WorldWideScience

Sample records for hemiptera aleyrodidae infestation

  1. Direct and indirect impacts of infestation of tomato plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae.

    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect. The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition.

  2. Mitigating trans-boundary movement of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Mentha sp. by pre-shipping treaments of biopesticides

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of several important crops including vegetables, cereals, fruits, and ornamentals grown worldwide. One important mode of its dispersal is through the trans-boundary movement of infested plant materials. In order to prevent the sprea...

  3. Description of a new species, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Machilus odoratissima Nees (Lauraceae) in Western Himalaya, India.

    Dubey, Anil Kumar

    2017-12-10

    A new species of whitefly, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey sp. nov. found infesting Machilus odoratissima Nees (Lauraceae) is described from Kufri in Himachal Pradesh and Dhanaulti and Nainital in Uttarakhand, India. The diagnostic characteristics of puparia and habitus, are illustrated with line drawings and scanning electron microphotographs. Sexual dimorphism and variation in pigmentation during the transformation of instars are noted. An identification key to puparia of Setaleyrodes species so far described is presented.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  5. Identifikasi kutukebul (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae dari beberapa tanaman inang dan perkembangan populasinya

    Purnama Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae can cause direct and indirect damages on plants, especially vegetables. There is only limited information regarding taxonomy and population dynamic of whiteflies attacking vegetables in Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify species of whitefly collected from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean, and to study their population dynamic. The information gathered from these studies will be useful to support whitefly management in the field. Based on morphology identification of the puparium collected directly from the host plants, there were four species of whitefly identified from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi, i.e. Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and Dialeurodes sp. The presence of B. tabaci on chili pepper and tomato was associated with virus infection that causes yellowing and leaf curl disease. This population of B. tabaci tended to increase along with plant growth and generally reached the highest population when the plant was 60-70 days after planting.

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Commercial Watermelon Crops.

    Lima, Carlos H O; Sarmento, Renato A; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Pereira, Poliana S; Silva, Joedna; Souza, Danival J; Dos Santos, Gil R; Costa, Thiago L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-04-16

    Spatiotemporal dynamics studies of crop pests enable the determination of the colonization pattern and dispersion of these insects in the landscape. Geostatistics is an efficient tool for these studies: to determine the spatial distribution pattern of the pest in the crops and to make maps that represent this situation. Analysis of these maps across the development of plants can be used as a tool in precision agriculture programs. Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), is the second most consumed fruit in the world, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pests of this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of B. tabaci in commercial watermelon crops using geostatistics. For 2 yr, we monitored adult whitefly densities in eight watermelon crops in a tropical climate region. The location of the samples and other crops in the landscape was georeferenced. Experimental data were submitted to geostatistical analysis. The colonization of B. tabaci had two patterns. In the first, the colonization started at the outermost parts of the crop. In the second, the insects occupied the whole area of the crop since the beginning of cultivation. The maximum distance between sites of watermelon crops in which spatial dependence of B. tabaci densities was observed was 19.69 m. The adult B. tabaci densities in the eight watermelon fields were positively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity, whereas wind speed negatively affected whiteflies population.

  7. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. PMID:28973577

  8. Facultative symbiont Hamiltonella confers benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Su, Qi; Oliver, Kerry M; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; White, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

  9. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings

    Rosemarije Buitenhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2 This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa were determined; (3 Mineral oil (0.1% v/v and insecticidal soap (0.5% + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4 Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  11. Characterization of a Newly Discovered Symbiont of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum,” and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum.” The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum” and OLO. Based on these results, we propose “Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus” for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci. PMID:23144129

  12. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Taxonomic status of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and reassessment of the number of its constituent species.

    Wonhoon Lee

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1% than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on average, 6.5%. This result indicates that B. tabaci is composed of multiple species that may belong to different genera or subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 212 COI sequences without duplications revealed that the B. tabaci complex is composed of a total of 31 putative species, including a new species, JpL. However, genetic divergence within six species (Asia II 1, Asia II 7, Australia, Mediterranean, New World, and Sub Saharan Africa 1 was higher than 3.5%, which has been used as a threshold of species boundaries within the B. tabaci complex. These results suggest that it is necessary to increase the threshold for species boundaries up to 4% to distinguish the constituent species in the B. tabaci complex.

  14. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059 ± 0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088 ± 0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8 ± 3.96 to 76.3 ± 2.44 for males and 61.6 ± 5.35 to 71.2 ± 2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed.

  15. Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey.

    Karut, Kamil; Mete Karaca, M; Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction-random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Thermotolerance and Heat-Shock Protein Gene Expression Patterns in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean in Relation to Developmental Stage.

    Jiang, Rui; Qi, Lan-Da; Du, Yu-Zhou; Li, Yuan-Xi

    2017-10-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth, development, and geographic distribution of insects. There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in helping organisms adapt to thermal stress. To better understand the physiological and ecological influence of thermal stress on the different development stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean species (MED), nymphs and adults were shocked with temperatures of 35, 38, and 41℃ for 1 and 2 h, respectively, and the survival rate, fecundity, and developmental duration were investigated in the laboratory. The expression levels of the hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90 genes were assessed using real-time PCR. The results indicate that the survival rates of the nymphs and adults decreased with increased temperature. A 2-h heat shock at 41℃ induced a significant reduction in fecundity in adults and an increase in developmental duration in young nymphs. Hsp90 showed higher temperature responses to thermal stress than hsp40 or hsp70. The expression levels of the hsps in the adults were significantly down-regulated by a 2-h heat shock at 41℃ compared with that by a 1-h treatment. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the hsps also occurred in the adults when the temperature increased from 38 to 41℃ for the 2-h treatment, whereas no significant decrease occurred in the nymphs. Compared with previous studies, we provide some evidence indicating that MED has the potential to adapt to a wider temperature range than the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  18. Sublethal effects of some synthetic and botanical insecticides on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Esmaeily Saeideh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to direct mortality caused by insecticides, some biological traits of insects may also be affected by sublethal insecticide doses. In this study, we used the age-stage, two-sex life table method to evaluate the sublethal effects of the four synthetic insecticides: abamectin, imidacloprid, diazinon, and pymetrozin as well as the botanical insecticide taken from Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae extract, on eggs of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hem.: Aleyrodidae. The lowest and highest survival rates and oviposition periods were observed in whiteflies treated by diazinon and imidacloprid, respectively. We found significant differences in the net reproductive rate (R0, the intrinsic rate of increase (r, the finite rate of increase (?, and the gross reproductive rate (GRR among different insecticides. Altogether, our results showed that pymetrozin and C. procera induced the most sublethal effects, thus they may be suitable candidates for use in integrated pest management programs of B. tabaci.

  19. CASOS SELECTOS DE RESISTENCIA A INSECTICIDAS EN MOSCAS BLANCAS (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae EN EL MUNDO

    Macías-flores A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas (Hemíptera: Aleyrodidae son un problema a escala global. En México, llamó la atención como plaga agrícola en la década de los años 80´s y 90´s del siglo pasado por las pérdidas económicas que ocasionaron en los cultivos agrícolas, debido a los daños directos por la succión de savia y a los daños indirectos por la transmisión de enfermedades de origen viral. El hombre en su intento fallido por erradicarlas ha hecho uso desmedido de insecticidas químicos, quizás por su accesibilidad por costo bajo o por efectos de control inmediatos, por lo cual ha causado daño al medio ambiente y a la salud humana, con la consecuencia de desarrollo de resistencia. En un intento por disminuir los efectos de tales sustancias, muchas investigaciones alrededor del mundo se han conducido para encontrar productos insecticidas más efectivos con el menor impacto ambiental y a la salud humana, y que contribuyan a incrementar las herramientas de control disponibles en los sistemas de producción agrícola.

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Cryptic Species of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex in Pakistan.

    Masood, Mariyam; Amin, Imran; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Mansoor, Shahid; Brown, Judith K; Briddon, Rob W

    2017-12-05

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton. In the study outlined here, the diversity and geographic distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species was investigated by analyzing a taxonomically informative fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (mtCOI-3'). The mtCOI-3' sequence was determined for 285 adult whiteflies and found to represent six cryptic species, the most numerous being Asia II-1 and Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM-1), the later also referred to as the B-biotype, which was previously thought to be confined to Sindh province but herein, was also found to be present in the Punjab province. The endemic Asia I was restricted to Sindh province, while an individual in the Asia II-8 was identified in Pakistan for the first time. Also for the first time, samples were collected from northwestern Pakistan and Asia II-1 was identified. Results indicate that in Pakistan the overall diversity of B. tabaci cryptic species is high and, based on comparisons with findings from previous studies, the distribution is dynamic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterization of Antixenosis in Soybean Genotypes to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B.

    Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Morando, R; Silva, I F; Bentivenha, J P F; Tozin, L R S; Rodrigues, T M

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) is one of the most important soybean pest worldwide. Herein, 15 soybean genotypes were evaluated, to characterize the occurrence of antixenosis to B. tabaci biotype B. Initially, a multiple-choice test with all genotypes was carried out, evaluating the settling and oviposition preference at 3 d after infestation, and the colonization by nymphs after 48 d of infestation. Subsequently, a no-choice test, using 14 genotypes, was conducted with infested plants individually, and the number of eggs was counted after 72 h. Then, 10 genotypes were selected (indicative of resistance and susceptibility), which were evaluated for whitefly settling 24, 48, and 72 h after infestation and for oviposition 72 h after infestation. The trichomes of the leaflets were characterized for density, size, and inclination to establish possible correlations with the settling and oviposition in the genotypes. In the first multiple-choice test, involving 15 genotypes, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' and UX-2569-159 expressed antixenosis against B. tabaci. 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 exhibited the same behavior in the no-choice test. In the multiple-choice test, 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and 'TMG1176 RR' were the least attractive and least used for oviposition. The antixenosis shown by 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' and PI-229358 may be related to the characteristics of the trichomes (lower density and inclined). Based on the experiments carried out, 'IAC-17,' 'IAC-19,' 'Jackson,' 'P98Y11,' PI-229358, TMG1176 RR, and UX-2569-159 are considered promising for resistance to B. tabaci biotype B and may be exploited in soybean breeding programs for resistance to insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Six New Record Species of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Morus alba in China

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided. PMID:25368095

  3. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes

    Oriani, Maria A. de G.

    2008-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  4. Sensitivity of Bemisia Tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Several New Insecticides in China: Effects of Insecticide Type and Whitefly Species, Strain, and Stage

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC 50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC 50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. PMID:25434040

  5. Members of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species and the Status of Two Invasive Alien Species in the Yunnan Province (China)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xiao-Rong; Li, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex that includes some of the most significant pests of agriculture and horticulture worldwide. To understand the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in Yunnan, a famous biodiversity hotspot in China, a large-scale sampling was conducted from year 2010 to 2013 in 10 prefectures. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences were used to identify different cryptic species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian methods to assess the position of a new B. tabaci cryptic species in the context of the B. tabaci diversity in Asia. The survey indicates at least eight B. tabaci cryptic species are present in Yunnan, two invasive (MEAM1 and MED) and six indigenous (China 2, China3, China 4, Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 6), MEAM1, MED, and Asia I being the three predominant cryptic species in Yunnan. Compared with MEAM1, MED has a wider distribution. Based on molecular data, a new cryptic species, here named China 4, was identified that appears to be related to China 1, China 2, and China 3. Future efforts should focus on the interactions between predominant B. tabaci cryptic species and begomoviruses and on the development of effective control strategies. PMID:25502045

  6. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  7. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae on San Andrés island

    Takumasa Kondo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluted scale Crypticerya multicicatrices (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae is an invasive insect that became a major pest on the island of San Andrés. To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14–18, 2013. A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island. During the study, the fluted scale was found distributed throughout the island of San Andrés, including Haynes Cay and Johnny Cay. The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, 70.8% had some degree of infestation (37.5% high infestation levels; followed by fruit trees which had 65.6% with some degree of infestation (30.2% high infestation levels; followed by leguminous trees which had 59.6% with some degree of infestation (13.5% high infestation levels and finally “other hosts” which had 51.1% with some level of infestation (11.5% high infestation levels. This study is the first detailed mapping of C. multicicatrices on the island of San Andrés which will become the basis for future work on the population dynamics of the fluted scale and its distribution on the island.

  8. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae among Eggplant Varieties.

    Abu Tayeb Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB. The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL, JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ, DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ, QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ, and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values than to the bright green leaves (medium G value, but the short wavelength light (higher B value had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  9. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  11. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Assessing Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea and Buprofezin for Mitigation of Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): An Invasive Pest in the Florida Landscape.

    Kumar, Vivek; Francis, Antonio; Avery, Pasco B; McKenzie, Cindy L; Osborne, Lance S

    2018-05-28

    Rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a new invasive whitefly pest in the Florida landscape, known to feed on a wide range of plants including palms, woody ornamentals, shrubs, and fruits. With the objective to find an alternative to neonicotinoid insecticides, and develop an ecofriendly management program for RSW, in the current study we evaluated the efficacy of a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and an insect growth regulator buprofezin applied alone and in combination under laboratory and field conditions. Before assessing the two products, their compatibility was studied at six different concentrations of buprofezin. No significant inhibitive effect of buprofezin was observed on I. fumosorosea spore germination, and the average linear growth of the colony measured 14 d postinoculation. Under laboratory conditions, I. fumosorosea treatments (alone or mixed with buprofezin) provided higher RSW mortality than buprofezin alone. However, in both outdoor cage studies, the efficacy of buprofezin treatments (alone or mixed with I. fumosorosea) was higher than I. fumosorosea alone. A significant reduction in RSW population was reported for more than 5 wk in buprofezin alone and more than 7 wk in the combination treatments. In fall of 2014 and summer of 2015, the mean whitefly mortality observed during the 10-wk assessment period was 52.4 and 42.1% for I. fumosorosea, 79.6 and 79.0% for buprofezin, and 87.6 and 84.3% in mixed treatments, respectively. Results suggest that buprofezin can offer an effective alternate in the battle against invasive whiteflies such as RSW in Florida ecosystems, either as a stand-alone strategy or in an integrated approach.

  13. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  14. Efeito inseticida sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biótipo B em tomateiro

    Sheila Salles de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB. A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE. Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB, as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.

  15. Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.

    Prijović, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjaković, T; Zanić, K; Perić, P; Marčić, D; Puizina, J

    2014-06-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3

  16. First record of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae severely damaging field grown potato crops in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Nasruddin Andi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood was reported for the first time in the South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia, and is causing significant damage to field grown potato crops. In an insecticide trial, the tuber yield in infested, untreated plants was reduced by 39%, and the plants had an average number of 68 adult whiteflies per leaflet.

  17. Effects Of Irradiation On Mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting On Dragon Fruits

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thuy Khanh; Vo Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung; Tran Thien An; Nguyen Hoang Hanh Thi

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008 APHIS/USDA approved to import dragon fruit into the United States from Vietnam if fruits are treated with the minimum absorbed dose of 400 Gy to control fruit flies and mealybugs. However, a lower dose could be accepted if released data is enough to demonstrate that it is efficient to inhibit the development and stop the reproduction of adult females for three species of mealybugs (Order: Hemiptera; Family: Pseudococcidae) infesting on dragon fruit. Four development stages including 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd instars and adult of Dymicoccus neobrevipes by isolating and rearing in the laboratory conditions were irradiated in Co-60 source gamma with dosages of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. The main purposes of the study are to find the most tolerant stage and to determine the most optimal dose to control D. neobrevipes. The initial obtained results showed that the adult stage is the most radiotolerant and the dose of 200 Gy could be an effective dose to inhibit development and to control reproduction of D. neobrevipes. (author)

  18. High Level of Nitrogen Makes Tomato Plants Releasing Less Volatiles and Attracting More Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Islam, Md. Nazrul; Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production is seriously hampered by the infestation of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MEAM 1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1). The infestation behavior of the whiteflies could be affected by the quantity of plant released volatile organic compounds (VOCs) related to nitrogen concentrations of the plant. In this study, we determined the infestation behavior of B. tabaci to the tomato plants that produced different levels of VOCs after application of different levels of nitrogen with a wind tunnel and an olfactometer. We also analyzed the VOCs released from nitrogen-treated tomato plants using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the production of eight VOCs (β-pinene, (+)-4-carene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, β-phellandrene, α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene) was reduced after the plants were treated with high levels of nitrogen. However, more whiteflies were attracted to the tomato plants treated with high levels of nitrogen than to the plants treated with normal or below normal levels of nitrogen. These results clearly indicated that nitrogen can change the quality and quantity of tomato plant volatile chemicals, which play important roles in B. tabaci host plant selection. PMID:28408917

  19. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  20. A new whitefly genus and species, Himalayaleyrodes sarcococcae Dubey (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) infesting Christmas box (Buxaceae) in Western Himalaya, India.

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhir

    2017-05-24

    Puparia, immatures and adults of a new whitefly genus and species, Himalayaleyrodes sarcococcae Dubey are described from the Western Himalaya, India. The new species was found feeding on leaves as well as on green stems of Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muell. Biological information, habitus, line arts, photomicrographs of holotype and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images are given for this new taxon. Also, we discuss similarities and dissimilarities of puparia of the new genus with its closely related genus Bemisia Quaintance & Baker. Feeding behaviour is discussed.

  1. Effect of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi in Controlling Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Efecto de Dos Hongos Entomopatógenos en el Control de Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Elizabeth Núñez del Prado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Aleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846, the coconut whitefly, is a very damaging pest in Peru, mainly in avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.. It has been determined that entomopathogenic fungi can infect and kill white flies and can be used as biological control agents. The object of this research was to determine if there is any synergic action of the entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown & Smith 1957 and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman, 1892 Viégas 1939, in controlling A. cocois. Plastic sterile dishes were prepared where 5 mL 2% agar were used for each stage; leaves infested with A. cocois were placed upon these. Three different treatments were applied by sprinkling: P. fumosoroseus (P, V. lecanii (V or the mixture of the two fungi. These treatments were evaluated at one, two and seven days in the case of nymph I and eggs, and after four, eight and 12 days for nymph II, NIII and NIV. The lethal effect of V. lecanii on the second nymph instar of A. cocois was better than that of P. fumosoroseus and than the mixture of both fungi; the highest mortality percentage appeared from day eight to day 12. A small increase was observed in the effect of the mixture of the two entomopathogenic fungi on the IV nymph instar; and the effect of P. fumosoroseus was the lowestAleurodicus cocois (Curtis, 1846, la mosca blanca del cocotero, constituye una plaga muy importante en el Perú, principalmente en el palto (Persea americana Mill.. Se ha determinado que los hongos entomopatógenos pueden infectar y matar a la mosca blanca, por lo que podrían ser usados como agentes de control biológico. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si existe alguna acción conjunta de dos hongos entomopatógenos Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown & Smith 1957 y Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman, 1892 Viégas 1939, en el control de A. cocois. Para ello se prepararon previamente placas de plástico estériles en las que se sirvieron aproximadamente

  2. Indutores de resistência à mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci Biótipo B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em soja Resistance inducers to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (GENN., 1889 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in soybeans

    Jair Campos Moraes

    2009-10-01

    the plants, to the 'point of dripping', with a solution of 0.24% pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole, and T4- control. The plants were infested with 100 adult whiteflies that were released eight days after applying the treatments. The number of eggs on the abaxial face of each leaf, which was marked for further evaluation of nymphs, tannin and lignin contents, dry weight of the aerial parts and roots, was evaluated. There was no difference for the number of eggs and nymphs among the soybean cultivars. Nevertheless, the average survival rate of B. tabaci was lower on cultivar IAC-19. The application of silicon or acibenzolar-s-methyl induces an increase in lignin content in the soybean cultivar IAC-19.

  3. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  4. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  5. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields.

    Aigner, B L; Kuhar, T P; Herbert, D A; Brewster, C C; Hogue, J W; Aigner, J D

    2017-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: effect of bloom period of infestation.

    Brewer, Michael J; Anderson, Darwin J; Armstrong, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    Verde plant bugs, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), were released onto caged cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L., for a 1-wk period to characterize the effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton injury and yield in 2011 and 2012, Corpus Christi, TX. When plants were infested during early bloom (10-11 nodes above first white flower), a linear decline in fruit retention and boll load and a linear increase in boll injury were detected as verde plant bug infestation levels increased from an average of 0.5 to 4 bugs per plant. Lint and seed yield per plant showed a corresponding decline. Fruit retention, boll load, and yield were not affected on plants infested 1 wk later at peak bloom (8-9 nodes above first white flower), even though boll injury increased as infestation levels increased. Second-year testing verified boll injury but not yield loss, when infestations occurred at peak bloom. Incidence of cotton boll rot, known to be associated with verde plant bug feeding, was low to modest (verde plant bug were important contributors to yield decline, damage potential was greatest during the early bloom period of infestation, and a simple linear response best described the yield response-insect density relationship at early bloom. Confirmation that cotton after peak bloom was less prone to verde plant bug injury and an early bloom-specific economic injury level were key findings that can improve integrated pest management decision-making for dryland cotton, at least under low-rainfall growing conditions.

  7. A Microsatellite-Based Analysis of House Infestation With Triatoma Infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) After Insecticide Spraying in the Argentine Chaco.

    Piccinali, Romina V; Gaunt, Michael W; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2018-05-04

    Prevention of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease mainly relies on residual insecticide spraying. Despite significant success at a regional scale, house infestation with Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) still persists in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. One key aspect is the identification of the sources of reinfestant triatomines. After detecting fine-scale genetic structure in two rural villages of Pampa del Indio, Argentine Chaco, we tested hypotheses on the putative origins of the triatomines collected at 4, 8, and 12 mo after insecticide house spraying. We genotyped 10 microsatellite loci in 262 baseline and 83 postspraying triatomines from different houses. Genetic variability was similar between baseline and postspraying populations, but 13 low-frequency alleles were not detected at postspraying. FSTs were not significant between insects collected before and after insecticide spraying at the same house in all but one case, and they clustered together in a neighbor-joining tree. A clustering algorithm detected seven genetic groups, four of them mainly composed of baseline and postspraying insects from the same house. Assignment tests suggested multiple putative sources (including the house of collection) for most postspraying insects but excluded a house located more than 9 km from the study area. The origin of three triatomines was attributed to immigration from other unaccounted sources. Our study is compatible with the hypothesis that house reinfestations in the Argentine Chaco are mostly related to residual foci (i.e., survival of insects within the same community), in agreement with field observations, spatial analysis, and morphometric studies previously published.

  8. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Caracterización in silico de las proteínas del choque térmico Hsp70 y Hsp90 deBemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae y su posible actividad adaptativa

    Eneida Torres Cabra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La mosca blanca, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más destructivas e invasivas en el mundo, ataca una gran cantidad de cultivos. Se adapta fácilmente a plantas hospederas y a nuevas regiones geográficas, lo que sugiere el desarrollo de mecanismos de control a daños producidos por factores estresantes. Las proteínas Hsp se expresanen los organismos como mecanismo de defensa, actúan como chaperonas en el correcto ensamblaje de las proteínas. En este estudio se realizó una caracterizaciónin silico de las proteínas Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci, secuencias obtenidas de NCBI. La determinaciónde los perfiles de hidrofobicidad, polaridad, accesibilidady flexibilidad se obtuvieron con “ProScale” de ExPASy, el perfil de antigenicidad con JaMBW. La secuencia aminoacídica se analizó con GOR IV y SOPMA y la composición de aminoácidos con ProtParam. Para analizar el peso molecular, índice deinestabilidad, índice alifático y gradiente hidropático,con GRAVY. La estructura terciaria se obtuvo con HHpred, y ESyPred3D. Para validar las estructuras 3D se utilizó Procheck, What_check y errat. Hsp70 y Hsp90 de B. tabaci presentan valores bajos de hidrofobicidady altos de polaridad, flexibilidad y accesibilidad, características que le permiten a las proteínas extender su capacidad como chaperonas. La Hsp70tiene una estructura secundaria compuesta por 41-45% alfa hélices, 30-43% coil y menos del 6% en hoja plegada y la Hsp90 por 52 y 53% hélices, 26-34% coily 6% hoja plegada. Las Hsp juegan un rol importante en los insectos debido a su tamaño y corto ciclo de vida, pues la temperatura influye en su distribución y abundancia.

  10. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mosca-Branca, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em feijoeiro: Características gerais, bioecologia e métodos de controle

    Anderson Silva

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Common bean plants are infested by insects, which can ultimately affect the crop production before and after harvest, with estimated losses ranging from 33 to 86%. Among the insect pests infesting the common beans the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. stands out. This species cause direct injury by feeding on the plants and indirect injury by excreting sugary honeydew that is after colonized by the sooty mold. In addition, the most serious damage caused by B. tabaci is the transmission of virus diseases, especially the common bean golden mosaic, responsible for economic losses varying from 30 to 100%. This review aims at providing information on important aspects of B. tabaci including its geographical distribution, bioecology, population dynamics, host plants, and methods of pest control. We expect that this review can provide valuable subsidies for future studies on the whitefly in common beans.

  12. Triatoma mexicana (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Guanajuato, Mexico: house infestation and seasonal variation

    Paz María Salazar Schettino

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma mexicana was described by Herrich-Schaeffer in 1848. In 1940, a male specimen was found in Hidalgo. In 1970, this species was recorded in the state of Queretaro. Later, it was registered in Guanajuato and San Luis Potosi. In the present paper we performed an investigation in 545 dwellings from three counties in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, from March 2003 to May 2004. The search and capture of triatomines were seasonally performed indoors and outdoors. Entomological indexes were calculated. The risk and no risk relations between triatomine presence and housing construction materials were analyzed. Fourteen triatomines were collected indoors and 151 outdoors. The vectors were collected in houses built with either risky and non-risky materials. Adults go indoors but do not settle there, hence, no relationship was found between the building materials and infestation of houses. Conventional interventions like house improvement or insecticide spraying are not efficient for the control of T. mexicana, because its developmental cycle is accomplished outdoors in the area surrounding the houses.

  13. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Musuh Alami Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae pada Pertanaman Cabai Merah di Kecamatan Pakem, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Hendrival Hendrival

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci was conducted in the chili pepper fields in Sub-district of Pakem, District of Sleman, The Special Province of Yogyakarta during the dry season of May-October 2009. The aims of this research were to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoid and predator species associated with B. tabaci. Samplings of insect species were done using yellow pan trap, sweep net, direct observation of insects colonized young leaves, and collection of nymphs for B. tabaci. Measurement of insect diversity was calculated using Shannon’s index diversity and Evenness index. Nine species of insect predator were identified, i.e. Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius, Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius, Scymnus sp., Micraspis inops Mulsant, Coccinella sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Linyphiidae sp.1 (Araneae, and Syrphidae sp.1 (Diptera. Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae was the only parasitoid found in the nymphs B. tabaci collected and has the potential to control B. tabaci in the red pepper fields.

  14. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  15. Medición indirecta de la tasa de consumo de adultos e inmaduros de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre fríjol

    Luisa Fernanda Suarez Gonzalez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum, cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia-1. Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia-1, en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia-1, y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia-1. Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla.

  16. Evaluation of hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids for resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) using artificial infestation

    Michael E. Montgomery; S.E. Bentz; Richard T. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga) species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of the native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis (L.)...

  17. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M.; Prado, Angelo P. do

    2007-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  18. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  19. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F.; Salvadori, Jose R.; Schons, Jurema

    2008-01-01

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  20. Aspects of peridomiciliary ecotopes in rural areas of Northeastern Brazil associated to triatomine (Hemiptera, Reduviidae infestation, vectors of Chagas disease

    Otília Sarquis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial ecotopes of 121 peridomiciliary environments in four rural localities in the state of Ceará, Brazil, were studied and the type of material of the ecotopes was identified as triatomine infestation. Two thousand two hundred and four Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 340 Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 121 Rhodnius nasutus Stall, and 5 Panstrongylus lutzi (Neiva and Pinto were captured. Out of the 323 ecotopes found (X =2.0 ± 1.8 per dwelling such as pigpens, henhouses, corrals, perches, dovecotes, piles of roofing tiles, bricks, wood, and straw 30.3% were infested by triatomines in all different developmental stages, including eggs. A substantial number of triatomines were found in perches, however the largest infestation took place in roofing materials used in the construction of goat/sheep corrals, henhouses, and pigpens, where 98% of them were captured: 1372 triatomines were located in the roofing tile covers, 285 in the straw, 187 in the perches, 77 in the coverings of roofing tiles and straw, and 13 in the straw and wood. Among all the different pile of materials, roofing tiles were the most infested (50% followed by bricks (38.9% and woods (36.1%. T. brasiliensis colonized mainly brick piles (chi2=16.539; p < 0.05 and roofing tiles (chi2=5,090.58; p < 0.05; T. pseudomaculata preferred wood perches (chi2= 472.39; p < 0.05 and woodpiles (chi2=126.0 p < 0.05, and R. nasutus was principally found in roofing straw (chi2=384.43; p < 0.05. These findings suggest that triatomines tend to colonize peridomiciliary ecotopes similar to their original habitats.

  1. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  2. Domestic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) infestation in Northern Peru: a comparative trial of detection methods during a six-month follow-up.

    Cuba Cuba, César Augusto; Vargas, Franklin; Roldan, Judith; Ampuero, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Two passive methods in the assessment of intradomiciliary infestation by Rhodnius ecuadoriensis were tested: (i) the Gomes Nu ez sensor box (GN), (ii) sheets of white typing paper and (iii) one active timed manual method. The study was carried out in the Alto Chicama River Valley, Province of Gran Chim , Department of La Libertad. The study design consisted of an initial searching of triatomines inside of the domestic environment by the manual capture active procedure (man/hour) covering all the studied houses. Then, matched pairs of GN boxes and paper sheets were simultaneously installed in the bedrooms of 207 households distributed in 19 localities. A comparative prospective trial of these passive detection devices were monitored at 2, 4 and, finally 6 months follow-up. Parasitological Trypanosoma rangeli and/or T. cruzi infections were investigated in two houses with high level of infestation by R. ecuadoriensis. 16.9% of the 207 households investigated by an initial active manual method were infested with R. ecuadoriensis. The proportion of infested houses fluctuated from 6.2 to 55.5% amongst the 19 localities investigated. T. rangeli natural infection was detected in R. ecuadoriensis specimens collected in two households. Parasite rates in the bugs ranged from 16.6 to 21.7% respectively. The most striking fact was an average rate of salivary gland infection ranging from 7.4 to 8.3%. At the end of the sixth month period, a cumulative incidence of 31.4% of positive GN boxes against 15.9% for paper sheets was recorded. All three methods combined detected domestic infestation in 129 (62.3%) of the 207 houses studied in the 19 localities. The range of houses infested varies from 6.7% to 92.9%. In areas with low bug density infestation rates, the methodology experienced in our studies, seems to be the best choice for investigations on domestic R. ecuadoriensis populations.

  3. Damage of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat plants related to duration time and density of infestation; Danos de Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) no trigo em funcao da duracao e da densidade de infestacao

    Roza-Gomes, Margarida F. [Rua Pedro Roso, 42, Nonoai, RS, (Brazil)]. E-mail: margafrg@brturbo.com.br; Salvadori, Jose R. [Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: jrsalva@cnpt.embrapa.b; Schons, Jurema [Universidade de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria]. E-mail: schons@upf.br

    2008-09-15

    Aphids are considered relevant pests on wheat either by direct damage through sap sucking or by indirect damage vectoring BYDV (Barley yellow dwarf virus). Rhopalosiphum padi L. has been observed infesting wheat fields with an increasing frequency. The knowledge and the available technology, besides being more related to other aphids species already recognized as pests, they are insufficient to control the specific c problem of R. padi. Thus, this work evaluated the effects of feeding duration and infestation densities of R. padi on seedlings of wheat cv. EMBRAPA 16. rain yield, yield components and the extent of symptoms were recorded. The experiment was carried out in the fi eld under a completely randomized split-plot experimental design with four replications. The main plot was feeding duration (two and seven days) and the sub-plots were infestation densities (zero, two and 10 aphids per plant). Independent on feeding duration, 10 aphids per plant resulted in significant yield losses, reduction of number of heads and tillers per plant. Canopy dry matter was also reduced. Infestations of two and 10 aphids per plant resulted in continuous yellowing of wheat plants from tillering to the end of flowering stage. When aphids fed for seven days on wheat, more yellowing symptoms were observed at the flower stage in comparison with two days feeding. (author)

  4. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Robério de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.

  5. Functional Response of the Predators Alloeocranum biannulipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and Teretrius nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) Feeding on Dinoderus porcellus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Yam Chips.

    Loko, Y L; Djagoun, A D; Dannon, E A; Datinon, B; Dansi, A; Thomas-Odjo, A A; Tamo, M

    2017-02-01

    The functional response and some predation parameters of the predators Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret (Hemiptera: Reduviidea) and Teretrius nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae) were evaluated at five different densities of larvae and pupae of Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) with the aim to understand their roles in the biological control of this major pest of stored yam chips. Experiments were performed in petri dishes at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h in a controlled temperature room. Both predators showed Type II of functional response with respect to larvae, determined by a logistic regression model. However, T. nigrescens significantly killed more larvae of D. porcellus compared with A. biannulipes. This behavior, however, changed to a linear functional response (Type I), when pupae of D. porcellus were offered to both predators, possibly because of their immobility. In addition, there was no significant difference between T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes in terms of the killed pupae. Parameters of the Holling disc equation for both predators were estimated. Estimated handling time on larvae of D. porcellus for T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes was 0.254 and 0.677 h and the rate of searching efficiency was 0.289 and 0.348 h-1, respectively. Results indicated that T. nigrescens was a more suitable candidate for augmentative release for D. porcellus control than A. biannulipes. However, semifield studies are required to draw firm conclusions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. leech infestation

    GB

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... fish, amphibians, and mammals. Infestation occurs by drinking infested water from quiet streams, pools and springs. They attach to their hosts ... trauma, foreign body ingestion, throat pain, fever, dysphagia and drug intake. He has no malena, haematuria, epistaxis or ecchymotic spots on the body. He had ...

  7. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  8. Delusional infestation.

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter

    2009-10-01

    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  9. PCR-based gut content analysis to detect predation of Eriococcus ironsidei (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) by Coccinellidae species in macadamia nut orchards in Hawaii

    Macadamia felted coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) was first found infesting macadamia trees in the island of Hawaii in 2005. Macadamia felted coccid infests all above-ground parts of trees to feed and reproduce. Their feeding activity distorts and stunts new growth w...

  10. Comparison of fecundity and survival of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in northern and southern populations

    Artemis Roehrig; Joseph. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced species first reported in the eastern United States in 1951. The infestation has since spread in all directions from its initial sighting in Virginia, to its current range from northern Georgia, to southern Maine, and westward into Tennessee, causing...

  11. Molecular and morphological identification of the mealybug pest species, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Egypt

    During the summer and autumn of 2016, heavy infestations of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were observed on pumpkins, Cucurbita spp. (Cucurbitaceae). This was the first record of the species in Egypt. Several populations have been collected in various pumpkin fr...

  12. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  13. DNA barcode development for three recent exotic whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invaders in Florida

    Several new whitefly species have become established in Florida in the past decade. Three, in particular, have caused noticible damage to residential plants in the landscape such as ficus hedges, palms, and bird of paradise. These are fig whitefly (FW), rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), and Bondar’s ...

  14. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants

    Pena, Marcia R.; Silva, Neliton M. da

    2009-01-01

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)

  15. Quantifying conservation biological control for management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cotton

    Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. The most effective manner of applying CBC is through an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy, combining many tactics including cultural controls, pest sampling, the use of...

  16. Temperature stress effects in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) type B whiteflies

    Oxidative stress occurs in response to changes in the redox equilibiurm, which may be caused by increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in antioxidant protection or failure of cells to repair oxidative damage. ROS are either free radicals, reactive molecules containing oxygen atoms or...

  17. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  18. Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies.

    Bacci, Leandro; Crespo, André L B; Galvan, Tederson L; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Gerson A; Chediak, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  20. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  1. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  2. A severity rating system for evaluating stand-level balsam woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) damage in two Abies species in western North America

    Kathryn H. Hrinkevich; Robert A. Progar; David C. Shaw

    2016-01-01

    Severity rating systems are fundamental to understanding the impacts of disturbance agents in forest stands. The balsam woolly adelgid (BWA), Adelges piceae (Ratzeburg) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an invasive forest pest in North America that infests and causes mortality in true fir, Abies spp. There is currently no single...

  3. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Daniele Crotti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  4. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  5. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper; Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em pimentao

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade, Engenharia Rural e Solos]. E-mail: lclima@aluno.feis.unesp.br; campos@bio.feis.unesp.br

    2008-03-15

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  6. Efficiency of neem oil nanoformulations to Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biotype B (Hemiptera: AleyrodidaeEficiência de nanoformulações a base de óleo de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (GENN. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Sheila Salles Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology, through encapsulation of active ingredients, has showed an important way to avoid problems with quickly degradation of the pesticide molecules. Thus, neem (Azadirachta indica oil nanoformulations containing ?-ciclodextrin and poli-?-caprolactone (PCL were tested as to their control efficiency against eggs and nymphs of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B reared in soybean. The Lethal Concentration (LC50 was estimated using a commercial neem oil (Organic Neem® on first-instar nymphs to establish the adequate volume of the nanoformulations per treatment. After that, they were sprayed on eggs and first-instar nymphs in laboratory and greenhouse and on third-instar nymphs in greenhouse. The commercial neem oil and distilled water were used as controls. Egg viability was not affected by any treatment. Among six nanoformulations, only one was efficient against the first-instar nymphs in laboratory conditions. However, its effective period was not increased as expected. In greenhouse, first-instar nymphs were more affected by two nanoformulations which were significantly different of the commercial neem oil - the most effective one. No mortality differences among the formulations in the third-instar test were observed. The nanoformulations were less efficient to control the B. tabaci biotype B nymphs than the commercial neem oil. A nanotecnologia, através do encapsulamento de ingredientes ativos, tem-se revelado uma importante estratégia para evitar problemas com a rápida degradação de moléculas inseticidas. Assim, nanoformulações à base de óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica utilizando os polímeros ?-ciclodextrina e poli-?-caprolactona (PCL foram testadas quanto a sua eficiência de controle de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biótipo B mantidas em soja. Foi estimada a CL50 utilizando uma formulação comecial de óleo de nim (Organic Neem® sobre ninfas em 1º ínstar da qual se estipulou o volume das nanoformulações a serem utilizadas por tratamento. Depois disso, os tratamentos foram aplicados sobre ovos e ninfas de 1º ínstar em laboratório e em casa de vegetação e sobre ninfas de 3º ínstar em casa de vegetação. O óleo comercial e água destilada foram utilizados como controles. A viabilidade dos ovos não foi afetada por qualquer dos tratamentos. Das seis formulações testadas, somente uma delas mostrou-se eficiente para ninfas de 1º ínstar em condições de laboratório, embora não tenha apresentado aumento do período residual como esperado. Em casa de vegetação, ninfas de 1º ínstar foram mais afetadas por duas das formulações, que diferenciaram do óleo de nim que causou maior controle. No teste com ninfas de 3º ínstar, não houve diferenciação de mortalidade entre as formulações. As nanoformulações foram menos eficientes para controlar ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B do que o óleo de nim comercial.

  7. Controle químico de ovos e ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae Chemical control of Bemisia tabaci B biotype (Hemiptera: aleyrodidae eggs and nymphs

    Giuliana Etore do Valle

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas brancas são pragas de diversas culturas, causam redução na produção e na qualidade do produto. Inseticidas, com diferentes modos de ação vêm sendo utilizados, sem muito sucesso. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a eficiência de inseticidas sobre ovos de diferentes idades (1, 3 e 5 dias e de ninfas de 1° ínstar da mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e fotofase de 12 horas. Piriproxifem (75 mg L-1 atuou como excelente ovicida, sendo altamente eficiente, 3 dias de idade. Cartape (500 mg L-1 não teve efeito satisfatório, mas a 1000 mg L-1 foi eficiente em ovos com até 5 dias de idade. Quanto à ação sobre ninfas de 1° ínstar, para pulverizações na face superior das folhas, piriproxifem, a 75 mg L-1, apresentou eficiência na supressão da emergência de adultos, caracterizando presença de ação translaminar; buprofezim, cartape, acefato e fempiroximate não apresentaram eficiência no controle de ninfas. Quando aplicado na face inferior das folhas, buprofezim (375 mg L-1 apresentou eficiência comparável à de piriproxifem, impedindo a emergência de adultos.Whiteflies are pests of many crops, cause severe yield losses and reduce crop quality. Insecticides of different modes of action have been used without success. In this work, the efficiency of five insecticides on Bemisia tabaci B biotype (= B. argentifolii eggs and nymphs was evaluated under laboratory conditions (T = 25 ± 2°C; 12 h photophase. In relation to the ovicidal effect, pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1 caused egg hatching inhibition up to three day old eggs. Cartap showed efficiency only at the concentration of 1000 mg L-1, supressing the viability of eggs up to five days. Soybean leaves with first instar nymphs were treated in the upper surface with pyriproxyfen (75 mg L-1, buprofezin (375 mg L-1, cartap (1000 mg L-1, acephate (750 mg L-1 and fenpyroximate (100 mg L-1; in this condition, only pyriproxyfen suppressed adult emergence, indicating the presence of a translaminar effect. When leaves with nymphs were treated on both surfaces, buprofezin showed an efficiency similar to that of pyriproxyfen, also preventing adult emergence of the B. tabaci B biotype.

  8. Biology of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in three host plants; Biologia da mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), em tres plantas hospedeiras

    Pena, Marcia R.; Silva, Neliton M. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil).Lab. de Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: marciarpena@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: nmarques@ufam.edu.br; Venframim, Jose D.; Haddad, Marineia de L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Resistencia de Plantas e Plantas Inseticidas], e-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mlhaddad@esalq.usp.br; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br

    2009-03-15

    The citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, was detected in Brazil in 2001. The aim of this research was to evaluate the biology, biometry and host preference of A. woglumi in sweet orange, acid lime Tahiti and mango. Experiments were set in laboratory conditions with insects collected in rangpur lime plants in Manaus, State of Amazonas, from January to June of 2006. The following parameters were evaluated: number of spirals (ovo positions) and eggs per plant, number of eggs by spiral per plant, survival of the immature (eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars), and length and survival of the immature stage. The mean embrionary period was 15 days for the three hosts. The 4th nymph (puparium) was the longest during nymph development. Second and third instars had the highest survival. The mean length of the egg-adult cycle was 70 days for the three hosts evaluated. The eggs were laid in a spiral shape on the adaxial leaf surface. The 1st instars moved to short distances from the spiral, while the 2nd, 3rd and 4th are sessile and have bristles on the whole body. Based on the highest oviposition and the highest survival of the immature stage of the citrus blackfly in acid lime Tahiti, this plant can be considered the most suitable host to A. woglumi. (author)

  9. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  10. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  11. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae to Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam, Dinotefuran and Flupyradifurone in South Florida

    Hugh A. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC50s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiducial limits, indicating some degree of susceptibility. LC50s more than a 100-fold the laboratory colony were measured in at least one population for each material tested, indicating tolerance. LC50s (ppm from field populations ranged from 0.901–24.952 for imidacloprid, 0.965–24.430 for thiamethoxam, 0.043–3.350 for dinotefuran and 0.011–1.471 for flupyradifurone. Based on overlapping fiducial limits, there were no significant differences in relative mean potency estimates for flupyradifurone and dinotefuran in relation to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

  12. Is agriculture driving the diversification of the Bemisia tabaci species complex (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae)?: Dating, diversification and biogeographic evidence revealed.

    Boykin, Laura M; Bell, Charles D; Evans, Gregory; Small, Ian; De Barro, Paul J

    2013-10-18

    Humans and insect herbivores are competing for the same food crops and have been for thousands of years. Despite considerable advances in crop pest management, losses due to insects remain considerable. The global homogenisation of agriculture has supported the range expansion of numerous insect pests and has been driven in part by human-assisted dispersal supported through rapid global trade and low-cost air passenger transport. One of these pests, is the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, a cryptic species complex that contains some of the world's most damaging pests of agriculture. The complex shows considerable genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic relationships. One consequence of the considerable impact that members of the B. tabaci complex have on agriculture, is the view that human activity, particularly in relation to agricultural practices, such as use of insecticides, has driven the diversification found within the species complex. This has been particularly so in the case of two members of the complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED), which have become globally distributed invasive species. An alternative hypothesis is that diversification is due to paleogeographic and paleoclimatological changes. The idea that human activity is driving speciation within the B. tabaci complex has never been tested, but the increased interest in fossil whiteflies and the growth in molecular data have enabled us to apply a relaxed molecular clock and so estimate divergence dates for the major lineages within the B. tabaci species complex. The divergence estimates do not support the view that human activity has been a major driver of diversification. Our analysis suggests that the major lineages within the complex arose approximately 60-30 mya and the highly invasive MED and MEAM1 split from the rest of the species complex around 12 mya well before the evolution of Homo sapiens and agriculture. Furthermore, the divergence dates coincide with a period of global diversification that occurred broadly across the plant and animal kingdoms and was most likely associated with major climatic and tectonic events.

  13. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  14. Estudio de la resistencia a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en germoplasma cultivado y silvestre de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Yeimy García Valencia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, en condiciones de campo y casa de malla, se evaluaron por preferencia para oviposición y número de ninfas de mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius varias accesiones silvestres y poblaciones segregantes de tomate resistentes al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, donde se evaluaron como variables el número de huevos y de ninfas del insecto por hoja. En cada observación se incluyeron tres hojas del tercio superior, medio e inferior del tallo de la planta. Las poblaciones de mosca blanca fueron muy bajas en los dos primeros ciclos de cultivo (en campo debido, probablemente, a las altas precipitaciones. Estas condiciones no permitieron una selección de materiales resistentes o susceptibles a este insecto. En el tercer ciclo de cultivo, bajo condiciones de casa de malla, no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los retrocruzamientos respecto al testigo susceptible para la variable preferencia por oviposición. El genotipo 4212P4 presentó el menor número de ninfas, mostrando que tiene posiblemente un mecanismo que le confiere menor atracción para B. tabaci. Se encontró que los genotipos menos preferidos para oviposición y con menor número de ninfas fueron PI 134417, PI 134418 y PI 126449 (Solanum habrochaites var. Glabratum S. Knapp y D. M Spooneer.

  15. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from India, with key to species and discussion of tuberculate setae.

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Singh, Sudhir; Martin, Jon H

    2014-11-03

    The genus Acanthaleyrodes Takahashi is reported for the first time from India. Acanthaleyrodes elevatus sp. n. is described from Bridelia retusa in Kerala, India, with a key to puparia of Acanthaleydes species. The new species differs in its exceptionally elevated eighth abdominal tergite, circular vasiform orifice and eight pairs of subdorsal setae. The generic characteristics of Acanthaleyrodes are redefined and distinguished from those of Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi. A. styraci Takahashi is re-described in detail with illustrations of puparia and immatures from Hong Kong. A lectotype puparium is designated for A. callicarpae Takahashi. The development of tuberculate setae is discussed, in whitefly puparia and earlier nymphal instars, and considered to be subject to environmental modification.

  16. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Susceptibility of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone in south Florida

    Populations of Bemisa tabaci Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM 1) were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides...

  18. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C.; Lourencao, Andre L.; Piedade, Sonia M.S.

    2008-01-01

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  19. Effects of Three Insect Growth Regulators on Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), an Endoparasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Wang, Q L; Liu, T-X

    2016-12-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) disrupt the normal activity of the endocrine or hormone system of insects, affecting the development, reproduction, or metamorphosis of the target insects, and normally causing less detrimental effects to beneficial insects. The effects of three IGRs (pyriproxyfen, fenoxycarb, and buprofezin) on Encarsia formosa Gahan, an endoparasitoid of whiteflies, were determined using B. tabaci as a host. We assessed the effects of the IGRs on parasitoid's larval development, pupation, emergence, and contact effects of the dry residues on plant leaf and glass vial surface on adult mortality and parasitism. When the three IGRs were applied at larval stage, no or few larvae pupated in the pyriproxyfen treatments and the highest concentration of fenoxycarb, and a majority of larvae pupated in the buprofezin treatments; of those pupated, 62.3-88.1% became adults. When the IGRs were applied at the pupal stage, 2.3-17.5% developed to adults in the pyriproxyfen treatments, 59.7-89.0% in the fenoxycarb treatments, and 58.4-83.6% in the buprofezin treatments. The leaf residues of the IGRs had no appreciable effects on adults, whereas the residues on glass vial caused significantly lower adult survival than on plant leaves. The residues of pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb slightly reduced parasitism as compared with buprofezin and controls. However, the rates of parasitoids that became adults were significantly lower, especially in the pyriproxyfen treatments. According to the standards of International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC), pyriproxyfen was harmful, while fenoxycarb and buprofezin were slightly or moderately harmful to larvae and harmless to E. formosa pupae. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  1. Life-history parameters of Encarsia formosa, Eretmocerus eremicus and E. Mundus, aphelinid parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Drost, Y.C.; Posthuma-Doodeman, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Life-history parameters (juvenile development time, adult longevity, host instar preference and rate of parasitism) offour parasitoids of Bemisia argentifolii (two strains of Encarsia formosa (D and B), Eretmocerus eremicus and Eretmocerus mundus) Were Studied in the laboratory. At 15degreesC

  2. Plan de muestreo directo para Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en cultivos comerciales de tomate

    Bernal Liliana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Los daños ocasionados por Trialeurodes vaporariorum generan pérdidas económicas que disminuyen la producción y pueden contribuir en el alza de los precios del tomate. Para su control se acude a aplicaciones continuas de insecticidas, sin obtener resultados satisfactorios. Como alternativa de control se realizan liberaciones del parasitoide E. formosa. Sin embargo, el éxito de este sistema implica estimar la densidad de la plaga a través de un método de muestreo adecuado. Por ello, se estandarizó un plan de muestreo directo, económicamente viable, para ninfas de mosca blanca en un cultivo comercial de tomate bajo invernadero. Se determinó la incidencia de prácticas de manejo y de la fenología en la distribución espacial de ninfas. En términos generales, el muestreo se dividió en tres etapas: 1 muestreo totalmente aleatorio, entre las 5 y 7 semanas después de la siembra (sds, para plantas no divididas en tercios; 2 muestreo aleatorio, entre las 8 y 16 sds, los conteos se realizaron en hojas del tercio inferior; 3 muestreo bietápico: planta y hoja, entre las 17 y 24 sds, los conteos se efectuaron sobre hojas de los tercios medio y superior. Se encontró que prácticas culturales como el despunte influyeron en la distribución espacial de las ninfas. La implementación del muestreo directo generó un incremento en la producción del 0,06% y permitió estimar la densidad de ninfas de Trialeurodes vaporariorum en el cultivo (con precisiones de 5%, 10% y 25% como criterio para liberar E. formosa.

  3. Status of Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Neonicotinoids in Iran and Detoxification by Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenases.

    Basij, M; Talebi, K; Ghadamyari, M; Hosseininaveh, V; Salami, S A

    2017-02-01

    Nine Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations were collected from different regions of Iran. In all nine populations, only one biotype (B biotype) was detected. Susceptibilities of these populations to imidacloprid and acetamiprid were assayed. The lethal concentration 50 values (LC 50 ) for different populations showed a significant discrepancy in the susceptibility of B. tabaci to imidacloprid (3.76 to 772.06 mg l -1 ) and acetamiprid (4.96 to 865 mg l -1 ). The resistance ratio of the populations ranged from 9.72 to 205.20 for imidacloprid and 6.38 to 174.57 for acetamiprid. The synergistic effects of piperonylbutoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) were evaluated for the susceptible (RF) and resistant (JR) populations for the determination of the involvement of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase and carboxylesterase, respectively, in their resistance mechanisms. The results showed that PBO overcame the resistance of the JR population to both imidacloprid and acetamiprid, with synergistic ratios of 72.7 and 106.9, respectively. Carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase were studied biochemically, for the purpose of measuring the activity of the metabolizing enzymes in order to determine which enzymes are directly involved in neonicotinoid resistance. There was an increase in the activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase up to 17-fold in the resistant JR population (RR = 205.20). The most plausible activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase correlated with the resistances of imidacloprid and acetamiprid, and this suggests that cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase is the only enzyme system responsible for neonicotinoid resistance in the nine populations of B. tabaci.

  4. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Zezhong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar transporters (STs play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  5. First report and differential colonization of Passiflora species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil

    Nunes, Endson S.; Vieira, Maria L.C. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica]. E-mail: esnunes@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; mlcvieir@esalq.usp.br; Brown, Judith K. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Plant Sciences]. E-mail: jbrown@Ag.arizona.edu; Moreira, Adriana G.; Rezende, Jorge A.M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mails: agmoreir@esalq.usp.br; amrezen@esalq.usp.br; Watson, Gillian [California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA (United States)]. E-mail: gwatson@cdfa.ca.gov; Lourencao, Andre L. [Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: andre@iac.sp.gov.br; Piedade, Sonia M.S. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: jsoniamsp@esalq.usp.br

    2008-11-15

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci. (author)

  6. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  7. Ocular leech infestation

    Lee YC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  8. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  9. Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North West Argentina

    Augier, Lucrecia; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Lizondo, Marcelo; Argañaraz, Manuel; Willink, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is expanded to North West Argentina.

  10. Influence of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestation Levels on Water Stress in Eastern Hemlocks within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A.

    Carla Coots

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L. Carrière, resulting from infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae, has occurred throughout the eastern United States. Although imidacloprid treatment can reduce tree mortality, its effectiveness can be influenced by several factors including tree water stress. The relationship between water stress and infestation rates is unknown, and an understanding of these could greatly increase the efficiency of management for this invasive insect. The primary objective of this study was to assess water stress at three levels of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. Water stress was measured monthly for 13 months in eastern hemlocks classified as <25%, 25%–75%, and >75% infested. The highest level of water stress was found in those trees with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels greater than 75%. The lowest level of water stress was found in those trees with less than 25% hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels. Knowledge of these effects can contribute to development of more effective chemical management strategies.

  11. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.Primeiro registro e redescrição morfológica de Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae em Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae no Brazil. Este é o primeiro registro de um ataque severo de Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae em árvores de Annona squamosa L. (pinheira ou fruta-do-conde, resultando em perdas de aproximadamente 80% das plantas infestadas. Com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação deste inseto-praga, foi feita a redescrição da fêmea adulta de T. morio com base em espécimes coletados em Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brasil.

  12. Role of syrphid larvae and other predators in suppressing aphid infestations in organic lettuce on California's Central Coast.

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E; Bensen, Tiffany A

    2008-10-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., growers on the Central Coast of California rely on conservation biological control to manage Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and other aphid pests of lettuce. In 2006, we carried out five replicated field trials to determine the importance of syrphid larvae in the suppression of N. ribisnigri and other aphids infesting organic romaine lettuce. We used Entrust, a spinosad-based insecticide approved for use on organic farms, to suppress syrphid larvae in aphid-infested romaine. Romaine treated with Entrust was unmarketable at harvest because of aphid infestation, whereas insecticide-free romaine was marketable. Syrphid larvae composed 85% or more of total predators in most trials, and they were the only predators consistently recovered from romaine that was infested with aphids early and largely aphid-free by harvest. The species mix of nonsyrphid predators varied from site to site. Applications of Entrust suppressed nonsyrphid predators in two trials, and so was an imperfect tool for selectively suppressing syrphid larvae. The relative importance of syrphid larvae and other predators in the conservation biological control of aphids in organic romaine is discussed. We conclude that syrphid larvae are primarily responsible for the suppression of aphids in organic romaine on California's Central Coast.

  13. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  14. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  15. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  16. Influence of simultaneous infestations of Prostephanus truncatus ...

    The specific objective was to determine the number of the insect pests at F1 and F2 and the grain weight losses caused by the simultaneous pests\\' infestations of shelled maize in the search for a control strategy. The results showed a change in adult insect numbers from F1 to F2. During single infestation the change in P.

  17. Comparision of the Efficiency of the Current Oils and Insecticide Compounds in Control of Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on Rose and their Interaction

    Asghar Hosseininia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rose plant (R osa hybrid is cultivated in nearly all regions of Iran and they are more common in the western areas of Iran. The intensive cultivation of rose often leads to injuries by pathogens or noxious animals and may require the implementation of pest control measures. Among the insect pests of roses, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, is fairly common pest that it is considered as major pests on roses in Iran. This pest infests the undersides of rose leaves, where the feeding adults and nymphs produce honeydew on which sooty mould grows. Considering the importance of oils in the integrated management program of this pest, in the present survey the possibility of whitefly control on rose plant were carried out to assess mortality rate (MR, synergistic rate (SR and Lc50 of the oils and common insecticide. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located at the experimental site of National Ornamental Plant Institute, Mahallt, Iran. The plants (Rosa hybrid Apollo were cut to stimulate rooting and then grown in plot containing a mixture of sand and sheep manure. Nine rose plant cuttings were planted in each plot with 1m2 space and 0.5 m distance each plot. So, each treatment had 9 shrubs of rose. The greenhouse whitefly T. vaporariorum were collected from infested rose plants and reared on rose. Each rose plant with one-year old was infested via 200 different stages of the whitefly. Fourteen days after infesting, compounds were sprayed on the infested plants with electrostatic atomizer backpack sprayer. Before spraying, plots were separated by plastic. Whitefly different stages from behind of three leaflets that separated from 15, 20 and 25 cm tip of plant were counted under a stereomicroscope (10 X one day before and seven days after treatment. The effect of oils and common insecticide on whitefly mortality rate (MR was performed in completely randomized

  18. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey

    Satar, S.; Satar, G.; Karacaoglu, M.; Uygun, N.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, CH. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, article no. 178 (2014) ISSN 1536-2442 Grant - others:Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council(TR) 105-0-581 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : citrus * aphid * Aphidiinae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.025, year: 2014 http://jinsectscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/jis/14/1/178.full.pdf

  19. Infestation of Palm Trees by Triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    Resumo. As palmeiras desempenham papéis importantes como habitats de reprodução e alimentação para triatomíneos silvestres, vetores da doença de Chagas. A ocorrência de triatomíneos em palmeiras peridomiciliares pode aumentar o risco de invasão desses insetos em domicílios e deve ser considerada para desenvolver estratégias de prevenção. Com objetivo de investigar a infestação de palmeiras por triatomíneos no Estado da Bahia e determinar a infecção natural desses insetos por Trypanosoma spp., foram amostradas 183 palmeiras em 12 municípios entre 2006 e 2011 utilizando captura manual e/ou armadilhas adesivas iscadas com camundongos. Os triatomíneos foram detectados em 79 palmeiras (43% das espécies Copernicia prunifera (Mart. Becc., Mauritia flexuosa L. e Attalea spp. (Attalea burretiana Bondar ou Attalea salvadorensis Glassman. Em outras espécies de palmeiras (Syagrus coronata (Mill H.E. Moore, Attalea funifera Mart ex. Spreng e Elaeis guineensis Jacq não foram detectados triatomíneos. Rhodnius neglectus Lent, Triatoma sordida (Stål, e Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola ocorreram em C. prunifera ao longo do rio São Francisco. No extremo oeste da Bahia, R. neglectus e Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg foram detectados em M. flexuosa, enquanto Triatoma tibiamaculata (Pinto ocorreu em Attalea sp. em áreas urbanas de Salvador. No total, 180 triatomíneos foram capturados, principalmente R. neglectus. A maior taxa de infecção natural (61% foi observada em T. tibiamaculata. Os resultados indicam que pelo menos três espécies de palmeiras são habitats favoráveis para triatomíneos no estado da Bahia e ocorrem no ambiente peridomiciliar, o que pode aumentar a probabilidade de invasão de triatomíneos nas casas.

  20. Bionomy of the laurel scale Aonidia lauri (Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae in Podgorica, Montenegro

    Graora Draga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aonidia lauri (Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae is a serious pest of laurel (Laurus nobilis L. in urban parts of the City of Podgorica (Montenegro. Severe infestation causes chlorotic spots and necrotic rings around feeding spots, drying and dieback of leaves and buds. In addition, plants become physiologically weak and lose in aesthetic quality, while continuous infestation in urban areas often leads to partial or complete drying of plants. This study of the biology of A. lauri on L. nobilis was carried out at three locations in Podgorica ('Stara Varoš', 'Centar' and 'Preko Morače', Montenegro, in 2010 and 2011. A. lauri developed three generations annually and overwintered on laurel leaves and branches as the second-instar nymph-larval stage. An extended period of larval development ensures a continuous presence of all development stages on plants, which leads to overlapping of generations. Sporadic predatory ladybirds, Chilocorus bipustulatus (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, whose larvae and adults feed on scales, were detected inside A. lauri colonies.

  1. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Seri Masran, Siti Nor Ain; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz

    2018-05-04

    Due to the growing public health and tourism awareness, Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has gained a great interest in increasing reported infestation cases in tropical regions of the world, including Malaysia. Since the information on the molecular ecology and population biology of this species are tremendously lacking, the isolation and development of molecular markers can be used to determine its genetic structure. In this study, novel microsatellite primers isolated from enriched genomic libraries of C. hemipterus were developed using 454 Roche shotgun sequencing. Seven validated polymorphic microsatellite primers were consistently amplified and characterized from 70 tropical bed bugs collected from seven locations throughout Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus identified ranged from 6 to 14. Comparison of loci for overall and between population were done with mean observed and expected heterozygosity were determined at 0.320 and 0.814, 0.320 and 0.727, respectively. Polymorphic information criteria (PIC) valued the markers as highly informative as PIC >0.5. Overall population, they are possibly in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with loci Ch_09ttn, Ch_01dn, and Ch_13dn showing signs of a null allele. There were no scoring errors caused by stutter peaks, no large allele dropout was detected for all loci and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, all seven molecular microsatellite markers identified can be beneficially used to gain more information on the population genetic structure and breeding patterns of C. hemipterus as well as the relationship of dispersal and infestation.

  3. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  4. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  5. ECTOPARASITES INFESTING LIVESTOCK IN THREE LOCAL ...

    Administrator

    they may also transmit pathogens, thereby acting as vectors of diseases (Parola et al., ... transmit pathogens that causes some human diseases such as lyme diseases ... annulatus (14.6%), Hyloma trucatus (4.7%) infesting dogs in. Wurukum ...

  6. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  7. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  8. A review of the genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) with description of five new species from Brunei, Hong Kong and Malaysia.

    Dubey, Anil Kumar; Martin, Jon H

    2018-03-28

    The whitefly genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi is reviewed using types and determined specimens. The generic diagnosis is redefined together with description of five new species: T. bruneiensis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Brunei, T. crypta Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Hong Kong, and T. ordo Dubey Martin sp. nov., T. aequalis Dubey Martin sp. nov. and T. variabilis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Malaysia. New species descriptions are accompanied with camera lucida drawings and microphotographs of holotype and paratypes. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is elevated from its status as a variety of T. machili Takahashi to species level. Lectotypes are selected for T. actinodaphnis Takahashi Stat. nov. and T. bobuae Takahashi. Tuberaleyrodes actinodaphnis Takahashi is a new record to Taiwan. A new combination, Tuberaleyrodes glutae (Corbett) Comb. nov. is proposed for Dialeurodes glutae Corbett. Two species, T. glutae (Corbett) and Tuberaleyrodes spiniferosa (Corbett) are re-described, and placement of T. spiniferosa in the genus Tuberaleyrodes is confirmed. The genus Tuberaleyrodes is newly recorded from Borneo and Sulawesi. An identification key to puparia of Tuberaleyrodes species so far described is provided along with the countries of present records. Four plants families viz., Annonaceae, Fabaceae, Myristicaceae and Pentaphylacaeae are recorded as new hosts for Tuberaleyrodes species. New host plant records are indicated.

  9. Biochemical evaluation of interactions between synergistic molecules and phase I enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in B- and Q-type Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Panini, Michela; Tozzi, Francesco; Zimmer, Christoph T; Bass, Chris; Field, Linda; Borzatta, Valerio; Mazzoni, Emanuele; Moores, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic resistance is an important consideration in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, where an esterase-based mechanism has been attributed to pyrethroid resistance and over-expression of the cytochrome P450, CYP6CM1, has been correlated to resistance to imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids. In vitro interactions between putative synergists and CYP6CM1, B and Q-type esterases were investigated, and structure-activity relationship analyses allowed the identification of chemical structures capable of acting as inhibitors of esterase and oxidase activities. Specifically, methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) moieties with a polyether chain were preferable for optimum inhibition of B-type esterase, whilst corresponding dihydrobenzofuran structures were potent for the Q-esterase variation. Potent inhibition of CYP6CM1 resulted from structures which contained an alkynyl chain with a terminal methyl group. Synergist candidates could be considered for field control of B. tabaci, especially to abrogate neonicotinoid resistance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci cryptic species MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Lövei, Gabor L; Hu, Man

    2014-01-01

    . RESULTS: Resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had mostly negative effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics. Red-eyed nymph and immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased when resource was preoccupied by conspecifics, irrespective of the previous occupation scenario...

  11. Asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci cryptic species MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Zhang, Gui-Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Hu, Man; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    The two common whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. The effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined. Resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had mostly negative effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics. Red-eyed nymph and immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased when resource was preoccupied by conspecifics, irrespective of the previous occupation scenario. However, resource preoccupied by T. vaporariorum had only minor detrimental effects on the performance of later-arriving B. tabaci MEAM1. In the opposite colonisation sequence, previous occupation by B. tabaci MEAM1 had no significant effects on the life history parameters of later-arriving conspecifics, but severe detrimental effects were observed on the performance of later-arriving T. vaporariorum. Total immature survival of T. vaporariorum decreased in both weak and strong previous occupation situations by B. tabaci MEAM1. The interspecific interactions between B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum were asymmetric, with B. tabaci MEAM1 being the superior competitor. This superiority could partially explain the rapid spread of B. tabaci MEAM1 in China. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A study of the super-abundant Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava Mosaic disease pandemic areas in Tanzania

    Tajebe, Lensa Sefera

    (Manihot esculenta Crantz) – one of the most important food security crops in sub-Saharan Africa. After the outbreak and spread of a severe form of CMD from Uganda to several East and African countries, the production of cassava has been impaired causing severe yield loss resulting in food shortages....../Hamiltonella/Wolbachia with Arsenophonus or Cardinium. Similarly, double and multiple infections were also common in the IO and EA1 putative species where EA1 individuals commonly harboured Cardinium/Wolbachia with several additional combinations of Rickettsia, Hamiltonella or Arsenophonus. The secondary endosymbiont Fritschea was never...... in the area in general and in understanding this super-abundant pandemicassociated population in particular. Specific studies to assess the presence of other secondary endosymbionts, antibiotic treatments to eliminate certain endosymbionts or to artificially introduce endosymbionts are paramount to fully...

  13. Bemisia tabaci MED (Q biotype) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)is on the move in Florida to residential landscapes and may impact open field agriculture

    Bemisia tabaci MED (Mediterranean) have been in the United States for approximately a dozen years spreading to 26 states since it was first detected in Arizona at a retail outlet on poinsettia in 2004. Indistinguishable morphologically from silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Middle Eastern A...

  14. EFICIÊNCIA DO CONTROLE QUÍMICO SOBRE A MOSCA BRANCA Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE EM MELOEIRO

    Antônio Lindemberg Martins Mesquita

    2007-01-01

    efficient to control eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly, while the insect growth regulators buprofezin and pyriproxyfen did not control eggs and adults, but they controled nymphs, being pyriproxyfen more efficient than buprofezin.

  15. Assessing compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea and buprofezin for mitigation of Aleurodicus rugioperculatus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) - an invasive pest in the Florida landscape

    A significant reduction in Rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW) population was reported for more than 5 weeks in buprofezin alone and more than 7 weeks in the combination treatments. In fall 2014 and summer 2015, the mean whitefly mortality observed during the 10 week assessment period were 52.4 and 42....

  16. Efficacy of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea and an insect growth regulator against the rugose spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin, infamous as gumbo limbo or rugose spiraling whitefly is a new addition in the list of devastating whitefly species found in Florida. It is a newly introduced pest of Central American origin, reported first time in Florida from Miami-Dade County in 2009. Since then...

  17. Primer registro de “la mosca negra de los cítricos” Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en la Argentina

    Silvia N. LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby es una especie polífaga que ataca principalmente cultivos de Citrus spp. El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer la primera detección de A. woglumi en Argentina. Los especímenes estudiados fueron recolectados en cultivos de pomelo en Tres Lagunas, departamento de Pilagá, Formosa, en febrero de 2011.

  18. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  19. Comparative efficacy of some insecticides against cotton whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions

    Nadeem, M.K.; Hasnain, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ashfaq, M.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of five commonly used insecticides viz., acetamiprid, buprofezin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and endosulfan against nymph and adult population of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) under natural field conditions has been studied. Results showed that buprofezin was the most effective insecticide against nymph population of whitefly among the tested insecticides where nymphal population of B. tabaci was 0.2/leaf after 24h spray as compared to 1.9/leaf in control. Acetamiprid was the most effective against adult population of whitefly (0.3 to 1.3/leaf post 72 h spray, as compared to control with 6.9 to 8.2/leaf) followed by diafenthiuron and imidaclopirid. whereas, endosulfan was found to be the least effective on both populations as adult and nymph of whitefly. From the tested insecticides, acetamaprid gave effective control of both nymph and adult population of B. tabaci. (author)

  20. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  1. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  2. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza ...

    Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. IA Rodriguez, E Rasoazanabary, LR Godfrey. Abstract. The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as ...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi; Yan, Fengming; Wang, Jianyun; Song, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Here, we reconstructed the Hemiptera phylogeny based on the expanded mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, separately. The differential rates of change across lineages may associate with long-branch attraction (LBA) effect and result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny from different types of data. To reduce the potential effects of systematic biases on inferences of topology, various data coding schemes, site removal method, and different algorithms were utilized in phylogenetic reconstruction. We show that the outgroups Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, and the ingroup Sternorrhyncha share similar base composition, and exhibit "long branches" relative to other hemipterans. Thus, the long-branch attraction between these groups is suspected to cause the failure of recovering Hemiptera under the homogeneous model. In contrast, a monophyletic Hemiptera is supported when heterogeneous model is utilized in the analysis. Although higher level phylogenetic relationships within Hemiptera remain to be answered, consensus between analyses is beginning to converge on a stable phylogeny.

  4. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  5. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  6. Does feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) reduce soybean seed quality and yield?

    Owens, D R; Herbert, D A; Dively, G P; Reisig, D D; Kuhar, T P

    2013-06-01

    The nonnative brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has become an abundant pest of mid-Atlantic soybean since its introduction in the mid-1990s. Currently, there is little information indicating how this new pest should be managed in soybean or if economic thresholds developed for native stink bugs should be adjusted. In 2010 and 2011, field cage studies were conducted in Beltsville, MD, and Suffolk, VA, to evaluate H. halys injury to three different soybean reproductive development stages. Cages were infested for 2 wk using densities of zero, one, two, four, or eight stink bugs (fifth instars and adults) per 0.3 row-m. Cage plots were harvested, and subsamples were taken to determine pod losses and seed quality. Feeding injury to soybean caused by H. halys was similar to that of native stink bugs, as evidenced by seed destruction, punctures, and destroyed pods. Densities of four stink bugs per 0.3 row-m resulted in significant seed damage in three of four experiments. The full flowering (R2) soybean development stage was least affected by H. halys feeding. The full pod (R4) and the full seed (R6) stage were similarly sensitive to injury. There was no significant yield loss was associated with stink bug densities at either location, although there were significant differences among stages in two of four experiments. The data do not indicate that threshold densities for H. halys should be different than for the native stink bugs.

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars< adults, in which the adult is the most tolerant stage. Based on obtained results after 21 days of irradiation, predicted doses for 100% mortality of each different development stage in the above mentioned pattern were 224.6, 241.3, 330.9 and 581.5 Gy, respectively. No survived female adult produced offspring at 200 and 250 Gy. Dose range between 200 and 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of this mealybug. - Highlights: → Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. → Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. → Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars< adults. → Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  10. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  11. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) habitat and population densities.

    Al-Kindi, Khalifa M; Kwan, Paul; R Andrew, Nigel; Welch, Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus . An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  13. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae habitat and population densities

    Khalifa M. Al-Kindi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  14. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  15. Nuevos registros de especies del género Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoides de Trialeurodes vaporariorum y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina New records of species of the genus Eretmocerus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, parasitoids of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Argentina

    Silvia N. López

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer nuevos registros y distribuciones de las especies del género Eretmocerus Haldeman, parasitoides de las dos especies de mosca blanca que tienen mayor importancia económica en cultivos hortícolas y ornamentales en Argentina. Una especie de Eretmocerus Haldeman fue hallada parasitando a Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood en Santa Fe y Buenos Aires; por sus caracteres morfológicos, se encuentra en el grupo californicus, cercana a corni Haldeman, podría tratarse de una nueva especie. Asimismo, se amplía la distribución geográfica de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, enemigo natural del complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, a las provincias de San Juan y Buenos Aires.The objective of this paper is to report new records of species of the genus Eretmocerus Haldeman, parasitoids of the most important whitefly pest species in vegetables and ornamental crops in Argentina. One species was found parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood in Santa Fe and Buenos Aires provinces and it is grouped into californicus group near corni Haldeman, due to its morphological characters. It could be a new species. The known distribution of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, a parasitoid of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, is enlarged to include the provinces of San Juan and Buenos Aires of Argentina.

  16. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav, Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  17. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae criada em três hospedeiros Biological aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed on Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae reared in three hosts

    Cláudio Gonçalves Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se alguns aspectos biológicos de adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B, criadas em folhas de pepino (Cucumis sativus var. caipira, couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala e na planta invasora leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla. Discos foliares dos hospedeiros contendo ninfas de terceiro e quarto estádios da mosca-branca foram acondicionados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água a 1%. Em cada placa foi colocada uma larva de C. externa recém-eclodida, onde permaneceram até a emergência dos adultos. Foram avaliados o peso logo após a emergência, os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, número total de ovos produzidos por fêmea e longevidade. Avaliaram-se, também, o período embrionário e a viabilidade dos ovos, coletando-se, uma vez por semana, uma amostra de 10% do total de ovos produzidos no dia, ao longo de todo o período reprodutivo. O peso de machos e fêmeas não diferiu significativamente em função do hospedeiro da presa, sendo em média de 4,7 mg. De maneira geral, adultos de C. externa oriundos de larvas alimentadas com ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro apresentaram performance inferior em relação àqueles oriundos do pepino e da couve. O período de oviposição foi, em média, de 49,5 dias para o pepino e a couve, e de 31,6 dias para o leiteiro. A produção de ovos foi reduzida em aproximadamente 50% em leiteiro, sendo de 293,8 ovos; no pepino e couve, a média foi de 591,3 ovos. Ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B criadas em leiteiro causaram uma redução da viabilidade dos ovos de C. externa, que foi 62,8% e 57,7% inferior ao verificado para o pepino e a couve, respectivamente.The aim was to study some biological aspects of adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, from larvae fed on nymphs of third and fourth stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, and reared on leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, kale (Brassica oleracea and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla. Leaf discs from the hosts containing third and fourth stage nymphs of whitefly, were placed in Petri dishes containing 1% agar. One recently hatched larvae of C. externa was placed in each dish, until adult emergence. The weight after emergence,eoviposition, oviposition, effective oviposition and postoviposition periods, the total number of eggs per female and longevity were evaluated. The embryonic period and the survival rate of the eggs were also recorded by collecting weekly samples of 10% of the daily egg production, throughout the reproductive period. The weights of males and females did not differ in relation to the hosts, the average being 4.7 mg. In general, adults of C. externa, coming from larvae fed on B. tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on leaves of the host wild poinsettia, had their biological characters affected, in comparison with those on leaves of cucumber and kale. The oviposition period averaged 49.5 days for cucumber and kale, and 31.6 days for wild poinsettia. Egg laying capacity was reduced by 50% on wild poinsettia, its being 293.8 eggs. In cucumber and kale, the average was 591.3 eggs. Nymphs of B. tabaci biotype B reared on wild poinsettia caused increase of the embrionic period and a reduction of the survival rate of the eggs, its being 62.8% and 57.7% lower than that presented by the ones reared on cucumber and kale, respectively.

  18. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  19. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  20. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  1. Skin infections and infestations in prison inmates.

    Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi

    2012-02-01

    Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-07-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Studies on pest infestation of commercial samples of cowpeas and ...

    Weight loss in both the infested beans and maize increased with increase in the number of emergence holes. Public health implications of the insect infestation of the stored products such as reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of undesirable residues were discussed. Improved storage and pest control techniques ...

  4. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  5. some nutritional aspects of haemonchosis in experimentally infested ...

    nutritional aberration has been described as anorexia in both pure (Evans, Blunt & Southcott, 1963) and mixed infestations where Haemonchus contortus was prominent. (Clark, Ortlepp, Bosman, Laurence, Groenewald & Quin,. 1951; Shumard et al. 1957). Further observations on nutritional aspects of a pure infestation of ...

  6. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... chemical properties of gum were determined for infested and control trees. A. senegal infested by A. ... also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and ... Deforestation within the gum belt has lead to an increase in desert .... Atomic Absorption = V*N EDTA*1000/Volume of extract (mg/l). Where, V is the ...

  7. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  8. Population structure and growth of polydorid polychaetes that infest ...

    Polydorid polychaetes can infest cultured abalone thereby reducing productivity. In order to effectively control these pests, their reproductive biology must be understood. The population dynamics and reproduction of polydorids infesting abalone Haliotis midae from two farms in South Africa is described using a ...

  9. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun State was carried out using ... This is the first report on protozoan parasites detected in ticks infesting cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans-boundary route in Nigeria.

  10. Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of ...

    Spatial distribution of the infestations revealed experimental plots having recorded between 0 and 8 ... Infestations were also independent of abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and ... chemical fight, by terrestrial way, air or systemic, ... the implementation of efficient fight plan strategy. ..... Influence of abiotic factors on the.

  11. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  12. EFFECTS OF INSECT PEST INFESTATION ON THE CAFFEINE ...

    The caffeine content of nuts of Cola nitida and C. acuminata infested by insect pests in four major geographical zones of Nigeria have been determined and compared with the uninfested ones using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The findings showed that the infestation has no significant effect on the ...

  13. Impact of Day Intervals on Sequential Infestations of the Rice Leaffolder (Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and the White-Backed Rice Planthopper (Horváth on Rice Grain Damage

    Li-Ben Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study illustrates that different day intervals (DIs between the sequential infestations of two pest species, the rice leaffolder (RLF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and the white-backed rice planthopper (WBPH Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, have a significant impact on the rice yield loss rate (YLR and on the carbohydrate contents of rice plants. For WBPH release after RLF release (WRARR, the YLR decreased with the increasing DIs, and the YLR at the 24 DI was significantly lower compared to that at the 6 and 12 DIs and had a minimum value for a simultaneous infestation of the two pest species (SITS. In contrast, for RLF release after WBPH release (RRAWR, the YLR at the 24 DI had a maximum value and was significantly higher compared to that at the 6 and 12 DIs and the SITS. These findings indicate that damaged rice plants gradually recover, with an increase in the DI for WRARR. The above results were demonstrated by biochemical tests. Therefore, the sequential infestation of the two pest species and their DIs should be considered for integrated pest management (IPM and control strategies for rice pests.

  14. Review of the Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) infesting Fabaceae in Argentina, with descriptions of three new species of Acanthococcus Signoret.

    González, Patricia; Claps, Lucía E; Juárez, Andrea; Moreno, Diego

    2017-02-15

    Three new species of Eriococcidae from Argentina, namely Acanthococcus haywardi Juárez & González sp. nov., A. punctatae Juárez & González sp. nov. and A. riojensis Juárez & González sp. nov., are described and illustrated, bringing the total number of eriococcid species now known from Argentina to 12, of which six belong to Acanthococcus Signoret and six to Hempelicoccus Kozár. They are found on 11 species of Fabaceae (subfamilies Mimosoideae and Caesalpinioidae), are widely distributed and are all restricted to the Neotropical region and the South American Transitional Zone. A key to the 12 Eriococcidae species now known on Fabaceae in Argentina is included.

  15. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  16. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  17. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  18. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  20. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  1. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  2. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  3. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  4. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus.

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Flores, Daniel; French, J Victor; Hall, David G

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) and six sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. D. citri immatures also were found in significantly higher numbers in the southeastern quadrant of trees than other parts of the canopy. The spatial distribution of D. citri nymphs and adults was analyzed using Iowa's patchiness regression and Taylor's power law. Taylor's power law fitted the data better than Iowa's model. Based on both regression models, the field dispersion patterns of D. citri nymphs and adults were aggregated among flush shoots in individual trees as indicated by the regression slopes that were significantly >1. For the average density of each life stage obtained during our surveys, the minimum number of flush shoots per tree needed to estimate D. citri densities varied from eight for eggs to four flush shoots for adults. Projections indicated that a sampling plan consisting of 10 trees and eight flush shoots per tree would provide density estimates of the three developmental stages of D. citri acceptable enough for population studies and management decisions. A presence-absence sampling plan with a fixed precision level was developed and can be used to provide a quick estimation of D. citri populations in citrus orchards.

  5. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota.

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  6. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Hyun Gi Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  7. Stylet biogenesis in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Cicero, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum', causal agent of certain solanaceous and apiaceous crop diseases, inside the functional (intrastadial) and pharate stylet anatomy of the potato psyllid prompted elucidation of the mechanism of stylet replacement as a novel exit portal in the transmission pathway. In Hemiptera, presumptive (formative) stylets, secreted during consecutive pharate instars, replace functional stylets lost with the exuviae. In potato psyllids, each functional stylet has a hollow core filled with a cytology that extends out of the core to form a hemispherical aggregate of cells, the 'end-cap', somewhat resembling a golf ball on a tee. A tightly folded mass of extremely thin cells, the 'matrix', occurs inside the end-cap. Micrograph interpretations indicate that during the pharate stage, the end-cap apolyses from the core and 'deconstructs' to release and expand the matrix into a long, coiled tube, the 'atrium'. Cells that were in contact with the inner walls of the functional stylet core maintain their position at the apex of the tube, and secrete a new stylet, apex first, the growing length of which descends into the tube until completed. They then despool from the coils into their functional position as the exuviae is shed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  9. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  10. Parasitoids associated with the black scale Saissetia oleae(Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae in olive trees in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Ernesto Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae is an important pest of olive trees (Olea europaea L. that requires the use insecticides for its control. Parasitoids are important regulating agents of this pest, but currently, no information on its complex of natural enemies and their impact on black scale in Brazilian conditions exists. This study focused on identifying parasitoid wasps that were associated with the black scale on olive trees to establish their relative abundance and rate of parasitism. Samplings were maintained in an olive orchard located in Maria da Fe, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and infested branches were stored in emergence containers to recover parasitoids. Another group was kept in Flanders batteries to evaluate the rate of parasitism in approximately 100 scales. Sixteen parasitoid species were collected during the sampling period, and the most common species were Coccophagus caridei (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, and Mesopeltita truncatipennis (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, the latter of which was most abundant and frequent. Parasitism ranged from 3 to 31% with peaks in summer and autumn. This level could be considered insufficient to hold the black scale under the economic injury level; however, these parasitoids should be preserved for contributions to population regulation.

  11. Infestation of the human kidney with Dioctophyma renale.

    Ignjatovic, Ivan; Stojkovic, Ivica; Kutlesic, Cedo; Tasic, Suzana

    2003-01-01

    Human infestation with Dioctophyma renale is presented. Clinical signs and diagnostic findings are unspecific. They are discussed and a conservative therapeutic approach is suggested. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. CONCOMITANT HELMINTHIC AND ENTERO-PROTOZOAL INFESTATION IN INDIAN PEAFOWL

    B. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  13. Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ...

    Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in peninsular Malaysia. ... Abstract. A survey was carried out in mango orchards in Peninsular Malaysia with aimed to determine the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  15. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  16. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest.

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan

    2017-10-19

    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  17. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  18. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N

    2007-01-01

    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  19. Revisional notes on the genus Melucha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae

    Harry Brailovsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melucha grandicula sp. n. and M. perampla sp. n., (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Nematopodini are described from Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Melucha quadrivittis Stål, 1862, stat. restit., is resurrected from synonymy under M. phyllocnemis (Burmeister, 1835. Melucha ruficornis Breddin, 1903, syn. n., is synonymized under M. lineatella (Fabricius, 1803. An identification key for the known species of Melucha Amyot & Serville, 1843 is given. New distributional records for some previously known species are added.

  20. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.

    1984-03-01

    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  1. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation.

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia ( T. ) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium . A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  2. A Community-Based Surveillance on Determinants of Rodent Infestation

    Hsiu-Hua Pai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodent infestation is an important factor in the transmission of infectious diseases of public health importance. From October to November 1998, surveillance stations were established in 110 boroughs of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Boroughs were chosen by random sampling 10 boroughs from each of 11 districts (464 boroughs in the city. The extent of rodent infestation was determined by cage trapping. The possibility of applying a community-based control program was evaluated by investigating associated demographic and environmental factors as well as related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A total of 90 rodents were trapped in 41% of the 110 boroughs. Using univariate analyses, 17 factors were significantly associated with rodent infestation. A lack of knowledge that rodent control relies on community cooperation was the most important factor among the seven variables associated with the extent of rodent infestation (OR 3.1 by logistic multiple regression. This revealed the importance of community cooperation in controlling rodent infestation. Moreover, improvement of environmental hygiene associated with garbage problems, such as cleanliness of storage rooms and closets, and the hygiene of empty space and resource recycling stations should not be ignored.

  3. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  4. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  5. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum.

  6. Prey Preference of Predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

    Marjan Seiedy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The predator Amblyseius swirskii and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana are important biocontrol agents of Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Determination of the host preference of predators in the fields when receiving signals related to either untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated pest is important. Materials and Methods In this research, the prey preference of adult female (2 days old of A. swirskii was determined on untreated and Beauveria bassiana-treated of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae in various treatments base on Manly Index. These different treatments consisted of two time intervals; 24 and 48 h post-inoculation of greenhouse whiteflies with 1×105 conidia /ml of B. bassiana with 13 replicates. 24-h starved predators were added to the leaf discs singly then the number of consumed untreated and B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in each Petri dish was assessed after 24 h. Results and Discussion The results revealed that mean number of consumed B. bassiana-treated T. vaporariorum in two time intervals; 24 and 48 h. after inoculation were 4/15±0/19 and 2.23±0/12, respectively. This investigation showed a significant preference of A. swirskii towards untreated T. vaporariorum in 24 (P< 0.0034 and 48 h. (P

  7. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  8. A comparative study on infestation of three varieties of maize ( Zea ...

    A study was carried out to study the infestation of three maize varieties (Maize suwan I–Y, Maize T2 USR – White single cross and Maize suwan 123) by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Infestation was assessed by counting the numbers of alive and dead adults and the number of infested and uninfested seeds. It was found out ...

  9. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  10. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  11. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  12. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  13. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  14. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  15. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  17. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  18. Armillifer armillatus infestation in Human; public health scenario of a ...

    We report cases of Armillifer Armillatus infestation in three Nigerian adults within two and half years in our health facility. The first patient was a 70 year old farmer and a regular consumer of snake meat for over 50 years. He presented in February, 2014 for follow-up visit as he was a known systemic hypertensive patient.

  19. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  20. A case report of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in three cats.

    Di Palma, Antonella; Leone, Federico; Albanese, Francesco; Beccati, Massimo

    2018-04-30

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans. Three cats with dermatitis attributed to D. gallinae infestation. Two 40-day-old kittens, living in a rural area, and one 7-year-old female indoor cat, were presented with a pruritic skin condition. Mite specimens were collected from the cats and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Cytological and histological examinations of the skin lesions were performed. A diagnosis of D. gallinae infestation was made after identification of the mites. Histological findings were compatible with eosinophilic dermatitis. Clinical improvement was noted two weeks after treatment. The two kittens showed chronic blood loss which reflects the ability of D. gallinae mites to switch host. For the indoor cat, mites were presumed to be carried by birds regularly present on the balcony of the apartment. This demonstrates that mite infestation is possible even in urban areas, through contact with birds or their abandoned nests. When birds are not present, cats or other small mammals as well as humans, can be infested. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  2. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  3. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  4. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  5. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  6. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  8. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  9. The control and protection of cotton plants using natural insecticides against the colonization by Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15764

    Ezio Santos Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a key pest of cotton, irrespective of the use of conventional or organic management. In organic systems, however, the use of synthetic insecticides is not allowed, increasing the difficulty of controlling this pest. This work evaluated aphid control and the ability of products to prevent aphid infestation using natural insecticides compared to a standard synthetic insecticide. The control trial was conducted with four products [Beauveria bassiana (Boveril®, neem oil (Neemseto®, and cotton seed oil compared to thiamethoxam (Actara®], and untreated plants served as the control group. The trial testing the efficacy of these products in preventing aphid infestation was conducted using the same products, excluding Boveril®. The evaluations were conducted 72 and 120h post-treatment for the efficacy and the protection against colonization trials, respectively. The aphid control by cotton seed oil, Neemseto®, and thiamethoxam was similar, with 100% control being achieved on the thiamethoxam-treated plants. Regarding the plant protection against aphid colonization, the insecticide thiamethoxam exhibited a better performance compared to the other tested products with steady results over the evaluation period. The natural products exhibited variable results with low protection against plant colonization throughout the evaluation period.

  10. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-01-01

    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.

  12. La ruta de señalización del acido salicílico juega un papel importante en la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mediada por el gen Mi-1

    Muñiz, Mariano; Rodriguez, C.I.; Kaloshian, I.; Nombela, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Es bien conocido que la resistencia en tomate a Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), a Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) y a tres especies de nematodos formadores de nódulos (Meloidogyne spp.) está mediada por el gen Mi-1. Asimismo, está documentado que el ácido salicílico interviene en los mecanismos de resistencia frente a nematodos formadores de nódulos y áfidos. Recientemente se ha descrito que, en Arabidopsis, el biotipo B de B. tabaci induce defensas activadas por este ácido e inhibe las del ácido...

  13. Criterios de liberación de Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae para el control de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Aragón Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para la toma adecuada de decisiones en el manejo de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, se han propuesto diferentes criterios que buscan reducir el impacto producido por el uso indiscriminado de insecticidas. Sin embargo, estos criterios de decisión son aplicables principalmente al control químico de plagas y no se conoce su uso en programas de control biológico. Por lo tanto, con este trabajo se propuso generar unos criterios de decisión para el control biológico de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos T. vaporariorum con el parasitoide Encarsia formosa, teniendo en cuenta su respuesta funcional y porcentaje de control. En un diseño completamente al azar se ubicaron 18 plantas de tomate de 8 semanas de edad infestadas con 500 ninfas de mosca blanca y 3 plantas como control absoluto. En cada planta se liberaron 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 adultos de E. formosa, con tres repeticiones por densidad. Se registró el número de ninfas melanizadas por efectos del parasitismo de E. formosa a los 12; 19 y 26 días después de la primera liberación y, al finalizar la cosecha, se realizó un conteo de las ninfas de mosca blanca totales. Los resultados de este trabajo sugieren que para obtener un control cercano a 80% se debe liberar un parasitoide por cada 17 ninfas de mosca blanca de tercer instar, evaluando el control después de 35 días. Se pueden realizar nuevas liberaciones de E. formosa dirigidas al control de las nuevas ninfas encontradas en los muestreos periódicos del cultivo.

  14. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  15. Phenology of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in Commercial Potato Fields in Idaho.

    Wenninger, Erik J; Carroll, Amy; Dahan, Jennifer; Karasev, Alexander V; Thornton, Michael; Miller, Jeff; Nolte, Philip; Olsen, Nora; Price, William

    2017-12-08

    Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015). All life stages of psyllids were sampled using a combination of methods (yellow sticky traps, vacuum samples, and leaf samples), and adult psyllids were tested for the presence of Lso by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Abundance of potato psyllids initially increased gradually over each growing season, then exhibited a sharp late-season rise and a sharp decline as most fields were being harvested. Abundance of psyllids was higher at warmer, lower elevation sites, but infestation onset did not differ between growing regions. Fewer psyllids were collected in vacuum samples than in sticky trap samples. Nymphs and eggs were found only late season and during years with high abundance of adults. Overall incidence of Lso was similar among all years but one. The results presented here clarify our understanding of the seasonal phenology of potato psyllids and Lso in Idaho potato fields and will aid in developing integrated management strategies against this important pest of potato. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. DNA Barcode Reference Library for the African Citrus Triozid, Trioza erytreae (Hemiptera: Triozidae): Vector of African Citrus Greening.

    Khamis, F M; Rwomushana, I; Ombura, L O; Cook, G; Mohamed, S A; Tanga, C M; Nderitu, P W; Borgemeister, C; Sétamou, M; Grout, T G; Ekesi, S

    2017-12-05

    Citrus (Citrus spp.) production continues to decline in East Africa, particularly in Kenya and Tanzania, the two major producers in the region. This decline is attributed to pests and diseases including infestation by the African citrus triozid, Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Besides direct feeding damage by adults and immature stages, T. erytreae is the main vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', the causative agent of Greening disease in Africa, closely related to Huanglongbing. This study aimed to generate a novel barcode reference library for T. erytreae in order to use DNA barcoding as a rapid tool for accurate identification of the pest to aid phytosanitary measures. Triozid samples were collected from citrus orchards in Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa and from alternative host plants. Sequences generated from populations in the study showed very low variability within acceptable ranges of species. All samples analyzed were linked to T. erytreae of GenBank accession number KU517195. Phylogeny of samples in this study and other Trioza reference species was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method. The phylogenetic tree was paraphyletic with two distinct branches. The first branch had two clusters: 1) cluster of all populations analyzed with GenBank accession of T. erytreae and 2) cluster of all the other GenBank accession of Trioza species analyzed except T. incrustata Percy, 2016 (KT588307.1), T. eugeniae Froggatt (KY294637.1), and T. grallata Percy, 2016 (KT588308.1) that occupied the second branch as outgroups forming sister clade relationships. These results were further substantiated with genetic distance values and principal component analyses. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Habitat affinity of resident natural enemies of the invasive Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on soybean, with comments on biological control.

    Brewer, Michael J; Noma, Takuji

    2010-06-01

    We integrated a natural enemy survey of the broader landscape into a more traditional survey for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), parasitoids and predatory flies on soybean using A. glycines-infested soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., placed in cropped and noncropped plant systems to complement visual field observations. Across three sites and 5 yr, 18 parasitoids and predatory flies in total (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae [two species] and Bracondae [seven species], Diptera: Cecidomyiidae [one species], Syrphidae [seven species], Chamaemyiidae [one species]) were detected, with significant variability in recoveries detected across plant system treatments and strong contrasts in habitat affinity detected among species. Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson was the most frequently detected parasitoid, and no differences in abundance were detected in cropped (soybean, wheat [Triticum aestivum L.], corn [Zea mays L.], and alfalfa [Medicago sativa L.]) and noncropped (poplar [Populus euramericana (Dode) Guinier] and early successional vegetation) areas. In contrast, Binodoxys kelloggensis Pike, Starý & Brewer had strong habitat affinity for poplar and early successional vegetation. The low recoveries seasonally and across habitats of Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus sp., and Aphidius colemoni Viereck make their suitability to A. glycines on soybean highly suspect. The widespread occurrence of many of the flies reflects their broad habitat affinity and host aphid ranges. The consistent low field observations of parasitism and predation suggest that resident parasitoids and predatory flies are unlikely to contribute substantially to A. glycines suppression, at least during the conventional time period early in the pest invasion when classical biological control activities are considered. For selected species that were relatively well represented across plant systems (i.e., L. testaceipes and Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani), conservation biological control efforts

  18. Categories and inheritance of resistance to Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in mutants of indica rice 'IR64'.

    Sangha, Jatinder Singh; Chen, Yolanda H; Palchamy, Kadirvel; Jahn, Gary C; Maheswaran, M; Adalla, Candida B; Leung, Hei

    2008-04-01

    Varietal mutants can be useful for developing durable resistance, understanding categories of resistance, and identifying candidate genes involved in defense responses. We used mutants of rice 'IR64' to isolate new sources of resistance to the planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). We compared two mutants that showed a gain and loss of resistance to N. lugens, to determine the categories of resistance to this pest. Under choice tests, female planthoppers avoided settling and laid fewer eggs on the resistant mutant 'D518' than on the susceptible mutant D1131, susceptible check 'TN1', and wild-type IR64, indicating that antixenosis was the resistance category. Similarly, under no-choice conditions, planthoppers laid 29% fewer eggs in D518 than in IR64, but they oviposited more in 'D1131' and TN1. Honeydew excretion was greater on D1131 seedlings but slightly lower on D518 than on IR64. Nymphal survival and adult female weight did not differ among rice cultivars. D518 showed higher tolerance of N. lugens infestations than IR64. Genetic analysis of the F1, F2, and F3 populations derived from D518 x IR64 revealed that resistance in D518 is dominant and controlled by a single gene. Despite the variation in resistance to N. lugens, both mutants and IR64 performed similarly in the field. The mutant D518 is a new source of durable resistance to N. lugens, mainly due to enhanced antixenosis to female hoppers for settling and oviposition.

  19. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding.

    Chen, Yigen; Ni, Xinzhi; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Buntin, G David

    2009-06-01

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of commercial pecan orchard enterprises. However, key aspects of this host-pest interaction are poorly understood. We report here the effects of M. caryaefoliae feeding on the foliar activity of oxidative (i.e., catalase, lipoxygenase [LOX]-1 and 3, and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (i.e., esterase) enzymes in relation to the degree of aphid resistance among pecan varieties. The 2-yr study showed that M. caryaefoliae-infested foliage exhibited elevated peroxidase activity only in susceptible ('Desirable', 'Sumner', and 'Schley'), but not in resistant ('Cape Fear', 'Gloria Grande', and 'Money Maker') genotypes. Susceptible genotypes also exhibited more severe leaf chlorosis in response to M. caryaefoliae feeding than the resistant genotypes; however, the aphid feeding did not influence catalase or esterase activity in all varieties, except the increase of esterase activity in Desirable and Gloria Grande. Melanocallis caryaefoliae feeding also influences activity of two lipoxygenase isozymes, with LOX3 being more frequently induced than LOX1. Foliar LOX3 activity was more frequently induced by M. caryaefoliae feeding in the moderately resistant 'Oconee' and highly resistant Money Maker and Cape Fear than in the susceptible genotypes. Therefore, the elevation of peroxidase is likely to be associated with aphid susceptibility and contributed to the severe leaf chlorosis, whereas the increase of LOX3 activity might be associated with aphid resistance in pecan. These findings contribute to our understanding of the etiology of M. caryaefoliae-elicited leaf chlorosis on pecan foliage. Such information may also be used to develop enzyme markers for identifying black pecan aphid resistance

  20. The genus Alphocoris in the Indomalaya (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).

    RÉdei, DÁvid; Tsai, Jing-Fu; Jindra, ZdenĚk

    2018-02-21

    The Indomalayan species of the genus Alphocoris Germar, 1839 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae: Odontotarsinae: Odontotarsini) are revised. Three species, A. caudatus Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Maharashtra), A. naso Rédei Tsai, sp. nov. (India: Goa), and A. asper Rédei, Tsai Jindra, sp. nov. (India: Goa and Maharashtra), are recognized. The type material of A. lixoides Germar, 1839 (type locality: Senegal) is documented; previous records of this species from India and Pakistan are considered as based on misidentifications, the species is restricted to the Afrotropical Region.

  1. Hemiptera community and species responses to grassland sward islets

    Helden, Alvin J.; Dittrich, Alex D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sward islet is a term that has been used to describe a patch of longer vegetation in a pasture produced by a reduction in cattle grazing around their dung. They are known to affect the abundance and distribution of grassland arthropods. Hemiptera, like other groups, are found in higher densities within islets than the surrounding sward. Does this modify the community composition or is there just a density effect? Evidence from a paired (islets, non-islets) study at an Irish cattle-grazed site...

  2. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  3. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  5. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (citri poses negligible environmental risk.

  6. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Aziza Sharaby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  7. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases.

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P

    2011-10-01

    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria.

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C

    1985-12-01

    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed.

  9. Thelazia callipaeda infestation in Bangladesh: a case report.

    Akhanda, A H; Akonjee, A R; Hossain, M M; Rahman, M A; Mishu, F A; Hasan, M F; Akhanda, T H

    2013-07-01

    A 5 years old girl was admitted to Ophthalmology department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh with excessive watering, redness and movement of something in her right eye for last 2 months. She had unaided visual acuity- 6/6, matted eye lashes and mucoid discharge in right eye. Follicles were present on the fornices and lower palpebral conjunctiva of the same eye. On eversion of the right upper lid there were silicon tube like coiled moving structures seen at the lateral part of the upper fornics. Six nematodes were seen in the upper fornics around the duct of lacrimal glands. After removing the nematodes, one specimen was sent to parasitology department of Bangladesh Agriculture University for species identification. They reported that sending specimen is an adult "Thelazia Callipaeda". By the present study, the presence of human ocular T. callipaeda infestation is second reported case in Bangladesh. Ophthalmologists should be aware about parasitic infestation of conjunctiva.

  10. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  11. Influence of storage on fungal infestation in spices

    Akhtar, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the influence of storage and gamma radiation on fungal control in spices. The spices were irradiated with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Fungal infestation decreased to undetectable levels upon irradiation of these spices especially at higher doses and increased with advanced storage period both the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (orig. /A.B.)

  12. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  14. Densidades y frecuencias de liberación de Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae en tomate

    Tello Paola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una de las plagas más importantes de cultivos de tomate bajo invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá. Para su control tradicionalmente se acude a la aplicación de insecticidas. Sin embargo, también son contempladas liberaciones del parasitoide Encarsia formosa (Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae. Para estandarizar el proceso de cría masiva de E. formosa, se evaluaron tres densidades diferentes de liberación de las avispas (6, 12 y 18 avispas/planta en tres frecuencias de liberación (1, 2 y 3 veces/semana, sobre plantas de tomate de ocho semanas de edad con tres niveles de infestación (15, 30 y 45 ninfas de mosca blanca/hoja, susceptibles de ser parasitadas. El mayor porcentaje de parasitismo (70% en ninfas de tercer instar se logró cuando se liberaron seis avispas por planta, dosificadas en tres momentos diferentes en la misma semana. El menor porcentaje de parasitismo (50%, se obtuvo cuando se realizó una sola liberación de 6, 12 o 18 avispas. Los resultados anteriores permiten concluir que se puede lograr un porcentaje de parasitismo en torno a un 70% de la infestación de mosca blanca (hasta 45 ninfas/hoja en plantas de tomate con pocas avispas de E. formosa (seis cuando se liberan en tres momentos diferentes.

  15. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%, arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp, to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations.

  16. Sarcoptic mange infestation in rabbits in an organized farm at Tamil Nadu.

    Arul Prakash, M; Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Tensingh Gnanaraj, P; Ramesh Saravanakumar, V

    2017-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33.33 %) were heavily infested than the grower (21.88 %) whereas, suckling had no infestation of mange. Among the sex, males (21.95 %) were heavily infested than the females (14.89 %). Lesions were mostly found on the edges of ear, nose, face and legs and characterized by loss of hair, thickening of the skin, irregular dried dirty encrusted scabs with erythema and disfigurement of face and ear.

  17. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  18. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  19. Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that for the control of Lepidopterous populations, release of fully competitive partially sterile males would be more advantageous than the release of completely sterile males. This suggestion is based on the fact, elucidated in many studies, that partially sterilized males mated to normal females produce totally sterile or partially sterile progeny. In Hemiptera too, F 1 progeny of partially sterile males has been shown to inherit sterility. Individual impact of sterility inherited by either sex of the F 1 progeny on population growth has been studied in an hemipteran insect Dysdercus koenigii. A dose of 7 krad induces near-complete sterility in males. When males irradiated with substerilizing doses of 1,2 and 3 krad were crossed with normal females, F 1 progeny of both sexes was partially sterile : the female being more sterile than the males. When the F 1 progeny was intercrossed, there was enhanced reduction in progeny production. (auth.)

  20. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  1. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  2. Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Weed Infestation in Cereal Stands

    Jan Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the heterogeneity of the incidence of individual weed species on a selected experimental field. This field was situated in the cadastre of the village Žabčice (South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. To evaluate the intensity of weed infestation, a field experiment was established. In 2011, altogether 33 weed species were identified in a stand of spring barley. In the next year, the total number of weeds in a stand of winter wheat was 22. Basing on results of the evaluation of infestation heterogeneity it was possible to detect the following trends: The first one concerned the incidence of significantly dominant species Chenopodium album and Veronica hederifolia in stands of spring barley and winter wheat, respectively. The second one expressed the incidence of the so-called sub-dominant species. Regarding the character of the incidence of these weed species it would be suitable to kill them by means of a targeted application of herbicides. Finally, the third trend concerned the incidence of that group of weeds that occurred in the major part of the experimental plot but in low numbers only. The abundance of these species was minimal and the total number of weed plants did not exceed the limit of 100 specimens. This group of weeds involved also those species that were markedly more frequent on plots situated closer to the margin of the experimental field. The targeted application of herbicides can be performed on plots with a lower level of weed infestation; another possibility, however, seems to be a targeted intervention that helps to control the incidence of a certain weed species and/or that is performed along the margin of the field where the different weed species are more frequent.

  3. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera

    Mark A. Metz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha, the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha.

  4. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  5. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  6. Registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) no Estado do Paraná

    Barbosa, Leonardo Rodrigues; Santos, Franciele; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Soliman, Everton P.

    2010-01-01

    It is recorded the occurrence of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in eucalyptus trees in the State of Parana, Brazil. The insect was observed in June at 2009, in Curitiba region.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.75

    É registrada a ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) em árvores de eucalipto no Estado do Paraná. Infestações foram o...

  7. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  8. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930.

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  9. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Thomas Cahon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  10. Volatiles from Psylla-infested pear trees and their possible involvement in attraction of anthocorid predators

    Scutareanu, P.; Drukker, B.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by

  11. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  13. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  14. Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio- economy ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... In the old Gaza city and the rural village Jabalia within the Gaza Governorate the rate of infestation with lice was 14.1% in the primary school girls. (Al-Shawa, 2006). In a high socio-economy area in Izmir,. Turkey, 4.2% of the studied population of the secondary and elementary school children were infested ...

  15. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  16. Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.

  17. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  18. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  19. Biologia de Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, galhador da folha do araçazeiro (Psidium cattleianum

    C. A. Butignol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology of the leaf gall inducer Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on strawberry guava tree (Psidium cattleianum. A field study was conducted in Curitiba region, State of Paraná, southern Brazil, to describe the life cycle of Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925, a leaf galling insect in strawberry guava trees (Psidium cattleianum. Three cycles were observed (1997, 1998, 1999 during regular field trips and the insects were observed in Piraquara municipality, where 15 samples with 50 infested leaves were sampled in the 1997-98 cycle. Galls were dissected for detailed studies. Neotrioza tavaresi has a univoltine cycle in which adult individuals were found inside the galls from August onwards. The sexually mature insects with sex ratio 1, emerged from the galls after their dehiscence caused by feeding of the adult insects on the gall walls. Adult emergence started in early October and ended by early December, with its peak in November. Copulation took place as soon as adults exit the gall and egg laying started the next day. Females had more than 100 ovarioles containing 218.7±44.7 (n=50 fully formed eggs. This indicated the short sexual adult life-span (aprox. 5-7 days of the species, also characterized by a concentrated oviposition. Adult individuals fed and laid their eggs on younger shoots of the plant. The bottoms of the yellowish eggs were inserted into the leaf tissue, mainly on its adaxial edge (78.1%. The nymphs hatched and, as they fed on the adaxial side of expanding leaves, modified the cell growth pattern and the round-shape galls developed on the adaxial side with one insect inside. The gall wall showed distinct layers, with the inner one suppliyng the food to the insects, and the outer layer supplying gall protection. Nymphs went through five instars and the exuviae remained stuck on a ball of wax inside the gall. All parasitoids found were Hymenoptera belonging to Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae (1 sp, Pteromalidae (2

  20. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  1. Wheat Antixenosis, Antibiosis, and Tolerance to Infestation by Delphacodes kuscheli (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a Vector of "Mal de Rio Cuarto" in Argentina

    Brentassi, M.E.; Corrales, C.; Snape, J.W.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Castro, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2009), s. 1801-1807 ISSN 0022-0493 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Delphaeodes kuscheli * wheat * antibiosis * antixenosis * tolerance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2009

  2. First record of Sesbania punicea (Fabales: Fabaceae) as a host plant for Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Numerous known non-crop hosts of C. hilaris that exist in field edges bordering cotton are sources of this stink bug in this crop. Sesbania punicea plants in a field border su...

  3. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  4. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  5. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  6. Instar- and stage-specific photoperiodic diapause response of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight)(Hemiptera:Miridae) is a polyphagous pest of numerous western crops. This pest overwinters in a relatively short duration adult diapause, but many details regarding diapause induction and maintenance remain unstudied. Instar-specific responses t...

  7. Allozyme Variation in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from the United States and China

    V. S& #225; nchez; M.A. Keena; M.A. Keena

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a major introduced pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the United States is anholocyclic and an obligate parthenogen, because no suitable primary host (on which sexual reproduction occurs in Asia) is...

  8. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  9. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  10. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  11. “Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri” affects behavior of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a key pest of pear and is a vector of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri", the pathogen associated with pear decline disease. Although commercial pear trees are grafted to Phytoplasma-resistant rootstock, a recent report indicated that many C. p...

  12. Morphometrics of the Southern Green Stink Bug [Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)] Stylet Bundle

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a cosmopolitan pest of high-value cash crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; Malvales: Malvaceae). The pest can ingest and transmit disease-causing bacterial and fungal pathogens of cotton. We hypothesized t...

  13. Observations on some species of the genus Lyramorpha Westw. (Hemiptera Heteroptera)

    Schouteden, H.

    1908-01-01

    1. Lyramorpha pallida Westwood and L. rosea Westwood. In his »Catalogue of Hemiptera in the Collection of the Rev. W. F. Hope”, part I, London 1837, Westwood founded the genus Lyramorpha, with two species, L. rosea and L. pallida, both from New Holland.

  14. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  15. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  16. Influence of trap color on collection of the recently introduced Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Scott Horn; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of the exotic bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae). were first collected from several northeast Georgia counties beginning in October 2009 (Suiter and Ames 2009, Statewide Pest Alert). How this insect arrived in the United States and where it came from is still not known. The native range of M. cribraria is reported to be...

  17. Fooling the harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using synthetic volatiles to alter host plant choice

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a widespread invasive pest that feeds on a variety of brassicaceous crops and other plants. To understand olfactory cues which mediate host-finding, and possible utility in pest management, we deployed aggregation pheromone (m...

  18. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  19. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  20. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  1. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  2. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  3. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  4. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  5. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  6. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  7. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  8. Mating disruption of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) by playback of vibrational signals in vineyard trellis

    BACKGROUND: Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Area-wide applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have suppressed GWSS populati...

  9. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  10. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  11. Effects of founder population size on the performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) colonies

    Castañe, C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key predator of thrips and is mass reared in large numbers for use in biological control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of founder population size on the biological and behavioral performance of O. laevigatus over time. Laboratory

  12. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  13. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  14. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  15. Hookworm infestation in children presenting with melena-case series

    Saeed, A.; Cheema, H.A.; Alvi, A; Suleman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hookworm infection is common in children and can present with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and severe anemia. Ten children below 5 years presenting with me lena and severe pallor were seen from December 2006 to May 2007 in the gastroenterology and hepatology department of children's hospital, Lahore. All patients had history of transfusion. Complete blood picture, eosinophil count with peripheral smear, stool complete examination for ova and cysts were performed in all cases while upper and lower gastrointestinal Endoscopies were performed in three patients to locate the source of bleeding. Stool routine examination in all these cases confirmed hook worm ova. These patients were managed with Antihelmenthic and stool complete examination was done three days after the medicine. There was no mortality. Though upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hookworm infestation is very rare but in the developing Countries it should be considered when other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are ruled out. (author)

  16. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  17. Ventilation in homes infested by house-dust mites.

    Sundell, J; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L

    1995-02-01

    Thirty single-family homes with either high (> or = 2000 ng/g) or low (< or = 1000 ng/g) house-dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in mattress dust were examined for ventilation, thermal climate, and air quality (formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Elevated concentrations of HDM allergen in mattress and floor dust were associated with the difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air, as well as with low air-change rates of the home, particularly the bedroom. No correlation was found between concentration of TVOC or formaldehyde in bedroom air and HDM allergen concentration. In regions with a cold winter climate, the air-change rate of the home and the infiltration of outdoor air into the bedroom appear to be important for the infestation of HDM.

  18. A Two Years Study of Ticks infesting Goats and Sheep in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    AlKhalifa, Mohamed S.; Khalil, Galila M.; Diab, Fathi M.

    2007-01-01

    The weather in Abha was characterized by a temperature of 11.7-23.7 degree C, a relative humidity 0f 40-92% and rainfall of 0.2-275mm during a study period of 1990 and 1991. More ticks infested the goats in 1990 than in 1991 while more ticks infested sheep in 1991 than in 1990. The tick species collected monthly from 10 goats during these years were, respectively, Rhipicephalus turanicus (95.1 and 67.1%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.0 and 25.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (0.2 and 1.0%) and H. impeltatum (0.7 and 6.1%). Goat infestation rate with R. turanicus was 60-100% in 1990 with peaks in January, April, July, November and December when 90-100% of the goats were infested with 6.3-8.3 ticks/goat. In 1991, goat infestation rate was 10-100% with peaks in April, July and December when all goats were infested with 5.6-9.0 ticks/goat, with a sex ratio of 0.40:1-2.00:1 in both years, respectively. The ticks collected monthly from 10 sheep during these years were, respectively, R. turanicus (89.2 and 86.2%), Haem. sulcata (5.7 and 4.9%), H. a. anatolicum (1.2 and 1.0%), H. a. excavatum (0.7 and 1.2%), H. dromedarii (0.9 and 0.4%), H. marginatum rufipes (1.4 and 4.1%), H. m. turanicum (0.0 and 1.2%) and H. impeltatum (0.9 and 1.0%). Sheep infestation rate with R. turanicus was 30-100% in both years with a peak in June in 1990 when all sheep were infested with 13.8 ticks/sheep and 2 peaks in April and June in 1991 when all sheep were infested with 25.0-29.6 ticks/sheep, with a sex ratio of 0.2:1-2.6:1 and 0.6:1-4.5:1 in these years, respectively. The change in R. turanicus infestation in goats and sheep was not correlated with temperature, relative humidity or rainfall during both years except for the infestation in sheep in 1991, which was positively correlated with rainfall. With the exception of R. turanicus and Haem. sulcata, the other tick species infest primarily animals other than sheep and goats. It is recommended that control measures be directed toward the

  19. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  1. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  2. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  3. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii.

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M

    2000-06-01

    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  4. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  5. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.

  6. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFECT OF REPEATED INFESTATION OF CHRYSOMYIA BEZZIANA ON WEIGHT OF ITS LARVAE

    S. Baidya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are about 20 species of obligate and 50 species of facultative myiasis producing flies found in India. Out of these, the Old World screwworm fly Chrysomyia bezziana is the most important obligate myiasis-causing fly. Three repeated infestations at an interval of one month each, larvae of C. bezziana developed in the clinically abraded wounds in cattle. Average weights of the larvae during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd infestation were 62.18+0.441, 56.53+0.389 and 56.45+0.485 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 reduction in larval weight during the 2nd and 3rd infestations compared to the larval weight of the initial infestation.

  8. Mineral content of insect infested stored legumes treated with edible oils.

    Modgil, R

    2000-12-01

    Mineral content of three insect (pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infested legumes viz. chick pea, mung pea and pigeon pea stored for six months and treated with three edible oils viz. groundnut, mustard and coconut oil has been studied. With increase in storage period significant increase in calcium, phosphorus and iron content of untreated legumes was observed. After three months of storage slight increase in three minerals was observed in the legumes treated with coconut oil which continued till the end of sixth months as compared to other two oil treated counterparts. The storage period was associated with insect infestation which in turn influenced the mineral content of legumes. Ground nut and mustard oils were able to protect legumes for six months against insect infestation when applied in small amounts (0.5%). Whereas coconut oil had protective effect against insect infestation for four months only.

  9. Predispersal infestation of Vochysia haenkeana seeds by Lius conicus

    Samara Letícia Oliveira Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The deficient development of fertile seeds of native forest plant species in Brazil limits the reproduction of these plants in various conditions. Among the limiting biotic factors in quality and quantity of the forest seeds, borer insects are quite prominent, before and after their dispersion. This study reports for the first time a host of the buprestid beetle Lius conicus (Gory & Laporte, 1840. The larval development of L. conicus takes place in the seed capsules of Vochysia haenkeana Mart. (Vochysiaceae, a typical tree species in the Brazilian cerrado biome. In two regions of the cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil, almost ripe fruits of V. haenkeana were collected directly from the plants. After natural drying, and fruit and seed processing in laboratory, damage caused by the L. conicus larvae was quantified and qualified. Bigger fruits were preferred as hosts. Fruits developing on the eastern side of the plant were most frequently occupied by L. conicus. Seed lots of bigger fruits showed damage up to 37.5% from the infestation by L. conicus larvae. There was only one larva per fruit, which damaged all the seeds of the capsule (three or four and generally consumed around 26% of the seed dry mass.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on Cysticercusbovisin infested cattle carcasses

    Z Mashak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is one of the parasitic zoonotic diseases that could transmit through the consuming of semi-cooked or raw beef infested with Cysticercosebovis. Irradiation as a safe approach can be applied in order to eliminate parasites from foods. It can be used as a control method to prevent parasitic foodborne diseases. Therefore, in this study the cattle muscles containing live cysts were selected from two slaughterhouses of Alborz province and were subjected for gamma irradiation with different doses (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1 and 1.5 KGY. Afterwards, the samples were stained with Eosin Methylene-Blue and were observed with light microscope to determine the viability of the cysts. The analysis of data was conducted with SPSS version 22. The results indicated that 0.8, 0.9, 1 and 1.5 KGY doses were capable to inactivate viable cysts significantly, with 72%, 82.6%, 90.9% and 91.6%, respectively. Therefore, 1 KGY is recommended as appropriate dose for elimination of C. bovis.

  11. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  12. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  13. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes.

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  14. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management.

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R

    2014-07-14

    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

    Zaobidna Ewa A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  16. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  17. Parasitic infestation in appendicitis. A retrospective analysis of 660 patients and brief literature review

    Eren Altun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence of parasitic infestations and inflammation accompanying parasitosis in a series of appendectomy cases. Methods: Six-hundred-sixty patients who had undergone appendectomy in Bingöl State Hospital, Bingol, Turkey with the preliminary diagnosis of appendicitis between January 2012 and February 2015 were included in this retrospective study. They were retrospectively evaluated in terms of age, gender and pathological findings. Cases diagnosed with parasitic infestations were re-evaluated histopathologically for inflammatory response. Results: The mean age was 19.6 years, and the male/female ratio was 1.8. When evaluated in terms of histopathological diagnoses, 573 (86.8% were diagnosed as acute appendicitis, and parasitic infestation was identified in 12 (1.8%. Among cases with parasitic infestation, Enterobius vermicularis was identified in 9 (75% and Taenia in 3 (25% cases. Of cases with Enterobius vermicularis, 4 (44.4% had lymphoid hyperplasia, 1 (11.1% had normal-structured appendix vermiformis, and 4 (44.4% had findings of acute appendicitis. All cases with taeniasis had an inflammatory response: acute appendicitis was identified in 2 (66% and acute gangrenous appendicitis in 1 (33% of them. Conclusion: Parasitic infestations are among the probable causes in appendicitis etiology and should be kept in mind during differential diagnosis. However, whether every parasitic infestation leads to appendiceal inflammatory response is controversial.

  18. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic.

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  20. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  1. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product...

  2. Spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Pest on alfalfa in Serbia

    Jovičić, Ivana; Radonjić, Anđa; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Spotted alfalfa aphid Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) is one of the most important alfalfa pest on the world. Also, it is the most abundant alfalfa aphid in Serbia. This aphid cause damage to alfalfa directly by feeding and indirectly by vectoring plant-pathogenic viruses. Some notes of morphology, host plants, damage, biology, vector role and distribution of spotted alfalfa aphid are given. Abundance of this aphid on alfalfa, influence of climates changes on its abundanc...

  3. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-11-25

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.

  4. First record in Argentina of Drepanosiphum oregonense Granovsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) found on maples (Sapindaceae)

    Ortego, Jaime; Olave, Anabel; Mier Durante, Milagros Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Se informa del hallazgo del áfido Drepanosiphum oregonense Granovsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) sobre árboles de Acer pseudoplatanus y A. campestre (Sapindaceae) en Argentina lo que constituye el primer registro de la especie y del género Drepanosiphum Koch en Argentina y el segundo en Sudamérica. The finding in Argentina of the aphid Drepanosiphum oregonense on "maple tree" Acer pseudoplatanus ...

  5. A NEW SPECIES OF BEAMERANA YOUNG, 1952 (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: TYPHLOCYBINAE FROM SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Luci Boa Nova Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Neotropical leafhopper genus Beamerana Young, 1952 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae is described and illustrated based on the specimens from Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Beamerana boomerang sp. nov. differs from its congeners by the fore wing venation and the male genitalia. A key to the species of Beamerana is provided. The genus is recorded for Brazil for the first time.

  6. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON Dysmicoccus brevipes (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)

    MARTINS, GISELE DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA; ZAGO, HUGO BOLSONI; COSTA, ADILSON VIDAL; ARAUJO JUNIOR, LUIS MOREIRA DE; CARVALHO, JOSÉ ROMÁRIO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) ...

  7. Flight Muscle Dimorphism and Heterogeneity in Flight Initiation of Field-Collected Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrated that most field-collected Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) adults from northern Argentina either never initiated flight or did so repeatedly in both sexes. This pattern could not be explained by sex, adult age, weight, weight-to-length ratio (W/L), or chance. We examined whether bugs that never initiated flight possessed developed flight muscles, and whether flight muscle mass relative to total body mass (FMR) was related to the probability of ...

  8. Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a new predator of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae)

    Pinchao, Ever Camilo; Kondo, Takumasa; González F., Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The Colombian fluted scale (CFS), Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) is a polyphagous scale insect which affects about 100 species of plants. Between 2010–2013, the species was reported as an invasive pest on the islands of San Andres and Old Providence, Colombian territory in the Caribbean sea. Currently, populations of the CFS also have increased in the city of Cali, Valle del Cauca State, mainland Colombia, affecting different host plants, especially l...

  9. Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast.

    Panakkool-Thamban, Aneesh; Ameri Kottarathil, Helna; Kappalli, Sudha

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of cymothoid isopods parasitizing the branchial chamber of marine food fishes along the Malabar coast was investigated. Live and fresh fishes collected from the Ayyikkara fish landing center (Lat. 11°51'N, Long. 75°22'E; Malabar coast, India) were subjected to the thorough observation for the presence of branchial cymothoids for 3 consecutive years (November 2009-November 2012). Among the recovered cymothoids, 11 species were branchial residents belonging to 6 genera; the species include Agarna malayi, Catoessa gruneri, C. boscii, Joryma hilsae, J. brachysoma, J. engraulidis, J. sawayah, Mothocya collettei, M. renardi, Norileca indica and Ryukyua circularis ; highest prevalence being exhibited by two species of Mothocya , ( M. renardi and M. collettei ) parasitizing the belonidaen fishes, Strongylura leiura (92.15 %) and Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (87.2 %) respectively. Except Mothocya species, which preferred the branchial floor for infestation, all recovered branchial cymothoids were found attached the inner wall of the operculum. In several instances, the parasites appeared in male-female pairs, one in each branchial cavity. Ovigerous female members of all species of branchial cymothoids except R. circularis showed remarkable bending either towards left or right depending on whether they are located in right or left branchial cavity of their respective host fishes. The deleterious effects of parasitization by all recovered branchial cymothoids include the formation of a pit like depression in the branchial chamber and atrophy of the gill filament; the damage was more pronounced in the gill cavity of parasitized host fishes where the ovigerous female member was accommodated.

  10. Radiographic analysis of the internal infestation in stored corn

    Flores y Bermudez, R.

    1975-01-01

    The danger represented by insects for the preservation of stored cereals and derived products has given rise to concern. In Mexico the storage of maize continues to raise a variety of problems for the governmental and private institutions concerned. The work described here is part of a research programme on the possible development and application of the technique of disinfesting grain by irradiation. The Mexican National Nuclear Energy Institute, Physics Institute and Nuclear Research Centre (Mexican National Autonomous University) are taking part jointly in the programme. Among the special aims of the programme is a series of entomological observations based on radiography. In particular, the present research is aimed at determining, by this technique, whether the cavities produced in maize kernels by infestation are occupied or not. For this purpose it was necessary first to adapt the X-ray equipment with which to work. The equipment, of a new type that had not been used before, was designed exclusively for medical diagnosis and consists of a ''Practix'' unit made by Philips which operates at up to 100 kV. The first stage of the work was to install and operate the equipment, after which the optimum operating conditions were sought, using Kodak industrial AA 54 film (fine grain). For this purpose a number of X-ray photographs of maize kernels were taken and the various degrees of contrast and definition were examined. The following were found to be the best conditions for observing detail within the kernels and revealing whether the cavities are occupied or not: operating voltage 55 kV; current 20 mA; focus-film distance 70 cm; exposure time 2 seconds. (author)

  11. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  12. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children.

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-07-01

    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  13. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model.

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline(®) Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect(®) for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22-53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection rates of the two groups were significantly different. The percent effectiveness for the Certifect treatment group for the prevention of D. caninum infection was 100% during this 2-month trial. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either cats or dogs during these studies. © F. Beugnet et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2013.

  14. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    Zarin, Mahtab; Zubeda; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N 1 ) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N 1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N 2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N 2 . A dose of 500Gy given to female-N 3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N 3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N 3 and N 4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N 4 . 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of

  15. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  16. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil.

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2009-08-01

    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  17. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

    S Rasouli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  18. Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment.

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2014-12-01

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control

  19. Efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against mites in naturally co-infested rabbits

    Julio I. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against Psoroptes ovis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, and Leporacarus gibbus infestations in naturally co-infested rabbits. Twenty crossbreed (New Zealand White x California rabbits concurrently infested by the three mite species were randomly divided in two groups. All rabbits presented with hyperemia, erythema and formation of crusts in the ear canals caused by P. ovis. Infestations by both C. parasitivorax and L. gibbus were considered asymptomatic in all animals.Ten animals were treated with a 4.4% d-phenothrin and 0.148% pyriproxyfen spray formulation until have their body surface uniformly sprayed, including external ear canals. The other ten rabbits remained untreated, serving as control group. Observations were done on days +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 post-treatment. The d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association showed 100% efficacy against the three mite species and was responsible for the remission of psoroptic mange lesions on treated animals. No signs of intoxication were observed. The results indicate that d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen spray formulation in a single application is an effective and clinically safe option for the control of different mite infestations in rabbits.

  20. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  1. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

    Silva Rafael José Navas da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  2. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  3. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  4. Infestation of zooplankton with Triaenophorus and Proteocephalus procercoids (Cestoda in a deep oligotrophic lake

    Peter Anegg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2004, a massive infestation of the whitefish population in the Austrian Lake Achensee with Triaenophorus crassus was observed. Procercoids, the larval stage of parasitic cestodes, infest copepods as their first intermediate host. Therefore, in spring 2011, zooplankton samples were taken weekly at two sampling sites and depth ranges to determine the abundances of crustaceans as well as percentages of infected copepods and temporal occurrence of parasites. In addition, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus stomach contents were analysed for food spectrum and parasite infestation. From the end of June to mid-August, procercoids of Triaenophorus spp. were detected in Cyclops abyssorum, the only first intermediate host for this parasite in Lake Achensee. Highest percentages of infected copepods were reached in mid-July (prevalence: 0.38%. Furthermore, an infestation of Proteocephalus sp. was observed in this copepod species, which occurred earlier until the end of the sampling period (prevalence: 1.34%. Besides C. abyssorum, also Eudiaptomus gracilis was occasionally infected with Proteocephalus (prevalence: 0.05%. The procercoids were found in both depth ranges, with no clear vertical infestation preference. More female C. abyssorum were Triaenophorus-infected than males, while the opposite was observed for Proteocephalus infection. The whitefish stomachs contained large numbers of Proteocephalus and Triaenophorus procercoids, coinciding with the occurrence of these parasites in the copepods.

  5. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  6. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

    R.C. Jayasinghe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  7. Define Colony Number of Subterranean Termites Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Selected Infested Structures

    Abdul Hafiz Abdul Majid; Abu Hassan Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Termites are one of the social insects living in large colonies that can cause economic loss. The objective of this study was to estimate foraging territory of infested subterranean termites on building structure. A mark-recapture study was conducted on eight Coptotermes gestroi colonies located at selected infested building structures in Penang, Malaysia. From the foraging study, the population of C. gestroi was estimated to be within the range of 106,592±6,968 to 4,185,000±2,127,328. Additionally, the foraging territory was from 13 to 300 m 2 of the infested building structures. Meanwhile the maximum foraging distance was from 4 to 30 m of the infested structures. The results indicated that each of the building structures was infested by a single colony. This study also showed that the triple mark recapture technique used to estimate the population size of the termite colony was capable of providing rough estimates of foraging population of C. gestroi. (author)

  8. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

    Ponson L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  9. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  10. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia

    Shimelis Dagnachew

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northwestern region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA or isometamidium chloride (ISM. In the present work; questionnaire survey, cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out to; a assess the utilization of trypanocidal drugs; b determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and; c assess the drug resistant problems respectively in Tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas on NW Ethiopia. A total of 100 respondents were included for the survey and the questionnaires focused on the drug utilization practices for the control of Trypanosomosis. Blood from cattle 640 (324 cattle tested in 2011, 316 cattle tested in 2012 and 795 (390 cattle tested in 2011, 405 cattle tested in 2012 were examined from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas respectively using the buffy coat technique and thin blood smear for the detection of trypanosomes and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV. For the assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance three isolates, one from tsetse (TT and two from non-tsetse (NT areas were used on thirty six trypanosome naïve calves. The experimental animals were divided randomly into six groups of six animals (TT-ETBS2-DA, TT-ETBS2-ISM, NT-ETBD2-DA, NT-ETBD2-ISM, NT-ETBD3-DA and NT-ETBD3-ISM, which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area with 2 × 106 trypanosomes from donor animals, and in each case treated with higher dose of DA or ISM. The results of the questionnaire survey showed trypanosomosis was a significant animal health constraint for 84% and 100% of the farmers questioned in non-tsetse and tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia respectively. Responses on trypanocidal drug utilization practices indicated that risk

  11. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  12. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

    DeVries, Zachary C; Santangelo, Richard G; Barbarin, Alexis M; Schal, Coby

    2018-01-01

    Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust) and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  13. Dynamics of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae infestation on Nelore cattle in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.

  14. Infestation of natural populations of earthworm cocoons by rhabditid and cephalobid nematodes

    Kraglund, HO; Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Nematodes infested 13 of 100 earthworm cocoons from a compost pile and 17 of 197 cocoons from a permanent pasture soil. Between one and 2000 nematodes were found within the infested cocoons. All nematodes found in cocoons from the compost pile belonged to the genus Rhabditis, while Rhabditis spp....... as well as members of Cephalobidae infested earthworm cocoons in the pasture soil. In cultures established from cocoons found in the pasture soil, at least five different types of nematodes belonging to the family Cephalobidae were found. Acrobeloides nanus was found in six cocoons, Cephalobus persegnis...... was found in four and Chiloplacus minimus was found in one cocoon. We suggest that earthworm - nematode interactions may be an important pathway for the transfer of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, and that the inclusion of these pathways may lead to a better understanding of soil food web functioning....

  15. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  16. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  17. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  18. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  19. Recognition of mite-infested brood by honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers may involve thermal sensing.

    Bauer, Daniel; Wegener, Jakob; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    Hygienic behavior, i.e. the removal of diseased or damaged brood by worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), is seen as one of the principal behavioral elements of this species' social immunity. Identification of the stimuli that trigger it would be helpful in searching for biochemical and molecular markers of this important breeding trait. While many studies at the genomic, transcriptomic, and behavioral level have pointed to the implication of chemical cues, we here hypothesized that thermal cues are alternatively/additionally involved. To test this hypothesis, we first measured whether infestation by the mite Varroa destructor (a condition known to induce hygienic behavior) leads to a thermal gradient between affected and unaffected brood. We found that infested brood cells were between 0.03 and 0.19 °C warmer than uninfested controls. Next, we tested whether artificially heating an area of a brood comb would increase the removal of infested or uninfested brood as compared to an unheated control area, and found that this was not the case. Finally, we investigated whether the heating of individual brood cells, as opposed to comb areas, would influence brood removal from cells adjacent to the heated one. This was the case for uninfested, though not for infested cells. We conclude that infestation by V. destructor leads to a heating of brood cells that should be perceivable by bees, and that small-scale temperature gradients can influence brood removal. This makes it appear possible that thermal cues play a role in triggering hygienic behavior of honey bees directed at varroa-infested larvae/pupae, although our results are insufficient to prove such an involvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Yan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible, were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05 at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and

  1. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  2. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application.

  3. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  4. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  5. Effect of abiotic factors on the infestation of spotted bollworm in advance genotypes of cotton

    Khaliq, A.; Subhani, M.N.; Murtaza, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were conducted on ten advance varieties of cotton Viz., BH-121, NIAB KRISHMA, DNA-137, VH-142, BH-125, MNH-635, SLH-627, FNH-245, CRIS-467 and CRIS-82 to see the effect of different weather conditions on the incidence and development of spotted bollworm infestation at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad. Temperature and relative humidity were correlated positively and rainfall affected negatively to the infestation of spotted bollworm on squares and green bolls in advance genotype of cotton. (author)

  6. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  7. Dose rate effects on survival of two insect species which commonly infest stored corn

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M.; Watters, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the dose rate effects on survival of two species of insects which commonly infest commercial maize in Mexico was undertaken using 60 Co γ radiation and 1.0 MeV electrons, to determine whether an optimum dose rate exists for the irradiation of grain infested with these insects. Experiments have shown that the effectiveness of γ and electron irradiation were not influenced by dose rates from 10 to 120 Gy/min for 60 Co and 35 to 300 Gy/min for electrons when the insects were irradiated at 2500 Gy. Survival curves for each species are presented for both types of radiation. (author)

  8. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  9. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec®) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative afte...

  10. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  11. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew (Diptera: Phoridae infesting laboratory stocks of mantids (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure

    N. Mongiardino Koch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the first record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew infesting laboratory stocks of the praying mantis (Parastagmatoptera tessellata, Saussure. M. scalaris, the scuttle fly, is a cosmopolitan species with a broad niche as it performs as detritivore, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside adult mantids and, when development was completed, pupae were found inside the abdominal cavity and around the body. We discuss the presence of colonies of crickets bred as prey for the mantids as a facilitator of M. scalaris infestation.

  12. A previously unidentified Chorioptes species infesting outer ear canals of moose (Alces alces: characterization of the mite and the pathology of infestation

    Mattsson Roland

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade, Chorioptes mites occupying the outer ear canals have been a common finding at routine necropsies of moose (Alces alces in Sweden, but neither the taxonomy of the mites nor lesions from the infestation have been investigated. In this study, the mites are characterized by morphological and molecular techniques, and the histopathology of the skin of the outer ear canal is described. Methods External auditory meatuses from 53 necropsied moose were examined for the presence of Chorioptes, and samples from outer ear canals were taken for histopathological and microbiological examination. A proportion of the mites from each moose was identified to species. The DNA was extracted from mites from three moose, and their ITS-2 sequences were determined; these sequences were compared phylogenetically to sequences from other Chorioptes taxa. Results Chorioptes mites were found in 43 (81% of the 53 moose. The mites had morphological and genetic characteristics distinct from those of C. texanus and C. bovis, the two species generally accepted within the genus. Morphology also did not argue for a diagnosis as C. crewei, C. mydaus or C. panda. On histopathology, lesions were characterized by a hyperplastic perivascular to interstitial dermatitis with epidermal hyperkeratosis and crust formation. Dermal inflammatory infiltrates were composed of mixed T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages, whereas eosinophils were notably uncommon. Staphylococcus aureus was grown from the infested epidermis of five of 14 examined moose. Conclusion Chorioptes mite infestation was frequently detected in the outer ear canals of moose in Sweden. The mites were evidently pathogenic, being associated with inflammatory lesions of the external auditory meatus. Our studies indicate infestations with a previously undescribed Chorioptes species.

  13. Needle terpenoid composition of Pinus halepensis (Mill.) Trees infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica (Genn.) in Greece

    Athanassios Gallis; Carlos Arrabal; Aristotle C. Papageorgiou; Maria C. Garcia-Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Needle terpenoid composition was determined by using GLC-MS in Pinus halepensis (Mill.) trees that were infested and not infested by the scale insect Marchalina hellenica. The study area was within the Forest National Park of the Cape Sounion, southern Attica region, Greece. A total of 43 compounds, 32 of which were identified...

  14. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  15. 9 CFR 72.21 - Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle.

    2010-01-01

    ... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.21 Animals infested with or exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with...

  16. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  17. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.

  18. Exuberant granulation tissue response associated with Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infestation in two cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus).

    Hurley-Sanders, J; Harms, C; Christiansen, E; Clarke, E; Law, J

    2016-03-01

    Monogenean parasite infestations are common in captive marine teleosts, and are generally found on the skin and gills. This report describes an unusual pathological presentation of exuberant granulation tissue of the gills, suspected to be related to Neobenedenia infestation in two cobia housed together at a North Carolina aquarium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pilot program (proof of concept) to mitigate Phytophthora ramorum at an infested nursery based on a systems approach

    Gary Chastagner; Marianne Elliott

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this program was to demonstrate proof of concept of certain mitigation approaches at a repeat P. ramorum-positive nursery site in Washington. Approaches included steam treatment of infested soil areas; creating a gravel “sandwich” above steam-treated and potentially infested soil surfaces; improving drainage systems; required...

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of house infestation by Triatoma infestans in the Toro Toro municipality, Potosi, Bolivia.

    Espinoza Echeverria, Jorge; Rodriguez, Antonio Nogales; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves; Gorla, David E

    2017-02-02

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Bolivia. The species is present both in domestic and peridomestic structures of rural areas, and in wild ecotopes of the Andean valleys and the Great Chaco. The identification of areas persistently showing low and high house infestation by the vector is important for the management of vector control programs. This study aimed at analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of house infestation by T. infestans in the Toro Toro municipality (Potosi, Bolivia) between 2009 and 2014, and its association with environmental variables. House infestation and T. infestans density were calculated from entomological surveys of houses in the study area, using a fixed-time effort sampling technique. The spatial heterogeneity of house infestation was evaluated using the SatScan statistic. Association between house infestation with Bioclim variables (Worldclim database) and altitude was analyzed using a generalized linear model (GLM) with a logit link. Model selection was based on the Akaike information criteria after eliminating collinearity between variables using the variable inflation factor. The final model was used to create a probability map of house infestation for the Toro Toro municipality. A total of 73 communities and 16,489 house evaluation events were analyzed. Presence of T. infestans was recorded on 480 house evaluation events, giving an overall annual infestation of 2.9% during the studied period (range 1.5-5.4% in 2009 and 2012). Vector density remained at about 1.25 insects/ house. Infestation was highly aggregated in five clusters, including 11 communities. Relative risk of infestation within these clusters was 1.7-3.9 times the value for the regional average. Four environmental variables were identified as good descriptors of house infestation, explaining 57% of house infestation variability. The model allowed the estimation of a house infestation surface for the Toro Toro municipality. This

  1. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  2. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  3. RESULTS OF THE THREE-YEAR MONITORING (2001.-2003. OF TOBACCO WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889, (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE IN CROATIA

    Tatjana Masten

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The quarantine pest tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 was for the first time found in Croatia in 2000 on some culture and weed plants in greenhouses and in the open field in the area from Trogir to Omiš. Monitoring of tobacco whitefly was organized in all counties (21. Eventual presence of tobacco whitefly adults on the plants in glasshouses was established by the hanging of yellow sticky traps. In the course of monitoring the undersides of leaves on host plants were inspected for the purpose of discovering pest nymphal and pupal stages. The plants of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima produced as pest free plants have been used as catch plants in the conditions of lower infestation of host plants by tobacco whitefly adults. In three-year monitoring it was found out that poinsettia is the most atractive host plant for this pest between 38 host plants being registered during this monitoring. The fact that tobacco whitefly during the summer was found on the vegetables, ornamentals and weeds in the open fields in Dalmatia indicate that tobacco whitefly became domesticated and it can successfully overwinter in mediteranean climate conditions. During the monitoring tobacco whitefly was detected in 13 counties in our country, indicating shows that tobacco whitefly has been spreading progresivly since it was found in Croatia for the first time.

  4. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain.

  5. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis infestation model

    Beugnet Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline® Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S-methoprene and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect® for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S-methoprene were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22–53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p < 0.05 from those of the untreated control cats on all assessment days. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated dogs ranged from 166.6 to 238.6. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Certifect treated dogs differed significantly (p < 0.001 from those of the untreated group on all assessment days. Frontline Combo treatment on cats provided ≥99.8% persistent anti-flea efficacy throughout the 30-day treatment period. In the dog study, the two Certifect treatments provided ≥97% persistent efficacy throughout the 60-day study. Based on the collection of expelled D. caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6 of the control cats and 0% (0/6 of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5% produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0% in the treated group were infected. The

  6. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  7. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    S.V. Joseph; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera:Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to...

  8. A review of Chinese tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae), with descriptions of Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov.

    Long, Jian-Kun; Yang, Lin; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Planthoppers of the tribe Achilini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae) from China, are reviewed. A key to the three genera of Chinese Achilini is given. A new genus and species of the tribe from southwestern China: Paracatonidia webbeda gen. & sp. nov., is described. A new genus and species record for China, Cixidia kasparyani Anufriev, is also given.

  9. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  10. Complex of primary and secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae and Signiphoridae) of Hypogeoccoccus spp. mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the New World

    Parasitoids, both primary and secondary (hyperparasitoids), of Hypogeococcus spp. mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are reviewed to report results of the surveys in the New World conducted during 2009–2017 for perspective natural enemies of the Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus sp., which ...

  11. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species.

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-12-11

    Two new species of the issid genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae): Neotetricodes longispinus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and Neotetricodes xiphoideus Chang et Chen sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.

  12. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  13. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  14. Host range of the exotic brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), implications for future distribution

    Gary Bernon; Karen M. Bernhard; Anne L. Nielsen; James F. Stimmel; E. Richard Hoebeke; Maureen E. Carter

    2007-01-01

    Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest in eastern Asia on soybeans and woody plants, including broadleaved trees and fruit trees. A population was discovered in Allentown, PA in 2001. H. halys is also a nuisance pest as it overwinters in homes and other buildings. Based on earlier reports to the Lehigh County...

  15. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  16. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  17. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  18. Occurrence of lace bug Vatiga illudens and Vatiga manihotae (Hemiptera: Tingidae) in Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    Bellon, Patrícia P; Wengrat, Ana P G S; Kassab, Samir O; Pietrowski, Vanda; Loureiro, Elisângela S

    2012-09-01

    Nymphs and adults of the lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have been found in cassava crops (Manihot esculenta) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The insects were collected in the field and taken to the laboratory where they were identified based on some morphological traits of the species Vatiga manihotae (Drake) and V. illudens (Drake), which are first reported in the aforementioned state.

  19. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  20. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid

  1. Limited predation potential by adult and larval lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs and nymphs

    The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) co-occur in many habitats with many arthropods that are of suitable size as prey. The Pentatomidae (Hemiptera) are one such group of insects with eggs and early instars that could be susceptible to predation by Coccinellidae. The objective of this laboratory study wa...

  2. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  3. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  4. Rearing and Release of Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Water hyacinth in 2015

    2017-06-01

    Hemiptera: Delphacidae) for Biological Control of Waterhyacinth in 2015 by Jan Freedman and Nathan Harms PURPOSE: Waterhyacinth biological control ... control agents. Three insects were released in the United States for biological control of waterhyacinth during the 1970s; two weevils, Neochetina...content) and competitive interactions with other biological control agents (e.g., Neochetina spp.), though their consideration in other biological

  5. Optimal control of an invasive species with imperfect information about the level of infestation

    Robert G. Haight; Stephen. Polasky

    2010-01-01

    The presence of invasive species is often not realized until well after the species becomes established. Discovering the location and extent of infestation before the invasive species causes widespread damage typically requires intensive monitoring efforts. In this paper, we analyze the problem of controlling an invasive species when there is imperfect information...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University .... guidelines using gross and stereomicroscopic examination. .... with the risk and differences in the farm management systems, prevalence of ... tick genera combinations infested animals with diversified tick genera in Ha-.

  7. Expression profiling of selected glutathione transferase genes in Zea mays (L.) seedlings infested with cereal aphids.

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2•-) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2•- was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2•- generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype.

  8. Infestation dynamics of the Asian longhorned beetle in the United States

    Alan Sawyer

    2007-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is an exotic pest of Asian origin, first discovered in North America (Brooklyn, NY) in 1996. That infestation has now spread to Queens, Manhattan and Long Island, NY and Jersey City, NJ. Based on DNA profiles (Carter et al. 2005) and other evidence, independent...

  9. Southern pine beetle infestation probability mapping using weights of evidence analysis

    Jason B. Grogan; David L. Kulhavy; James C. Kroll

    2010-01-01

    Weights of Evidence (WofE) spatial analysis was used to predict probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) (SPB) infestation in Angelina, Nacogdoches, San Augustine and Shelby Co., TX. Thematic data derived from Landsat imagery (1974–2002 Landsat 1–7) were used. Data layers included: forest covertype, forest age, forest patch size...

  10. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  11. Health impacts of bedbug infestation: A case of five towns in Amhara ...

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    areas were not considered as infestation in the study. Pretested structured questionnaire was the instrument used to gather demographic information from the household representatives. In addition, Diagnostic and. Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (21) was employed to assess the psychological and social.

  12. Expression Profiling of Selected Glutathione Transferase Genes in Zea mays (L.) Seedlings Infested with Cereal Aphids

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona; Łukasik, Iwona; Goławska, Sylwia; Sempruch, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate the expression patterns of selected glutathione transferase genes (gst1, gst18, gst23 and gst24) in the tissues of two maize (Zea mays L.) varieties (relatively resistant Ambrozja and susceptible Tasty Sweet) that were colonized with oligophagous bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or monophagous grain aphid (Sitobion avenae L.). Simultaneously, insect-triggered generation of superoxide anion radicals (O2 •−) in infested Z. mays plants was monitored. Quantified parameters were measured at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-initial aphid infestation (hpi) in relation to the non-infested control seedlings. Significant increases in gst transcript amounts were recorded in aphid-stressed plants in comparison to the control seedlings. Maximal enhancement in the expression of the gst genes in aphid-attacked maize plants was found at 8 hpi (gst23) or 24 hpi (gst1, gst18 and gst24) compared to the control. Investigated Z. mays cultivars formed excessive superoxide anion radicals in response to insect treatments, and the highest overproduction of O2 •− was noted 4 or 8 h after infestation, depending on the aphid treatment and maize genotype. Importantly, the Ambrozja variety could be characterized as having more profound increments in the levels of gst transcript abundance and O2 •− generation in comparison with the Tasty Sweet genotype. PMID:25365518

  13. Repeatability of measurements of removal of mite-infested brood to assess Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

    Varroa Sensitive Hygiene is a useful resistance trait that bee breeders could increase in different populations with cost-effective and reliable tests. We investigated the reliability of a one-week test estimating the changes in infestation of brood introduced into highly selected and unselected co...

  14. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Demodex spp. Infestation in a breast-cancer patient: A case report ...

    Immune system becomes suppressed in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy, and as a result these patients become vulnerable to infestations. In our case, a 45 year-old female has been admitted to oncology clinic for a medical treatment of breast cancer. Her systematic physical examination was normal, except ...

  16. Comparative testing of different methods for evaluation of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies

    Nikolay D. Dobrynin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods for evaluation of the degree of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies were tested. The methods using in vivo evaluation were the most sparing for the bees but less precise. The methods using evaluation with the killing of the bees or brood were the most precise but less sparing for bees.

  17. Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico.

    Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Perez, Mario; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojorquez, Josue; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lenhart, Audrey; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Arredondo-Jimenez, Juan I

    2015-02-01

    Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

  18. 99m Tc-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigram in evaluation of clonorchis sinensis infestation in endemic region

    Yum, Ha Yong

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate clinical utilization of 99 mTc-DISIDA scintigraphy in detection of Cs-infestation and its complication as well as combined disease in liver, in comparison with detection rate of Cs-stool ova and to describe unique pattern of hepatobiliary bile flow found on the study. (Author)

  19. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  20. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  1. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  2. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    Yaşar Goz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae and fleas (Siphonaptera are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer.Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively.Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus and fleas (A. erinacei in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. 

  3. Termite Infestation Associated with Type of Soil in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.

  4. Termite infestation associated with type of soil in pulau pinang, malaysia (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-12-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil.

  5. Is there an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children?

    Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria; da Silva, Carolina Brunelli Alvares; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Pereira Saraiva, Maria da Conceição; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Multiple factors have been considered in the etiology of bruxism in pediatric patients, among which are infestations by intestinal parasites suggested by some authors. No empirical evidence exists, however, of such association. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the existence of an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children. Fifty-seven 6- to 11-year-olds (30 cases and 27 controls) who had not used anthelminthics 2 months before the baseline examination were enrolled in the study. A diagnosis of bruxism was based on an intraoral clinical examination performed by a single trained examiner and on the parent/guardian's report of any perceived parafunctional habits (questionnaire-based interview). Bruxism cases were defined as those children with a report of currently perceived habits of eccentric or centric bruxism (tooth-grinding and tooth-clenching, respectively) combined with clinical evidence of nonphysiologic wear facets. The volunteers were required to collect 3 fecal samples (1 every 2 to 3 days). Parasitologic analysis was performed using the spontaneous sedimentation method. Data gathered from the intraoral clinical examination, questionnaire, and parasitologic analysis were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the chi-square test and student's t test. Intestinal parasitic infestation was observed in 30% (N=9) of cases and 41% (N=11) of controls, but no statistically significant association was observed (P=.40). This study's findings do not support the existence of an association between intestinal parasitic infestation and bruxism among the evaluated pediatric population.

  6. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  7. The effect of Sirex noctilio infestation and fire damage on the ...

    The infection and association between the wood wasp Sirex noctilio and the fungus Amylostereum areolatum is responsible for large-scale tree mortality in the Midlands of the KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. An exploratory investigation on the effect of the infestation of trees by the wood wasp and its associated ...

  8. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. L. Ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J

    2017-02-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.

  9. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  10. Role of herbicide treatments and application times in cogongrass eradication under open field infestation scenario

    A Cogongrass eradication project was conducted from spring 2008 through fall 2011 on natural, open-field Cogongrass infestations at two locations near Tilman's Corner and Bayou La Batre in southwestern Alabama. Treatments consisted of glyphosate alone (4 lb/acre), imazapyr alone (0.75 lb/acre) and ...

  11. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  12. Stand characteristics and Ips typographus (L.) (Col., Curculionidae, Scolytinae) infestation during outbreak in northeastern Poland

    Jacek Hilszczanski; Wojciech Janiszewski; Jose Negron; A. Steve Munson

    2006-01-01

    The study included field data collected from outbreak areas of Norway spruce beetle Ips typographus L., which were used to identify stand conditions associated with outbreak populations. In 2001-2002 data from 100 infested and 100 uninfested plots were collected from eight Forest Districts of State Forests and three National Parks in northeastern Poland. Among 17...

  13. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  14. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  15. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation and Norway spruce status: is there a causal relationship?

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.; Havlíček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 255-264 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * crown status * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  16. Suppression of Phytophthora ramorum infestations through silvicultural treatment in California's north coast

    Yana Valachovic; Chris Lee; Brendan Twieg; David Rizzo; Richard Cobb; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, three forested sites infested with Phytophthora ramorum in Humboldt County, California were subjected to different combinations of treatments designed to reduce inoculum and control spread. One treatment, consisting of removal of all California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak...

  17. Fluctuación y distribución espacio-temporal de Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae y de Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae en el cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae en Ucayali, Perú Fluctuation and temporal-spatial distribution of Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae and Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae on camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae in Ucayali, Peru

    Diana Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae es una plaga importante en el cultivo de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la fluctuación y la distribución espacio-temporal de T. cognata y de su controlador biológico Ocyptamus persimilis (Curran, 1930 (Diptera, Syrphidae, entre enero a noviembre del 2004 en los caseríos San Juan y Padre Bernardo, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El número de ninfas y adultos de T. cognata fue mayor en la época lluviosa que en la seca, pero no en el número de huevos, ni en el número de colonias. Los huevos, ninfas y adultos prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. La excepción fue la presencia de huevos en el caserío San Juan que no mostró preferencias por ninguno de los tercios. No se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de infestación por T. cognata entre ambos caseríos y entre la época seca y lluviosa. En O. persimilis, no se encontró diferencias en el número de huevos, larvas y pupas entre la época seca y lluviosa. Se observó que los huevos, larvas y pupas prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. Ambas especies, T. cognata y O. persimilis presentaron un patrón de distribución espacial - temporal agregado. Se encontró una relación directa entre el número de colonias de T. cognata y O. persimilis. Sin embargo, el número de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. cognata no se encontraron correlacionados con el número de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. persimilis.Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, is a main pest on camu-camu culture Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the fluctuation and spatial and temporal distribution of T

  18. Thlastocoris laetus Mayr, 1866 (hemiptera: coreidae: acanthocerini) nueva plaga de la piña

    Couturier,G.; Brailovsky,H.; Zucchi,R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Thlastocoris laetus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) es por primera vez señalado como plaga de la piña para la Amazonia brasileña y peruana comentando los daños que ocasiona. Se presenta la caracterización morfológica de esta especie, comparandola con Lybindus dichrous que también es reconocido como plaga de la piña en el Brasil. La distribución geográfica de ambas especies es citada.

  19. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  20. Data on the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece, with description of two new species.

    Szita, Éva; Fetykó, Kinga Gabriela; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kozár, Ferenc; Partsinevelos, Georgios; Milonas, Panagiotis; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

    2017-10-09

    Surveys of the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Altogether 93 scale insect species were collected, belonging to 11 families. Thirty-eight species (41%) proved to be new to the Greek fauna, including two species new to science (Anophococcus hellenicus Kaydan & Szita sp. n. (Acanthococcidae) and Iberococcus attikus Szita & Fetykó sp. n. (Pseudococcidae)), and two introduced invasive species (Phenacoccus graminicola Leonardi and Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), both Pseudococcidae). The rest of the species seem to be native to the Greek fauna. The total number of scale insect species recorded from Greece is increased to 253.

  1. Description of a new genus, Galgoria gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Leptopsaltriini: Leptopsaltriina).

    Lee, Young June

    2016-05-10

    A new cicada genus, Galgoria gen. nov., is described with Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 (from southern China) as its type species, which is placed in the subtribe Leptopsaltriina Moulton, 1923 of the tribe Leptopsaltriini Moulton, 1923 in the subfamily Cicadinae Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae). Tanna herzbergi Schmidt, 1932 is transferred from Tanna Distant, 1905 to Galgoria gen. nov. to become Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov. Tanna apicalis Chen, 1940 syn. nov. and Tanna pseudocalis Lei & Chou, 1997 syn. nov. are synonymized here with Galgoria herzbergi (Schmidt, 1932) comb. nov.

  2. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Paradell, Susana L.

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28° 48′ to 39° 17′ S and 64° 06′ to 70° 04′ W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions. PMID:20578887

  3. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  4. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  5. Primeiro Registro de Afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) em Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) no Brasil

    Cunha, Suzan Beatriz Zambon da; Sousa e Silva, Carlos Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) árvore de origem Asiática foi introduzida no Brasil em 1817, desde então vem aumentando sua área de cultivo no país. A planta é atacada por poucos insetos como as moscas e percevejos. Este trabalho relata a presença de Aphis gossypii Glover em A. carambola pela primeira vez no Brasil. First Record of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) in Brazil Abstract. The starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) has origin Asiatic an...

  6. PRIMER REPORTE DE LA PRESENCIA DE Diaphorina citri (HEMIPTERA: LIVIIDAE EN MANABÍ

    José Bernardo Navarrete Cedeño

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, conocido como el psílido asiático de los cítricos, es considerada una plaga clave de la citricultura mundial, debido a que es vector de la bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter”, agente causal de la enfermedad “Huanglongbing”, que tiene efectos letales sobre vegetales dentro de la familia Rutaceae. En este documento se reporta la presencia de D. citri infestando Murraya spp., un arbusto de la familia Rutaceae, en la zona urbana del cantón Portoviejo. Este es el primer reporte de la plaga en la provincia de Manabí-Ecuador

  7. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  8. Sources of wild germplasm to improve whitefly resistance in commercial watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whitefly complex is well known as a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive number of plant species (over 1,000). Yet, th...

  9. Assesing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: Antixenosis and antibiosis Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de soya a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotipo B: Antixenosis y antibiosis

    José Paulo Gonçalves Franco da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L., reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM. This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.Desde que se registró por primera vez en Brasil en la década de 1990, el biotipo B de la mosca-blanca (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, se reconoce como una importante plaga de la soya (Glycine max L. y es lo que reduce la productividad de estas especies de leguminosas en algunas zonas del pais. Como una alternativa al control químico, el uso de genotipos resistentes representa una herramienta importante para la gestión integrada de plagas (MIP. Este trabajo evaluó el comportamiento de 10 genotipos de soya frente al ataque de la mosca-blanca, por medio de ensayos de atractividad y preferencia para ovipostura en invernaderos y antibiosis en laboratorio. En una prueba de elección multiple, 'IAC-17' fue el menos atractivo para los insectos. En una prueba sin elecci

  10. Severe water intoxication and secondary depressive syndrome in relation to delusional infestation

    Lai J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jianbo Lai,1 Qiaoqiao Lu,1 Yi Xu,1,2 Shaohua Hu1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: This study presents a case of severe water intoxication in a female patient with delusional infestation. Self-induced excessive water ingestion is a rare medical condition, which has not been reported in patients with delusional infestation yet. The patient in this case study was a 60-year-old Chinese woman, who was admitted to our hospital because of a feeling of skin infestation. She suffered from loss of consciousness and generalized tonic–clonic seizure after drinking 12 L of water during bowel cleansing before colonoscopy. Sufficient laboratory and imaging examinations were performed to exclude other possible causes of severe hyponatremia, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Besides, the cystic lesion in the posterior pituitary revealed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging was not accountable for her delusional symptoms as well as excessive drinking behavior. Her delusional symptoms were in complete remission with a combination of risperidone and aripiprazole. However, nearly 3 months after discharge, this patient suffered from depressed mood and was diagnosed with depressive syndrome, and even attempted suicide. This case highlights the possibility of self-induced water intoxication in patients with delusional infestation, inevitably adding to the complexity of the disease, and indicates the necessity of precautions for secondary psychotic or mood problems after symptomatological remission. Keywords: delusional infestation, depressive syndrome, suicide, water intoxication

  11. Occurrence and biology of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera, Oestridae) in Iran.

    Oryan, A; Razavi, S M; Bahrami, S

    2009-12-03

    Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) by the larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus is endemic in goats of semi-hilly and mountainous regions of Iran. This myiasis has severe economic impact on tanning industries, and it is responsible for impaired milk and meat production, growth retardation and carcass depreciation. To estimate the prevalence of GWFI in the southern areas of Iran, from October 2006 to December 2008, the carcasses of 8000 goats at a Shiraz slaughterhouse and 1000 each at Marvdasht and Darab cities were examined weekly for the presence of P. silenus larvae. In addition, appropriate sections from the skin and subcutaneous tissues were processed for histopathological investigation. The prevalence rate of infestation in different cities varied from 7.0% to 18.9% and the minimum and maximum infestation rate was 3 and 78, with an average rate of infestation of 26.2 warbles per animal. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence among different age groups with no significant difference between male and female animals. First instar larvae (L(1)) were found on infected animals from early August to end of September, second larval stage (L(2)) from early October to end of November and third-stage larvae (L(3)) from early December to mid-March. No larvae were found on skin or subcutaneous tissues from end of March to late July. Live L(1) initiated mild lymphocyte, macrophage and eosinophil infiltration while dead L(1) initiated granulomatous or pyogranulomatous reactions. Live L(2) induced severe inflammatory reaction and massive tissue necrosis, which continued for L(3) and until the end of infestation phase. The subcutaneous tissues, dermis and epidermis became necrotic and fragmented, and L(3) penetrated the necrotic area to start its aerobic life cycle.

  12. Mortalidade de Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae por Lecanicillium spp. em diferentes órgãos de Coffea arabica

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a mortalidade de Coccus viridis por Lecanicillium spp. em folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica. O trabalho foi realizado na casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, entre fevereiro de 2005 a junho de 2006. Foram utilizadas sementes da variedade Catuaí vermelho de café (C. arabica. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi composta por 3,0 mmol/L de N, 9,0 mmol/L de K, 1,0 mmol/L de P, 4,0 mmol/L de Ca, 2,1 mmol/L de S, 46 µmol/L de B, 0,3 µmol/L de Cu, 60,0 µmol/L de Fe, 2,0 µmol/L de Mg, 0,5 µmol/L de Mo e 36,0 µmol/L de Mn. As cochonilhas e o fungo foram coletados de folhas de café em lavouras comerciais de Viçosa, MG e foram mantidos em gaiolas em Casa de Vegetação. As plantas foram infestadas com oito meses de idade. A infestação foi realizada por contato de C. viridis infectadas com o fungo sobre as cochonilhas sadias. As densidades de C. viridis viva e morta nas folhas e nos ramos foram avaliadas aos 0, 15, 30, 35, 45, 60 e 75 dias após a infestação. Usou-se análise de variância, teste de média de Skott-Knott e análise de regressão linear simples a p<0,05. O fungo Lecanicillium spp. causou mortalidade em todos os estádios de C. viridis. De forma geral, a maior mortalidade ocorreu no terceiro ínstar. Além disso, o fungo causou maior mortalidade nesse inseto praga na face abaxial da folha de café. Mortality of Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae by Lecanicillium spp. in differents Coffea arabica organs in greenhouseAbstract. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mortality of Coccus viridis by Lecanicillium spp. on faces of the leaves, and branches of Coffea arabica. This work was conducted in greenhouse at UFV. The experiment was carried out from February 2005 to June 2006. Seeds of the lineage IAC 15 from the variety “Catuaí Vermelho” coffee (C. arabica were used. The nutritive solution utilized was composed for 3. 0 mmol/L of N, 9. 0 mmol/L of K, 1. 0 mmol

  13. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  14. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0–3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  15. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rat infestation associated with environmental deficiencies in an urban slum community with high risk of leptospirosis transmission.

    Santos, Norlan de Jesus; Sousa, Erica; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Costa, Federico

    2017-03-09

    We analyzed environmental factors that provide food, water and harborage to rodents and the risk of household rodent infestation in a slum community with a high risk of leptospirosis transmission. Detailed environmental surveys were performed in 221 households. Multivariate regression models evaluated the association between rodent infestation and socioeconomic status and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys. The general household infestation rate was 45.9%. Rattus norvegicus signs were the most prevalent, present in 74% of the infested households. The risk for rodent infestation was associated with environmental factors supporting harborage for rats, such as dilapidated fences/walls (OR: 8.95; 95%CI: 2.42-33.12) and households built on an earthen slope (OR: 4.68; 95%CI: 2.23-9.81). An increase of 1 meter from the nearest sewer was associated with a 3% (95%CI: 1%-5%) decrease in the risk of rodent infestation. A lack of sanitation where poor people live provides factors for rat infestation and could the target of educational interventions.

  17. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of

  19. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera.

  20. Influence of Agronomic and Climatic Factors on Fusarium Infestation and Mycotoxin Contamination of Cereals in Norway

    Bernhoft, A.; Torp, M.; Clasen, P.-E.; Løes, A.-K.; Kristoffersen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 602 samples of organically and conventionally grown barley, oats and wheat was collected at grain harvest during 2002–2004 in Norway. Organic and conventional samples were comparable pairs regarding cereal species, growing site and harvest time, and were analysed for Fusarium mould and mycotoxins. Agronomic and climatic factors explained 10–30% of the variation in Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Significantly lower Fusarium infestation and concentrations of important mycotoxins were found in the organic cereals. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) constitute the main risk for human and animal health in Norwegian cereals. The impacts of various agronomic and climatic factors on DON and HT-2 as well as on their main producers F. graminearum and F. langsethiae and on total Fusarium were tested by multivariate statistics. Crop rotation with non-cereals was found to reduce all investigated characteristics significantly – mycotoxin concentrations as well as various Fusarium infestations. No use of mineral fertilisers and herbicides was also found to decrease F. graminearum, whereas lodged fields increased the occurrence of this species. No use of herbicides was also found to decrease F. langsethiae, but for this species the occurrence was lower in lodged fields. Total Fusarium infestation was decreased with no use of fungicides or mineral fertilisers, and with crop rotation, as well as by using herbicides and increased by lodged fields. Clay and to some extent silty soils seemed to reduce F. graminearum in comparison with sandy soils. Concerning climate factors, low temperature before grain harvest was found to increase DON; and high air humidity before harvest to increase HT-2. F. graminearum was negatively correlated with precipitation in July but correlated with air humidity before harvest. F. langsethiae was correlated with temperature in July. Total Fusarium increased with increasing precipitation in July. Organic cereal

  1. Impacts of human-related practices on Ommatissus lybicus infestations of date palm in Oman.

    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS, geographically weighted regression (GRW, and exploratory regression (ER were applied to (a model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman. Firstly, we extracted row spacing and palm tree density information from remote sensed satellite images. Secondly, we collected data on irrigation practices and management by using a simple questionnaire, augmented with spatial data. Thirdly, we conducted our statistical analyses using all possible combinations of values over a given set of candidate variables using the chosen predictive modelling and regression techniques. Lastly, we identified the combination of human-related practices that are most conducive to the survival and spread of DB. Our results show that there was a strong correlation between DB infestations and several human-related practices parameters (R2 = 0.70. Variables including palm tree density, spacing between trees (less than 5 x 5 m, insecticide application, date palm and farm service (pruning, dethroning, remove weeds, and thinning, irrigation systems, offshoots removal, fertilisation and labour (non-educated issues, were all found to significantly influence the degree of DB infestations. This study is expected to help reduce the extent and cost of aerial and ground sprayings, while facilitating the

  2. Influence of Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) infestation levels and management practices on insecticide sensitivity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Because Varroa mites may cause devastating losses of honey bees through direct feeding, transmitting diseases, and increasing pathogen susceptibility, chemical and mechanical practices commonly are used to reduce mite infestation. While miticide applications are typically the most consistent and eff...

  3. Spatial modeling of rat bites and prediction of rat infestation in Peshawar valley using binomial kriging with logistic regression.

    Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Saleem

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we propose to develop a geostatistical computational framework to model the distribution of rat bite infestation of epidemic proportion in Peshawar valley, Pakistan. Two species Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus are suspected to spread the infestation. The framework combines strengths of maximum entropy algorithm and binomial kriging with logistic regression to spatially model the distribution of infestation and to determine the individual role of environmental predictors in modeling the distribution trends. Our results demonstrate the significance of a number of social and environmental factors in rat infestations such as (I) high human population density; (II) greater dispersal ability of rodents due to the availability of better connectivity routes such as roads, and (III) temperature and precipitation influencing rodent fecundity and life cycle.

  4. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Impacts of Zebra Mussel Infestations on Water Quality. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    Ashby, Steven

    1998-01-01

    ..., and sediment quality. The purpose of this technical note describes potential changes in water quality as a result of zebra mussel infestations in aquatic systems, based on a review of the literature...

  5. Patterns of gall infestation in Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. in a forest-savannah ecotone

    Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are the result of a specific interaction between an inducer and a host plant. The species Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. occurs in abundance in semideciduous seasonal forest ecotones and adjacent open formations. In the ecological reserve Quedas do Rio Bonito, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this species is affected by a single gall morphotype. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the structural complexity of the host (test of the structural complexity hypothesis and the distance between hosts (test of the resource concentration hypothesis affect gall density in H. byrsonimifolia and to characterize the spatial distribution of the infestation. The results corroborate the two hypotheses tested, suggesting a metapopulation pattern of gall infestation in H. byrsonimifolia. Gallers were more successful in abrupt forest-savannah transition environments, which may be associated with greater stress-induced host vulnerability that plants usually experience in ecotones.

  6. Les infestations par les poux de tête : une mise à jour clinique.

    Cummings, Carl; Finlay, Jane C; MacDonald, Noni E

    2018-02-01

    Les infestations par les poux de tête ( Pediculus humanus capitis ) ne constituent ni un risque sanitaire primaire ni un vecteur de maladie, mais représentent plutôt un problème de société au coût impor- tant. Pour diagnostiquer une infestation, il faut déceler un pou vivant. Même si les pyréthines et la perméthrine demeurent les traitements de première intention au Canada, la solution de myristate d'isopropyle et de ST-cyclométhicone et la diméticone peuvent être envisagées en deuxième intention après un échec thérapeutique démontré.

  7. Clonorchis sinensis infestation promotes three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Jihee Won

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM. Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM.

  8. Treatment and control of Trixacarus caviae infestation in a conventional guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) breeding colony.

    Nath, Anjan Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec ® ) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative after 30 days of the first treatment. The entire colony was given preventive dose of ivermectin spray (2 mg/ml solution) following the same schedule. Strict hygienic measures were followed. New hair growth in the severely affected animals was evidenced on 30th day of treatment.

  9. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infestation and distribution of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies of africanized bees

    G. Moretto

    Full Text Available Whereas in several parts of the world varroa is the major pest affecting apiculture, in others the parasite is unknown to many beekeepers because its damage to bees is minor. The impact of the mite Varroa destructor is related to the climatic conditions and the races of Apis mellifera bees in each region where the pest exists. In the present study, the current level of infestation by the mite was assessed to determine the evolution of the pest in Africanized bee colonies in Southern Brazil. This level of infestation was considered low: approximately two mites per one hundred adult bees. This result is similar to that obtained for the same apiary almost five years ago and for others distributed in various regions of Brazil. In the present study, we also estimated the total varroa population and its distribution among brood and adults in each bee colony.

  11. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  13. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  14. Influence des herbicides sur l'infestation par les adventices, la ...

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... Keywords: Wheat, herbicides, weed, density, dry matter. INTRODUCTION. Une des raisons majeures de la chute des rendements des cultures céréalières comme les blés dans la zone «non chernozem» de la Russie et le reste du monde, demeure une forte infestation par différentes espèces adventices.

  15. Rootstock effects on pistachio trees grown in Verticillium dahliae-infested soil

    Epstein, Lynn; Beede, R; Kaur, S; Ferguson, L

    2004-01-01

    In a field trial in soil infested with Verticillium dahliae, we compared the yield, growth, incidence of symptoms of Verticillium wilt, and mortality of two interspecific hybrid pistachio tree rootstocks (UCBI and PGII) with the standard rootstocks: the V dahliae-resistant and susceptible Pistacia integerrima and P. atlantica, respectively. After 10 years, the trees were destructively sampled for V dahliae in the xylem at the graft union. The results indicate that trees on the (P. atlantica '...

  16. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  17. Fasciola hepatica infestation as a very rare cause of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Ahmet Dobrucali; Rafet Yigitbasi; Yusuf Erzin; Oguzhan Sunamak; Erdal Polat; Hakan Yakar

    2004-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, an endemic parasite in Turkey, is still a very rare cause of cholestasis worldwide. Through ingestion of contaminated water plants like watercress, humans can become the definitive host of this parasite. Cholestatic symptoms may be sudden but in some cases they may be preceeded by a long period of fever, eosinophilia and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a woman with cholangitis symptoms of sudden onset which was proved to be due to Fasciola hepatica infestation by an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

  18. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    Peñarrubia Lozano, Luis; Alcaraz Cazorla, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz Ball-llosera, Núria; Pla Zanuy, Carles; Vidal Fàbrega, Oriol; Viñas de Puig, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebr...

  19. Infestation of mammals by Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in south-central Sweden.

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1997-12-01

    Infestation by Ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at Bogesund, 10 km north of Stockholm, in south-central Sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (Lepus timidus) at Stora Karlsö and Gotska Sandön in the Baltic Sea during 1992-1993. At Bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of I. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The seasonal pattern of infestation by I. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank voles was unimodal in 1991, with peaks in June-July and bimodal in 1992, with peaks in June and August. Male bank voles, compared to females and older voles, compared to young voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Apodemus mice, compared to bank voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Ixodes ricinus larvae engorged on Apodemus mice were heavier than larvae engorged on bank voles and resulted in larger nymphs. However, there was no difference in the proportions of viable nymphs resulting from larvae engorged on mice or voles. The ranges in the numbers of I. ricinus ticks infesting individual hosts were 1-451 for rodents, 16-2374 for hares and 428-2072 for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These ranges of tick numbers are estimated to represent potential blood losses from individual hosts of approximately 0.2-65% for rodents, 0.2-13% for hares and 0.3-9.0% for roe deer. Within the populations of all host species examined, the distributions of all stages of I. ricinus were clumped, with most host individuals harbouring few ticks and only a few individuals harbouring many ticks. The data suggest that, even though a small proportion of tick hosts may be severely affected, the direct effects of feeding by I. ricinus are unlikely to play an important role on mammal population dynamics.

  20. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs

    Valter dos Anjos Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Almeida V. dos A., da Hora T.N., Leça Júnior N.F., Carvalho F.S., da Silva A.L., Wenceslau A.A., Albuquerque G.R. & Silva F.L. Detection of Leishmania infantum DNA in hamsters infested with ticks collected from naturally infected dogs. [Detecção do DNA de Leishmania infantum em hamsters infestados com carrapatos coletados de cães naturalmente infectados.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:329-333, 2016. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazaré de Andrade, Hospital Veterinário, Km 16, Rodovia Jorge Amado, Ilhéus, BA 45662-900, Brasil. E-mail: fabiana.lessa@gmail.com The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the brown dog tick, in the transmission of Leishmania infantum. To accomplish this, we used 24 adult golden hamsters of both genders, and divided them into two groups: a control group (n = 4 and an experimental group (n = 20. The animals from the experimental group were infested with ticks obtained from dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Hamsters of the control group were not infested and were maintained at the same conditions, as the infested animals. After three months of observation, animals were euthanized and they were posted to obtain samples of their blood, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. These samples were then processed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fourteen hamsters (70% of the experimental group tested PCR-positive for L. infantum DNA in samples of buffy coat. The results of this study indicated that R. sanguineus ticks can transmit some forms or parts of L. infantum to parasitized hamsters.