and distance to agroecological infrastructures (hedgerows and flower strips) were assessed. Our results suggest that flower strips favor an increase in natural enemy abundance in the vicinity of the orchards and could thus play an important role in the production system by improving the biological control of D. plantaginea. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The behavior of Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae and of their predator Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in cotton-cowpea intercropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO S. FERNANDES

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intercropping is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management. It is based on the principle that increased plant diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the crop. The current study aimed to assess the impact the colored fiber cotton-cowpea intercropped systems on Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora and on their predator Cycloneda sanguinea and the losses and the dispersion behavior of these aphids and their predator in these cropping systems. The experiment had a randomized block experimental design with two bioassays and four treatments. The number of apterous and alate aphids (A. gossypii per cotton plant was 1.46 and 1.73 or 1.97 and 2.19 times highest in the solid cotton system than that found in the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and (S2, respectively. On the other hand, the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and S2 reduced, respectively, in 43% and 31% the number of apterousA. gossypiiper cotton plant compared to the control. Implementing cotton-cowpea intercropped system in the S1 scheme reduced A. gossypii infestation, favored the multiplication of C. sanguinea, and allowed obtaining heavier open bolls.

  15. The behavior of Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and of their predator Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in cotton-cowpea intercropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Francisco S; Godoy, Wesley A C; Ramalho, Francisco S; Malaquias, José B; Santos, Bárbara D B

    2018-02-01

    The intercropping is an important cultural practice commonly used in pest management. It is based on the principle that increased plant diversity in the agro-ecosystem can lead to reductions of pest populations in the crop. The current study aimed to assess the impact the colored fiber cotton-cowpea intercropped systems on Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora and on their predator Cycloneda sanguinea and the losses and the dispersion behavior of these aphids and their predator in these cropping systems. The experiment had a randomized block experimental design with two bioassays and four treatments. The number of apterous and alate aphids (A. gossypii) per cotton plant was 1.46 and 1.73 or 1.97 and 2.19 times highest in the solid cotton system than that found in the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1) and (S2), respectively. On the other hand, the cotton-cowpea intercropped systems (S1 and S2) reduced, respectively, in 43% and 31% the number of apterousA. gossypiiper cotton plant compared to the control. Implementing cotton-cowpea intercropped system in the S1 scheme reduced A. gossypii infestation, favored the multiplication of C. sanguinea, and allowed obtaining heavier open bolls.

  16. Relative Toxicity of Two Aphicides to Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Implications for Integrated Management of Sugarcane Aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares, Felipe; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-02-01

    Flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor present novel insecticide chemistries with particular efficacy against aphids, and the recent emergence of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), as a pest of sorghum in the United States has resulted in their widespread use. We examined their toxicity to Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, an important aphid biocontrol agent. We exposed beetles to topical applications of the field rate (FR) of these insecticides, fed them contaminated food (eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), and gave first-instar larvae 24-h exposures to leaf residues. More than half of fourth-instar larvae receiving topical applications of sulfoxaflor at FR survived, whereas flupyradifurone at 0.1× FR caused 90% mortality. Adults survived topical treatments better than larvae and without measurable mortality, except flupyradifurone at FR, which killed more than 80% of beetles. Survivors of all treatments had fertility similar to controls, whether treated as larvae or adults. Ingestion of contaminated food caused significant mortality in all treatments (15-40% for adults and 55-85% for larvae), with no significant differences between insecticides at FR. Leaf residues of sulfoxaflor at 1.0 and 2.0× FR caused approximately 60 and 80% mortality of first instars, respectively, whereas flupyradifurone at 0.1 and 1.0× FR caused > 90% mortality. Although sulfoxaflor was less toxic to H. convergens than flupyradifurone, the tested FR of flupyradifurone has now been reduced by half. We conclude that neither insecticide appears as toxic as other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, and that both materials are compatible with integrated pest management programs for M. sacchari. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Preference and life history traits of Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) when offered different development stages of the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Skovgård, Henrik; Steenberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    stages of the lettuce aphid were exposed for parasitism compared with older developmental stages. This pattern was supported in the choice experiment where significantly more 2nd instar lettuce aphids were parasitised than alatoid 4th instars, with Manly’s preference index (mean ± SE) for the former...... instars. The mean development time of A. abdominalis from egg to adult emergence was longest for 1st instar (19.03 ± 0.12 days) and the shortest for apterous adults (16.59 ± 0.29 days). A high percentage of adult emergence (>80 %) from mummified aphids as well as a strongly female-biased sex ratio (>78...... %) were found across all host stages of the lettuce aphid....

  18. Host settling behavior, reproductive performance, and effects on plant growth of an exotic cereal aphid, Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T S; Wu, Y; Eigenbrode, S D

    2014-06-01

    The cereal aphid Metopolophium festucae subsp. cerealium (Stroyan) is a recent addition to North America, but little is known about this species in its exotic habitat. We surveyed aphid populations for 3 years (2011-2013) to investigate changes in aphid density in the Pacific Northwest United States. We tested aphid host settling preference and fecundity on eight grass species, four native grasses (bluebunch wheatgrass, blue wild rye, Idaho fescue, and rough fescue) and four cereal crops (corn, wheat, barley, and oat), and evaluated the effects of aphid feeding on plant biomass. Four important findings emerged: 1) aphid prevalence in sweep net samples increased from 2011 to 2012, but remained stable from 2012 to 2013; 2) aphids preferentially settled on wheat and avoided corn, but aphids did not discriminate between barley, oat, and native grasses; 3) aphid fecundity was high on wheat and barley, intermediate on oat and blue wild rye, low on Idaho fescue, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass, and aphids did not reproduce at all on corn; and 4) barley, corn, oats, Idaho fescue, and blue wild rye were not susceptible to aphid feeding damage, but wheat, rough fescue, and bluebunch wheatgrass were susceptible to aphid feeding damage. Our results suggest that wheat and barley are preferred by M. festucae cerealium, and that aphids reproduce most rapidly on these hosts and cause significant reductions in wheat but not barley growth. Also, M. festucae cerealium appears capable of surviving on native grasses, although only bluebunch wheatgrass and rough fescue were susceptible to aphid feeding damage.

  19. Establishment of in vitro soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a tool to facilitate studies of aphid symbionts, plant-insect interactions and insecticide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Andika; Bansal, Raman; Finer, John J; Michel, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials. For initiation and maintenance of in vitro aphid colonies, single aphids were inoculated onto single in vitro seedlings. After three rounds of transfer of 'clean' aphids to fresh in vitro seedlings, contamination was no longer observed, and aphids performed equally well when compared with those reared on detached leaves. The addition of the insecticides thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole to the culture medium confirmed uptake and caused significant mortality to the in vitro aphids. The use of the antimicrobial mixture removed the associated bacteria Arsenophonus but retained Buchnera and Wolbachia within the in vitro aphids. The in vitro aphid system is a novel and highly useful tool to understand insecticidal efficacy and expand our knowledge of tritrophic interactions among plants, insects and symbionts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Pathogenicity of conidia-based preparations of entomopathogenic fungi against the greenhouse pest aphids Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, and Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Filotas, M; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

    2014-05-01

    Seeking new isolates of entomopathogenic fungi with greater virulence against greenhouse aphid pests than those currently registered in North America for control of these insects, single-dose screening assays of 44 selected fungal isolates and 4 commercially available strains were conducted against first-instar nymphs of Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. The assays identified a number of Beauveria and Metarhizium isolates with virulence equal to or greater than that of the commercial strains against the nymphal aphids, but none exhibited exceptionally high virulence. Virulence of Isaria isolates was unexpectedly low (1000conidia/mm(2)). In dose-response assays, Beauveria ARSEF 5493 proved most virulent against M. persicae and A. gossypii; however, LC50s of this isolate did not differ significantly from those of B. bassiana commercial strain JW-1. Dose-response assays were also conducted with Aulacorthum solani, the first reported evaluations of Beauveria and Metarhizium against this pest. The novel isolate Metarhizium 5471 showed virulence⩾that of Beauveria 5493 in terms of LC25 and LC50, but 5493 produced a steeper dose response (slope). Additional tests showed that adult aphids are more susceptible than nymphs to fungal infection but confirmed that infection has a limited pre-mortem effect on aphid reproduction. Effects of assay techniques and the potential of fungal pathogens as aphid-control agents are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptomic responses of the aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman (Hemiptera: Aphididae to insecticides: Analyses in the single Chilean clone of the tobacco aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cabrera-Brandt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman is a subspecies of the highly polyphagous and agricultural pest Myzus persicae (Sulzer. For its control, insecticide applications are widely used, but resistance to numerous molecules has been reported, displaying at least three insecticide resistance mechanisms, including: (i elevated carboxylesterases (E-Carb, (ii modification of the acetylcholinesterase (MACE, and (iii kdr and super-kdr insensitivity mutations. In Chile, populations of the tobacco aphid are characterized by the presence of a single predominant clone, which is also present in high proportions in other countries of the Americas. This aphid clone exhibits low levels of carboxylesterase activity and is kdr susceptible, but the MACE mechanism of insecticide resistance has not been studied. In order to characterize the tobacco aphid in terms of the MACE mechanism and to identify a preliminary group of aphid genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, a cDNA microarray was used to study the transcriptomic responses when aphids are sprayed with a carbamate insecticide. The single Chilean clone of the tobacco aphid was characterized as MACE susceptible, but we found 38 transcripts significantly regulated by insecticide exposure (13 up- and 25 down-regulated genes. The expression of six of them was validated by qRT-PCR experiments at several time points (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 h after insecticide application. This mutational and transcriptomic characterization of the tobacco aphid responding to insecticide spray opens new hypotheses in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance.

  2. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775) collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakauskas, Rimantas; Havelka, Jekaterina; Zaremba, Audrius; Bernotienė, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp.) were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates) was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M. cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n = 118) and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n = 110). A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed.

  3. The interactions of piperonyl butoxide and analogues with the metabolic enzymes FE4 and CYP6CY3 of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Michela; Tozzi, Francesco; Bass, Chris; Zimmer, Christoph T; Field, Linda; Borzatta, Valerio; Mazzoni, Emanuele; Moores, Graham

    2017-02-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a well-known insecticide synergist capable of interacting with phase 1 metabolic enzymes, specifically esterases and cytochrome P450s. In this study, structure-activity relationship analyses were used to characterise the interaction of around 30 analogues of PBO with the esterase FE4 and the P450 CYP6CY3 from insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in order to predict the synthesis of more potent inhibitors. Enzyme inhibition studies were performed against esterase and oxidase activities and, together with in silico modelling, key activity determinants of the analogues were identified and optimised. Novel analogues were then designed and synthesised, some of which showed greater inhibition against both enzymatic systems: specifically, dihydrobenzofuran moieties containing an alkynyl side chain and a butyl side chain against FE4, and benzodioxole derivatives with a propyl/butyl side chain and an alkynyl ether moiety for CYP6CY3. In vitro assays identified potential candidate synergists with high inhibitory potency. The in vivo confirmation of such results will allow consideration for a possible use in agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Genetic variation in target-site resistance to pyrethroids and pirimicarb in Tunisian populations of the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charaabi, Kamel; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Makni, Mohamed; Fenton, Brian; Denholm, Ian

    2016-12-01

    We used molecular assays to diagnose resistance to pyrethroids and pirimicarb in samples of Myzus persicae from field crops or an insect suction trap in Tunisia. Genotypes for resistance loci were related to ones for polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to investigate breeding systems and patterns of genetic diversity, and to inform resistance management tactics. The kdr mutation L1014F conferring pyrethroid resistance was found in all samples. The M918T s-kdr mutation also occurred in most samples, but only in conjunction with kdr. We discovered a previously unreported genotype heterozygous for L1014F but homozygous for M918T. Samples with modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE) conferring resistance to pirimicarb were less common but widespread. 16% of samples contained both the kdr and MACE mutations. Many unique microsatellite genotypes were found, suggesting that M. persicae is holocyclic in Tunisia. There were no consistent associations between resistance and microsatellite markers. This first study of insecticide resistance in M. persicae in North Africa showed genetic variation in insecticide resistance within microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLG M s) and the same resistance mechanisms to be present in different MLG M s. This contrasts with variation in northern Europe where M. persicae is fully anholocyclic. Implications for selection and control strategies are discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Electrical penetration graph studies to investigate the effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Alana L; Kennedy, George G

    2014-05-01

    The anthranilic diamide insecticide cyantraniliprole has been shown to suppress aphid and whitefly populations as well as reduce transmission of plant viruses by thrips and whiteflies when taken up systemically by the plant. In this study, electrical penetration graphing (EPG) was used to compare effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior of Myzus persicae with those of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid applied as a soil drench to pepper plants two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. Significant reductions in the total amount of time spent probing, mean number of phloem feeding events, and mean number of intracellular punctures were observed on both cyantraniliprole- and imidacloprid-treated plants, compared to aphids that fed on plants treated only with water. Imidacloprid treatment also caused a significant reduction in the total number of probes relative to the water treated control. The effects of cyantraniliprole were statistically significant only in assays conducted at ten-days post-treatment, whereas the effects of imidacloprid on aphid feeding were significant in assays conducted at two-, six-, and ten-days post-treatment. These findings document significant effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding by Myzus persicae. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  7. Assessment of the Dominance Level of the R81T Target Resistance to Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottet, Claire; Fontaine, Séverine; Caddoux, Laëtitia; Brazier, Christine; Mahéo, Frédérique; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Micoud, Annie; Roy, Lise

    2016-10-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776), a major crop pest worldwide, displays insecticide resistance to most molecules. The R81T substitution on the β1 subunit of nicotinic receptors of acetylcholine (nAChR) confers target site resistance to neonicotinoids and is widespread in aphid populations colonizing peach tree orchards in Southern Europe. But the impact of this resistance in the field, as well as ways to optimize its management, depends largely on the dominance level of the R81T mutation. In this study, we measured by in vitro assays the response of R81T mutation to two neonicotinoids (imidacloprid and thiacloprid) in 23 M. persicae clones with different resistance genotypes in order to assess the dominance status of this allele. In this study, all homozygous clones for the R81T mutation (genotype 81(TT)) showed a much higher level of resistance to both active substances than other clones. The heterozygous clones 81(RT) displayed a slightly higher level of resistance than wild homozygous, though resistance phenotypes against both neonicotinoids in these two genotypes were overlapping. A great variation of resistance level was found within these two latter clones' categories. The dominance level of insecticide resistance (DLC) strongly suggested that the mutant allele 81T is semirecessive (the wild 81R allele being rather dominant) for both insecticide molecules under test. Mean DLC values were 0.316 for imidacloprid and 0.351 for thiacloprid. Cross-resistance was shown between imidacloprid and thiacloprid. This partial recessivity is valuable information to broaden the knowledge on neonicotinoid resistance, a prerequisite for devising adapted management strategies against insecticide-resistant populations of M. persicae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775 collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp. were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M.cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n=118 and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n=110. A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed.

  9. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  10. Preference and Performance of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on Brevicoryne brassicae, Lipaphis erysimi, and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Winter-Adapted Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, W P; Giles, K L; Rebek, E J; Payton, M E; Jessie, C N; McCornack, B P

    2015-06-01

    In the southern plains of the United States, winter-adapted canola (Brassica napus L.) is a recently introduced annual oilseed crop that has rapidly increased in hectares during the past 10 yr. Winter canola fields are infested annually with populations of Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), and these Brassica specialists are known to sequester plant volatiles from host plants, producing a chemical defense system against predators. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is also common in winter canola fields, but as a generalist herbivore, does not sequester plant compounds. These three aphid species are expected to affect predator survival and development in very different ways. We conducted laboratory studies to 1) determine whether Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) larvae demonstrate feeding preferences among winter canola aphids and 2) describe the suitability of these prey species. Predators demonstrated no significant preference among prey, and each aphid species was suitable for predator survival to the adult stage. However, prey species significantly affected development times and adult weights of each predator species. Overall, predator development was delayed and surviving adults weighed less when provided with L. erysimi or B. brassicae, which sequestered high levels of indole glucosinolates from their host plants. Our results indicate that although common winter canola aphids were suitable prey for H. convergens and C. carnea, qualitative differences in nutritional suitability exist between Brassica-specialist aphids and the generalist M. persicae. These differences appear to be influenced by levels of sequestered plant compounds that are toxic to aphid predators. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development and Reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Fed on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Vectoring Potato leafroll virus (PLRV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Freire, B C; Carvalho, G A; Oliveira, R L; Medina, P; Budia, F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological parameters of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) while feeding on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) acting as a vector of potato leafroll virus (PLRV). In laboratory experiments, three different diets were offered ad libitum to C. externa during the larval period: M. persicae fed on PLRV-infected potato leaves, M. persicae fed on uninfected potato leaves, and eggs of the factitious prey Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as the control. The following parameters were studied: the developmental time and survival rate of the larval and pupal stages, the sex ratio, the proportion of fertile females, female fecundity and egg viability, and the survival curve of the first 30 days after adult emergence. PLRV-infected aphids influenced the C. externa larval developmental time and survival compared to PLRV-uninfected aphids and A. kuehniella eggs. The pupal developmental time of C. externa was shorter when fed on aphids compared to A. kuehniella eggs, but no differences were recorded between the PLRV-infected and uninfected aphid diets. Additionally, no differences were observed for pupal survival and reproduction. However, adult survival was affected by the prey type, as 75% of C. externa control adults remained alive at an age of 30 days compared to 51 and 54% for those fed on PLRV-uninfected and infected aphids, respectively.

  12. Separate and Combined Effects of Mentha piperata and Mentha pulegium Essential Oils and a Pathogenic Fungus Lecanicillium muscarium Against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Davari, Mahdi; Razmjou, Jabrael; Naseri, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, the toxicity of essential oils of Mentha piperata L. and Mentha pulegium L. and pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium (Zare & Gams) were studied in the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Analyses of the essential oils by GC-MS indicated limonene (27.28%), menthol (24.71%), menthone (14.01%), and carvol (8.46%) in the M. piperata essential oil and pulegone (73.44%), piperitenone (5.49%), decane (4.99%), and limonene (3.07%) in the essential oil of M. pulegium as the main components. Both essential oils and the pathogenic fungus had useful toxicity against A. gossypii. Probit analysis indicated LC50 values (lethal concentrations to kill 50% of population; 95% confidence limits in parentheses) of M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils as 15.25 (12.25-19.56) and 23.13 (19.27-28.42) µl/liter air, respectively. Susceptibility to the pathogenic fungus increased with exposure time. Aphid mortality also increased when the essential oils were combined with L. muscarium, although the phenomena was additive rather than synergistic. Mycelial growth inhibition of L. muscarium exposed to the essential oils was also very low. Based on our results, M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils and the pathogenic fungus L. muscarium have some potential for management of A. gossypii. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Atubusinipponaphis, a new genus of Hormaphidinae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) causing galls on Distylium chinense from China, with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Chen; Masato Sorin; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2011-01-01

    The aphid genus Asiphonipponaphis gen. n. from China is new to science. Asiphonipponaphis vasigalla sp. n. causing galls on Distylium chinense from Hunan, China is described and illustrated. Holotype and paratypes are deposited in the National Zoological Museum of China, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (NZMCAS) and Kogakkan University, Japan.

  14. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus (Hemiptera: Aphididae in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soltani Ghasemloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. avenae exhibited an aggregated distribution on wheat. Taylor’s power law was estimated from 84 data sets and fitted the data better than Iwao’s regression model. The optimal sample sizes needed for fixed precision levels of 0.25 and 0.30 were estimated using Taylor’s regression coefficients, and the required sample sizes increased dramatically with increased levels of precision. Therefore, the samplingplan we presented here should be used as a tool for an efficient estimation of S. avenae population density in wheat fields for pest management decision.

  15. Effects of mti-2 Transgenic Potato Plants on the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae

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    Julien Saguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpressed in transgenic plants, protease inhibitors showed insecticidal effects against several insect taxa. We transformed potato internodes with the mustard trypsin inhibitor mti-2 gene. Among the 35 independent transgenic potato lines obtained via Agrobacterium tumefasciens transformation, four (DM6, DM7, DM11, and DM19 were selected for their high level of MTI-2 (at least to 30% of trypsin activity inhibition. Feeding assays were carried out to evaluate their effects on the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Prereproductive period, nymphal mortality, adult fecundity, and doubling time of M. persicae populations were monitored on nontransformed potato plants (NT and the four selected DM lines. Compared to NT plants, DM19 did not induce any effect on M. persicae. In contrast, DM7 and DM11 increased nymphal survival by approximately 20%. DM6 and DM11 lines slightly enhanced M. persicae daily fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase, leading to a reduction of the doubling time of the populations by 1 day. DM6 did not impact nymphal mortality, whereas with the DM11 almost all the nymphs survived. Potato plants transformed with the mti-2 gene variably affected the life history of M. persicae but did not show any insecticidal effect on the aphid.

  16. Homoptera: Aphididae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once a minor pest, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum has already become a major pest of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), in Ethiopia, particularly in the northwestern region. The effect of two levels of chemical treatment on pea aphids and their natural enemies was investigated in a field experiment in Achefer, northwestern.

  17. Influência da temperatura no desenvolvimento de Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em condições de laboratório Influence of temperature on the development of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. Mello e Silva Maia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch tem sido encontrado em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento do milho e na maioria dos municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais, e sua importância tem aumentado principalmente nas áreas onde se cultiva o milho "safrinha". Por isso, objetivou-se estudar a influência da temperatura sobre alguns aspectos biológicos das fases de ninfa e adulta desse afídeo em diferentes temperaturas em condições de laboratório. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em câmaras climatizadas reguladas a 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 e 30 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas, no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, MG, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições com oito espécimens cada uma. Verificou-se uma correlação positiva entre todas as fases de desenvolvimento e a fecundidade de R. maidis com a temperatura, com exceção de 24 a 27ºC, em que ocorreu uma redução na fecundidade, observando-se uma relação ciclo biológico/fecundidade maior na temperatura 24ºC. Observou-se que a duração da fase de ninfa foi de 13,3; 10,7; 6,7; 4,5; 4,7 e 4,5 dias a 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 e 30ºC, respectivamente, constatando-se um decréscimo linear em todos os ínstares, em razão do aumento da temperatura na faixa de 15 a 24ºC. Acima dessa temperatura, houve uma tendência de estabilização da velocidade de desenvolvimento. O período reprodutivo foi de 28 dias a 15 e 18ºC, estabilizando-se entre 21 e 27ºC, com uma duração próxima a 12 dias, ao passo que a 30ºC houve uma redução para cinco dias. O ciclo biológico a 15ºC foi de 52 dias, decrescendo em cerca de seis dias com a elevação para 18ºC. A maior redução foi observada entre 18 e 21ºC, registrando-se um decréscimo de 18 dias.The aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch has been found in all the development stages of corn and in most towns of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and its importance has increased mainly in areas where the "fall" corn is grown. Therefore, it was aimed to investigate the influence of temperature upon some biological features of the nymphal and adult stage at different temperatures under laboratory conditions. The trials were conducted in climatized chamber at 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 ± 1ºC, RH of 70 ± 10% and 12-hour photophase in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, MG, Brazil, in a completely randomized design with five replicates with eight specimens each. A positive correlation among all the developmental stages and the fecundity of R. maidis with temperature was found, except between 24 to 27ºC, where a reduction in fecundity occured, noticing a higher relationship biologic cycle/fecundity at the temperature of 24ºC. It was observed that the duration of the nymphal stage was of 13.3, 10.7, 6.7, 4.5, 4.7 and 4.5 days to 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30ºC, respectively, finding a linear decrease in all instars in terms of the increase of temperature in the range of 15 to 24ºC. Above that temperature there was a trend of stabilizing the development velocity. The reproductive period was of 28 days at 15 and 18ºC, became stable between 21 and 27ºC with a duration close to 12 days whereas at 30ºC, there was a reduction to five days. The biological cycle at 15ºC was of 52 days, decreasing about six days with the increase to 18ºC. The greatest reduction was found between 18 and 21ºC, recording a 18-day decrease.

  18. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ni...

  19. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  20. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  1. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  2. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  3. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, S

    2016-07-26

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini.

  4. Stylet biogenesis in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum', causal agent of certain solanaceous and apiaceous crop diseases, inside the functional (intrastadial) and pharate stylet anatomy of the potato psyllid prompted elucidation of the mechanism of stylet replacement as a novel exit portal in the transmission pathway. In Hemiptera, presumptive (formative) stylets, secreted during consecutive pharate instars, replace functional stylets lost with the exuviae. In potato psyllids, each functional stylet has a hollow core filled with a cytology that extends out of the core to form a hemispherical aggregate of cells, the 'end-cap', somewhat resembling a golf ball on a tee. A tightly folded mass of extremely thin cells, the 'matrix', occurs inside the end-cap. Micrograph interpretations indicate that during the pharate stage, the end-cap apolyses from the core and 'deconstructs' to release and expand the matrix into a long, coiled tube, the 'atrium'. Cells that were in contact with the inner walls of the functional stylet core maintain their position at the apex of the tube, and secrete a new stylet, apex first, the growing length of which descends into the tube until completed. They then despool from the coils into their functional position as the exuviae is shed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  6. Un Arriaz Broncíneo decorado, de espada de época Omeya andalusí, hallado en el occidente del alfoz de Madīnat Qurṭuba (Córdoba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona Avila, Rafael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a sword crossguard found casually in the archaeological settlement of Los Algarbes (Ecija, Sevilla, which is part of the funds of the Historical Museum “Juan Bernier” in La Carlota (Córdoba. The crossguard is made of bronze and has a simple decoration, in relief, with a central figurative element (one head with anthropomorphic features, which we identify as belonging to a ŷinn or a genie of magical Islamic mythology from which two palm-shaped motives are emerging on each side. This crossguard has curved arms towards the blade in a clear Byzantine style, although it must be considered as manufactured in Córdoba during the Omeya period, probably in the Caliphate time. The shortage of materials associated with swords of this period, turn the crossguard of Los Algarves into an essential reference to comprehend the Andalusi military weapons of the early Middle Age.

    Damos a conocer en este artículo un arriaz de espada hallado, de modo casual, en el yacimiento arqueológico de Los Algarbes (Écija, Sevilla y que forma parte de los fondos del Museo Histórico "Juan Bernier" de La Carlota (Córdoba. El arriaz está fundido en bronce y presenta una decoración sencilla, en relieve, con un motivo central figurado (cabeza de rasgos antropomorfos que identificamos como perteneciente a un ŷinn o genio de la mitología mágica islámica del que parten a ambos lados sendos motivos vegetales de palmetas. El arriaz es de brazos curvados hacia la hoja y de marcada influencia bizantina, si bien hemos de considerarlo como una producción cordobesa de época omeya, muy probablemente califal. La escasez de la cultura material asociada a espadas para este periodo hacen del arriaz de Los Algarbes un referente excepcional y obligado para conocer la panoplia militar andalusí altomedieval.

  7. New substitute name for the genus Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neopoliocoris nom. n., a new substitute name is proposed for Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae), preoccupied by Poliocoris Kirkaldy, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). A new combination, Neopoliocoris umbrosus (Slater, 1994), comb. n. is proposed for Poliocoris umbrosus Slater, 1994. PMID:25685013

  8. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  9. Rusingeria nom. nov, a new substitute name for Usingeria Coetzee & Segerman, 1992 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maureen; Kment, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Rusingeria nom. nov. is established as a new substitute name for Usingeria Coetzee & Segerman, 1992 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae), which is junior homonym of Usingeria Schouteden, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae). The following new combination is proposed: Rusingeria transvaalensis (Coetzee & Segerman, 1992), comb. nov., for Usingeria transvaalensis Coetzee & Segerman, 1992.

  10. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  11. Resistência induzida em trigo ao pulgão Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852 (hemiptera: aphididae por silício e acibenzolar-s-methyl Induced resistance on wheat to Schizaphis graminum (Rondani,1852 (Hemiptera: Aphididae by silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl

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    Rosane Rodrigues Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício e do acibenzolar-S-methyl na indução de resistência ao pulgão-verde Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852 em trigo. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo, no primeiro, as plantas de trigo pulverizadas com ácido silícico e no segundo com silicato de cálcio e/ou acibenzolar-S-methyl. As avaliações foram realizadas através de testes de livre escolha e de tolerância (contagem do número dos pulgões presentes nas plantas e peso seco da parte aérea. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott (PThe objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of silicon and acibenzolar-S-methyl on the induction of resistance on greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852 on wheat plants. Two experiments were performed in which in the former wheat plants were sprayed with silicic acid and the other ones' with calcium silicate and/or acibenzolar-S-methyl. The evaluations were by free choice and tolerance tests (counting the number of aphids present on plants and by dry weight of the shoot. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance, the means being compared with by Scott-Knott test (P<0.05. The results of the experiment with silicic acid showed that the number of aphids on the treatment control was nine times higher compared to sprayed plants with silicic acid. There was no significant difference in the dry weight of the plants among the treatments tested. The plants sprayed with acibenzolar-S-methyl and afterwards with silicon (calcium silicate or only acibenzolar-S-methyl were less preferred by the aphids. In general, the spray of silicon and/or acibenzolar-S-methyl increases the protection of wheat plants against Schizaphis graminum.

  12. Eficiência de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em pimentão (Capsicum annum L. Efficiency of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in the Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae population reduction in sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L.

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    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de larvas de primeiro ínstar de Chrysoperla externa no controle Myzus persicae em pimentão, em experimentos realizados em câmara e sala climatizadas a 25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Larvas de C. externa recém-eclodidas foram liberadas em discos foliares, contendo 5; 10 ou 20 ninfas do afídeo, acondicionados em placas de Petri. Em um segundo experimento, larvas do predador foram liberadas nas proporções 1:5, 1:10 e 1:20, em plantas inoculadas com 60; 100 e 140 ninfas do pulgão. O potencial predatório de C. externa nos discos foliares foi influenciado pela densidade inicial do pulgão. A eficiência do predador nas densidades de 5; 10 e 20 pulgões foi de 100%; 96,7% e 79,3%, respectivamente. A eficiência das larvas em eliminar as populações do pulgão nas plantas de pimentão variou em função do tempo. Na proporção 1:5, a eliminação das ninfas ocorreu entre um e dois dias após a liberação do predador, enquanto nas proporções 1:10 e 1:20 o período de quatro dias não foi suficiente para que os pulgões fossem eliminados. As larvas de C. externa quando liberadas nas três proporções promoveram reduções na população de M. persicae, se comparada à testemunha. No entanto, nas proporções 1:5 e 1:10 o predador se mostrou mais eficiente.The efficiency of Chrysoperla externa first instar larvae in the control of Myzus persicae in sweet pepper was evaluated in experiments conducted in climatic chamber and room at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12h photophase. C. externa newly emerged larvae were released in sweet pepper foliar discs containing 5; 10 or 20 aphid nymphs, putted in Petri dishes. In a second experiment, predator larvae were released in 1:5, 1:10 and 1:20 proportions in sweet pepper plants inoculated with 60; 100 and 140 aphids nymphs. The C. externa predatory potential in the foliar discs was affected by aphid initial density. The predator efficiency in 5; 10 and 20 aphid densities was 100%; 96,7% and 79,3%, respectively. The larvae efficiency in eliminating aphids populations in sweet pepper plants range as a result of the time. In 1:5 proportion the nymphs elimination occurred between one and two days after the predator release, while in 1:10 and 1:20 proportions four days were not sufficient to the aphids elimination. C. externa larvae released in the three proportions promoted reductions in M. persicae population when compared to the control. The proportions 1:5 and 1:10 the predator was more efficient.

  13. Aspectos biológicos e capacidade predatória de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas Biological aspects and predatory capacity of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae under different temperatures

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se alguns aspectos biológicos e a capacidade predatória em três temperaturas de larvas de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen alimentadas com ninfas de terceiro e quarto ínstares de Aphis gossypii Glover. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em câmaras climáticas a 22; 25 e 28±1ºC, 70±10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (temperaturas, com 40 repetições. Verificou-se redução no tempo de vida das larvas nos três ínstares, das fases de pré-pupa e pupa em função do aumento da temperatura. As maiores viabilidades foram obtidas a 22ºC. Para larvas de primeiro ínstar não houve diferença significativa no consumo médio diário nas três temperaturas. Para larvas de segundo e terceiro ínstares houve maior consumo diário de pulgões na maior temperatura. O número médio total de afídeos consumido por larvas de primeiro e segundo ínstares não diferiu em função do aumento da temperatura. Para larvas de terceiro ínstar o maior consumo total foi observado a 22ºC, e o menor a 25ºC. Na menor temperatura observou-se maior consumo médio total na fase larval.Some biological aspects and the predatory capacity at three temperatures of larvae of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen fed third and fourth instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii Glover were evaluated. The experiments were conducted in climatic chambers at 22; 25 and 28±1ºC, 70±10% of RH and 12-hour photophase. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (temperatures and 40 replicates. A reduction in the median life time of the larvae in the three instars of the stages of pre-pupa and pupa was found as related with the increase of temperature. The highest survivals were obtained at 22ºC. For larvae of first instar, there were no significant differences in the daily average consumption of aphids at the three temperatures. For second and third instar larvae, there was higher consumption of aphids at the highest temperature. The total average number of aphids consumed by first and second instar larvae did not differ as related with the increase of temperature. For third instar larvae, the greatest total consumption was observed at 22ºC, and the lowest consumption at 25ºC. The lowest temperature enabled the highest total average consumption of the larval stage.

  14. Efeito da aplicação do silício em plantas de Pinus taeda L., sobre a biologia e morfologia de Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera: Aphididae Effect of silicic applied on plants of Pinus taeda L., in the biology and morphology of Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Joelma Melissa Malherbe Camargo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silício em parâmetros biológicos e na morfometria de C. atlantica. O bioensaio foi conduzido em sala climatizada com temperatura de 20ºC, 70% UR e fotofase de 12 horas, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Fêmeas adultas obtidas após a última ecdise ninfal foram transferidas para as unidades experimentais (gaiolas de PVC e, entre o 4º e 5º dia reprodutivo, a fêmea foi retirada e dentre os descendentes produzidos nesse período, um foi escolhido aleatoriamente para a condução do ensaio. Nos tratamentos com a aplicação de diferentes doses do ácido silícico, ocorreram prolongamento da fase ninfal e redução na performance biológica, afetando assim o ciclo biológico do pulgão. Em relação à capacidade reprodutiva do inseto, obtiveram-se, para os tratamentos com aplicação do ácido silícico, valores distintos da testemunha que apresentou número elevado de ninfas/fêmea. Em relação à morfometria, dentre os quinze caracteres avaliados, apenas a largura da cabeça e o comprimento total da antena de C. atlantica, que foram mantidos em plantas com aplicação de silício, diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha.This research aimed to study the effect of silicon in biology and morphology of C. atlantica. The bioassay was carried out in environmental chamber (20ºC, 70% RH and 12 photophase in a completely randomized design. Adult females were transferred to experimental units (PVC cages after the last nymphal ecdysis and were removed from these sites between the 4th and 5th reproductive day. From this offspring, one specimen was randomly chosen to take part the experiment one observed an increase in nymphal phase and a decrease of aphid fitness in treatments with different levels of silicon. In relation to the reproductive capacity of the insect one gotten for the treatment with application the treatment with application silicic acid distinct values of the witness presented high number of nymphs/female. Fifteen characters were surveyed in the morphometry analysis, from which the width of the head and the total length and of antenna of C. atlantica were kept in plants with silicon application differed statistically from control.

  15. Ciclo biológico e predação de três espécies de coccinelídeos (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre o pulgão-gigante-do-pinus Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae Biological cycle and predation of three coccinellid species (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on giant conifer aphid Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Nádia Cristina de Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Afídeos do gênero Cinara Curtis são importantes pragas de coníferas em vários países. No Brasil Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 tem causado danos em plantações comerciais de Pinus spp. e o controle biológico com predadores pode ser uma opção melhor que o controle químico. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a biologia e a capacidade de predação dos coccinelídeos Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 e Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae sobre ninfas de C. atlantica. O estudo foi conduzido sob condições controladas (temperatura: 23 ± 1ºC, UR: 70 ± 10% e fotofase: 14 h.. Foi verificado que ninfas de C. atlantica são adequadas como alimento para as três espécies de coccinelídeos, assegurando seu desenvolvimento e reprodução. H. convergens e C. sanguinea apresentaram maior longevidade e capacidade de reprodução e também maior capacidade de predação (3832 e 3633 ninfas de C. atlantica em comparação a 2735 ninfas consumidas por E. connexa durante o ciclo completo, respectivamente para as espécies. Estas espécies de predadores podem contribuir para a redução da população de Cinara no campo.The aphids of the genus Cinara Curtis are important pests of conifers in several countries. In Brazil, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 has damaged commercial plantations of Pinus spp. and biological control with predators can be a better option than chemical control. The objective of this work was to study biology and predation potential of coccinellids Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842, Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Eriopis connexa (German, 1824 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae on nymphs of C. atlantica. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (temperature: 23 ± 1ºC, RH: 70 ± 10% and fotophase: 14 h. It was verified that C. atlantica nymphs are adequate as food for the three coccinellid species, assuring their development and reproduction. H. convergens and C. sanguinea presented higher longevity and reproduction capacity and also higher predation capacity (3832 and 3633 nymphs of C. atlantica against 2735 nymphs consumed by E. connexa during the complete cycle, respectively for the species. These predator species can contribute to the reduction of Cinara population in the field.

  16. Feeding non-preference of the corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae to corn plants (Zea mays L. treated with silicon Não-preferência do pulgão-da-folha Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aphididae para plantas de milho (Zea mays L. tratadas com silício

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    Jair Campos Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A tactic for control to corn leaf Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 would be the use of resistant materials, but, for not being a key pest of the crop, there are not yet corn genotypes availables with those characteristics. So, it was aimed in this work to evaluate the effect of silicon on the aphid's development on corn plants. Preference tests with leaves detached from the plants and on corn plants were accomplished. Its was found that the treatments where silicon was applied to the soil plus a foliar sprayed fertilization or through two foliar applications were the ones which contained a lower number of aphids, increasing the resistance of leaves and making the feeding of those insects difficult. In general, the results showed that silicon affected the leaf aphid's preference.Uma tática para o controle do pulgão-do-milho Rhopalosiphum maids (Fitch, 1856 seria a utilização de materiais resistentes, porém, por não se tratar de uma praga-chave da cultura, não há, ainda, disponibilidade de genótipos de milho com essas características. Assim com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do silício na preferência do pulgão-da-folha em plantas de milho. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de silício via solo e/ou foliar e testemunha. Foram realizados testes de não-preferência com folhas destacadas e diretamente em plantas de milho. Verificou-se que os tratamentos nos quais o silício foi aplicado via solo mais uma adubação foliar, ou mediante duas aplicações foliares, foram os que apresentaram menor número de pulgões, aumentando a resistência das folhas e dificultando a alimentação desses insetos. De modo geral, o silício afetou a preferência do pulgão-da-folha.

  17. Differences in the Detoxification Metabolism between Two clonal Lineages of the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae Reared on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Diferencias en el Metabolismo de Detoxificación entre dos Linajes Clonales del Áfido Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae creados sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Marco A Cabrera-Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae (Sulzer is a highly polyphagous aphid species, with a subspecies (M. persicae nicotianae well adapted to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. We evaluated the effect of this host plant on the aphid performance and detoxification enzymes, in order to test the participation of xenobiotic metabolism on the ability of this aphid to overcome the tobacco chemical defences. Two genotypes, one corresponding to the only M. persicae nicotianae genotype reported in Chile on tobacco, and one genotype belonging to M. persicae sensu stricto were reared on tobacco and pepper (Capsicum annuum L., respectively. M. persicae nicotianae showed a significantly higher intrinsic rate of increase (r m on pepper than on tobacco, and M. persicae s.s. performed similarly, but with no reproduction at all on tobacco. In order to evaluate the effect of tobacco on detoxification enzymes, esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MO were determined in both selected aphid genotypes after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of rearing on tobacco and pepper. M. persicae nicotianae exhibited the higher total esterase activities when reared on tobacco than on pepper after 48 h of rearing, while the activities of GST and MO did not show any significant difference between host-plants and duration of treatment. For M. persicae s.s., no significant differences were observed among host-plants for the studied enzymes. These results suggest a participation of the esterases, on the ability of this M. persicae nicotianae to overcome the tobacco defences.Myzus persicae (Sulzer es un áfido polífago que incluye a Myzus persicae nicotianae, una subespecie altamente adaptada sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Evaluamos el efecto del tabaco sobre el desempeño biológico y sobre determinadas enzimas de detoxificación en áfidos, para estudiar su participación en la capacidad de M. persicae nicotianae de superar las defensas químicas del tabaco. Dos genotipos de M. persicae, uno correspondiente al único genotipo perteneciente a M. persicae nicotianae reportado en Chile sobre tabaco y el otro perteneciente a M. persicae sensu stricto, fueron criados sobre tabaco y pimentón (Capsicum annuum L., respectivamente. M. persicae nicotianae mostró una tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r m significativamente mayor sobre pimentón que sobre tabaco, mientras que M. persicae s.s. no se reprodujo sobre tabaco. Para evaluar los efectos del tabaco sobre el metabolismo de detoxificación, se determinó la actividad de las enzimas esterasas, glutation S-transferasas (GST y citocromo p450 monooxigenasas (MO, transcurridas 12, 24, 36, 48 y 72 h desde que ambos genotipos fueran transferidos desde su planta hospedera óptima a una nueva planta de tabaco y pimentón. En M. persicae nicotianae, se observaron diferencias significativas en las esterasas cuando se alimenta sobre tabaco, transcurridas 48 h desde el inicio del experimento. Para M. persicae s.s. no se observaron diferencias significativas en las actividades de las enzimas estudiadas durante el experimento. Estos resultados sugieren la participación de las esterasas en la capacidad de M. persicae nicotianae para enfrentar las defensas químicas del tabaco.

  18. Survival analysis applied to the development of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on fungicide-contaminated cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.Análise de sobrevivência aplicada ao desenvolvimento do pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L. contaminadas com fungicidas

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    César Freire Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the influence of fungicides utilized in cucumber on the development of the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and 45 replicates, being each plot consisting of a first instar nymph coming from an apterous female in early reproductive period. The fungicides utilized and their respective dosages at g i.a.L-1 were 800 PM sulphur (1.6, 800 PM mancozeb (1.6 and 840 PM copper oxichloride (1.5. The control was made up of water only. The products did not influence the median time of life in each instar and the nymphal stage, being respectively 1 and 4 days. Copper oxychloride and mancozeb increased the median time of life in days and the total life cycle of the adult stage of this species.Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de fungicidas utilizados em cultura de pepino sobre o desenvolvimento do pulgão Aphis gossypii Glover, em condições de casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro tratamentos e 45 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por uma ninfa de primeiro ínstar, proveniente de uma fêmea áptera no início do período reprodutivo. Os fungicidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens em g i.a.L-1, foram enxofre 800 PM (1,6, mancozebe 800 PM (1,6 e oxicloreto de cobre 840 PM (1,5. A testemunha foi composta somente por água. Todos os produtos avaliados não influenciaram a duração e viabilidade ninfal. Oxicloreto de cobre causou aumento da duração do ciclo biológico total desse afídeo. Houve efeito da aplicação do enxofre e do oxicloreto de cobre sobre seu período reprodutivo, tornando-o 1,7 vezes menor e maior, respectivamente. Oxicloreto de cobre provocou aumento de 2,15 vezes na produção total de ninfas.

  19. Effects of botanical insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton=Efeitos de inseticidas botânicos na taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodão

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    Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides have been studied aiming the alternative pest control. The present study investigated the effects of these insecticides on the instantaneous population growth rate (ri of Aphis gossypii. Botanical insecticides were tested in the following concentrations: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® and Neempro (0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75%; Natuneem® and Neemseto® (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% and essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Piper aduncum L (0, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.0375 and 0.05%. Cotton leaf discs, CNPA 8H cultivar with 5 cm in diameter were immersed for 30 seconds in products broth and dried for 30 minutes. Eight replicates per concentration were used and each disc was infested with five apterous adult females of A. gossypii uniform in size and confined for 10 days. Compostonat®, Rotenat® and Neempro provided negative ri decreasing A. gossypii population. Natuneem® and Neemseto® and the essential oil of F. vulgare showed positive ri increasing the population. The coefficients of determination (R2 of regression lines ranged from 0.46 to 0.85. The essential oils of C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides and P. aduncum were not statistically significant precluding the establishment of regression lines.Inseticidas botânicos têm sido estudados, visando o controle alternativo de pragas. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar os efeitos desses inseticidas sobre a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (ri de Aphis gossypii. Os inseticidas botânicos foram testados nas seguintes concentrações: Compostonat®, Rotenat-CE® e Neempro (0; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50 e 1,75%; Nautneem® e Neemseto® (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00%; e os óleos essenciais de Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Cymbopogom winterianus (L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. e Piper aduncum L. (0; 0,0125; 0,025; 0,0375 e 0,05%. Discos de folhas de algodoeiro, cultivar CNPA 8H, com 5 cm de diâmetro foram imersos por 30 segundos nas caldas dos produtos e secos por 30 minutos. Utilizaram-se oito repetições por concentração, e cada disco foi infestado com cinco fêmeas adultas ápteras de A. gossypii de tamanho uniforme, confinadas durante 10 dias. Compostonat®, Rotenat® e Neempro proporcionaram ri negativas, declinando a população de A. gossypii. Natuneem®, Neemseto® e o óleo essencial de F. vulgare apresentaram ri positivas, aumentando a população. Os coeficientes de determinação (R2 das retas de regressão variaram entre 0,46 a 0,85. Os óleos essenciais de C. winterianus, C. ambrosioides e P. aduncum não apresentaram significância estatística, impossibilitando o estabelecimento das retas de regressão.

  20. Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador.The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae in different densities by Chrysoperla externa larvae derived from different alimentary regimes, in greenhouse conditions. The 3rd and 4th instars nymphs of the aphid were separated in the densities 30, 40, 50 and put on the lettuce plants (35 days old which were kepted in a voil cage of 27x27x26 cm connected to the PVC tube used for hydroponic cultivation. After four hours, one larva of C. externa previously fed with U. ambrosiae or eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 was released near the aphid colony, with the lettuce plant being immediately covered. The same procedure was adopted without confinement of the larvae. The different instars of C. externa were evaluated, through counting of the aphids after forty eight hours. The efficiencies of the predator, confined in a cage, were 12.46, 13.63 and 25.76% for 1st, 2nd and 3th instars which were previously fed with eggs of S. cerealella. For 2nd and 3rd instar larvae fed with aphids, the efficiencies were 9.59 and 17.63%, respectively. Efficiency was 18.62% for 3th instar larvae fed previously with eggs of the lepidopterous in the 1st instar and with nymphs of aphids in the 2nd ínstar.However, for larvae without confinement, there were no differences among the instars or alimentary regimes. In the densities of 40 and 50 aphids, the percentages of predation (18.3 and 18.72, respectively were significantly superior as compared with density 30 (11.79. There was no influence of density of prey in response to predator in the experiments without confinement. Thus, the food provided to C. externa larvae before releasing into a greenhouse, their confinement and available density of U. ambrosiae influenced the potential of consumption of the predator.

  1. Phylogeny and species differentiation of Mollitrichosiphum spp. (Aphididae, Greenideinae based on mitochondrial COI and Cyt b genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiling ZHANG, Xiaolei HUANG, Liyun JIANG, Gexia QIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial genes were conducted to reconstruct species relationships within the aphid genus Mollitrichosiphum (Aphididae, Greenideinae. MP and Bayesian analysis results using COI and Cyt b datasets, and combined MP, ML and Bayesian analysis of both were consistent with a morphologically supported monophyly. Subdivision of the genus into two subgenera was strongly supported. Samples of each included species form monophyletic clade, respectively; and the result implied the valid status of related species in this genus. These results suggest some surprising hypotheses regarding the phylogeography of the genus: the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, reorganization of major river catchments and the isolation of Hainan Island were probably important factors contributing to the diversification of species in this genus [Current Zoology 57 (6: 806–815, 2011].

  2. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  3. Spatial Distribution of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug,...

  4. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  5. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  6. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  8. Host Plant Effects on the Development, Survival, and Reproduction of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Grapevines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Bertin; L. C. Bortoli; M. Botton; J.R.P. Parra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the most frequent and abundant mealybugs in Brazilian vineyards, where it causes direct and indirect damage to the vines...

  9. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  10. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  11. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  12. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  14. The Cuticle Protein Gene MPCP4 of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Plays a Critical Role in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2017-06-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. In addition to sucking phloem sap, M. persicae also transmits Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a vector in a nonpersistent manner. At present, the infection mechanism remains unclear, especially the process of aphid virus acquisition. In this study, we isolated four M. persicae cuticle protein genes (MPCP1, MPCP2, MPCP4, and MPCP5) from M. persicae. The relative amount of the gene encoding Cucumber mosaic virus capsid protein (CMV CP) and the transcript levels of these four cuticle protein genes were investigated in aphid virus acquisition by feeding the tobacco preinfested by CMV. The relative expression of MPCP1, MPCP2, and MPCP4 were significantly higher than MPCP5 at 24 h after aphids feeding on virus-infested tobacco. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by MPCP4 gene was closely associated with the CMV CP through the direct interaction. Moreover, the ability of M. persicae to acquire CMV was suppressed by RNA interference of MPCP4. All these lines of evidence indicate that MPCP4, as a viral putative receptor in the stylet of aphid, plays an important role in aphid acquisition of CMV. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. El género Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, con redescripción de dos especies The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

  16. Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae on the eggplant (Solanum melongena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, natural enemies, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium on leaves and density of leaf trichomes on attack intensity of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae and Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae on plantations of the eggplant (Solanum melongena in two regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Higher numbers of A. gossypii/leaf and T. palmi/leaf were observed in plantations of this eggplant in the Municipalities of Viçosa and Guidoval, respectively. Guidoval had a rainy and hotter weather than Viçosa. T. palmi was almost positivelly correlated with rainfall (r= 0.49, P= 0.0538 while A. gossypii seemed to be more affected by mean temperature (r= -0.31; P= 0.1134. Higher number of aphids in eggplants in Viçosa than in Guidoval could be explained by the higher number of natural enemies such as Adialytus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Cycloneda sanguinea (L. and Exochomus bimaculosus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in this municipality. However, only Adialytus spp. was significativelly correlated with aphid populations. Higher number of T. palmi in eggplant plantations of Guidoval than in Viçosa could be due to the absence of its possible Eulophidae parasitoid in the first municipality. The spiders were significativelly correlated with this pest in both municipalities.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de pluviosidade total, temperatura média, inimigos naturais, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio foliar e densidade de tricomas na intensidade de ataque de Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae e Aphis gossypii (Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae em plantações de berinjela (Solanum melongena em dois municípios de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Observou-se maiores números de A. gossypii e T. palmi por folha em plantações de berinjela nos

  17. Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité d'extraits de feuilles de neem Azadirachta indica (Sapindale) sur Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae), Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) et Lipaphis erysimi (Hemiptera : Aphididae) du chou Brassica oleracea (Brassicaceae) da.

  18. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  19. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  20. Type Localities of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ahmet; Fent, Meral

    2017-02-06

    The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants. Most heteropteran species are phytophagous feeding on leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and shoots and cause economic damage. The suborder Heteroptera comprises aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species.

  1. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-05-25

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized.

  2. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  3. Relative suitability of crested wheatgrass and other perennial grass hosts for the Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J D; Brewer, M J; Burd, J D

    2000-04-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae), reproduces parthenogenetically in North America and must survive year-round on host plants, including in late summer when small grains are not in cultivation. During this time, cool-season perennial wheatgrasses (Poaceae: Triticeae) contribute substantially to aphid survival, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) particularly. In greenhouse studies, the number of aphids per plant was measured after four infestation periods on unvernalized and vernalized wheatgrasses. Before placement on these test plant species, aphids were reared either on winter wheat or on the grass host species on which aphid progeny were counted. On vernalized plants, aphids reared on wheat resulted in more aphids per test plant than when the aphids were reared on wheatgrasses, but on unvernalized plants the number of aphids per test plant did not differ significantly regardless of rearing host. Aphids on crested wheatgrass were similar in number to the other grasses when plants were unvernalized. However, when plants were vernalized, crested wheatgrass supported significantly more aphids than some of the other hosts. Aphid numbers increased on all test species as infestation period lengthened, and plant growth was largely unaffected by aphid feeding. These results suggest if sufficient moisture is available during summer when small grains are not in cultivation, all host species observed are capable of sustaining aphids. Crested wheatgrass is an abundant and important host of the Russian wheat aphid in its northern range of the western United States, but other less prevalent wheatgrasses also may contribute to aphid survival during late summer when small grains are not in cultivation.

  4. Myzaphis rosarum (Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae’un Aşılı ve Aşısız Yağ Güllerindeki (Rosa damascena Miller Yaşam Çizelgeleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet ÇEKİN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Myzaphis rosarum (Kaltenbach (Hemiptera: Aphididae Isparta ve Burdur illerindeki Rosa damascena Miller (Rosaceae (yağ gülü üretim alanlarında zararlı bir türdür. Bu çalışmada, zararlının aşısız ve Rosa odorata (Andrews Sweet üzerine aşılı yağ güllerindeki yaşam çizelgeleri çıkartılmıştır. M. rosarum’un toplam ergin öncesi dönemlerinin gelişme süreleri, aşılı yağ gülünde 13.59, aşısız olanda ise 13.55 günde tamamlanmıştır. M. rosarum'un yaşam çizelgeleri oluşturulduğunda net üreme gücünün (R0 aşılı ve aşısız yağ gülünde sırasıyla; 10.77 ve 4.41 dişi dişi-1 gün-1; kalıtsal üreme kapasitesinin (rm 0.184 ve 0.099 dişi dişi-1 gün-1; populasyonun ikiye katlanma süresinin (DT 3.426 ve 6.341 gün; ortalama döl süresinin (T0 12.92 ve 14.93 gün ve üreme gücü sınırının (λ 1.224 ve 1.116 (birey dişi-1 gün-1 olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  5. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Metz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha, the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha.

  6. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  7. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  8. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  9. Observations on some species of the genus Lyramorpha Westw. (Hemiptera Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouteden, H.

    1908-01-01

    1. Lyramorpha pallida Westwood and L. rosea Westwood. In his »Catalogue of Hemiptera in the Collection of the Rev. W. F. Hope”, part I, London 1837, Westwood founded the genus Lyramorpha, with two species, L. rosea and L. pallida, both from New Holland.

  10. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  11. Molecular and morphological identification of the mealybug pest species, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and autumn of 2016, heavy infestations of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were observed on pumpkins, Cucurbita spp. (Cucurbitaceae). This was the first record of the species in Egypt. Several populations have been collected in various pumpkin fr...

  12. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  13. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  14. “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” affects behavior of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of pear and is a vector of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri", the pathogen associated with pear decline disease. Although commercial pear trees are grafted to Phytoplasma-resistant rootstock, a recent report indicated that many C. p...

  15. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  16. Allozyme Variation in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. S& #225; nchez; M.A. Keena; M.A. Keena

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a major introduced pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the United States is anholocyclic and an obligate parthenogen, because no suitable primary host (on which sexual reproduction occurs in Asia) is...

  17. Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus ann...

  18. Instar- and stage-specific photoperiodic diapause response of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight)(Hemiptera:Miridae) is a polyphagous pest of numerous western crops. This pest overwinters in a relatively short duration adult diapause, but many details regarding diapause induction and maintenance remain unstudied. Instar-specific responses t...

  19. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  20. Influence of trap color on collection of the recently introduced Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Horn; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of the exotic bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae). were first collected from several northeast Georgia counties beginning in October 2009 (Suiter and Ames 2009, Statewide Pest Alert). How this insect arrived in the United States and where it came from is still not known. The native range of M. cribraria is reported to be...

  1. Comparison of fecundity and survival of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in northern and southern populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemis Roehrig; Joseph. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced species first reported in the eastern United States in 1951. The infestation has since spread in all directions from its initial sighting in Virginia, to its current range from northern Georgia, to southern Maine, and westward into Tennessee, causing...

  2. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  3. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  4. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  5. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  6. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  7. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  8. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  9. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  10. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  11. Biology, ecology, and control of the Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...

  12. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  13. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  14. New species and new records of Tingidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Eric

    2015-05-12

    Tingidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) collected in Vietnam by several institutions between 1958 and 2013 continue to yield new information about tropical diversity in this family of insects. Herein, thirty-seven species are newly recorded for Vietnam, and four are described as new to science. Comments on their affinities and distribution are provided, highlighting the biological richness of a rapidly developing country with human impacts.

  15. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-09-07

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding.

  16. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-07-11

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided.

  17. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  18. The Afrotropical genus Rhinolaetia Schouteden, 1965 and its systematic position within Scutelleridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Joanna

    2016-09-23

    The monotypic Afrotropical genus Rhinolaetia Schouteden, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) is redescribed. The head, wings, female genitalia and habitus of Rhinolaetia overlaeti Schouteden, 1965 are illustrated. Morphological features of Rhinolaetia and selected representatives of six scutellerid subfamilies are listed and compared. The systematic position of this genus is briefly discussed. Close affinity of Rhinolaetia overlaeti with representatives of subfamilies Odontotarsinae and Odontoscelinae is observed.

  19. Pseudowuiessa, a new genus of brachypterous Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Wu, Zhiyi; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-26

    A new brachypterous flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) genus and species, Pseudowuiessa producta Bai, Heiss & Cai, gen. nov. & sp. nov., is described from Yunnan, China. A key to related genera is given and the diagnostic characters of the new taxon are illustrated.

  20. The identity of Equatobursa, with proposal of new genus and species level synonymies (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Heterogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cuiqing; Rédei, Dávid

    2017-02-27

    The identities of the genus Equatobursa Zou, 1985 and its single included species, E. nigra Zou, 1985 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Heterogastridae) are clarified based on the re-examination of the type material of the species. The following new subjective synonymies are proposed: Sadoletus Distant, 1903 = Equatobursa Zou, 1985, syn. nov.; Sadoletus izzardi Hidaka, 1959 = Equatobursa nigra Zou, 1985, syn. nov.

  1. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-18

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet.

  2. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  3. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  4. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  5. Capacidad parasítica de Praon pos. occidentale (Hymenoptera: Braconidae sobre Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragón Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Praon pos. occidentale es un parasitoide promisorio para regular poblaciones de áfidos Macrosiphum euphorbiae en cultivos comerciales bajo invernadero de rosas. Se evaluó la capacidad parasítica de P. pos. occidentale bajo tres temperaturas constantes (18, 25 y 28ºC y variando la densidad de su hospedero (5, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 150. En cada unidad experimental se liberó una pareja del parasitoide con 24 horas de edad y se mantuvieron durante 24 horas en incubadoras graduadas a cada temperatura en evauación, con 12 horas de luz y 12 de oscuridad. Se registró el número de áfidos parasitados y se permitió el desarrollo de los huevos depositados hasta adulto. Se estimó la tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ y el tiempo de manipulación (Th a partir de los cuales se ajustó el modelo de respuesta funcional tipo II para cada temperatura. La tasa instantánea de búsqueda (a’ fue más alta a 18ºC con un valor de 0,1081, seguida de 28ºC con 0,0323 y 25ºC con 0,0103. El tiempo de manipulación (Th más corto fue el que se presentó a 25ºC de 4,8913, seguido de 28º C con un tiempo de 5,7579 y 18ºC con 8,2697. El máximo número de individuos parasitados estimado fue de 4,9 a 25ºC. A 18ºC el 60% de los áfidos parasitados alcanzó la emergencia del adulto, el 74,2% a 25ºC y el 88% a 28ºC. No existe ningún efecto significativo de la densidad del hospedero ni de la temperatura en la proporción sexual de Praon pos. Occidentale.

  6. Interação trigo-silício-inseticida na biologia e no comportamento de prova do pulgão-verde Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) monitorado pela técnica Electrical Penetration Graphs (EPG)

    OpenAIRE

    Goussain, Marcio Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Métodos de controle que visam diminuir o impacto da utilização de inseticidas estão sendo cada vez mais pesquisados e adotados na agricultura moderna. Estudos com silício têm demonstrado que a sua aplicação pode aumentar o grau de resistência das plantas ao ataque de insetos. Diante disso, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de silício e do inseticida dimetoato em plantas de trigo, no comportamento do pulgão-verde S. graminum, utilizando a técnica "Electrical Penetr...

  7. Utilização de substâncias naturais para o manejo de Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em cultivo orgânico de brócolis, Brassica oleracea var. italica (Brassicaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Broglio,S.M.F.; SANTOS, A. J. N. dos; DIAS, N. da S.; VALENTE, E. C. N.; MICHELETTI, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de folhas de nim, Azadirachta indica, frutos de pimenta-malagueta, Capsicum frutescens, rama e folhas de melão-de-são-caetano, Mormodica charantia, sementes de pimenta-do-reino, Piper nigrum e NeenMax® (óleo de nim 2% i.a) para o manejo do pulgão, Lipaphis erysimi, em cultivo orgânico de Brassica oleracea. Aplicações dos extratos a 10% (v/v) foram realizadas semanalmente, durante cinco semanas. Avaliou-se o número de plantas infestadas, porcen...

  8. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  9. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  10. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  12. Morphology of reproductive accessory glands in eight species of blood-feeding Hemiptera (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) insect vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R G; Chiang, J A; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2012-05-01

    This paper documents the morphology of previously undescribed adult reproductive accessory glands in eight species of blood-feeding Hemiptera, vectors of Chagas disease. These species are three Triatoma (T. dimidiata, T. klugi, T. sordida), three Rhodnius (R. brethesi, R. nasutus, R. pictipes), and one species each from Nesotriatoma (N. bruneri) and Panstrongylus (P. megistus). This survey shows that the male reproductive systems between species of four genera of Reduviidae adhere to the same general plan seen in previously described vectors of Chagas disease. This morphological similarity suggests that reproductive success of the male is contingent on the delivery of a vital set of male accessory gland secretions to the female in conjunction with material from the testes and seminal vesicle. However, variations were observed in the accessory glands of females, especially at the level of the genus. The spermathecae are morphologically distinct, and the posterior accessory glands are absent in some. The differences in spermathecae morphology likely reflect physiological adaptations associated with speciation driven by cryptic female choice in which the female determines which sperm are used for fertilization. Differences in the posterior reproductive accessory gland can be correlated with variations in ovipositioning behaviour. Since reproductive physiology is important for species success, this information also augments epidemiological studies by providing a comparison to R. prolixus, a Chagas disease vector for which the physiology is well known. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  14. Nuevo pavimento de opus sectile hallado en Pollentia (Alcudia, Mallorca

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    Cau Ontiveros, Miguel Ángel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the discovery of a black and white opus sectile in the forum of the Roman and late antique city of Pollentia (Alcudia, Mallorca. The pavement, associated to a building still under investigation, presents a simple geometric pattern combining black hexagons and white equilateral triangles that draw six-pointed stars. The scarce archaeological material found in the preparation of the mosaic suggests a terminus post quem of the 1st century A.D. for its construction. This pavement is the only example of opus sectile documented in situ in Pollentia and the only one from recent archaeological excavations in this city.Esta contribución recoge el hallazgo de un mosaico de opus sectile bícromo, en blanco y negro, descubierto en el foro de la ciudad romana y tardoantigua de Pollentia (Alcudia, Mallorca. El pavimento, asociado a un edificio aún en proceso de investigación, presenta un esquema geométrico sencillo, combinando hexágonos negros y triángulos equiláteros blancos que dibujan estrellas de seis puntas. El escaso material recuperado en la preparación del mosaico sugiere un terminus post quem del siglo I d.C. para su construcción. El pavimento constituye, el primer caso de opus sectile documentado in situ en Pollentia y el único ejemplo procedente de excavaciones recientes en la ciudad.

  15. Lista de poliquetos sedentarios hallados en el Perú

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    Juan Tarazona B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración de listas de los diferentes grupos zoológicos posee gran valor, ya que constituyen la base para futuros estudios zoogeográficos y ecológicos. Tales listas tienen especial importancia en los países de esta parte del Pacífico, donde son muy escasas. En nuestro medio se han realizado algunos avances de este tipo con respecto a los moluscos y crustáceos, pero ninguno con respecto a poliquetos, que conjuntamente con los anteriores, constituyen los grupos más importantes del ecosistema marino.

  16. Instrumentos de medida romanos hallados en Andalucía

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    Francisca CHAVES TRISTÁN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de instrumentos de medida de época romana no es excesivamente rara pero tampoco frecuente. Lo que resulta más difícil es encontrarlos con todos los elementos que lo componen de modo que se pueda realizar el estudio de las medidas para las que se utilizaban. En este breve artículo damos a conocer dos instrumentos que por fortuna conservan las partes suficientes para poder dilucidar las pesadas que se obtenían con ellos.

  17. Plantas hospederas de Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, vector de virus del melón Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae en Costa Rica

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    M.V. Sánchez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se identificaron las especies hospederas naturales de Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Homoptera en plantaciones comerciales de melón para la exportación en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en dos fincas, ubicadas una en la provincia de Guanacaste y la otra en la provincia de Puntarenas, correspondientes a dos zonas de vida vegetal diferentes. Se identificaron como especies hospederas del áfido todas aquellas especies vegetales en las que se observó la presencia del áfido en su forma áptera. En ambas fincas el estudio se realizó en los alrededores y dentro del cultivo de melón. En la finca A en cinco diferentes comunidades vegetales (cultivo, canal de drenaje, charral, potrero mejorado y semi-bosque previamente seleccionadas y en la finca B en cuatro comunidades vegetales (cultivo, charral, pastizal natural y semi-bosque. Especímenes de las plantas colonizadas por áfidos y los áfidos colonizadores de cada especie fueron recolectadas para su identificación. Los áfidos se preservaron en alcohol al 70% v/v e identificaron utilizando las claves taxonómicas para áfidos, confirmándose como especie dominante a A. gossypii. La diversidad, cobertura y época de aparición de las especies de plantas hospederas fue monitoreada durante un año calendario en las diferentes comunidades vegetales presentes en ambas fincas, observándose diferencias entre las dos fincas estudiadas. En la finca A se observaron 86 diferentes especies vegetales, pertenecientes a 49 familias, asociadas al cultivo del melón, mientras que en la finca B se identificaron 72 especies de 40 familias. En conjunto para ambas fincas, un de 24 especies de plantas (16 familias estaban colonizadas por el áfido A. gossypii. De éstas, 16 especies de 10 familias, son reportes nuevos de plantas hospederas para este áfido: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia

  18. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  19. Effects of Insect Growth Regulators on Bagrada hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2017-10-10

    Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of cruciferous crops in the central coast of California. Management of B. hilaris primarily involves the use of broad spectrum insecticides, such as pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, when the pest invades a crop field. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are known for their efficacy on nymphal stages of B. hilaris, but little is known about their transovarial effects. Thus, the major objective of this study was to determine the transovarial effects of IGRs such as novaluron, diflubenzuron, and azadirachtin, when adults are exposed to direct topical spraying and dried residues. In addition, a direct topical spray of IGRs on older instars (fourth and fifth instars) was examined at 1-, 3-, and 7-d post-treatment. The number of young instars (first and second instars) and adults was recorded up to ~31 d after exposure. In the topical spray assays, the number of young instars was significantly lower for novaluron, diflubenzuron, and azadirachtin than for the nontreated control. The number of young instars that emerged after novaluron treatment was low (0-11%). In the assays with dried residues, the number of young instars that developed was significantly lower for novaluron treatment than for the other IGRs and the nontreated control. There was no significant difference among diflubenzuron, azadirachtin, and nontreated control treatments in the development of young instars. In the assays with a topical spray of IGRs on older instars, significantly more nymphs died at 3 and 7 d after exposure. The IGRs had no clear impact on adults. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Spatial distribution of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus, O. pugnax, N. viridula, and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L.

  1. Identity of Two Sympatric Species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P.; Shirk, Paul D.; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M.; Horton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Cosmoscarata bispecularis (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Cercopoidea, Cercopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Liu, Jie; Liang, Aiping

    2016-11-01

    To characterize froghopper mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) features, in this study, the mitochondrial genome of Cosmoscarata bispecularis (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Cercopoidea, Cercopidae) was sequenced and annotated. The complete genome is 15,426 bp in length. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region (A + T-rich region). All the PCGs initiate with the standard start codons ATN and all the tRNAs can be folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structures except tRNASer(GCT), which only formed a simple loop. The control region is consisted of 861 bp bases located between the srRNA gene and the tRNAlle-tRNAGln-tRNAMet(IQM) gene cluster. The measure of complete mitogenome sequence of C. bispecularis will provide fundamental data for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Cercopoidea and Hemiptera.

  3. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  4. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.Contribuições ao conhecimento de Banasa Stål (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Banasa chaca Thomas. O macho de Banasa chaca Thomas é descrito com ênfase na genitália externa e interna, também é descrita a genitália interna da fêmea. Banasa chaca é registrada pela primeira vez na província de Buenos Aires (Argentina.

  5. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  6. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina

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    María L. GASPARINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.

  7. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-11-25

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.

  8. Trophobiotic relationships between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Tettigometridae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) in the grey dunes of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lehouck, V.S.; Bonte, D.B.; Dekoninck, W; Maelfait, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    We recorded the association between the planthopper Tettigometra laetus Herrich-Schäffer, 1835 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha Tettigometridae) and three ant species belonging to the subfamilies Myrmicinae and Formicinae in a coastal dune area of Flanders (Belgium). Lasius psammophilus Seifert, Tetramorium caespitum L. and Formica cunicularia Latreille were observed attending and palpating the dorsal glandular area of this planthopper, taking honeydew directly from its anus, herding them and carryi...

  9. Two new replacement names for the planthopper genera in Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha

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    Jichun Xing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for two genera of the family Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha. The following changes are proposed: Neonotostrophia nom. n. for Notostrophia Emeljanov (not Waterhouse; Emeljanovina nom. n. for Glochina Emeljanov (not Meigen; Neonotostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912 comb. n. from Notostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912 = Dictyophara nigrosuturalis Melichar, 1912 and Emeljanovina dixoni (Distant, 1906 comb. n. from Glochina dixoni (Distant, 1906 = Dictyophara dixoni Distant, 1906.

  10. New species of Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Drymini) from the Oriental Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Fábics, Anita

    2015-01-05

    The previously known distribution area of the genus Grossander Slater, 1976 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae, Drymini) is broadened with the description of two new species: Grossander papuanus sp. nov. (New Guinea) and Grossander eylesi sp. nov. (Burma, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia). Grossander (Oculoander) subgen. nov. is created for these new taxa. Drawings of habitus and male genitalia are presented. Keys to the subgenera of Grossander, and to the species of the new subgenus are provided.

  11. First Case of a Human Being Bitten by a Water Boatman (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Rojas-Porras, Nicolas A

    2016-01-01

    The first record of a water boatman (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) biting humans is described. The case is from Chile, and the biting species was identified as Sigara trimaculata (Le Guillou, 1841). The possible causes of the bites are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidomorpha of the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków*

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    Starowicz Marzena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of faunistic investigations of aphids (Aphidomorpha in the Botanic Garden of the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, in the Kraków – Wieluń Upland. During two seasons of research (2011, 2012 two aphid species from the family Adelgidae and 50 species from the family Aphididae, associated with 66 host plants were recorded. The following species – Eriosoma anncharlotteae Danielsson, 1979, Capitophorus elaeagni (Del Guercio, 1894, Rhopalosiphoninus (Neorhopalosiphoninus staphyleae staphyleae (Koch, 1854, Eulachnus brevipilosus Börner, 1940 and E. cembrae Börner, 1950 – are new for the Kraków – Wieluń Upland. Seven of the species recorded are regarded as alien to Poland.

  13. Diseño de planes de muestreo con niveles fijos de precisión del pulgón manchado de la alfalfa, Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Homoptera: Aphididae) en alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Javier E.; Trumper, Eduardo V.; Edelstein, Julio D.

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue construir planes secuenciales de muestreo para el pulgón manchado de la alfalfa, Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Homoptera: Aphididae), con niveles fijos de precisión para estimar su densidad en función de toma de decisiones. El estudio de la disposición espacial basado en la Ley de Potencia de Taylor y regresión de Iwao, indicó que esta especie se distribuye de manera agregada en el cultivo de alfalfa, aunque con diferentes grados de agregación según el estado de...

  14. Host selection and probing behavior of the poplar aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on two poplar hybrids with contrasting susceptibility to aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-San Martín, Joceline; Quiroz, Andrés; Verdugo, Jaime A; Parra, Leonardo; Hormazabal, Emilio; Astudillo, Luis A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-02-01

    Poplars are frequently attacked by aphids. The differential susceptibility of poplar hybrids to the aphid Chaitophorus leucomelas Koch (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) has been described, but the mechanism underlying this pattern is unknown. This work tested the hypothesis that poplar resistance to this aphid is associated with the presence of volatiles and secondary plant compounds that affect host selection and feeding behavior. This hypothesis was tested by studying the host choice and feeding behavior of C. leucomelas on two poplar hybrids with contrasting susceptibilities to this aphid ([Populus trichocarpa Torrey & Gray x Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall] x P. deltoides [TD x D], and [P. trichocarpa x Populus maximowiczii Henry] x [P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii] [TM x TM]). The results showed that C. leucomelas rejected leaves of the TM x TM hybrid and did not prefer odors from either hybrid. Electronic monitoring of the probing behavior of C. leucomelas suggested the involvement of antifeedant factors in the TM x TM hybrid. In addition, the chemical characterization of volatiles, epicuticular waxes, and internal phenols of leaves from both poplar hybrids revealed that TM x TM had a higher abundance of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, n-alkanes, and phenols. These results are discussed in terms of their contribution to poplar breeding programs aimed at enhancing insect resistance.

  15. Variation in Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) phloem sap content caused by leaf development may affect feeding site selection behavior of the aphid, Chaitophorous populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Georgianna G; Jones, Clive G; Rifleman, Peggy; Perez, Antonio; Coleman, James S

    2007-10-01

    Apterous populations of Chaitophorous populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) appear to track Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) leaf development. Few aphids occur on mature leaves. Marked individual aphids on leaves of different developmental stages were observed through a period of new leaf initiation. Nymph and adult C. populicola frequently track leaf development by moving up to younger leaves. A comparison of phloem sap constituents and leaf toughness among leaf developmental stages revealed some differences that could be used by C. populicola to determine leaf age. Phloem sap exudates, collected from P. deltoides leaves of different developmental stages, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for free amino acids and the phenolic glycoside salicin. Sucrose concentration in exudates, indicative of phloem sap exudation rate, was uniform among leaf stages. Of 20 amino acids examined, only aspartic acid and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) concentrations differed significantly between leaf stages. Forward stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that seven of the amino acids analyzed are useful for classifying leaf maturity groupings. Aphid-infested cottonwoods had lower cystine concentrations in phloem sap than aphid-free plants. Salicin concentration was significantly higher in new leaves. Leaf toughness was assessed by lignin density and distance measurements in petiole cross-sections. Rapidly expanding leaves had significantly less lignification and new leaves had shorter distances to the vascular bundles than senescent leaves. These physiological and phytochemical differences among P. deltoides leaf developmental stages may contribute to the leaf stage selection patterns exhibited by the aphid, C. populicola.

  16. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  17. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  18. MIRÍDEOS NEOTROPICAIS, XL: DESCRIÇÕES DE NOVAS ESPÉCIES DA AMAZÔNIA (HEMIPTERA).

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, José C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Resumo Descreve seis novas espécies de Miridae. Hemiptera, da Amazônia, Brasil, como: Orthotylis manauensis n. sp., Manaus, Paraproba amazonica n. sp., Manaus; Phytocoris manauensis n. sp., Manaus; Taedia rondonia n. sp.; Taedia Manauensis n. sp., Manaus e Tytthus amazonicus n. sp., Manaus. Estão incluídas as ilustrações dos hábitos e órgãos masculinos. SUMMARY The author describes six new species of Miridae, Hemiptera, from the Amazonia, Brasil, as follows: Orthotylus manauensis n. sp., M...

  19. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  20. Optimization of Pathogenicity Tests for Selection of Native Isolates of Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolated from Citrusgrowing Areas of México on Adults of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatima Lizeth Gandarilla-Pacheco; Luis J. Galán-Wong; J. I. López-Arroyo; Raúl Rodríguez-Guerra; Isela Quintero-Zapata

    2013-01-01

    ... (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) fruit production on the Pacific coast of México. Growers have initiated intensive use of insecticides in order to control populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae...

  1. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  2. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  3. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  4. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera:Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to...

  5. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.

  6. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  7. First report of seasonal trap capture for Halyomorpha halys (Stal) Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and native stink bugs in central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive insect pest in the United States, has recently expanded its range to the Coastal Plain region of Georgia. This study was conducted to monitor the BMSB, as well as native stink bugs, near woodland f...

  8. Mitigating trans-boundary movement of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Mentha sp. by pre-shipping treaments of biopesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of several important crops including vegetables, cereals, fruits, and ornamentals grown worldwide. One important mode of its dispersal is through the trans-boundary movement of infested plant materials. In order to prevent the sprea...

  9. A review of Chinese tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae), with descriptions of Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jian-Kun; Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Planthoppers of the tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae) from China, are reviewed. A key to the three genera of Chinese Achilini is given. A new genus and species of the tribe from southwestern China: Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov., is described. A new genus and species record for China, Cixidia kasparyani Anufriev, is also given.

  10. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  11. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  12. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  13. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  14. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  15. Host range of the exotic brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), implications for future distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bernon; Karen M. Bernhard; Anne L. Nielsen; James F. Stimmel; E. Richard Hoebeke; Maureen E. Carter

    2007-01-01

    Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest in eastern Asia on soybeans and woody plants, including broadleaved trees and fruit trees. A population was discovered in Allentown, PA in 2001. H. halys is also a nuisance pest as it overwinters in homes and other buildings. Based on earlier reports to the Lehigh County...

  16. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  17. A new species of Physomerus Burmeister (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae), with a key to the species of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Hassan, M E; Biswas, B

    2016-12-16

    A new species from India, Physomerus centralis sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) is described and illustrated with both male and female genitalia. Morphological measurements and their ratios were taken as additional diagnostic characters. A key to the Indian species of the genus Physomerus Burmeister is provided.

  18. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Yefremova; Graciela González-Santarosa; Refugio Refugio Lomeli-Flores; Néstor Bautista-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  20. Description of a new genus, Galgoria gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Leptopsaltriini: Leptopsaltriina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young June

    2016-05-10

    A new cicada genus, Galgoria gen. nov., is described with Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 (from southern China) as its type species, which is placed in the subtribe Leptopsaltriina Moulton, 1923 of the tribe Leptopsaltriini Moulton, 1923 in the subfamily Cicadinae Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 is transferred from Tanna Distant, 1905 to Galgoria gen. nov. to become Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov. Tanna apicalis Chen, 1940 syn. nov. and Tanna pseudocalis Lei & Chou, 1997 syn. nov. are synonymized here with Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov.

  1. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  2. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Paradell, Susana L.

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28° 48′ to 39° 17′ S and 64° 06′ to 70° 04′ W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions. PMID:20578887

  3. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  4. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) em duas cultivares de abacaxi

    OpenAIRE

    Santa-Cecília,Lenira Viana Costa; Bueno,Vanda Helena Paes; Prado, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas pa...

  5. Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on two pineapple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília; Vanda Helena Paes Bueno; Ernesto Prado

    2004-01-01

    A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas pa...

  6. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  7. Effects of delayed mating on the reproductive biology of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, A; Mura, A; Muscas, E; Nuvoli, M T; Cocco, A

    2017-08-14

    The effect of increasing mating delay on the reproductive performance and population growth rates of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was investigated under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were mated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after emergence and reproductive and life table parameters were estimated. The pre-oviposition period (number of days between mating and the onset of oviposition) significantly decreased in females mated within 7 days, whereas females mated at older ages showed equivalent pre-oviposition periods (7 days, as shorter delays in mating did not reduce the population growth rates.

  8. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  9. Estrutura e ultra-estrutura dos espermatozoides de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera, Sternorryncha, Liviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Marcelo Silva

    2014-01-01

    Atualmente quatro subordens de Hemiptera são reconhecidas: Heteroptera, Sternorryncha, Coleorryncha e Auchenorryncha. A subordem Sternorryncha forma um grupo monofilético com aproximadamente 16 mil espécies descritas e distribuídas em quatro superfamílias: Aleyrodoidea, Aphidoidea, Coccoidea e Psylloidea. Algumas espécies dessa subordem estão entre as principais pragas da agricultura mundial. Um exemplo é a Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Liviidae), popularmente conhecida como cigarrinha- do-limão...

  10. Phylogenetic Evidence for Ancient and Persistent Environmental Symbiont Reacquisition in Largidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Eric Robert Lucien; McFrederick, Quinn; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-12-15

    The insect order Hemiptera, one of the best-studied insect lineages with respect to bacterial symbioses, still contains major branches that lack comprehensive characterization of associated bacterial symbionts. The Pyrrhocoroidea (Largidae [220 species] and Pyrrhocoridae [∼300 species]) is a clade of the hemipteran infraorder Pentatomomorpha. Studies on bacterial symbionts of this group have focused on members of Pyrrhocoridae, but recent examination of species of two genera of Largidae demonstrated divergent symbiotic complexes in these putative sister families. We surveyed the associated bacterial diversity of this group using paired-end Illumina sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons of 30 pyrrhocoroid taxa, including 17 species of Largidae, in order to determine bacterial associates and the similarity of associated microbial communities among species. We also used molecular data (4,800 bp in 5 loci, for 57 ingroup and 12 outgroup taxa) to infer a phylogeny of the host superfamily, in order to trace the evolution of symbiotic complexes among Pentatomomorpha species. We undertook multiple lines of investigation (i.e., experimental rearing, fluorescence in situ hybridization microscopy, and phylogenetic and coevolutionary analyses) to elucidate potential transmission routes for largid symbionts. We found a prevalent and specific association of Largidae with Burkholderia strains of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental clade, housed in midgut tubules. As in other distantly related Heteroptera, symbiotic bacteria seem to be acquired from the environment every generation. We review the current understanding of symbiotic complexes within Pentatomomorpha and discuss means to further investigate the evolution and function of these symbioses. Obligate symbioses with bacteria are common in insects, particularly Hemiptera, in which various forms of symbiosis occur. However, knowledge regarding symbionts remains incomplete

  11. The identity of Orthaea maculifera, with proposal of a new synonymy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédei, Dávid; Zhu, Xudong; Kondorosy, Előd

    2016-04-29

    Orthaea maculifera Uhler, 1861 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae) was described by Uhler (1861) based on an unspecified number of female specimens from Hong Kong. For a long time this species remained of unknown identity and uncertain generic placement (Stål 1874, Lethierry & Severin 1894). As a result of the synonymy of the genus Orthaea Dallas, 1852 with Pachybrachius Hahn, 1826 proposed by Barber (1939) (not accepted by Harrington (1980) and subsequent workers), Slater (1964) listed the species within the genus Pachybrachius. Although the species has still been regarded as of unknown identity (Zheng & Zou 1981), this generic placement has been followed by subsequent authors (Péricart 2001).

  12. A new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae) from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Andrés; L'Mohdi, Ouassima; Antonio Carbonell, José; Taybi, Abdelkhaleq Fouzi; Dakki, Mohamed

    2016-10-10

    This paper provides the description of a new species of Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphelocheiridae), Aphelocheirus pemae sp. nov. from Morocco. The species was found in two sites located in different basins (Sebou and Moulouya rivers) that are separated by approximately 400 km. Photographs of the dorsal habitus of the female and illustrations of the male genitalic structures are provided. A graphical key to species of the genus in Western Europe and the Maghreb is also included. The new species can be easily distinguished by the unique shape of the left and right parameres and absence of apical spines on the aedeagus.

  13. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  15. Primeiro registro da cochonilha Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae no Brasil First record of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Brazil

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    Adriano Luiz Kussler

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae foi registrada atacando plantas de erva-mate, pela primeira vez no Brasil, no município de Chapecó (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W,SC de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003, mas outros 32 ervais não apresentaram a ocorrência desse inseto. Esta cochonilha pode causar danos como a degeneração dos ramos primários devido a constante sucção de seiva. O contorno do corpo é oval arredondado (2,68mm x 2,60mm com antenas curtas e robustas com sete segmentos. Esta espécie é caracterizada pela presença e distribuição de poros preoperculares e setas hipopigiais.The presence of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae was reported for the first time in Brazil in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W, attacking Paraguay tea plants (Ilex paraguariensis, from September 2002 to January 2003. Other 32 Paraguay tea plantations were inspected and there was not occurrence of this insect. This cochineal can cause degeneration of the branches where they are due to the constant suction of the sap. The contour of the body is rounded oval (2.68mm x 2.60mm and it has short and robust antennas with seven segments. This species is characterized by the presence and distribution of preoperculary pores and hypopygial arrows.

  16. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera.

  17. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Potential of Three Trap Crops in Managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Tomatoes in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T L; Haseeb, M; Kanga, L H B; Legaspi, J C

    2017-10-11

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015. The number of stink bug adults collected from wild game feed sorghum exceeded the number from sunflower, and none were collected from either species of millet. Sorghum attracted a significantly higher number of adults than did striped sunflower; however, both sunflower and sorghum attracted the adults of N. viridula. Adults of the pest feed on the sorghum panicle and sunflower head (inflorescence). Although fewer stink bugs were found feeding on sunflower, the sunflower was found to be a good source of other natural enemies and pollinators and also attracted significantly greater numbers of the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (another pest of tomatoes). While this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sorghum, we recommend that sorghum be planted with another trap crop, preferably sunflower, for better preventive control of the southern green stink bug. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina

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    Diego L. CARPINTERO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.

  20. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina On the presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Gasparini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.The presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae,Scymninae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is reported. Specimens were collected during a survey on natural enemies of «ash whitefly», Siphoninus phillyreae, carried out in olive plantations of Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia and Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina.

  1. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  2. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  3. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  4. Comparative biology of the two sister species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biologia comparativa de duas espécies irmãs de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ana Laura Carbajal de la Fuente

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae are two Brazilian vectors of Chagas disease. The first is an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures; the second, a rupicolous species in the wild environment of no epidemiological importance. In order to test the assumption that sister species share biological traits, comparative studies of their development cycle and blood ingestion were conducted. METHODS: Eggs laid by five field females of each species were randomly selected. The nymphs were observed daily and fed on mice weekly. The time required to pass through the different stages to adulthood was recorded in days. The triatomines were weighed individually before and after feeding. The mortality rate according to each nymphal stage was calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results shows that they display only minor biological differences even though they exhibit a distinct ecology. This suggests that the biological traits are important criteria to determine the relationship between species.INTRODUÇÃO: Triatoma pseudomaculata e T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae são dois vetores Brasileiros da doença de Chagas. A primeira é uma espécie arborícola em ambiente silvestre e considerada vetor do T. cruzi em estruturas peridomesticas. A segunda é rupícola em ambientes silvestres e sem importância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese que espécies irmãs compartilham características semelhantes, realizamos um estudo comparativo do ciclo biológico e ingesta alimentar. MÉTODOS: Ovos pertencentes a cinco fêmeas de cada espécie provenientes do campo foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As ninfas foram observadas diariamente e alimentadas com camundongos semanalmente. O tempo requerido para passar até o estágio adulto foi registrado em dias. Os triatomíneos foram pesados

  5. Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio

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    Lilian R Descamps

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m, net reproductive rate (R0, mean generation time (T, doubling time (DT, and finite rate of increase (λ of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d, higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1, higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1, lower doubling time (2.24, and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%. Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m, tasa neta de reproducción (R0, tiempo generacional medio (T, tiempo de duplicación (TD, y tasa finita de incremento (λ del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de

  6. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  7. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-03-08

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  8. Rearing and Release of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Water hyacinth in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    26. Dawson, D. G., and P. C. Bull. 1975. Counting birds in New Zealand forests. Notornis 22:101–109. Denoth, M., L. Frid, and J. H. Myers. 2002...delphacid planthopper, Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), which has been in culture at the ERDC since 2010. Past failures to establish M...obtained from field-established stock in Florida. This report details the performance of original and new strains of M. scutellaris in greenhouse

  9. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas А.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies ( Hemiptera , Aleyrodidae ) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava ( Manihot esculenta ), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore rep...

  10. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    OpenAIRE

    Yanan Hao; Christopher H. Dietrich; Wu Dai

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by suck...

  11. Redescription of the genus Wachsiella (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae: Physopeltinae) with description of male and comments on its tribal placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, Jaroslav L; Hemala, Vladimír; Kment, Petr

    2016-04-05

    A detailed redescription (including first description of the male sex) of the genus Wachsiella Schmidt, 1931 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae: Physopeltinae) and its single species, Wachsiella horsti Schmidt, 1931, is provided. The systematic placement of the genus is discussed and it is placed in the tribe Physopeltini. Wachsiella horsti is a species endemic to south Sulawesi (Indonesia), known only from specimens collected in 1895-1896 and has never been reported since.

  12. First records in Italy of the red-listed shore bug Salda henschii (Reuter, 1891) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Saldidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio; Norbiato, Margherita; Dogliotti, Marco

    2017-03-06

    Salda henschii (Reuter, 1891) is a boreo-montane species of Saldidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) restricted to mountain bogs and streams in central Europe (e.g., Western Carpathians, Alps) and to freshwater wetlands in lowland coastal areas in northern Europe (Fennoscandia); it is a vicariant of the arctic (Holarctic) element S. sahlbergi Reuter, 1875 (Hoberlandt 1977; Schuh et al. 1987; Péricart 1990; Lindskog 1991; Vinokurov 2010).

  13. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-07-05

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted.

  14. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  15. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  17. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

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    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  18. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts.

  19. [Immature stages and phenology of Catorhintha apicalis scrutator (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Michoacan, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez Santacruz, Jezabel; Cervantes Peredo, Luis

    2014-06-01

    Very little is known about the biology of Catorhintha species, for which a total of 32 species are known, with 10 species present in Mexico. The aim of this work was to describe the immature stages of Catorhintha apicalis scrutator. For this, adults and nymphs were collected as part of a project to study the Hemiptera diversity in contrasting environments in the Cuitzeo Basin, Michoacan. Sampling was done by direct collections and entomological nets; and a total of 523 individuals, 452 nymphs and 71 adults were collected during one year. The 84% of individuals were collected during the rainy season with the greater abundance in August and September, when Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) its host plant, was also more abundant in the study area. All instars were described and notes about their biology and phenology are provided, including the association with its host plant Mirabilis jalapa; besides, comparisons with other species in the genus Catorhintha were made.

  20. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  1. Lectotype designations and taxonomic corrections on species of Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Gustav Breddin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid

    2015-05-29

    Types of selected species of Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Gustav Breddin, so far of unknown depository, were re-examined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species are discussed and resolved as required. The holotype of Dieuches schultheissi Breddin, 1906 is documented. Lectotypes are designated and documented for the following taxa: Lygaeidae: Aethalotus horni Breddin, 1907; Aspilogeton nubicola Breddin, 1901; Lygaeus hospes Fabricius, 1794 var. celebensis Breddin, 1901; Oxycarenidae: Oxycarenus musculus Breddin, 1907; Rhyparochromidae: Lispochroa blandula Breddin, 1907; Notochilaster teres Breddin, 1907; Dieuches horni Breddin, 1906; D. jacobsoni Breddin, 1906; D. nudipes Breddin, 1906; D. villosulus Breddin, 1906; Poeantius brevicollis Breddin, 1907; Pamera recincta Breddin, 1901; Paromius robustior Breddin, 1907. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Naphius schultzei (Breddin, 1913), new combination (transferred from Rhyparochromus); Graptostethus verticalis (Dallas, 1852) = Pyrrhobaphus scutellatus Breddin, 1907, new subjective synonym; Naphius schultzei (Breddin, 1913) = Naphius capensis Scudder, 1971, new subjective synonym.

  2. Resolving the taxonomy and nomenclature of Metochus abbreviatus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-11-15

    The identity of Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Rhyparochrominae: Rhyparochromini) is clarified based on reexamination of the lectotype. The subjective synonymy of Dieuches kreyenbergi Breddin, 1906 with M. abbreviatus is confirmed. The following new subjective synonymies are proposed: Rhyparochromus erosus Walker, 1872 = Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874, syn. nov. = Metochus holsti Distant, 1918, syn. nov. Bibliographies of the names are provided and it is demonstrated that the name M. abbreviatus is in prevailing usage. Reversion to the senior name Rh. erosus is considered to be undesirable, therefore an application has simultaneously been submitted to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to give the specific name abbreviatus precedence over the specific name erosus. The diagnostic characters, bionomics and distribution of the species are briefly reviewed.

  3. Identifikasi kutukebul (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae dari beberapa tanaman inang dan perkembangan populasinya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae can cause direct and indirect damages on plants, especially vegetables. There is only limited information regarding taxonomy and population dynamic of whiteflies attacking vegetables in Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify species of whitefly collected from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean, and to study their population dynamic. The information gathered from these studies will be useful to support whitefly management in the field. Based on morphology identification of the puparium collected directly from the host plants, there were four species of whitefly identified from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi, i.e. Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and Dialeurodes sp. The presence of B. tabaci on chili pepper and tomato was associated with virus infection that causes yellowing and leaf curl disease. This population of B. tabaci tended to increase along with plant growth and generally reached the highest population when the plant was 60-70 days after planting.

  4. Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha: state-of-the-art and research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Swierczewski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844, it was Signoret (1860 who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers.

  5. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Morphology of the mouthparts of the spittlebug Philagra albinotata Uhler (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Aphrophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Pan, Liuxing; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

    2015-03-01

    Mouthparts associated with feeding behavior and feeding habits are important sensory and feeding structures in insects. To obtain a better understanding of feeding in Cercopoidea, the morphology of mouthparts of the spittlebug, Philagra albinotata Uhler was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The mouthparts of P. albinotata are of the typical piercing-sucking type found in Hemiptera, comprising a cone-shaped labrum, a tube-like, three-segmented labium with a deep groove on the anterior side, and a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets. The mandibles consist of a dorsal smooth region and a ventral serrate region near the apical half of the external convex region, and bear five nodules or teeth on the dorsal external convex region on the distal extremity; these are regarded as unique features that distinguish spittlebugs from other groups of Hemiptera. The externally smooth maxillary stylets, interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal, are asymmetrical only in the internal position of longitudinal carinae and grooves. One dendritic canal is found in each maxilla and one in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla basiconica and groups of multi-peg structures occur in different locations on the labium, specifically the labial tip with two lateral lobes divided into anterior sensory fields with ten small peg sensilla arranged in a 5+4+1 pattern and one big peg sensillum, and posterior sensory fields with four sensilla trichodea. Compared with those of previously studied Auchenorrhyncha, the mouthparts of P. albinotata may be distinguished by the shape of the mandibles, the multi-peg structures and a tooth between the salivary canal and the food canal on the extreme end of the stylets. The mouthpart morphology is illustrated using scanning electron micrographs, and the taxonomic and putative functional significance of the different structures is briefly discussed

  7. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  8. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

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    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  9. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF PATHOGENICITY TESTS FOR SELECTION OF NATIVE ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM CITRUS-GROWING AREAS OF MÉXICO ON ADULTS OF DIAPHORINA CITRI KUWAYAMA (HEMIPTERA: LIVIIDAE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatima Lizeth Gandarilla-Pacheco; Luis J. Galán-Wong; J. I. López-Arroyo; Raúl Rodríguez-Guerra; Isela Quintero-Zapata

    2013-01-01

    ... (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) fruit production on the Pacific coast of México. Growers have initiated intensive use of insecticides in order to control populations of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae...

  11. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  12. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  13. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  14. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  15. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  16. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan P. Havill; Michael E. Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Shigehiko Shiyake; Adalgisa Caccone; Adalgisa Caccone

    2006-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest of unknown origin that is causing severe mortality to hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in eastern North America. Adelgids also occur on other Tsuga species in western North America and East Asia, but these trees are not significantly damaged. The purpose of this study is to use...

  18. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  19. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  20. Effectiveness of glues for harmonic radar tag attachment on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and their impact on adult survivorship and mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effectiveness of three cyanoacrylate glues (trade names: Krazy, Loctite, and FSA) to securely attach harmonic radar tags on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and quantified the effect of the radar tag attachment on insect survivorship and mobility. In the l...

  1. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  2. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  3. A new species of the genus Capsus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) from the Korean Peninsula, with a key to the Korean Capsus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junggon; Park, Haechul; Heiss, Ernst; Jung, Sunghoon

    2015-01-14

    A new species of the genus Capsus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae) from the Korean Peninsula is reported, and congeners in the Korean Peninsula are reviewed. Biological information such as host plants and distributions with a key to the Korean species are also provided. 

  4. Interhaplotype fertility and host effects of potato and bittersweet nightshade on selected reproductive traits of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a serious pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America and New Zealand. This insect vectors the bacterium that causes zebra chip disease of potato. Four distinct genetic populations, or haplotypes, of B. cockerelli ha...

  5. Dinámica poblacional de planococcus ficus sign. (Hemiptera-Pseudcoccidae) en viñedos : Mendoza (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Violeta; González, Marcela; Herrera, María Eugenia; Miano, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Planococcus ficus Signoret es un insecto perteneciente al orden Hemiptera, familia Pseudococcidae, cuya población ha aumentado en los últimos años en Mendoza. Ataca gran variedad de hospederos y está distribuido en las principales zonas vitícolas del mundo. Su acción disminuye el vigor general de las plantas, perjudica la calidad de los frutos y las características organolépticas de los vinos elaborados con racimos infestados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar estudios bioecológic...

  6. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  7. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  8. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  9. Planthopper (Hemiptera: Flatidae) parasitized by larval erythraeid mite (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae)-a description of two new species from western Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąkol, Joanna; Moniuszko, Hanna; Swierczewski, Dariusz; Stroiński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of Dambullaeus adonis Mąkol et Moniuszko SP NOV: (Trombidiformes: Erythraeidae, Callidosomatinae) and Latois nigrolineata Świerczewski et Stroiński SP NOV: (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha, Flatidae) from Madagascar are provided. The first host record for ectoparasitic larvae of Dambullaeus Haitlinger, 2001 and the first evidence on host-parasite association between flatid adult and erythraeid larvae are given. Genus Dambullaeus, known exclusively from larvae and now comprising two species of Gondwanan distribution, is critically reappraised. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Estudo comparativo da espermiogenese normal e diapausica em insetos pertencentes ao complexo percevejo da soja (Hemiptera : Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne de Paiva Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Percevejos fitófagos (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) são as principais pragas de colheitas economicamente importantes ao redor do mundo, como por exemplo soja, arroz, coco, café, entre outras. Apesar da grande quantidade de informação sobre as espécies-praga, seu dano potencial nas plantas de importância econômica e as formas de controle usadas, fazem com que o impacto dessas pragas na produção de colheitas permaneça em níveis indesejáveis. A caracterização ultra-estrutural da espermiogênes...

  11. Ultraestrutura e função das glândulas salivares de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Castrillon, Luis Carlos Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) é um inseto zoofitófago com potencial para controle biológico, pois ninfas e adultos predam diversos insetos, inserindo o aparelho bucal e injetando o conteúdo das glândulas salivares no interior das presas, causando a morte das mesmas. Entretanto, os compostos tóxicos da saliva desse inseto, responsáveis pela morte das presas são ainda desconhecidos. Como primeira etapa para a identificação das possíveis substâncias presentes na saliva de ...

  12. Assessing Genetic Diversity in Four Stink Bug Species, Chinavia hilaris, Chlorochroa uhleri, Chlorochroa sayi, and Thyanta pallidovirens (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Using DNA Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Joyce, A L; Torres, R; Higbee, B S

    2017-12-05

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are an economically important group of insects that attack numerous crops in the central valley of California. Management of these pests using pheromones or biological control can be species specific, and proper identification of insect species is essential for effective management. The objective was to examine genetic variability in four species of stink bugs, which included Chinavia hilaris (Say) (= Acrosternum hilare) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) , Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) , Chlorochroa sayi (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and to determine whether there may be cryptic species present. Stink bugs were collected in pistachios or on adjacent vegetation when abundant in the central valley of California. The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene region (i.e., the barcode) was sequenced for each individual. Data were combined with available GenBank accessions for each species and used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Divergence between genera ranged from 11.2 to 15.7%, whereas divergence between the two Chlorochroa spp. was 4.6%. Genetic variation within Chinavia hilaris collections was up to 4.7%, which suggests the presence of a cryptic species. Genetic divergence was highest between individuals of Chinavia hilaris from the west coast and the east coast of the United States. In contrast, genetic variation within individuals of C. uhleri and Ch. sayi was less than 1%. Nine haplotypes were found for Chinavia hilaris, five for C. uhleri, three for Ch. sayi, and five for T. pallidovirens. The relevance of correct species identification and genetic diversity to stink bug management practices was discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. A mass collection of Triatoma ryckmani (Hemiptera:Reduviidaefrom Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceaein the semiarid region of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marroquín M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A population of 216 specimens of Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,Subfamily Cereoideae was surveyed for Triatoma ryckmani (vector of Chagas diseasein a one hectare plot of semiarid habitat in Guatemala. Out of 44 plants that had dead and dry sections,24 plants had a total of 103 specimens of T.ryckmani .In comparison with other areas of Guatemala,T.ryckmani is well established in the semiarid ecosystem (Infestation index 54.5,density =2.3 and crowding index 4.3.The insects were mainly found (52.4%in the dead portions of S.eichlamii 2.0 to 3.2 m above the ground (X² =26.0,PEn Guatemala,en una hectárea de la región semiárida,se encontraron 216 cactus de Stenocereus eichlamii (Cactaceae,44 de ellos tenían alguna parte del tallo en condiciones secas.103 Triatoma ryckmani fueron halladas en 24 de esos 44 S.eichlamii .Una comparación de los índices entomológicos con otros vectores domiciliares de la enfermedad de Chagas en Guatemala,da la idea que T. ryckmani está bien establecida en el ecosistema semiárido (índice de infestación de 54.5,índice de densidad de 2.3 e índice de hacinamiento de 4.3.Los triatominos fueron hallados preferentemente en las partes muertas de S.eichlamii entre 2.0 a 3.2 m sobre el nivel del suelo (52.4%de triatominos colectados,X ²=26.0,p<0.00001,el siguiente entre 3.2 a 5.0 m (35.9%y finalmente 0.2 a 2.0 m (11.6%. El 75.7 %estaba en condiciones de ayuno y 24.3 %estaban llenas de sangre.Para determinar la presencia de flagelados,43 T.ryckmani fueron disectadas, (primera evaluación de parasitemia en esta especie.Ningún flagelado fue hallado en estos triatominos.Este es el primer reporte de la dinámica poblacional de T.ryckmani en su hábitat silvestre.

  14. Behavioral evidence for local reduction of aphid-induced resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, E.; Tjallingii, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five aphids of three different species, Brevicoryne brassicae L, Myzus persicae Schulzer, and Rhopalosiphum padi L(Hemiptera: Aphididae) were each allowed to infest leaves of a young plant of their respective host plant species for 4 days, except that the oldest expanded leaf (the `systemic¿

  15. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This training video provides provides an overview of general aphid morphology by using a compound microscope. The narrator discusses and highlights structures on the aphid that are important to make a species identification....

  16. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  17. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Aphis gossypii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures that ca...

  18. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L...

  19. grain and biomass yield reduction due to russian wheat aphid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... Central Ethiopia (Miller and Adugna, 1988). While crop protection is meant to prevent and control crop losses ... Statistics 20 software (IBM-SPSS, 2011) was employed to compare differences in days to heading and .... Distribution and diversity of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in ...

  20. A possible novel black aphid control approach using plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage in order to feed, thereby accelerating leaf senescence and defoliation. The action of certain plant growth regulators (i.e., forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and avi...

  1. Incidence and distribution of insect pests in rain-fed wheat in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, only 39% of the fields were infested by tef epilachna, Chnootriba similis Thurnberg (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae); while the remaining wheat fields were free of insect infestation. The Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia Kurdijumov (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was the most prevalent insect pest of wheat in ...

  2. The effects of diet on herbivory by a predaceous lady beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prey and non-prey foods often contain different nutrients, and optimal diets for predatory insects often contain both food classes. We tested whether late instars of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) reared on prey- Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or eggs of ...

  3. Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is native to Asia where it is an occasional pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Aphis glycines was found during 2000 in North America and since then has spread throughout much of the area where soybean is grown. In Asia, A. glycines ...

  4. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alabi, RO. Vol 9, No 1 (1998) - Articles Effect of seed extracts of Azadirachta indica a. Juss on the transmission of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus by Myzus persicae suiz (Hemiptera; Aphididae) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  6. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to AphID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on the use of the expert system, AphID, for aphid examination and identification. The video demonstrates the use of different training modules that allow the user to gain familiarity wi...

  7. The first report of the aphids of the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report 50 species, belonging to 26 genera of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), collected within and near the boundary of the Valles Caldera National Preserve in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, USA. Of these, 35 (70%) represent new distribution records for New Mexico. Plant genera/species...

  8. New, Universal AC-DC Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) monitor allows recording of detailed R- and emf-component waveforms for any piercing-sucking insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) monitoring is the most rigorous means of observing and quantifying the feeding of any piercing-sucking arthropod. However, until now, most studies have emphasized a relatively small number of insects, mostly small-bodied aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and leafhopp...

  9. Chitin deacetylase family genes in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y; Pan, P-L; Ye, Y-X; Yu, B; Zhang, C-X

    2014-12-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) are enzymes required for one of the pathways of chitin degradation, in which chitosan is produced by the deacetylation of chitin. Bioinformatic investigations with genomic and transcriptomic databases identified four genes encoding CDAs in Nilaparvata lugens (NlCDAs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that insect CDAs were clustered into five major groups. Group I, III and IV CDAs are found in all insect species, whereas the pupa-specific group II and gut-specific group V CDAs are not found in the plant-sap/blood-sucking hemimetabolous species from Hemiptera and Anoplura. The developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns of four NlCDAs revealed that NlCDA3 was a gut-specific CDA, with high expression at all developmental stages; NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 were highly expressed in the integument and peaked periodically during every moulting, which suggests their roles in chitin turnover of the insect old cuticle. Lethal phenotypes of cuticle shedding failure and high mortality after the injection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 provide further evidence for their functions associated with moulting. No observable morphological and internal structural abnormality was obtained in insects treated with dsRNA for gut-specific NlCDA3. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Transferrin Family Genes in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Response to Three Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2017-12-19

    Transferrins are involved in iron metabolism, immunity, xenobiotics tolerance, and development in eukaryotic organisms including insects. However, little is known about the relationship between transferrins and insecticide toxicology and resistance. Three transferrin family genes, NlTsf1, NlTsf2, and NlTsf3, of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)a major insect pest of rice field in Asia, had been identified and characterized in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that NlTsf1 was significantly higher than the other two genes in different tissues. All of them were expressed at higher levels in abdomen and head than in antenna, leg, stylet, and thorax. Compared with the control, the expression of three N. lugens transferrin family genes decreased dramatically 24 h after treatment with buprofezin, pymetrozine and imidacloprid. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Comparative biology of two congeneric stinkbugs, Chinavia impicticornis and C. ubica (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonor Cavalcante Alves Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the biology of Chinavia impicticornis and C. ubica (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, two species of stinkbugs that occur as secondary pests in soybean. Life table procedures were used for evaluating nymphs, and fecundity tables for evaluating adults, in order to establish the demographics of the two species. The two species have similar demographic parameters, and the development of immature stages, from egg to adult, had similar duration periods of approximately 30 days. In both species, eggs and second-instar nymphs were the stages with higher mortality. Total egg production did not differ between females of both species. Fecundity and survival curves for adults showed similar trends in both species. However, C. ubica had greater potential to increase its populations, since its fecundity parameters were significantly higher than those of C. impicticornis. Moreover, the generational time and the time required to double the population size were shorter in C. ubica. Prolonged longevity, long oviposition period, high fecundity, and the ability to rapidly increase their populations indicate that both species can become potential pests in favorable environments.

  12. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  13. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  14. Facultative symbiont Hamiltonella confers benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Oliver, Kerry M; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; White, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

  15. Soil temperature and diapause maintenance in eggs of the spittlebug, Deois flavopicta (Hemiptera: Cercopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. SUJII

    Full Text Available Diapausing eggs of the neotropical pasture pest, Deois flavopicta (Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae, were exposed to low overnight temperatures that simulated field conditions during the dry season (23/12, 23/15 and 23/18ºC day/night, for different periods (0-60 days. After treatment, eggs were kept at 28ºC and contact water (100% humidity until hatching. A group of diapausing eggs were kept all the time under this last condition as a control treatment. Time for hatching (in degree-days was reduced with decrease in low overnight temperature and increase of exposure time to these cold shocks, although there was no interaction between the factors. Regression of exposure time to cold shock influencing the expected mean hatching time produced independent equations for temperatures below 18ºC and 15ºC. We constructed a model that simulates the expected proportion of the population hatching after the beginning of rainy season based on regression equations to mean hatching time and associated standard deviation. The simulation generated for the model correlated significantly with nymphal population observed in the field. These results showed that overnight soil temperatures below 18ºC, as occurs in Central and South-eastern Brazil between May and August, shorten the period of diapause, increase quiescent eggs in the soil, and may synchronize the population hatching.

  16. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  19. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  20. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  1. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haijun; Lu, Yanhui; Liang, Gemei; Zhang, Yongjun; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912). We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing). For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed. PMID:25955307

  2. Elongation Factor-1α Accurately Reconstructs Relationships Amongst Psyllid Families (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), with Possible Diagnostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Francesco; Bulman, Simon R; Pitman, Andrew; Armstrong, Karen F

    2017-12-05

    The superfamily Psylloidea (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) lacks a robust multigene phylogeny. This impedes our understanding of the evolution of this group of insects and, consequently, an accurate identification of individuals, of their plant host associations, and their roles as vectors of economically important plant pathogens. The conserved nuclear gene elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) has been valuable as a higher-level phylogenetic marker in insects and it has also been widely used to investigate the evolution of intron/exon structure. To explore evolutionary relationships among Psylloidea, polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of a 250-bp EF-1α gene fragment was applied to psyllids belonging to five different families. Introns were detected in three individuals belonging to two families. The nine genera belonging to the family Aphalaridae all lacked introns, highlighting the possibility of using intron presence/absence as a diagnostic tool at a family level. When paired with cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences, the 250 bp EF-1α sequence appeared to be a very promising higher-level phylogenetic marker for psyllids. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  5. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  6. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  7. A Preliminary Molecular Phylogeny of Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) Based on Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera) is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S) and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb) markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record. PMID:23516472

  8. Volatiles released by Chinese liquorice roots mediate host location behaviour by neonate Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Margarodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Fu; Chen, Hong-Hao; Li, Jun-Kai; Zhang, Rong; Turlings, Ted Cj; Chen, Li

    2016-10-01

    The cochineal scale, Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, Margarodidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of Chinese liquorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Fabaceae), an important medicinal herb. The adult females tend to deposit the ovisacs in soil relatively far away from liquorice plants. After hatching, neonates move out of the soil and may use chemical cues to search for new hosts. We collected and analysed the volatiles from soils with and without liquorice roots, and chromatographic profiles revealed hexanal, β-pinene and hexanol as potential host-finding cues for P. sphorae. The attractiveness of these compounds to neonates was studied in the laboratory using four-arm olfactometer bioassays. The larvae showed a clear preference for β-pinene over hexanal and hexanol, as well as all possible combinations of the three compounds. In addition, a field experiment confirmed that β-pinene was significantly more attractive than hexanal and hexanol. Newly eclosed larvae of P. sphorae exploit root volatiles as chemical cues to locate their host plant. β-Pinene proved to be the major chemical cue used by P. sphorae neonates searching for roots of their host plant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Performance of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottoriva, L D M; Lourenção, A L; Colombo, C A

    2014-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is regarded as a pest with a large number of hosts, including crops and weeds. The performance of this whitefly on seven weeds was evaluated in order to identify the most suitable host. The following weeds that are very common in intense agricultural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected for this study: spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla), beggarticks (Bidens pilosa), red tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia), small-flower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora), pigweed (Amaranthus viridis), black nightshade (Solanum americanum), and morning glory (Ipomoea sp.). In free-choice tests, adult preference and oviposition were greatest on spurge. In contrast, morning glory was the least attractive and least oviposited plant. In assays carried out for egg-adult development, egg viability was greater than 87% over all weeds, whereas nymph viability ranged from 74 to 97%. The developmental period from egg to adult ranged from 26.7 to 49.1 days among the hosts under study. The lowest nymph density rate was observed for beggarticks and morning glory. Cluster analysis resulted in a single group formed by spurge, indicating its superiority as a host for B. tabaci biotype B. Even though the parameters evaluated indicate that spurge is the most suitable host among the weeds, all the others allow the reproduction of B. tabaci biotype B. For this reason, they should be observed during cropping and the intercrop period in areas infested by this whitefly.

  10. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

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    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  11. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  12. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Characterization of Paecilomycescinnamomeus from the camellia whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting tea in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Takatsuka, Jun; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2012-05-01

    The whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an invasive species in Japan that was first discovered in 2004 on tea in Kyoto. Soon after its arrival epizootics of an entomopathogenic fungus were observed in populations of the whitefly in many tea-growing regions. Here we identify this fungus as Paecilomyces cinnamomeus (Petch) Samson and W. Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. This is the first record of P. cinnamomeus in Japan and also the first time it has been recorded from the genus Aleurocanthus. A isolate of P. cinnamomeus caused greater than 50% and 90% infection in whitefly nymphs at 1×10(6) and 1×10(7)conidia/ml respectively, while the commercial mycoinsecticides Preferd® (Isaria fumosorosea) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium muscarium) caused thiophanate-methyl caused some inhibition of in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates, and the bactericide copper oxychloride and the insecticides tolfenpyrad and methidathion were strongly inhibitory. The findings obtained in this study will be useful in the development of microbial control programs using P. cinnamomeus against A. camelliae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacteria Associated With Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), With Special Reference to Those Transmitted by Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Howells, Andrea; Tikhe, Chinmay V; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern US agriculture. Pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. However, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. In this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redbanded stink bug individuals using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nineteen bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug on soybean agar were isolated and identified via Sanger sequencing of near full length 16S RNA genes. The transmitted bacteria belonged to at least a dozen species in eight genera and included potential plant pathogens (Phaseolibacter flectens), plant beneficials (Bacillus atropheus), and possible insect beneficials (Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter farmeri). A total of 284,448 reads were captured from Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the uncultured gut bacteria community. Fifty-one putative bacteria species (74% of the estimated total species richness) were identified via matches to NCBI databases. The bacteria metagenome contained potential plant and insect pathogens (Erwinia persicina, E. rhaponici, Brenneria nigrifluens, Ralstonia picketti, and Serratia marcescens) and beneficials (Pantoea dispersa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Clostridium butyricum, and Citrobacter farmeri). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  16. Variable Levels of Resistance of Soybean Genotypes on the Performance of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Efrain S; Canassa, Vinícius F; Bentivenha, José P F; Baldin, Edson L L; Pierozzi, Caroline G; Lourenção, André L; Pannuti, Luiz E R

    2017-10-10

    The Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the major soybean pests in South America. This species is responsible for high levels of infestation, causes critical damage to seeds, it is associated with leaf retention on plants, and it is extremely difficult to manage. Host plant resistance is a notable technique to assist in reducing the stink bug population in soybean crops. The antibiosis resistance of soybean genotypes to E. heros was evaluated in laboratory. Genotypes L1-1-01, 'IAC 100', 'IAC 23', and 'Coodetec 208' increased the length of nymphal developmental time. PI 274453 and PI 227687 reduced egg viability and also adult body weight. PI 274454, 'IAC 19', PI 227687, and PI 229358 led to low nymphal viability. These results suggest that these genotypes may be useful in soybean breeding programs that focus on the development of genotypes resistant to E. heros. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  19. The transcriptional landscape of insect galls: psyllid (Hemiptera) gall formation in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sebastian; Percy, Diana M; Hefer, Charles A; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2015-11-16

    Recent studies show that galling Hymenoptera and Diptera are able to synthesize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) from tryptophan and that plant response to insect-produced auxin is implicated in gall formation. We examined the leaf transcriptome of galled and ungalled leaves of individuals of the Hawaiian endemic plant Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) subject to infestation by psyllid (Hemiptera) gall-makers in the genus Trioza (Triozidae). Transcript libraries were sequenced using Illumina technology and the reads assembled de novo into contigs. Functional identification of contigs followed a two-step procedure, first identifying contigs by comparison to the completely sequenced genome of the related Eucalyptus, followed by identifying the equivalent Arabidopsis gene using a pre-computed mapping between Eucalyptus and Arabidopsis genes. This allowed us to use the rich functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome to assess the transcriptional landscape of galling in Metrosideros. Comparing galled and ungalled leaves, we find a highly significant enrichment of expressed genes with a gene ontology (GO) annotation to auxin response in the former. One gene consistently expressed in all galled trees examined but not detected in any libraries from ungalled leaves was the Metrosideros version of SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED (SAUR) 67 which appears to be a marker for leaf-galling in Metrosideros. We conclude that an auxin response is involved in galling by Metrosideros psyllids. The possibility should therefore be considered that psyllids (like other insects examined) are able to synthesize auxin.

  20. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.