WorldWideScience

Sample records for hemi-dihydrate wet process

  1. Direct uranium extraction from dihydrate and hemi-dihydrate wet process phosphoric acids by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.T.; El Sayed, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A new liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) process for uranium extraction from either dihydrate 28-30% P 2 O 5 (DH) or hemi-dihydrate 42-45% P 2 O 5 (HDH) wet process phosphoric acid is proposed. In this process, the organic component of the LEM is composed of a synergistic mixture of 0.1M di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 0.025M trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) with 4% Span 80. The internal or the strip acid phase is composed of 0.5M citric acid. The prepared LEM was proved to be stable in 42-45% P 2 O 5 acid concentration range and can, therefore, be applied to the phosphoric acid produced by the hemi-dihydrate process. After breakdown of the loaded emulsion, the uranyl citrate in the internal strip phase is separated by adding methanol followed by its calcination to the orange oxide. Most of the reagents used are recycled. The proposed process is characterized by simplicity, practically closed operation cycle in addition to lower capital and operating costs. (author)

  2. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the field of metallurgy, specifically processes for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores, problems of imbalance of ion exchange agents, contamination of recycled phosphoric acid with process organics and oxidizing agents, and loss and contamination of uranium product, are solved by removing organics from the raffinate after ion exchange conversion of uranium to uranous form and recovery thereof by ion exchange, and returning organics to the circuit to balance mono and disubstituted ester ion exchange agents; then oxidatively stripping uranium from the agent using hydrogen peroxide; then after ion exchange recovery of uranyl and scrubbing, stripping with sodium carbonate and acidifying the strip solution and using some of it for the scrubbing; regenerating the sodium loaded agent and recycling it to the uranous recovery step. Economic recovery of uranium as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production is effected. (author)

  3. Modeling and optimization of wet sizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai Ba Cau; Vu Thanh Quang and Nguyen Ba Tien

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical simulation on basis of Stock law has been done for wet sizing process on cylinder equipment of laboratory and semi-industrial scale. The model consists of mathematical equations describing relations between variables, such as: - Resident time distribution function of emulsion particles in the separating zone of the equipment depending on flow-rate, height, diameter and structure of the equipment. - Size-distribution function in the fine and coarse parts depending on resident time distribution function of emulsion particles, characteristics of the material being processed, such as specific density, shapes, and characteristics of the environment of classification, such as specific density, viscosity. - Experimental model was developed on data collected from an experimental cylindrical equipment with diameter x height of sedimentation chamber equal to 50 x 40 cm for an emulsion of zirconium silicate in water. - Using this experimental model allows to determine optimal flow-rate in order to obtain product with desired grain size in term of average size or size distribution function. (author)

  4. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium is conventionally recovered from wet-process phosphoric acid by two liquid ion exchange steps using a mixture of mono- and disubstituted phenyl esters of orthophosphoric acid (OPPA). Efficiency of the process drops as the mono-OPPA is lost preferentially to the aqueous phase. This invention provides a process for the removal of the uranium process organics (OPPA and organic solvents) from the raffinate of the first liquid ion exchange step and their return to the circuit. The process organics are removed by a combination flotation and absorption step, which results in the recovery of the organics on beads of a hydrophobic styrene polymer

  5. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recovering uranium from wetprocess phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange liquidliquid solvent extraction circuits in which in the first circuit (A) the uranium is reduced to the uranous form; (B) the uranous uranium is recovered by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using a mixture of mono- and di-(Alkyl-phenyl) esters of orthophosphoric acid as the ion exchange agent; and (C) the uranium oxidatively stripped from the agent with phosphoric acid containing an oxidizing agent to convert uranous to uranyl ions, and in the second circuit (D) recovering the uranyl uranium from the strip solution by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using di(2ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as a synergist; (E) scrubbing the uranium loaded agent with water; (F) stripping the loaded agent with ammonium carbonate, and (G) calcining the formed ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium oxide, the improvement comprising: (1) removing the organics from the raffinate of step (B) before recycling the raffinate to the wet-process plant, and returning the recovered organics to the circuit to substantially maintain the required balance between the mono and disubstituted esters; (2) using hydogren peroxide as the oxidizing agent in step (C); (3) using an alkali metal carbonate as the stripping agent in step (F) following by acidification of the strip solution with sulfuric acid; (4) using some of the acidified strip solution as the scrubbing agent in step (E) to remove phosphorus and other impurities; and (5) regenerating the alkali metal loaded agent from step (F) before recycling it to the second circuit

  6. Study of polycaprolactone wet electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostakova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wet electrospinning is a useful method for 3-dimensional structure control of nanofibrous materials. This innovative technology uses a liquid collector instead of the metal one commonly used for standard electrospinning. The article compares the internal structural features of polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibrous materials prepared by both technologies. We analyze the influence of different water/ethanol compositions used as a liquid collector on the morphology of the resultant polycaprolactone nanofibrous materials. Scanning electron micro-photographs have revealed a bimodal structure in the wet electrospun materials composed of micro and nanofibers uniformly distributed across the sample bulk. We have shown that the full-faced, twofold fiber distribution is due to the solvent composition and is induced and enhanced by increasing the ethanol weight ratio. Moreover, the comparison of fibrous layers morphology obtained by wet and dry spinning have revealed that beads that frequently appeared in dry spun materials are created by Plateau-Rayleigh instability of the fraction of thicker fibers. Theoretical conditions for spontaneous and complete immersion of cylindrical fibers into a liquid collector are also derived here.

  7. Process for recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Thornsberry, W.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Process is claimed for the recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution in which an organic extractant, containing uranium values and dissolved iron impurities and comprising a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkylphosphine oxide dissolved in a water immiscible organic solvent, is contacted with a substantially iron-free dilute aqueous phosphoric acid to remove said iron impurities. The removed impurities are bled from the system by feeding the resulting iron-loaded phosphoric acid to a secondary countercurrent uranium extraction operation from which they leave as part of the uranium-depleted acid raffinate. Also, process for recovering uranium in which the extractant, after it has been stripped of uranium values by aqueous ammonium carbonate, is contacted with a dilute aqueous acid selected from the group consisting of H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 and iron-free H 3 PO 4 to improve the extraction efficiency of the organic extractant

  8. Process for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by means of liquid-liquid extraction with organic phosphoric acid esters. The process is optimised by keeping the sulphate percentage in the phosphoric acid below 2% by weight, and preferably below 0.6% by weight, as compared to P 2 O 5 in the phosphoric acid. This is achieved by adding an excess of Ba and/or Ca carbonate or sulfide solution and filtering off the formed calcium and/or barium sulphate precipitates. Solid KClO 3 is then added to the filtrate to oxidise U 4+ to U 6+ . The normal extraction procedure using organic phosphoric esters as extraction liquid, can then be applied. (Th.P.)

  9. Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong; Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Suryan, Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV γ = constant) are analyzed

  10. Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chidambaram, Palani Kumar [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suryan, Abhilash [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2016-12-15

    Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV{sup γ} = constant) are analyzed.

  11. Model determination and validation for reactive wetting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, F.G.; O`Toole, E.J.; Sackinger, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, T.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that dissolutive wetting initially yields a metastable equilibrium. A compact model for the kinetics of approach to this metastable state is described. The technique for constructing these kinetics stems from the early work of Onsager and begins with a relationship for the entropy production. From this, a coupled set of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations can be written directly. The equations are solved numerically for the wetted area and compared with experimental data. The model captures many of the subtle complexities of dissolutive wetting such as multiple metastable states. Sessile drop experiments involving a variety of Bi-Sn alloys on solid Bi substrates were performed. Substrates prepared from small and large-grained polycrystals and single crystals were used to measure equilibrium and metastable contact angles and estimate the surface tension and equilibrium contact angle of the solid-liquid interface. The substrates were also used to investigate the coupling of the dissolution and wetting processes and to investigate the effect of substrate grain size on wetting. It was determined that the equilibrium wetting geometry is independent of linear scale and that grain size has little influence on wetting or dissolution in the Bi-Sn system. To investigate the atomic behavior of liquids at interfaces during wetting, the authors simulated wetting in the Ag-Cu system using molecular dynamics with atomic potentials and observed both atomic dynamics and structural correlations of the liquid-solid interface. The authors found that spreading is prompted by interactions between the liquid and the substrate surface that cause the liquid layer in contact with the substrate to take on some of the symmetry of the substrate surface and result in the formation of a liquid monolayer that extends beyond the major part of the liquid droplet.

  12. A big picture prospective for wet waste processing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of general observations made relative to the technical and economical considerations being evaluated by many commercial nuclear power plants involving their decision making process for implementation of several new wet waste management technologies. The waste management processes reviewed include the use of, Reverse Osmosis, Non-Precoat Filters, Resin Stripping ampersand Recycling, Evaporation ampersand Calcination (RVR trademark, ROVER trademark ampersand Thermax trademark), Compression Dewatering (PressPak trademark), Incineration (Resin Express trademark), Survey ampersand Free Release (Green Is Clean) and Quantum Catalytic Extraction Processing (QCEP trademark). These waste management processes are reviewed relative to their general advantages and disadvantages associated with the processing of various wet waste streams including: reactor make-up water, floor drain sludges and other liquid waste streams such as boric acid concentrates and steam generator cleaning solutions. A summary of the conclusions generally being derived by most utilities associated with the use of these waste management processes is also provided

  13. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  15. Wet Mechanochemical Processing of Celestine using (NH42CO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Bingöl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traditional (univariate method of processing to the wet mechanochemical treatment were applied to obtain both SrCO3 and (NH42SO4 from celestite (SrSO4-(NH42CO3-H2O mixtures in a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis were used to analyze products formed during wet milling. A hydrometallurgical process was carried out to examine milling time, ball to grinding material mass ratio, (NH42CO3 to SrSO4 mole ratio and rotational speed of the mill in a planetary mill. Under optimum conditions, a conversion approaching 100% of SrCO3 was obtained.

  16. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasreldin, A A [Engineering Researches and Industrial Technologies Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-10-15

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  17. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreldin, A.A.

    2008-10-01

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  18. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials

  19. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M. [Delphi Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials.

  20. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.F.; Phillips, J.F. Jr.; Tate, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is claimed where the acid is treated with a mixture of an ammonium salt or ammonia, a reducing agent, and then a miscible solvent. Solids are separated from the phosphoric acid liquid phase. The solid consists of a mixture of metal phosphates and uranium. It is washed free of adhering phosphoric acid with fresh miscible solvent. The solid is dried and dissolved in acid whereupon uranium is recovered from the solution. Miscible solvent and water are distilled away from the phosphoric acid. The distillate is rectified and water discarded. All miscible solvent is recovered for recycle. 5 claims

  1. Uranium tetrafluoride production via dioxide by wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, A.R. de.

    1988-01-01

    The study for the wet way obtention of uranium tetrafluoride by the reaction of hydrofluoric acid and powder uranium dioxide, is presented. From the results obtained at laboratory scale a pilot plant was planned and erected. It is presently in operation for experimental data aquisition. Time of reaction, temperature, excess of reagents and the hydrofluoric acid / uranium dioxide ratio were the main parameters studied to obtain a product with the following characteristics: - density greater than 1 g/cm 3 , conversion rate greater than 96%, and water content equal to 0,2% that allows its application to heaxafluoride convertion or to magnesiothermic process. (author) [pt

  2. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  3. Process of recovering uranium from wet process acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Entrainment of contaminated water in the organic phase and poor phase disengagement is prevented in the second cycle scrubber, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing the organic solvent stream containing entrained H 3 PO 4 from the second cycle extractor, with a dilute aqueous sulfuric or nitric acid solution in an acid scrubber, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle stripper. (author)

  4. Discussion about the application of treatment process for dehydrated wet waste at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghua; Wu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power station, the most popular treatment about low level radioactive wet waste generated during the unit operating and maintenance is embedded by cement. For radioactive waste minimization, this article introduces a new treatment process to dehydrate and compress wet waste. According to the development and application of the treatment process for the wet waste, and comparing with the formerly treatment-the cement embedding, prove that the new treatment can meet the purpose for volume reduction of wet waste. (authors)

  5. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, S.; Carrington, F.

    1982-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid solutions uses an acidified alkali metal carbonate solution for the second-stage strip of uranyl uranium from the ion-exchange solution. The stripped solution is then recycled to the ion-exchange circuit. In the first stripping stage the ion-exchange solution containing the recovered uranyl uranium and an inert organic diluent is stripped with ammonium carbonate, producing a slurry of ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. The second strip, with a solution of 50-200 grams per litre of sodium carbonate eliminates the problems of inadequate removal of phosphorus, iron and vanadium impurities, solids accumulation, and phase separation in the strip circuit

  6. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  7. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minzer, U.; Moses, E.J.; Toren, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  8. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    DETOX SM is a catalyzed wet oxidation process which destroys organic materials in an acidic water solution of iron at 373 to 473 K. The solution can be used repeatedly to destroy great amounts of organic materials. Since the process is conducted in a contained vessel, air emissions from the process can be well controlled. The solution is also capable of dissolving and concentrating many heavy and radioactive metals for eventual stabilization and disposal. The Phase 2 effort for this project is site selection and engineering design for a DETOX demonstration unit. Site selection was made using a set of site selection criteria and evaluation factors. A survey of mixed wastes at DOE sites was conducted using the Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report. Sites with likely suitable waste types were identified. Potential demonstration sites were ranked based on waste types, interest, regulatory needs, scheduling, ability to provide support, and available facilities. Engineering design for the demonstration unit is in progress and is being performed by Jacobs Applied Technology. The engineering design proceeded through preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs), calculation of mass and energy balances for representative waste types, process and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs), preparation of component specifications, and a firm cost estimate for fabrication of the demonstration unit

  9. Technology of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakashio, Fumiyuki

    1982-12-01

    Rock phosphate contains from 0.005 to 0.02 wt.% of uranium. Though the content is a mere 5 to 10 % of that in uranium ore, the total recovery of uranium is significant since it is used for fertilizer manufacture in a large quantity. Wet-process phosphoric acid is produced by the reaction of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid. The recovery of uranium from this phosphoric acid is mostly by solvent extraction at present. According to U/sup 4 +/ or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ as the form of its existence, the technique of solvent extraction differs. The following matters are described: processing of rock phosphate; recovery techniques including the extraction by OPPA-octyl pyrophosphoric acid for U/sup 4 +/, and by mixed DEHPA-Di-(2)-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid and TOPO-tryoctyl phosphine oxide for UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and by OPAP-octylphenyl acid phosphate for U/sup 4 +/; the recent progress of the technology as seen in patents.

  10. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  11. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests

  12. Porous Gold Films Fabricated by Wet-Chemistry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Pastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous gold films presented in this paper are formed by combining gold electroless deposition and polystyrene beads templating methods. This original approach allows the formation of conductive films (2 × 106 (Ω·cm−1 with tailored and interconnected porosity. The porous gold film was deposited up to 1.2 μm on the silicon substrate without delamination. An original zirconia gel matrix containing gold nanoparticles deposited on the substrate acts both as an adhesion layer through the creation of covalent bonds and as a seed layer for the metallic gold film growth. Dip-coating parameters and gold electroless deposition kinetics have been optimized in order to create a three-dimensional network of 20 nm wide pores separated by 20 nm thick continuous gold layers. The resulting porous gold films were characterized by GIXRD, SEM, krypton adsorption-desorption, and 4-point probes method. The process is adaptable to different pore sizes and based on wet-chemistry. Consequently, the porous gold films presented in this paper can be used in a wide range of applications such as sensing, catalysis, optics, or electronics.

  13. Development of the PNC wet process producing uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo

    1979-01-01

    Pilot plant operation for the industrialization of the PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp.) wet process, which consists of ore leaching, solvent extraction (Amex Chloride Conversion), electrolytic reduction, UF 4 hydrate precipitation and dehydration, has been carried out for over ten years with several technical developments and improvements. In this paper these results of investigation on hydrofluorination step, dehydration step and reactability of UF 4 to UF 6 are reported. A new hydrofluorination equipment for continuous precipitation of crystal hydrate (particle size of 50 -- 100 mu ) was developed, and this made it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The water molecule of product (UF 4 .1 -- 1.2H 2 O) is composed of 70 -- 80% molecule dehydrated at 150 -- 200 0 C and 20 -- 30% dehydrated at about 350 0 C. The reactor-grade UF 4 containing less than 0.1% H 2 O, about 1% UO 2 and about 0.3% UO 2 F 2 by weight was obtained under the conditions of retention time of 1 hour at 350 0 C in an atmosphere of nitrogen by batch-wise operation of 3-inch diameter fluidized-bed dehydrator. From batch-wise experimental operations of 3-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor, high fluorine efficiencies over 99.9% (less than 0.1% of fluorine unreacted), were attained at 380 0 C with 41% fluorine in the inlet fluidizing gas under the continuous operation of UF 4 feed velocity of 0.1 kg/h.cm 2 . (author)

  14. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  15. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  16. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone

  17. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-04-30

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone.

  18. Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te with Group IV and/or V elements. The etchant was selected from the literature and was composed of sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, and deionized water and the types of chalcogenide glass for study were As2S3 and As24S38Se38. The main goals here were to obtain a single variable etch rate curve of etch depth per time versus NaOH overall solution concentration in M and to see the difference in etch rate between a given etchant when used on the different chalcogenide stoichiometries. Upon completion of these two goals, future studies will begin to explore creating complex, integrated photonic devices via these methods.

  19. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.; Shikhmurzaev, Y.D.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem

  20. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  1. Preliminary comparison of three processes of AlN oxidation: dry, wet and mixed ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbutowicz R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of AlN layers oxidation: dry, wet and mixed (wet with oxygen were compared. Some physical parameters of oxidized thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN layers grown on silicon Si(1 1 1 were investigated by means Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE. Three series of the thermal oxidations processes were carried out at 1012 °C in pure nitrogen as carrying gas and various gas ambients: (a dry oxidation with oxygen, (b wet oxidation with water steam and (c mixed atmosphere with various process times. All the research methods have shown that along with the rising of the oxidation time, AlN layer across the aluminum oxide nitride transforms to aluminum oxide. The mixed oxidation was a faster method than the dry or wet ones.

  2. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipoor, Ahad; Baseri, Hamid; Shabgard, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  3. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipoor, Ahad [Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baseri, Hamid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabgard, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  4. Study for process and equipment design of wet gelation stages in vibropacking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryoji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Amino, Masaki; Yanai, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Process and layout design of external wet gelation stages in vibropacking process was examined for the feasibility study of commercialized FBR cycle system. In this study, following process stages for the oxide core fuel production line were covered, that is, solidification, washing, drying, calcination, reduction, sintering stages including interim storage of sintering particles and reagent recovery stage. The main results obtained by this study are as follows: (1) Based on the process examination results conducted previously, process-flow, mass-balance and number of production line/equipment were clarified. The process is covered from the receive tank of feed solution to the interim storage equipment. Reagent recovery process-flow, mass-balance were also clarified. And preliminary design of the main equipment was reexamined. (2) Normal operation procedure and the procedure after process failure were summarized along with a remote automated operation procedure. Operation sequence of each production line was mapped out by using a time-chart. (3) Design outline of reagent recovery equipments, installed to recover waste liquid from the wet gelation stages in the view of environmental impact were examined. Effective techniques such as collection of solvent, residue waste treatment method were examined its applicability and selected. Schematic block diagram was presented. (4) Analytical items and analyzing apparatus were extracted taking into account of quality control and process management. Analytical sample taking position and frequency of sampling were also examined. (5) A schematic layout drawing of main manufacturing process and reagent recovery process was presented taking into account of material handling. (6) A feature of the operating rate at each process stage was examined by analyzing failure rate reliability of each component. applying the reliability-centred method. (RCM), the operating rate was evaluated and annual maintenance period was estimated using

  5. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. There is a need for non-combustion processes with a wide application range to treat the large majority of these waste forms. The non-combustion process should also be safe, effective, cost-competitive, permit-able, and preferrably mobile. This paper describes the DETOX process of organic waste oxidation

  6. Measurement of the oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention relates to processes for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and more particularly to the oxidation-extraction steps in the DEPA-TOPO process for such recovery. A more efficient use of oxidant is obtained by monitoring the redox potential during the extraction step

  7. The roles of wetting liquid in the transfer process of single layer graphene onto arbitrary substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hun; Yi, Junghwa; Jin, Hyeong Ki; Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Wanjun

    2013-11-01

    Wet transfer is crucial for most device structures of the proposed applications employing single layer graphene in order to take advantage of the unique physical, chemical, bio-chemical and electrical properties of the graphene. However, transfer methodologies that can be used to obtain continuous film without voids, wrinkles and cracks are limited although film perfectness critically depends on the relative surface tension of wetting liquids on the substrate. We report the importance of wetting liquid in the transfer process with a systematic study on the parameters governing film integrity in single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition. Two different suspension liquids (in terms of polar character) are tested for adequacy of transfer onto SiO2 and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS). We found that the relative surface tension of the wetting liquid on the surfaces of the substrate is related to transfer quality. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is introduced as a good suspension liquid to HMDS, a mechanically flexible substrate.

  8. Performance of wet process method alternatives : terminal or continuous blend

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of the research to investigate asphalt rubber mixtures produced with asphalt rubber binder obtained from two different processes; (i) terminal blend (produced in refinery); (ii) continuous blend (produced in laboratory). The experiment included the evaluation of fatigue and permanent deformation resistance of two gap graded mixtures (Caltrans ARHM -GG; ADOT AR-A C) and a dense gradation Asphalt Institute (AI) mix type IV) Two asphalt rubbers from terminal blend...

  9. Multivariate statistical modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Johannes Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Wet granulation in high-shear mixers is a process of particle size enlargement much used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve the tableting properties of powder mixtures, such as flowability and compactibility, necessary for the large scale production of pharmaceutical talbets. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated....... Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque...

  11. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyati, Yuli

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry process...

  12. Oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves an improvement to the reductive stripping process for recovering uranium values from wet-process phosphoric acid solution, where uranium in the solution is oxidized to uranium (VI) oxidation state and then extracted from the solution by contact with a water immiscible organic solvent, by adding sufficient oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, to obtain greater than 90 percent conversion of the uranium to the uranium (VI) oxidation state to the phosphoric acid solution and simultaneously extracting the uranium (VI)

  13. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerre, A B; Skammelsen Schmidt, A

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates `losses` of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation.

  15. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Skammelsen Schmidt, A.

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates 'losses' of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation

  16. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  17. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid in centrifugal and mixer-settler batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Giers, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five stage countercurrent batteries were comparatively applied for the extraction of uranium from wet phosphoric acid (Chemical Works, Police) in semitechnical scale. As an extractant phase the 0.16 M equimolar solution of mono- and dinonylphenyolphosphoric acids in kerosene was used. The optimum hydrodynamic and extraction conditions for the batteries were found. Process efficiencies of the apparatus were also determined. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  19. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid for uranium recovery by the wet phosphoric acid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, S.L.P.; Chen, Y.C.L.; Chang, S.S.H.; Kuo, T.S.; Ting, G.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The proposal deals with reprocessing of phosphoric acid arising from uranium separation according to the wet phosphoric acid process and being intended for recycling. In detail, the sludge will be removed by means of an inclined separating device containing corrugated plates, then the organic impurities are washed out with kerosene in suitable facilities, and the crude phase remaining in the settling tank will be separated from the kerosene in a separating centrifuge. The method has only got low cost of installation. (UWI) [de

  20. Effective treatment of oily scum via catalytic wet persulfate oxidation process activated by Fe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Guan, Renpeng; Wu, Zhibin; Jiang, Longbo; Li, Yifu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-05

    Oily scum, a hazardous by-product of petroleum industry, need to be deposed urgently to reduce environmental risks. This paper introduces catalytic wet persulfate oxidation (CWPO) process in the treatment of oily scum to realize risk relief. Under the activation of heat and Fe 2+ , persulfate (PS) was decomposed into sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals, which played a major role on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The effects of wet air oxidation (WAO) and CWPO process on the degradation of oily scum were compared. In CWPO process, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) content of oily scum was decreased from 92.63% to 16.75%, which was still up to 70.19% in WAO process. The degradation rate of TPHs in CWPO process was about 3.38 times higher than that in WAO process. The great performance of CWPO process was also confirmed by elemental analysis, which indicated that the C and H contents of oily scum were reduced significantly by CWPO process. These results indicated that CWPO process has high potential on the degradation of oily scum for environmental protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  2. Method for the recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid, originating from the wet-process of uraniferous phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1978-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recoverying uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange circuits is described. (Auth.)

  3. Simulation of biodiesel production using hydro-esterification process from wet microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradana Yano Surya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, algae have received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. Conventionally, biodiesel is made through esterification or transesterification of oils where the process involves a catalyst and alcohol to be reacted in a reactor. However, this process is energy intensive for drying and extraction step. To overcome this situation, we studied simulation of a new route of hydro-esterification process which is combine hydrolysis and esterification processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgae. Firstly, wet microalgae treated by hydrolyzer to produce fatty acids (FAs, separated with separator, and then mixed with methanol and esterified at subcritical condition to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs while H2SO4 conducted as the catalyst. Energy and material balance of conventional and hydrolysis-esterification process was evaluated by Aspen Plus. Simulation result indicated that conventional route is energy demanding process, requiring 4.40 MJ/L biodiesel produced. In contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification method can be reduced significantly into 2.43 MJ/L biodiesel. Based on the energy consumption comparison, hydro-esterification process is less costly than conventional process for biodiesel production.

  4. Recovering of uranium from phosphoric acid produced by the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, A.J.; Lyon, W.L.; Holleman, R.A.; Randell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Process for recovering uranium as from an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid arising from a wet process, with a scrubbing agent essentially composed of a hydrocarbon whose boiling point is situated between 150 0 C and 300 0 C, which reacts with the contaminents formed in the sludge in the phosphoric acid, in an efficient enough quantity to wash the contamination products forming the phosphoric acid sludge, give a sludge phase and a purified phosphoric acid phase, after which the sludge phase is extracted [fr

  5. Semitechnical studies of uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid-extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Wlodarski, R.; Giers, M.

    1987-01-01

    A semitechnical installation for uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid has been built. The installation is based on technological process comprising 2 extraction cycles, the first with a mixture of mono- and dinonylphenylphosphoric acids (NPPA) and the second with a synergic mixture of di-/2-ethylhexyl/-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The installation was set going and the studies on the concentration distributions of uranium and other components of phosphoric acid have been performed for all technological circuits. 23 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  6. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  7. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella . This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella . The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination

  8. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Nidaullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test, serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46% with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161, Salmonella Corvallis (42/161, and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161 being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  11. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; McKamey, D.R.; Baes, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were continued of a process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP), a mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. The mixture contained at least nine impurities, the principal one being octyl phenol, and also material that readily hydrolyzed to octyl phenol and orthophosphoric acid. The combination of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids was the principal uranium extractant, but some of the impurities also extracted uranium. Hydrolysis of the extractant had little effect on uranium extraction, as did the presence of moderate concentrations of octyl phenol and trioctylphenyl phosphate. Diluent choice among refined kerosenes, naphthenic mixtures, and paraffinic hydrocarbons also had little effect on uranium extraction, but extraction was much lower when an aromatic diluent was used. Purified OPAP fractions were sparingly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. The solubility was increased by the presence of impurities such as octyl phenol, and by the addition of water or an acidic solution to the extractant-diluent mixture. In continuous stability tests, extractant loss by distribution to the aqueous phase was much less to wet-process phosphoric acid than to reagent grade acid. Uranium recovery from wet-process acid decreased steadily because of the combined effects of extractant poisoning and precipitation of the extractant as a complex with ferric iron. Unaccountable losses of organic phase volume occurred in the continuous tests. While attempts to recover the lost organic phase were unsuccessful, the test results indicate it was not lost by entrainment or dissolution in the phosphoric acid solutions. 21 figures, 8 tables

  13. Double-layer optical fiber coating analysis in MHD flow of an elastico-viscous fluid using wet-on-wet coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    Full Text Available Modern optical fibers require a double-layer coating on the glass fiber in order to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low and high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE, nylon and Polysulfone. One of the most important things which affect the final product after processing is the design of the coating die. In the present study, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a pressure type die with the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD. Wet-on-wet coating process is applied for double-layer optical fiber coating. The coating process in the coating die is modeled as a simple two-layer Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in an annulus with an assigned pressure gradient. Based on the assumptions of fully developed laminar and MHD flow, the Oldroyd 8-constant model of non-Newtonian fluid of two immiscible resin layers is modeled. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the new technique of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The effect of important parameters such as magnetic parameter Mi, the dilatant constant α, the Pseodoplastic constant β, the radii ratio δ, the pressure gradient Ω, the speed of fiber optics V, and the viscosity ratio κ on the velocity profiles, thickness of coated fiber optics, volume flow rate, and shear stress on the fiber optics are investigated. At the end the result of the present work is also compared with the experimental results already available in the literature by taking non-Newtonian parameters tends to zero. Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Oldroyd 8-constant fluid, MHD flow, Double-layer fiber coating, OHAM, ADM, Wet-on-wet coating process

  14. Investigation on the effect of seawater to hydraulic property and wetting process of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    On high-level waste disposal, bentonite is one of the most promising material for buffer and backfill material. The hydraulic properties and wetting process of bentonite are important not only for barrier performance assessment but also for prediction of waste disposal environment, such as resaturation time and thermal distribution. In Japan, we should consider the effect of seawater for bentonite, because radioactive waste will be disposed of in coastal area and in marine sediment where seawater remained. However, it is not enough to understand the effect of seawater. Therefore, experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of seawater on the hydraulic conductivity and wetting process of bentonite. The effect of seawater on hydraulic conductivity is significant for Na-bentonite, the hydraulic conductivity of Na-bentonite in seawater is one order to magnitude higher than that in distilled water. On the other hand, the hydraulic conductivity of Ca-bentonite is not influenced by seawater. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite decreases as effective montmorillonite density increases. The effective montmorillonite density is ratio between the weight of montmorillonite and volume of porosity and montmorillonite. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite is close related to swelling property since the hydraulic conductivity decrease as the swelling pressure increase. Wetting process of compacted bentonite could be evaluated by diffusion phenomena since infiltration rate and change of saturation rate and represented by diffusion equation. The effect of seawater on water diffusivity is significant for Na-type bentonite with low effective montmorillonite density. Except for that condition, the water diffusivity of bentonite is almost constant and is not influenced by effective montmorillonite density and seawater. (author)

  15. Process options for treatment of organic containing ILWs by wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The process chemistry, applications and experience with several wet oxidation options are reviewed along with criteria for the selection of viable systems and plant designs, covering a range of organic wastes, including solvents, cellulosic filters, chelant decontamination reagents and ion exchange resins. The use of hydrogen peroxide to treat water-cooled reactor residues containing mixed inorganic and organic filter materials with ion exchange resins is examined in further detail along with treatment of secondary arisings. The technical and financial justifications for treatment are examined along with the engineering requirements to retro-fit the required plant to an existing cement encapsulation facility. (author)

  16. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite cr...

  17. Noncontact COS charge analysis for in-line monitoring of wet cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafang; Juang, Min; Tai, Sung-Shan; Chen, Kuo-in; Wossen, Ejigu; Horner, Gregory

    1998-08-01

    Contamination levels in chemical cleaning equipment and wafer cleanliness in general are very critical to semiconductor manufacturers. In this work, a Keithley Instruments non contact electrical tester (Quantox) is used to measure the mobile ion (Qm) contamination in a variety of cleaning processes. Results show that photoresist strip cleaning process has a higher mobile ion concentration than standard pre-diffusion cleaning process. RCA1, RCA2 and HF solutions mapping measured by the Quantox indicates some negative static charges on the surface after cleaning. This negative field appears to assist Qm removal during wet chemical cleaning. The dependence of flatband voltage and other oxide charges on various cleaning processes has also been investigated using the Quantox. The data suggests that a dipole layer has been formed by a surface reaction during chemical cleaning.

  18. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  19. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  20. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  1. Design Of A Small-Scale Hulling Machine For Improved Wet-Processed Coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of primary processing of coffee is a vital determinant of quality and price. Wet processing method produces higher quality beans but is very labourious. This work outlines the design of a small scale cost-effective ergonomic and easily maintained and operated coffee hulling machine that can improve quality and productivity of green coffee beans. The machine can be constructed from locally available materials at a relatively low cost of about NGN 140000.00 with cheap running cost. The beaters are made from rubber strip which can deflect when in contact with any obstruction causing little or no stresses on drum members and reducing the risk of damage to both the beans and machine. The machine is portable and detachable which make it fit to be owned by a group of farmers who can move it from one farm to the other making affordability and running cost easier. The easily affordable and relatively low running cost may be further reduced by the fact that the machine is powered by 3.0 Hp petrol engine which is suitable for other purposes among the rural dwellers. The eventual construction of the machine will encourage more farmers to go into wet processing of coffee and reduce the foreign exchange hitherto lost to this purpose.

  2. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  3. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    Controlling the wetting and dewetting of ultra-thin films on solid substrates is important for a variety of technological and fundamental research applications. These applications include film deposition for semiconductor manufacturing, the growth of nanowires through nanoparticle-based catalysis sites, to making ordered arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and optical devices. However, despite the importance of these processes, the underlying mechanisms by which a film wets a surface or dewets from it is still often unclear and widely debated. In this dissertation we examine wetting and dewetting processes in three materials systems that are relevant for device applications with the ultimate goal of understanding what mechanisms drive the wetting (or dewetting) process in each case. First, we examine the formation of wetting layers between nanoparticle films and highly conductive GaAs substrates for spintronic applications. In this case, the formation of a wetting layer is important for nanoparticle adhesion on the substrate surface. Wetting layers can be made by annealing these systems, which causes elemental diffusion from nanoparticles into the substrate, thereby adhesion between the nanoparticles and the substrate. Here we investigate the feasibility of forming a wetting layer underneath nanoparticles post-annealing in a system of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a (100) GaAs substrate by studying the interface structure and composition via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Electron Energy-Loss fine structures of the Fe-L 3,2 and O-K absorption edges were quantitatively analyzed to gain insight about the compositional gradient of the interface between the nanoparticles and the GaAs substrate. Additionally, real-space density functional theory calculations of the dynamical form factor was performed to confirm the

  4. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-09-29

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite crystalline phases and good ionic conductivity were developed during the second annealing step. These films showed properties comparable to those of thermally annealed films. This process is much faster than conventional annealing processes (e.g. halogen furnaces); a few seconds compared to tens of hours, respectively. The significance of this work includes the treatment of solid-state electrolyte oxides for SOFCs and the demonstration of the feasibility of other oxide components for solid-state energy devices.

  5. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  6. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large...... are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules...

  7. Wet and dry deposition and resuspension of AFCT/TFCT fuel processing radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.; Katen, P.C.; Wolf, M.A.; Loveland, W.D.; Radke, L.F.; Miller, E.L.; Ghannam, L.J.; Reynolds, B.W.; Vickers, D.

    1979-09-01

    After short summary and introductory chapters, Chapter IV contains a critical analysis of available parameterizations for resuspension and for wet and dry removal processes and recommends interim parameterizations for use in radiation dose calculations. Chapter V describes methods and experimental results from field studies of in-cloud vs below-cloud scavenging, precipitation efficiency, and modifications of aerosols by clouds. In Chapter VI are contained descriptions of methods and results from four different approaches to the problem of measuring the dry deposition velocities of submicron aerosol particles depositing on vegetation. Chapter VII describes experimental results from a study of resuspension and weathering of tracer aerosol particles deposited on soil, grass and gravel; typical resuspension rates were found to be of the order of 10 -8 s -1 and it is recommended that the concept of weathering be reassessed. In Chapter VIII, National Weather Service data are used to obtain Lagrangian statistics for use in a regional-scale study of wet and dry removal. Chapter IX develops new concepts in reservoir models for application at regional to global scales. In the final chapter are some comments about the results found in this study and recommendations for future research

  8. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  9. Wet-Lay Process - A Novel Approach to Scalable Fabrication of Tissue Scaffolds and Reinforcement Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew

    Fibrous materials received a great deal of interest in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to the beneficial cell-interactions and tunable properties for various biomedical applications. These materials are highly advantageous as they provide a large surface area for cellular attachment, proliferation, high porosity values for cellular in-growth, and the ability to modify the membrane to achieve desired responses to both mechanical loading as well as environmental stimuli. A prominent method currently used to fabricate such membranes is electrospinning which uses electrostatic forces to produce fibers on the range of nanometers giving them high morphological saliency to the native extra cellular matrix (ECM). These fibers are also advantageous mechanically with strength and flexibility due to their larger aspect ratio when compared to larger diameter micro/macro fibers. While this spinning technique has many advantages and has seen the most quantity of research in recent years, it does have its own set of drawbacks. Among them is the use cytotoxic solvents during processing which must be fully removed before implantation. In addition, since the fiber produced have smaller diameters, the resulting average pore-size of the scaffold is decreased which in turn hinders cellular penetration into the bulk scaffold. In this work, we have proposed and characterized a novel method called wet-lay process for the rapid fabrication of fibrous membranes for tissue scaffolds. Wet-laying is a method common to textiles and paper industry but unexplored for tissue scaffolds. Short fibers are first suspended in an aqueous bath and homogeneously dispersed using shear force. After draining away the aqueous solution, a nonwoven fibro-porous membrane is deposited onto the draining screen. The implementation of wet-laid membranes into weak hydrogel matrices has shown a reinforcement effect for the composite. Further analyses were carried out to determine the

  10. Obtaining and characterization catalyst Ki/Al_2O_3 by physical dispersion process via wet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.C. da; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Costa, N.C.O.; Freitas, N.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the Obtention and characterization of catalysts being supported alumina impregnated with KI by physical dispersion in wet via attritor mill in periods of 30 and 60 minutes. Before and after impregnation the catalysts were characterized by XRD, X ray fluorescence, particle size distribution, textural analysis (BET). The results show the presence of the stable crystalline phase Al_2O_3 in all samples after impregnation and the second phase formed from KI and K_2O. There was a decrease in the agglomerates incorporated with the potassium due to the milling process. It was observed that the highest specific surface area was obtained by the impregnated sample into a 60 min. (author)

  11. Fabrication of Aligned Polyaniline Nanofiber Array via a Facile Wet Chemical Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qunhui; Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F; Ding, Yong; Deng, Yulin

    2009-06-17

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a template free approach to synthesize aligned polyaniline nanofiber (PN) array on a passivated gold (Au) substrate via a facile wet chemical process. The Au surface was first modified using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) to afford the surface functionality, followed subsequently by an oxidation polymerization of aniline (AN) monomer in an aqueous medium using ammonium persulfate as the oxidant and tartaric acid as the doping agent. The results show that a vertically aligned PANI nanofiber array with individual fiber diameters of ca. 100 nm, heights of ca. 600 nm and a packing density of ca. 40 pieces·µm(-2) , was synthesized. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Productivity of a Wet Separation Process of Traditional and Bio-Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation process within a mechanical recycling plant plays a major role in the context of the production of high-quality secondary raw materials and the reduction of extensive waste disposal in landfills. Traditional plants for plastic separation employ dry or wet processes that rely on the different physical properties among the polymers. The hydraulic separator is a device employing a wet technology for particle separation. It allows the separation of two-polymer mixtures into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Apparatus performance were analyzed as a function of fluid and solid flow rates, flow patterns developing within the apparatus, in addition to the density, shape, and size of the polymers. For the hydraulic configurations tested, a two-way coupling takes place where the fluid exerts an influence on the plastic particles and the opposite occurs too. The interaction between the solid and liquid phases determines whether a certain polymer settles within the device or is expelled from the apparatus. Tests carried out with samples of increasing volumes of solid particles demonstrate that there are no significant differences in the apparatus effectiveness as far as a two-way interaction takes place. Almost pure concentrates of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, and Polycarbonate (PC can be obtained from a mixture of traditional polymers. Tests conducted on Polylactic Acid (PLA and Mater-Bi® samples showed that the hydraulic separator can be effectively employed to separate bio-plastics from conventional plastics with remarkable grade and recovery.

  13. Artificial Intelligence Tools for Scaling Up of High Shear Wet Granulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of artificial intelligence tools for predicting the endpoint of the granulation process in high-speed mixer granulators of different scales from 25L to 600L. The combination of neurofuzzy logic and gene expression programing technologies allowed the modeling of the impeller power as a function of operation conditions and wet granule properties, establishing the critical variables that affect the response and obtaining a unique experimental polynomial equation (transparent model) of high predictability (R 2 > 86.78%) for all size equipment. Gene expression programing allowed the modeling of the granulation process for granulators of similar and dissimilar geometries and can be improved by implementing additional characteristics of the process, as composition variables or operation parameters (e.g., batch size, chopper speed). The principles and the methodology proposed here can be applied to understand and control manufacturing process, using any other granulation equipment, including continuous granulation processes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, T.; Salluzzo, A.; Nardi, L.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.; Cornacchia, G.

    1989-11-01

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  15. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  16. Microstructural evolution of all-wet-processed CIGS films using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Soo; Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Pyo, Sung Gyu [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Pil [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We report a wet process deposition in order to identify a cost-effective processing scheme for CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layers on molybdenum/soda lime glass substrates from a Cu-In-Ga precursor solution. We employed a spin coater at various settings to evaluate the uniformity of the resulting CIGS solar cell layer. After the CIGS precursor film was deposited, we applied a selenization process. In the selenization process, we used a controlled temperature RTA system and compared it to a noncontrolled temperature system. We investigated the morphological properties for different selenization temperature treatments. We used Raman mapping to detect binary compounds and found the binary compound effect on the film. Raman mapping results show that the density of the binary compound in the CIGS layer increased with selenization temperature, and at 600 C, the density of the binary compounds was highest. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  18. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  19. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described

  20. A catalytic wet oxidation process for mixed waste volume reduction/recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1992-01-01

    Mixed wastes have presented a challenge to treatment and destruction technologies. A recently developed catalytic wet oxidation method has promising characteristics for volume reduction and recycling of mixed wastes. The process utilizes iron (III) as an oxidant in the presence of homogeneous cocatalysts which increase organics' oxidation rates and the rate of oxidation of iron (II) by oxygen. The reaction is conducted in an aqueous mineral acid solution at temperatures of 373 - 573 deg K. The mineral acid should solvate a number of heavy metals, including U and Pu. Studies of reaction rates show that the process can oxidize a wide range of organic compounds including aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Rate constants in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -4 sec -1 , depending on the cocatalyst, acidity, type of anions, type of organic, temperature, and time. Activation energies ranged from 25. to 32. KJ/mole. Preliminary measurements of the extent of oxidation which could be obtained ranged from 80% for trichloroethylene to 99.8% for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; evidence was obtained that absorption by the fluorocarbon liners of the reaction bombs allowed some of the organics to escape exposure to the catalyst solution. The results indicate that complete oxidation of the organics used here, and presumably many others, can be achieved. (author)

  1. Neutral wetting brush layers for block copolymer thin films using homopolymer blends processed at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresoli, M; Palermo, M; Ferrarese Lupi, F; Seguini, G; Perego, M; Zuccheri, G; Phadatare, S D; Antonioli, D; Gianotti, V; Sparnacci, K; Laus, M

    2015-01-01

    Binary homopolymer blends of two hydroxyl-terminated polystyrene (PS-OH) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-OH) homopolymers (Mn ∼ 16000 g mol"−"1) were grafted on SiO_2 substrates by high-temperature (T > 150 °C), short-time (t < 600 s) thermal treatments. The resulting brush layer was tested to screen preferential interactions of the SiO_2 substrate with the different symmetric and asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymers deposited on top of the grafted molecules. By properly adjusting the blend composition and the processing parameters, an efficient surface neutralization path was identified, enabling the formation, in the block copolymer film, of homogeneous textures of lamellae or cylinders perpendicularly oriented with respect to the substrate. A critical interplay between the phase segregation of the homopolymer blends and their grafting process on the SiO_2 was observed. In fact, the polar SiO_2 is preferential for the PMMA-rich phase that forms a homogeneous layer on the substrate, while the PS-rich phase is located at the polymer-air interface. During the thermal treatment, phase segregation and grafting proceed simultaneously. Complete wetting of the PS rich phase on the PMMA rich phase leads to the formation of a PS/PMMA bilayer. In this case, the progressive diffusion of PS chains toward the polymer-SiO_2 interface during the thermal treatment allows tuning of the brush layer composition. (paper)

  2. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakulski, P; Pietrowicz, S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen. (paper)

  3. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Conceptual Biorefinery Design and Research Targeted for 2022: Hydrothermal Liquefacation Processing of Wet Waste to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seiple, Timothy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    The Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invests in research and development of new pathways for commercially viable conversion of biomass into drop-in ready transportation fuels, fuel blendstocks and products. The primary emphasis has been on terrestrial and algae feedstocks, but more recently BETO has begun to explore the potential of wet wastes for biofuel production, with focus on wastewater residuals, manure, food waste, and fats, oils and grease. A recent resource analysis estimates that 77 million dry tons per year of these wastes are generated annually, 65% of which are underutilized for any beneficial purpose. Approximately 14 million dry tons of the total resource is wastewater residuals (sludge and biosolids) generated at the nation’s wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Conversion of this resource into transportation fuels could significantly contribute to the creation of a new domestic bioenergy and bioproduct industry, while providing an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative for current waste disposal practices. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a process that uses hot, pressurized water in the condensed phase to convert biomass to a thermally stable oil product, also known as “biocrude”, which can then be thermo-catalytically upgraded to hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. HTL is conceptually simple, has a high carbon efficiency, and can be applied to a wide range of wet feedstocks at similar processing conditions. The purpose of this report is to document the conceptual design, economics and supporting data for a sludge-to-fuel pathway via HTL and biocrude upgrading. The configuration includes a HTL plant that is co-located with a WWTP and a larger scale biocrude upgrading plant for production of hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. Experimental data from bench scale testing of a 1:1 mixture of primary:secondary sludges are used to establish the economic and technical assumptions for the analysis. The design

  5. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L

    2010-04-01

    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  6. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the

  7. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  8. Kinetic parameters of biomass growth in a UASB reactor treating wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the treatment of wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP in an anaerobic treatment system at a laboratory scale. The system included an acidification/equalization tank (AET, a heat exchanger, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, a gas equalization device and a gas meter. The minimum and maximum flow rates and volumetric organic loadings rate (VOLR were 0.004 to 0.037 m 3 d -1 and 0.14 to 20.29 kgCOD m -3 d -1 , respectively. The kinetic parameters measured during the anaerobic biodegradation of the WCWP, with a minimal concentration of phenolic compounds of 50 mg L - ¹, were: Y = 0.37 mgTVS (mgCODremoved -1 , Kd = 0.0075 d-1 , Ks = 1.504mg L -1 , μmax = 0.2 d -1 . The profile of sludge in the reactor showed total solids (TS values from 22,296 to 55,895 mg L -1 and TVS 11,853 to 41,509 mg L -1 , demonstrating a gradual increase of biomass in the reactor during the treatment, even in the presence of phenolic compounds in the concentration already mentioned.

  9. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid-liquid extraction for purification of wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader; Bakshi, Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    The Wet Process Phosphoric Acid (WPA) is used to produce fertilizers and alimentary supplies for cattle. In each of these applications, the impurities contained in acid must be in standard range. In this paper purification of WPA by solvent extraction is performed and the effect of the mass ratio of solvent to feed on extraction efficiency is studied. The working solvents are Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK), Iso Amyl Alcohol (IAA) and the mixture of them. The results show that the IAA is better than other solvents in extraction of WPA. This solvent can extract 82.2% of acid after two extraction stages but MIBK can extract only 73.5% of acid after three extraction stages. For all of these solvents, the Pb and Cd concentrations go down to trace. The experimental results show that the maximum separation of Mg with MIBK is 87.5% which occurs at the mass ratio of solvent to feed eual to 4. In the case of IAA solvent the percent is 91.7% and the ratio is 8

  11. Influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet processes during an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-01-01

    The influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to the wet processes as well as dry processes from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency is comprehensively analyzed. The previous dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural and environmental conditions, in which the initial input parameter was radionuclide concentrations on the ground, is improved so as to evaluate radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radioactive air concentrations or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As for the results, wet deposition is a more dominant mechanism than dry deposition in contamination on the ground. While, the contamination levels of agricultural products are strongly dependent on radionuclide and precipitation when the deposition of radionuclides occurs. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is the more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception to agricultural plants

  12. A wet-chemical approach to perovskite and fluorite-type nanoceramics: synthesis and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    In thesis the low-temperature, wet-chemical approach to various functional inorganic oxide materials is described. The main focus of this research is to control the material’s synthesis from liquid precursor to metal oxide powder or thin film; while understanding its formation mechanism. In

  13. Monitoring of multiple solvent induced form changes during high shear wet granulation and drying processes using online Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jay Poorna; Jones, John W; Wray, Patrick S; Dennis, Andrew B; Brown, Jonathan; Timmins, Peter

    2018-04-25

    Form changes during drug product processing can be a risk to the final product quality in terms of chemical stability and bioavailability. In this study, online Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the form changes in real time during high shear wet granulation of Compound A, a highly soluble drug present at a high drug load in an extended release formulation. The effect of water content, temperature, wet massing time and drying technique on the degree of drug transformation were examined. A designed set of calibration standards were employed to develop quantitative partial least square regression models to predict the concentration of each drug form during both wet granulation and the drying process. Throughout all our experiments we observed complex changes of the drug form during granulation, manifest as conversions between the initial non-solvated form of Compound A, the hemi-hydrate form and the "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug). The online Raman data demonstrate that the non-solvated form converts to an "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug) due to drug dissolution with no appearance of the hemi-hydrate form during water addition stage. The extent of conversion of the non-solvated form was governed by the amount of water added and the rate of conversion was accelerated at higher temperatures. Interestingly, in the wet massing zone, the formation of the hemi-hydrate form was observed at a rate equivalent to the rate of depletion of the non-solvated form with no change in the level of the "apparent amorphous" form generated. The level of hemi-hydrate increased with an increase in wet massing time. The drying process had a significant effect on the proportion of each form. During tray drying, changes in drug form continued for hours. In contrast fluid bed drying appeared to lock the final proportions of drug form product attained during granulation, with comparatively small changes observed during drying. In conclusion, it was possible to

  14. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  15. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  16. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  17. Effect of surfactants or a water soluble polymer on the crystal transition of clarithromycin during a wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kenji; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-11-10

    To generate products containing a stable form of clarithromycin (CAM) (form II) regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent, the effects of five surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer (macrogol 400) were determined on the crystal transition of CAM. The metastable form (form I) was kneaded with water, after adding surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer. Form II was also kneaded with ethanol, after adding the same additives. The resulting samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Form I was completely converted to form II by a wet granulation using water with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains such as polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyoxyl 40 stearate or macrogol 400. The granulation of the form II using ethanol with these additives did not result in a crystal transition to form I. Furthermore, CAM tablets were manufactured using granules with PS80, and these crystal forms and dissolution behaviors were investigated. As a result, the wet granulation of CAM with PS80 gave CAM tablets containing only form II and PS80 did not have any adverse effects on tablet characteristics. Therefore, these data suggests that the crystal form of CAM can be controlled to be form II using a wet granulation process with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  19. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  20. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  1. Combined wet-chemical process to synthesize 65PMN-35PT nanosized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis P.S.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2004-01-01

    Columbite MgNb 2 O 6 precursors were synthesized by a wet-chemical method by means of the dissolution of Nb 2 O 5 .5H 2 O and magnesium carbonate in a solution of oxalic acid. Pure 65PMN-35PT powders could be obtained by the columbite method with the use of the partial oxalate and oxidant peroxo methods. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy showing that pure 65PMN-35PT are obtained when the powders are calcined up to 800 deg. C, without any trace of Pb-Nb pyrochlore. Cubic Pb 1,86 Mg 0.24 Nb 1.76 O 6.5 pyrochlore phase is formed by lead loss in the powders calcined at 900 deg. C and higher temperatures as undoubtedly characterized by Raman spectroscopy

  2. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...... glucose release with low formation of by-products. Under these conditions, the cellulose and hemicellulose sugar recovery was 94 % and 70 %, respectively. The efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose under these conditions was 91 %. On the other hand, the release of pentose sugars was higher...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  3. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-01-01

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 /ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  4. Density improvement of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles fabricated by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K; Kawamura, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Fuchinoue, K; Sawada, H; Watarumi, K

    1998-03-01

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) has attracted the attention of many researchers from a point of tritium recovery at low temperature, chemical stability, etc.. The application of small Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} sphere has been proposed in some designs of fusion blanket. On the other hand, the wet process is most advantageous as the fabrication method of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles from a point of mass production, and of reprocessing necessary for effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. In the preliminary fabrication test, density of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles was about 40%T.D.. Therefore, in this study, density improvement tests and preliminary characterization of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by wet process were performed, noting the aging condition and sintering condition in the fabrication process of the gel-spheres. This study yielded Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in target range of 80-85%T.D.. (author)

  5. Latent structure analysis in the pharmaceutical process of tablets prepared by wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Otoguro, Saori; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Granule characteristics are some of the important intermediate qualities that determine tablet properties. However, the relationships between granule and tablet characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties using a non-linear response surface method (RSM) incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) and a Bayesian network (BN). Tablets containing lactose (Lac), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were prepared by wet granulation. Ten formulations were prepared by an extreme vertices design. The angle of repose (Y 1 ), compressibility (Y 2 ), cohesion force (Y 3 ), internal friction angle (Y 4 ), and mean particle size (Y 5 ) were measured as granule characteristics. Tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured as tablet properties. RSM-S results showed that TS increased with increasing amounts of MCC and Lac. DT decreased with increasing amounts of MCC and CS. The optimal BN models were predicted using four evaluation indices -Y 3 was shown to be the most important factor for TS, whereas Y 2 , Y 3 , and Y 4 were relatively important for predicting DT. Moreover, tablets with excellent tablet properties (i.e. high TS and low DT) were produced by relatively high Y 1 , low Y 2 , high Y 3 , high Y 4 , and middle Y 5 values, and resulted from the middle of MCC, middle-to-low CS, low Lac, and middle-to-low magnesium stearate (Mg-St) amounts. The RSM-S and BN techniques are useful for revealing complex relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties.

  6. Synthesis of Monodispersed Spherical Single Crystalline Silver Particles by Wet Chemical Process; Shisshiki kagakuho ni yoru tanbunsankyujo tankesshoginryushi no gose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Ryousuke.; Harada, Masahiro.; Ueyama, Tamotsu.; Harada, Akio. [Daiken Chemistry Industry Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi. [National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Shiosaki, Tadashi. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan). Graduate School of Materials Science; Kuribayashi, Kiyoshi. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Materials

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine silver monodispersed particle were prepared by wet chemical process. To decrease the reduction speed, an important factor in generating monodispersed particles is to control the following three factors: synthesis temperature, concentration of aggregation-relaxing agent added, and concentration of silver nitrate solution. Synthesis of monodispersed spherical Ag particles, used as metal powders for electrode, became possible using the nucleus grouwth reaction method. This process also allowed the control of the diameter of the powder particles. The silver particles were distributed in ta narrow particle diameter range with on average of 0.5 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that single-crystalline silver particles were prepared by the present method. (author)

  7. Intensification of mass transfer in wet textile processes by power ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moholkar, V.S.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2003-01-01

    In industrial textile pre-treatment and finishing processes, mass transfer and mass transport are often rate-limiting. As a result, these processes require a relatively long residence time, large amounts of water and chemicals, and are also energy-consuming. In most of these processes, diffusion and

  8. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  9. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  10. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  11. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the DETOX sm process for processing of mixed wastes. Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides, often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The DETOX sm process, patented by Delphi Research, uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. Included are the following subject areas: project description (phases I-IV); results of all phases; and future work. 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  13. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-07-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  14. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  15. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    György, E., E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Pérez del Pino, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Logofatu, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P. O. Box MG. 7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Duta, A.; Isac, L. [Transilvania University of Brasov, Research Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  16. Comparative study of the different industrial manufacturing routes for UO2 pellet specifications through the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palheiros, Franklin; Gonzaga, Reinaldo; Soares, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In the fuel cycle, converting UF 6 to UO 2 powder is an intermediate step for fabrication of pellets for fuel assemblies to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic proposal common to the different powder fabrication processes is to provide raw material capable of being processed into the form of pellets. The wet processes is the most often used industrially and are divided in two categories: the ADU (Ammonium Diuranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) processes, whose names originate in the precipitate obtained in aqueous solution during the intermediate steps of UO 2 powder fabrication. It has known that the powder characteristics have a considerable influence in the UO 2 pellet manufacturing and quality characteristics. INB has used the AUC process to produce UO 2 pellets and supply fuel to Angra 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plants. Despite of this process is characterized by the precipitation of a different intermediate precipitate compared to the ADU route (i.e., (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 , in the AUC process, and (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 in ADU process) leading to some slight differences in the final pellet microstructure, it has been considered that the models that predict the pellet behavior during irradiation in a nuclear reactor are basically the same compared to those used to predict the pellets form the ADU process. In order to evaluate how different the pellets originated from these two industrial routes are, this paper aims to compare the INB production historical data (Angra 1, Cycles 14 and 15) with the key parameters of a common product specification from the ADU process. (author)

  17. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  18. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  19. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  20. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  1. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  2. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  3. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O.; Paula, H.C.B.; Dantas, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation. (orig./EF)

  4. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A O; Paula, H C.B.; Dantas, C C

    1984-03-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D/sub 2/EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation.

  5. Extraction-wet oxidation process using sulphuric acid for treatment of TBP-dodecane wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Kartha, P.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    In the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, 30% n-tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon diluent is used for extraction of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel by Purex process. When TBP-dodecane can no longer be purified from its degradation products, it is discarded as alpha bearing, intermediate level wastes containing plutonium and ruthenium-106. To overcome shortcomings of extraction-pyrolysis and saponification processes, studies were undertaken to find the suitability of H 2 SO 4 as an alternative extractant for TBP. Oxidation of TBP to H 3 PO 4 using H 2 O 2 was also explored as H 3 PO 4 can be treated by known procedures for removal of plutonium and ruthenium-106. The experiments were conducted with aged spent solvent wastes discharged from reprocessing plant at Trombay using H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 4 - H 3 PO 4 mixture. The decontamination factors (DFs) for alpha activity were found to be satisfactory. The DFs for ruthenium were lower as compared to those obtained in experiments with simulated degraded waste. The gas chromatographic analysis of separated diluent revealed high branched alkane content and low n-dodecane content of separated diluent. It is very much different from that of diluent currently in use. Hence incineration of separated diluent is recommended. (author)

  6. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  7. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Seon [Sungshin University, Dept. of Interdisciplinary ECO Science, Seoul, 142-732 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m{sup 3} of copper and 1.35 kg/m{sup 3} of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching

  8. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  9. Recent studies of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial OPAP is a complex mixture that contains at least 11 components. Octyl phenol is the principal impurity. Commercial OPAP contains readily-hydrolyzable material. The concentrations of octyl phenol and an unidentified impurity increase in the hydrolyzed product. Uranium extraction power is decreased slightly by hydrolysis of the reagent. Four major problems were encountered in continuous stability tests: (1) Microemulsion or micelle formation--loss of organic phase into phosphoric acid. We do not have a solution to this problem at this time. It could involve alteration of the organic, e.g., adding a modifier, changing the reagent structure, or changing the diluent. (2) Reagent poisoning--reduction of uranium extraction and interference with organic titrations by material extracted from the acid. Additional work is needed to identify the poisoning material or materials. It can then be removed if it originates in the phosphate rock, or avoided if it originates in chemicals added during processing. (3) Crystallization with iron--loss of both major components of the reagent as a complex with ferric iron. We believe this problem can be controlled by controlling the ferric iron concentration in the phosphoric acid. (4) MOPPA distribution loss--a selective loss to the aqueous phase. We believe this can be minimized by controlling the iron concentration of the phosphoric acid. The iron concentration will need to be kept low enough to avoid reagent crystallization and high enough to avoid MOPPA distribution loss. 15 figs

  10. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; Berg, W.B. van de

    1982-01-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed. (author)

  11. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K. (Stamicarbon B.V., Geleen (Netherlands)); van de Berg, W.B. (Unie van Kunstmestfabrieken, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  12. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardinoye, M H; Weterings, K; van de Berg, W B

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the 238U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulphate and calciumsulphate with a higher radiumconcentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radio-active intake or inhallation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radio-active scaling is formed.

  13. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; van de Berg, W.B.

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the /sup 238/U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulfate and calciumsulfate with a higher radium concentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  14. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  16. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Potential radiological impacts of recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Final report to the Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Haywood, F.F.; Danek, J.L.; Moore, R.E.; Wagner, E.B.; Rupp, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to determine the radiological impacts associated with recovery of uranium from wet-process (WP) phosphoric acid in central Florida. Removal of U and other radionuclides from phosphoric acid prevents their distribution on farm lands and urban gardens and grasses via fertilizers; this results in a positive impact (decreased dose commitment) on the associated populations. This study considers the potential negative impacts of current and project recovery processes in a site-specific manner using detailed state-of-the-art methodologies. Positive impacts are treated in a generic sense using U.S. average values for important variables such as average and maximum fertilizer application rates and quantities of radionuclides in fertilizer. Three model plants to recover U from WP phosphoric acid were selected and source terms for release of radionuclides are developed for all three and for two treatment methods for airborne particulates. Costs for radwaste treatment were developed. Field measurements were conducted at the only commercial uranium recovery plant in operation. Radiological doses to the population surrounding release points during plant operation were estimated

  18. The influence of Chromium supplied by tanning and wet finishing processes on the formation of cr(vi in leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fuck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium used in leather manufacturing can be oxidized from the trivalent to the hexavalent state, causing environmental concerns. In this study, the influence of Cr(III from tanning, deacidification pH, fatliquors, chrome retanning and vegetable retanning on the formation of Cr(VI in leather was analyzed by comparing natural and aged samples. In wet-blue leather, even after aging and in fatliquored leathers that did not suffer the aging process, the presence of Cr(VI was always below the detection limit of 3 mg/kg. Considering the presence of Cr(VI, the supply of chromium during the retanning step had a more significant effect than during the tanning. In the fatliquoring process with sulfites, fish and synthetic fatliquor leather samples contained Cr(VI when aged, and the highest concentration detected was 26.7 mg/kg. The evaluation of Cr(VI formation led to recommendations for regulation in the leather industry.

  19. Characterization of a calcium phosphate cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate obtained by wet precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurmer, M.B.; Diehl, C.E.; Vieira, R.S.; Coelho, W.T.G.; Santos, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are several systems of calcium phosphate cements being studied. Those based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate are of particular interest. After setting they produce calcium deficient hydroxyapatite similar to bone like hydroxyapatite. This work aims to obtain alpha-tricalcium phosphate powders by the wet precipitation process, using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as reagents. This powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. In order to prepare the calcium phosphate cement, the powder was mixed with an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The mechanical properties of the cement were assessed and it was evaluated by means of apparent density, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The described method produced crystalline alpha-tricalcium phosphate as the major phase. The calcium phosphate cement showed high values of compression strength (50 MPa). The soaking of the cement in a simulated body fluid (SBF) formed a layer of hydroxyapatite like crystals in the surface of the samples. (author)

  20. Treatment of Row Leachate Using Catalytic Wet Oxidation Processes in Combination Hydrogen Peroxide, A Case Study of Isfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of toxic organic compounds is one of the major applications of the Wet Air Oxidation (WAO processes. The process can be defined  as the oxidation of substances, either in the form of solutions or suspensions, with the use of an oxidant (oxygen or air at elevated pressure and temperature. The aim of this paper was to study of Catalytic Wet Oxidation (CWAO with hydrogen peroxide to improve removal efficiency of organic matter and ammonia mainly produced in Isfahan composting factory leachate. The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3 Lit autoclave reactor. Four parameters are considered: pressure (8–12 bar; temperature (100–300 °C; retention time (30–90 min; H2O2 (1–5 mL/L.The highest removal efficiencies of COD and BOD were achieved at 300°C; approximately 44% and 48% were destroyed, respectively. On the other hand, highest ammonium removal efficiency was achieved at 100 °C in which approximately 63.8% was removed. The efficiency of aqueous phase oxidation can be largely improved by the use of H2O2 as catalyst. Therefore, catalytic wet oxidation would provide an environmentally attractive option for control of organic and toxic wastes problems. Temperature was found to be the most important control variable of the wet oxidation process of leachate.

  1. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  3. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  4. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (processing temperature used, no drying after extrusion was needed. By optimizing formulation and processing parameters, >90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by integrated Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Fenton: Process optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater has been a challenge in remediation of aquatic environment in developing countries. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing was studied using integrated processes of Anoxic/Oxic and Fenton. Analysis of COD composition based...... 80%. In the subsequent Fenton oxidation, effects of initial pH and H2O2 dose on COD removal were investigated, and response surface methodology was adopted to obtain the optimal conditions as initial pH of 4.0, H2O2 dose of 14.0mM, H2O2:Fe2+ molar ratio of 10.6, and reaction time of 3h to achieve...... the highest COD removal of 55.87%. GC-MS analysis was carried out to observe the change of organic composition during Fenton oxidation, and most of the residual organic pollutants resistant to Fenton treatment belonged to organosilanes and saturated alkanes. This study will provide useful information...

  6. Commercial development of a new process of uraniferous ore sintering by pelletizing before dump leaching (wet process) application to a very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videau, G.; Roche, M.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the French uranium ore contains clay of sedimentary origin or derived from the alteration of rocks of the granite type. During a dump leaching operation by a wet process, these clays reduce the percolation rates and sometimes the percolation rates are so low that the very essence of the dump leaching operation can be called in question. This problem arises particularly for the treatment of the ore of Nord-Aquitaine. The results of tests, carried out at the SEPA in Bessines, have shown that after pelletizing clayey ores with sodium silicate in the presence of sulphuric acid for the polymerization of the silicate, the percolation rates were much increased. This new method was successfully applied, from a laboratory column to a pilot dump of 500 tonnes for the very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine. This ore of low grade (approx. 1000 ppm of U) seems to be difficult to upgrade by any other method of treatment in the present economic context [fr

  7. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  8. Study on Oil Pressure Characteristics and Trajectory Tracking Control in Shift Process of Wet-Clutch for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate control of oil pressure of wet-clutch is of great importance for improving shift quality. Based on dynamic models of two-gear planetary transmission and hydraulic control system, a trajectory tracking model of oil pressure was built by sliding mode control method. An experiment was designed to verify the validity of hydraulic control system, through which the relationship between duty cycle of on-off valve and oil pressure of clutch was determined. The tracking effect was analyzed by simulation. Results showed that oil pressure could follow well the optimal trajectory and the shift quality was effectively improved.

  9. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and controllable ?wet pulse annealing? technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150??C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1?s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics rev...

  10. High-density carbon nanotube wet-laid buckypapers with enhanced strength and conductivity using a high-pressure homogenization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun; Jang, Si Hoon; Park, No Hyung; Jeong, Won Young; Lim, Dae Young [Human and Culture Convergence Technology Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jun Young; Yang, Seung Jae [Dept. of Applied Organic Materials Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we prepared homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes in water using a high-pressure homogenizer, while high-density carbon nanotube buckypapers were prepared by wet-laid process. The strength and conductivity of the buckypaper were increased dramatically after the high-pressure homogenization because of the increased density and uniformity of the paper. In addition, the buckypapers containing various additives and treated with SOCl{sub 2} exhibited further increase of strength and conductivity resulting from the binding and the p-type doping effect. The buckypapers with high electrical conductivity exhibited superior electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness that could be applied for structural shielding materials.

  11. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, a simple and controllable "wet pulse annealing" technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150 °C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1 s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics revealed a remarkable performance of the a-IGZO TFTs prepared at the maximum process temperature of 150 °C (field-effect mobility of 13.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1); Ion/Ioff ratio ≈ 10(8); reduced I-V hysteresis), comparable to that of a-IGZO TFTs annealed at 350 °C in dry ambient. Upon analysis of the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the good performance was attributed to the effective suppression of the formation of hydroxide and oxygen-related defects. Finally, by using the wet pulse annealing process, we fabricated, on a plastic substrate, an ultrathin flexible a-IGZO TFT with good electrical and bending performances.

  12. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and controllable “wet pulse annealing” technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150 °C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1 s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics revealed a remarkable performance of the a-IGZO TFTs prepared at the maximum process temperature of 150 °C (field-effect mobility of 13.3 cm2 V−1 s−1; Ion/Ioff ratio ≈ 108; reduced I-V hysteresis), comparable to that of a-IGZO TFTs annealed at 350 °C in dry ambient. Upon analysis of the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the good performance was attributed to the effective suppression of the formation of hydroxide and oxygen-related defects. Finally, by using the wet pulse annealing process, we fabricated, on a plastic substrate, an ultrathin flexible a-IGZO TFT with good electrical and bending performances. PMID:27198067

  13. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwa, Amogh N; Davis, Virginia A; Tatarchuk, Bruce J; Barron, Troy J

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction–oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m 2 (700 ft 2 ) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. (paper)

  14. Wet-process Fabrication of Low-cost All-solid Wire-shaped Solar Cells on Manganese-plated Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xing; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Nannan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are firstly assembled on low-cost Mn-plated fibers. • Energy efficiency improved by >27% after coating a layer of Mn on various substrates. • The cell is fabricated via wet process under low temperature and mild pH conditions. • Stable flexible solar cells are realized on lightweight and low-cost polymer fiber. - Abstract: All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are assembled for the first time on low-cost Mn-plated wires through wet-process fabrication under low temperature and mild pH conditions. With a price cheap as the steel, metal Mn can be easily plated on almost any substrates, and evidently promote the photovoltaic efficiency of wire-shaped solar cells on various traditional metal wire substrates, such as Fe and Ti, by 27% and 65%, respectively. Flexible solar cell with much lower cost and weight is assembled on Mn-plated polymer substrate, and is still capable of giving better performance than that on Fe or Ti substrate. Both its mechanical and chemical stability are good for future weaving applications. Owing to the wire-type structure, such low-cost metals as Mn, which are traditionally regarded as unsuitable for solar cells, may provide new opportunities for highly efficient solar cells

  15. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina); Winkler, Elin [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – CONICET, Avenue Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Eimer, Griselda A., E-mail: geimer@frc.utn.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC–ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated. - Highlights: • All samples showed a main superparamagnetic contribution. • The oxide particles grow at expense of superparamagnetic nanospecies. • Bimodal distribution of nanospecies in superparamagnetic regime was determined. • The anisotropy constant for superparamagnetic nanospecies was calculated.

  16. Structural, morphological, wettability and thermal resistance properties of hydro-oleophobic thin films prepared by a wet chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The structural properties of fluorine containing polymer compounds make them highly attractive materials for hydro-oleophobic applications. However, most of these exhibit low surface energy and poor adhesion on the substrates. In the present investigation, crack free, smooth and uniform thin films of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole] -co-tetrafluoroethylene (TFD-co-TFE) with good adhesion have been deposited by wet chemical spin-coating technique on polished AISI 440C steel substrates. The as-deposited films (xerogel films) have been subjected to annealing for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 deg. C in an argon atmosphere. The size growth of the nano-hemispheres increased from 8 nm for xerogel film to 28 nm for film annealed at 400 deg. C. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased from 100 to 400 deg. C, nano-hemisphere-like structures were formed, which in turn have shown increase in the water contact angle from 122 deg. to 147 deg. and oil (peanut) contact angle from 85 deg. to 96 deg. No change in the water contact angle (122 deg.) has been observed when the films deposited at room temperature were heated in air from 30 to 80 deg. C as well as exposed to steam for 8 days for 8 h/day indicating thermal stability of the film

  17. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  18. Appearance and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces from whole melon treated with wet steam process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf-life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and changes in physiological processes. Whole melons were inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) and then t...

  19. Continuous wet-process growth of ZnO nanoarrays for wire-shaped photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Guo, Wanwan; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan; Qing, Shenglan; Fan, Xing

    2016-09-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been grown on metal-plated polymer fiber via a mild wet process in a newly-designed continuous reactor, aiming to provide wire-shaped photoanodes for wearable dye-sensitized solar cells. The growth conditions were systematically optimized with the help of computational flow-field simulation. The flow field in the reactor will not only affect the morphology of the ZnO nanorod⧹nanowire but also affect the pattern distribution of nanoarray on the electrode surface. Unlike the sectional structure from the traditional batch-type reactor, ZnO nanorods with finely-controlled length and uniform morphology could be grown from the continuous reactor. After optimization, the wire-shaped ZnO-type photoanode grown from the continuous reactor exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that from the traditional batch-type reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production - A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of the developments, the review focuses on the twin-screw granulator as a device for continuous HSWG and attempts to critically evaluate the current process. As a result, a set of open research questions are identified. These questions need to be answered in the future in order to fill the knowledge gap...... that currently exists both at micro- and macro-scale, and which is currently limiting the further development of the process to its full potential in pharmaceutical applications....

  1. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  2. Design and application of a metal wet-etching post-process for the improvement of CMOS-MEMS capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Sun, Chih-Ming; Liu, Yu-Chia; Fang, Weileun; Wang, Chuanwei

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a process design methodology to improve the performance of a CMOS-MEMS gap-closing capacitive sensor. In addition to the standard CMOS process, the metal wet-etching approach is employed as the post-CMOS process to realize the present design. The dielectric layers of the CMOS process are exploited to form the main micro mechanical structures of the sensor. The metal layers of the CMOS process are used as the sensing electrodes and sacrificial layers. The advantages of the sensor design are as follows: (1) the parasitic capacitance is significantly reduced by the dielectric structure, (2) in-plane and out-of-plane sensing gaps can be reduced to increase the sensitivity, and (3) plate-type instead of comb-type out-of-plane sensing electrodes are available to increase the sensing electrode area. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present design, a three-axis capacitive CMOS-MEMS accelerometers chip is implemented and characterized. Measurements show that the sensitivities of accelerometers reach 11.5 mV G −1 (in the X-, Y-axes) and 7.8 mV G −1 (in the Z-axis), respectively, which are nearly one order larger than existing designs. Moreover, the detection of 10 mG excitation using the three-axis accelerometer is demonstrated for both in-plane and out-of-plane directions

  3. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature; Trattamento dei rifiuti tossici e nocivi organici mediante il processo di ossidazione ad umido con acqua ossigenata a bassa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinno, T; Salluzzo, A; Nardi, L [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Gili, M; Luce, A; Troiani, F [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy); Cornacchia, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Trisaia (Italy)

    1989-11-15

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  4. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  5. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent

  6. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Dolfine Kosters, N.; Daanen, h.a.m.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the me-chanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic dis-crimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  7. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  8. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  9. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  10. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-02-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  11. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  12. Examining Dynamical Processes of Tropical Mountain Hydroclimate, Particularly During the Wet Season, Through Integration of Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Peru is facing imminent water resource issues as glaciers retreat and demand increases, yet limited observations and model resolution hamper understanding of hydrometerological processes on local to regional scales. Much of current global and regional climate studies neglect the meteorological forcing of lapse rates (LRs) and valley and slope wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle, and herein we emphasize the wet season. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded hydrometeorological measurements from the ASN and climate modeling by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain wind regime and LRs. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations suggest that thermally driven up-valley and slope winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain nocturnal wet season precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis LR, and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the atmospheric boundary layer to improve regional climate model projections in mountainous regions. We are currently considering to use intermediate climate models such as ICAR to reduce computing cost and we continue to maintain the ASN in the Cordillera Blanca.

  13. Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Vibrated Droplets on a Micropillared Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hai Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical wetting behavior has been observed under vertical vibration of a water droplet placed on a micropillared surface. The wetting transition takes place under the different processes. In compression process, the droplet is transited from Cassie state to Wenzel state. The droplet undergoes a Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition in restoring process and the droplet bounces off from the surface in bouncing process. Meanwhile, the wetting and dewetting models during vibration are proposed. The wetting transition is confirmed by the model calculation. This study has potential to be used to control the wetting state.

  14. Understanding the formation process of the liquid slug in a hilly-terrain wet natural gas pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2017-01-01

    condition on the liquid slug formation is discussed including pipe diameter, inclination angle, gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup. The results show that the pipe is blocked by the liquid slug at the moment of slug formed. The pipe pressure suddenly increases, and then decreases gradually...... in the process of liquid slug formation and motion. The pipe pressure drop and liquid holdup decrease along with the increasing inclination angle of ascending pipe. On the contrary, they rise with the increase of the inclination angle of descending pipe. Higher gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup result...

  15. Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus, electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.

  16. Research on the Effects of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in Wet-Activated Silicon Direct Bonding Base on Orthogonal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei NIE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is a very important index in silicon direct bonding and it is affected by processing parameters in the wet-activated process. These parameters include the concentration of activation solution, holding time and treatment temperature. The effects of these parameters were investigated by means of orthogonal experiments. In order to analyze the wafer roughness more accurately, the bear ratio of the surface was used as the evaluation index. From the results of the experiments, it could be concluded that the concentration of the activation solution affected the roughness directly and the higher the concentration, the lower the roughness. Holding time did not affect the roughness as acutely as that of the concentration, but a reduced activation time decreased the roughness perceptibly. It was also discovered that the treatment temperature had a weak correlation with the surface roughness. Based on these conclusions, the parameters of concentration, temperature and holding time were optimized respectively as NH4OH:H2O2=1:1 (without water, 70 °C and 5 min. The results of bonding experiments proved the validity of the conclusions of orthogonal experiments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9711

  17. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability.

  18. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  19. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  20. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  1. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  3. Effect of corn processing and wet distiller’s grains with solubles on odorous volatile organic compound emissions from urine and feces of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) are a common feed ingredient in beef feedlot diets, but the excess nitrogen in these diets creates air quality issues, primarily due to the aromatic compounds emitted during fermentation of excreted protein. Use of high-moisture corn (HMC) instead of dry-r...

  4. A new remote optical wetness sensor and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Hillen, W.C.A.M.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    An optical wetness sensor (OWS) was developed for continuous surface wetness measurements. The sensor is an all-weather instrument that does not interfere with the surface wetting and drying process and is unaffected by solar radiation. It is equipped with its own light source with which it can scan

  5. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  8. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  9. Wetting of real surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward Yu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of wetting and drop dynamics on various surfaces is very interesting from both the scientificas well as thepractical viewpoint, and subject of intense research.The results are scattered across papers in journals, sothis workwill meet the need for a unifying, comprehensive work.

  10. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reactio...

  11. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  12. Technical-economical feasibility of the wet oxidation process: Experiences on real scale plant. Part I; Fattibilita` tecnico-economica del processo di ossidazione ad umido: Esperienze di trattamento su impianto a piena scala. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Bertanza, Giorgio [Brescia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Baldi, Marco [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale; Bissolotti, Giorgio; Calvi, Riccardo [SIAD Spa, Bergamo (Italy); Del Rio, Mauro; Pergetti, Mauro [AGAC, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    In the first part of this work the wet oxidation process is compared with some other oxidation treatments (like Fenton oxidation, oxidation, also with UV light, incineration, ect.) in order to assess its proper application field. Besides, the main cases in which wet oxidation is employed in wastewater treatment are described and the results of some previous experiences of the authors are summarized. In the second part they discuss the results of an experimentation carried out on a real scale treatment plant (maximum inflow rate 1,5 m{sup 3}/h). The plant was fed with low biodegradable wastewaters (COD = 2.5 - 175 g/L) coming from different industrial sectors. The following process conditions were maintained: temperature = 280-300 deg C, final pressure = 11-12.5 MPa. From the results of the experimentation they concluded that this process is suitable or the pre-treatment of wastewaters with high non-biodegradable matter content, with COD initial concentrations from 10-20 up to 150 g/L. In these conditions, it is also convenient from the economical point of view, with respect to other chemical-physical of thermal processes. In order to achieve the full functionality within an industrial waste treatment facility, some operating measures are required aimed to homogenize the treated wastewater, which has carefully characterized.

  13. Technical-economical feasibility of the wet oxidation process: Experiences on real scale plant. Part II; Fattibilita` tecnico-economica del processo di ossidazione ad umido: Esperienze di trattamento su impianto a piena scala. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, Caro; Bertanza, Giorgio [Brescia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Baldi, Marco [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale; Bissolotti, Giorgio; Calvi Riccardo [SIAD Spa, Bergamo (Italy); Del Rio, Mauro; Pergetti, Mauro [AGAC, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    In the first part of this work the wet oxidation process is compared with some other oxidation treatments (like Fenton oxidation, oxidation, also with UV light, incineration, ect.) in order to assess its proper application field. Besides, the main cases in which wet oxidation is employed in wastewater treatment are described and the results of some previous experiences of the authors are summarized. In the second part they discuss the results of an experimentation carried out on a real scale treatment plant (maximum inflow rate 1,5 m{sup 3}/h). The plant was fed with low biodegradable wastewaters (COD = 2.5 - 175 g/L) coming from different industrial sectors. The following process conditions were maintained: temperature = 280-300 deg C, final pressure = 11-12.5 MPa. From the results of the experimentation they concluded that this process is suitable or the pre-treatment of wastewaters with high non-biodegradable matter content, with COD initial concentrations from 10-20 up to 150 g/L. In these conditions, it is also convenient from the economical point of view, with respect to other chemical-physical of thermal processes. In order to achieve the full functionality within an industrial waste treatment facility, some operating measures are required aimed to homogenize the treated wastewater, which has carefully characterized.

  14. In situ observation of initial rust formation process on carbon steel under Na2SO4 and NaCl solution films with wet/dry cycles using synchrotron radiation X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Konishi, H.; Kozakura, T.; Mizuki, J.; Uchida, H.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of steel proceeds under thin electrolyte film formed by rain and dew condensation followed by wet and dry cycles. It is said that rust layer formed on steel as a result of atmospheric corrosion strongly affects the corrosion behavior of steel. The effect of environmental corrosiveness on the formation process and structure of the rust layer is, however, not clear to date. In this study, in situ observation of the rusting process of a carbon steel covered with a thin film of Na 2 SO 4 or NaCl solution was performed under a wet/dry repeating condition by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy with white X-rays obtained from synchrotron radiation. The present in situ experiments successfully detected initial process of the rust formation. In the early cycles, the rust constituents were not well crystallized yet, but the presence of Fe(OH) 2 and Fe(OH) 3 was confirmed. In the subsequent cycles, two different solutions resulted in difference in preferential phase of the rust constituents. α-FeOOH was preferentially formed in the case of the Na 2 SO 4 solution film, whereas β-FeOOH appeared only under the NaCl solution film

  15. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction. PMID:28787809

  16. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  17. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete's water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  18. Additives affecting properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in a modified indirect wet chemistry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Long, E-mail: johnyucl@aliyun.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Liu, Wei; Yang, Long-Tao; Wang, Dao-Yi; Wu, Kang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Zhang, Zeng-Ping [Key Laboratory for Special Area Highway Engineering of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Wang, Xiu-Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Lithium metatitanate (β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were fabricated via the modified indirect wet chemistry method. Effect of varied additives, as polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar on the properties evolution was investigated. The highest density is obtained by adding 2 wt% (weight percent) polyvinyl alcohol, 3 wt% glycerol, and 3 wt% agar, respectively. β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with relative sintered density of 92.4%T.D. (Theoretical Density), the ratio of the intensity of diffraction peak (002) to that of (−133) of about 2.93, about 1.58 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02, the particle size of 5–6 μm, and the well-developed surface layered structure are successfully fabricated with 3 wt% glycerol. Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties by other fabrication method as well. - Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar were used to prepare β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. • Properties of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were governed by the additives. • Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  19. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  20. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg"0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids were employed for Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O_2"−) played a key role in Hg"0 removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg"0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N_2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg"0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg"0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 showed the highest Hg"0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag_2CO_3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag"0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) may play a key role in Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  1. Wetting of alkanes on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, E.; Bonn, D.; Meunier, J.; Shahidzadeh, N. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231, Cedex 05 Paris (France); Broseta, D.; Ragil, K. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Dobbs, H.; Indekeu, J.O. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    The wetting behavior of oil on water (or brine) has important consequences for the transport properties of oil in water-containing porous reservoirs, and consequently for oil recovery. The equilibrium wetting behavior of model oils composed of pure alkanes or alkane mixtures on brine is reviewed in this paper. Intermediate between the partial wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist on water with a thin film of adsorbed alkane molecules, and the complete wetting state, in which a macroscopically thick oil layer covers the water, these systems display a third, novel wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist with a mesoscopic (a few-nanometers-thick) oil film. The nature and location of the transitions between these wetting regimes depend on oil and brine compositions, temperature and pressure.

  2. Wetting of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Figueirinhas Pereira, Maria Carolina; Bernardino, Nelson R; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the wetting properties of cholesteric liquid crystals at a planar substrate. If the properties of substrate and of the interface are such that the cholesteric layers are not distorted, the wetting properties are similar to those of a nematic liquid crystal. If, on the other hand, the anchoring conditions force the distortion of the liquid crystal layers the wetting properties are altered, the free cholesteric-isotropic interface is non-planar and there is a layer of topological defects close to the substrate. These deformations can either promote or hinder the wetting of the substrate by a cholesteric, depending on the properties of the cholesteric liquid crystal.

  3. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  4. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting from instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fractures such as those at Yucca Mountain are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  5. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting front instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fracture are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  6. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  7. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  8. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  9. Assessing green-processing technologies for wet milling freshly hulled and germinated brown rice, leading to naturally fortified plant-based beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice milk beverages can well balanced nutrition. With healthier nutrition in consumer’s minds, national. Worldwide consumption/production of plant-based milk beverages are increasing. Much past research and invention was based on enzymatic conversion processes for starch that were uncomplicated be...

  10. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  11. Development of a process map: A step towards a regime map for steady-state high shear wet twin screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; Vercruysse, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    involves the combination of screw speed, material throughput and torque required to rotate the screws was correlated with the applied liquid-to-solid ratio to present process maps. The study suggested that, despite an increase in the granule size by the increasing liquid-to-solid ratio, most of the liquid...... contributes to formation of oversized granules. Therefore, keeping the liquid-to-solid ratio in a lower range and increasing the energy input to the system can be effectively used to lower the mean granule size. Changes in the screw geometry should also be explored to improve solid liquid mixing and breakage...

  12. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  13. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-01-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained

  14. Pulse plating of Pt on n-GaAs (1 0 0) wafer surfaces: Synchrotron induced photoelectron spectroscopy and XPS of wet fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensling, D.; Hunger, R.; Kraft, D.; Mayer, Th.; Jaegermann, W.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.; Ichizli, V.; Hartnagel, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation steps of Pt/n-GaAs Schottky contacts as applied in the fabrication process of varactor diode arrays for THz applications are analysed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Pulsed cathodic deposition of Pt onto GaAs (1 0 0) wafer surfaces from acidic solution has been studied by core level photoelectron spectroscopy using different excitation energies. A laboratory AlKα source as well as synchrotron radiation of hν=130 and 645 eV at BESSY was used. Chemical analyses and semiquantitative estimates of layer thickness are given for the natural oxide of an untreated wafer surface, a surface conditioning NH 3 etching step, and stepwise pulse plating of Pt. The structural arrangement of the detected species and interface potentials are considered

  15. In silico and wet lab approaches to study transcriptional regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hestand, Matthew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is a complicated process with multiple types of regulation, including binding of proteins termed transcription factors. This thesis looks at transcription factors and transcription factor binding site discovery through computational predictions and wet lab work to better elucidate

  16. Analysis on Wetting Deformation Properties of Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water level that cause deformation and stability problems often occur in foundation pit engineering. Water damage is one of the main problems that will lead to disasters in foundation pit engineering. Research findings with regard to properties of wetting deformation due to water damage can be applied not only in foundation pit engineering, slope engineering, hydraulic engineering, and mining engineering but also in related issues in the field of theoretical research and practice. In this study, the characteristics of silty clay deformation after wetting are examined from the perspective of the effect of wetting on the side wall of foundation pit, and wetting experiments on silty clay of a selected area’s stratum located in Chongqing Municipality are conducted under different confining pressures and stress levels through a multi-function triaxial apparatus. Then, laws of silty clay wetting deformation are obtained, and the relationship between wetting stress level and wetting deformation amount is also figured out. The study reveals that the maximum values of wetting deformation under different confining pressures have appear at a particular stress level; therefore, the related measures should be taken to avoid this deformation in the process of construction.

  17. Accelerated Drying of Wet Boots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyck, Walter

    2002-01-01

    .... One such material is sodium polyacrylate. Because recent field trials with Canadian Forces soldiers have reconfirmed that donning wet combat boots is very uncomfortable, a study was done to assess the efficacy of using sodium polyacrylate...

  18. Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hour Min Pressure Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT...Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F...Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F deg F deg

  19. WASTECOST-Wet - developed for Electric Power Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    WASTECOST-Wet specifically addresses liquid processing systems and their impact on solid waste volumes. The WASTECOST-Wet code models the entire liquid processing activity from media descriptions and volume throughput to solid waste volume generated, processing efficiency and disposal costs. WASTECOST gives a detailed economic and performance view of liquid waste processing activities. The code provides users a standardized methodology for calculating and comparing costs and system performance characteristics. Detailed reports are provided showing major costs centers. Performance and cost factors include gallons processed per cubic foot of waste generated, cost per cubic foot of waste generated and cost per gallon processed

  20. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  1. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Mishra, Himanshu; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid 'marbles' with molecularly thin graphene.

  2. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra

    2016-11-28

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid \\'marbles\\' with molecularly thin graphene.

  3. Nanoscale View of Dewetting and Coating on Partially Wetted Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Chen, Lei; Liu, Qiao; Yu, Jiapeng; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-19

    There remain significant gaps in our ability to predict dewetting and wetting despite the extensive study over the past century. An important reason is the absence of nanoscopic knowledge about the processes near the moving contact line. This experimental study for the first time obtained the liquid morphology within 10 nm of the contact line, which was receding at low speed (U dewetting far from a simple reverse of wetting. A complete scenario for dewetting and coating is provided.

  4. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  5. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  6. A review of monitoring methods for pharmaceutical wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansuld, E M; Briens, L

    2014-09-10

    High-shear wet granulation is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve powder properties for downstream processes such as tabletting. Granule growth, however, is difficult to predict because the process is sensitive to raw material properties and operating conditions. Development of process analytical technologies is encouraged by regulatory bodies to improve process understanding and monitor quality online. The primary technologies investigated for high-shear wet granulation monitoring include power consumption, near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, capacitance measurements, microwave measurements, imaging, focused beam reflectance measurements, spatial filter velocimetry, stress and vibration measurements, as well as acoustic emissions. This review summarizes relevant research related to each of these technologies and discusses the challenges associated with each approach as a possible process analytical technology tool for high-shear wet granulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Gui; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger

  8. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  9. Influence of chemistry on wetting dynamics of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2010-04-06

    In this work, the role of a chemical parameter, such as the degree of fluorination, on the wetting behavior of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces is investigated. Texture and chemistry tuning of the surfaces has been accomplished with single batch radiofrequency low-pressure plasma processes. Polystyrene substrates have been textured by CF(4) plasma etching and subsequently covered by thin films with a tunable F-to-C ratio, obtained in discharges fed with C(4)F(8)-C(2)H(4). Measurements of wetting dynamics reveal a regime transition from adhesive-hydrophobic to slippery-superhydrophobic, i.e., from wet to non wet states, as the F-to-C rises at constant topography. Such achievements are strengthened by calculation of the solid fraction of surface water contact area applying Cassie-Baxter advancing and receding equations to water contact angle data of textured and flat reference surfaces.

  10. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  11. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: Wet Jeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    Picture a wet towel or a puddle of water on a hot, sunny day. An hour later, the towel is dry and the puddle no longer exists. What happened to the water? Where did it go? These are questions that reveal myriad interesting student ideas about evaporation and the water cycle--ideas that provide teachers with a treasure trove of data they can use to…

  13. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  14. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  15. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  16. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g) and...

  17. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  18. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids

  20. Numerical study on over reading coefficient in wet steam flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuesong; Yuan Dewen; Yan Xiao; Peng Xingjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the flow process of wet steam in Venturi under interested conditions with CFD simulation software. The effect of pressure, mass flow rate, throat radius on over reading factor was analyzed. This paper aims to improve the wet steam over reading model and the prediction accuracy in wet steam. The results prove that the mass flow has a small effect on over reading coefficient, while the effect that throat radius has on over reading coefficient increases as the pressure rises. (authors)

  1. Converting SDAP into gypsum in a wet limestone scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F [Faelleskemikerne, Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The ELSAM power pool has an installed electrical capacity of approx. 5 GW{sub e}, mainly firing import coal. The major base load units are equipped with desulphurization units and three different desulphurization technologies are used: the wet limestone gypsum process, the spray dry absorption process and a sulphuric acid process. Gypsum and sulphuric acid are commercialized, whereas it has been difficult to utilize the spray dry absorption product (SDAP). The main constituents of SDAP are calcium sulphide, calcium chloride, hydrated lime and impurities mainly originating from fly ash. Sulphide can be oxidized into sulphate in acidic solution - the reaction is utilized in the wet limestone gypsum process - and the possibility of using any spare capacity in the wet limestone gypsum units to oxidize the sulphide content of SDAP into sulphate and produce usable gypsum has been investigated in the laboratory and in a 400 MW{sub e} equivalent wet limestone unit. The limestone inhibition effect of the addition of SDAP is currently being studied in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of different SDAP types (plant/coal sources) on limestone reactivity before further long-term full-scale tests are performed and permanent use of the process planned. (EG)

  2. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Peng, Jianke [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wang, Xincheng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Xie, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The wetting angle of lead free solder on Cu was reduced by surface microstructure. • The wetting form of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on Cu was “non-composite surface”. • The experimental results had a sound fit with the theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  3. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  4. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  5. Wetting phase permeability in a partially saturated horizontal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures within geologic media can dominate the hydraulic properties of the system. Therefore, conceptual models used to assess the potential for radio-nuclide migration in unsaturated fractured rock such as that composing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, must be consistent with flow processes in individual fractures. A major obstacle to the understanding and simulation of unsaturated fracture flow is the paucity of physical data on both fracture aperture structure and relative permeability. An experimental procedure is developed for collecting detailed data on aperture and phase structure from a transparent analog fracture. To facilitate understanding of basic processes and provide a basis for development of effective property models, the simplest possible rough-walled fracture is used. Stable phase structures of varying complexity are created within the horizontal analog fracture. Wetting phase permeability is measured under steady-state conditions. A process based model for wetting phase relative permeability is then explored. Contributions of the following processes to reduced wetting phase permeability under unsaturated conditions are considered: reduction in cross-sectional flow area, increased path length, localized flow restriction, and preferential occupation of large apertures by the non-wetting phase

  6. Erosion-corrosion of structural materials of wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomarov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    A model of erosion-corrosion wear of elements of a wet steam zone and a condensate-feeding path of turbines is considered. It is shown that diffusion of impurities and corrosion products in pores of an oxide layer is the control mechanism under conditions of laminar flow of a media. Processes of mass transfer are controlling factors in turbulent flow

  7. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  8. Phycoremediation of Heavy Metals in Wet Market Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apandi, Najeeha; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Al-Gheethi, Adel; Latiffi, Atikah; Nor Hidayah Arifin, Siti; Gani, Paran

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of phycoremediation using microalgae for removing nutrients and heavy metals from wastewaters has been proved. However, the differences in the composition of wastewaters as well as microalgae species play an important role in the efficient of this process. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Scenedesmus sp. to removal of heavy metals from wet market wastewater. Scenedesmus sp. was inoculated with 106 cells/mL into each wet market wastewater concentration included 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and incubated for 18 days. The highest growth rate was recorded in 50% WM with a maximum dry weight of 2006 mg L-1 which subsequently removed 93.06% of Cd, 91.5% of Cr, 92.47% of Fe, 92.40% of Zn. These findings reflected the high potential of Scenedesmus sp. in the treatment of wet market wastewater and production microalgae biomass.

  9. Dynamics of wetting explored with inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völkel Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An inkjet printer head, which is capable of depositing liquid droplets with a resolution of 22 picoliters and high repeatability, is employed to investigate the wetting dynamics of drops printed on a horizontal plane as well as on a granular monolayer. For a sessile drop on a horizontal plane, we characterize the contact angle hysteresis, drop volume and contact line dynamics from side view images. We show that the evaporation rate scales with the dimension of the contact line instead of the surface area of the drop. We demonstrate that the system evolves into a closed cycle upon repeating the depositing-evaporating process, owing to the high repeatability of the printing facility. Finally, we extend the investigation to a granular monolayer in order to explore the interplay between liquid deposition and granular particles.

  10. Fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in membrane distillation for coke wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Zuliang; Cheng, Fangqin

    2018-06-02

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been hindered in industrial applications due to the potential wetting or fouling caused by complicated organic compositions. This study investigated the correlations between the fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in the MD process, where three coke wastewater samples pre-treated with bio-degradation and coagulation served as feed solutions. Results showed that although most of the bio-refractory organics in coke wastewater were rejected by the hydrophobic membrane, some volatile aromatic organics including benzenes, phenols, quinolines and naphthalenes passed through the membrane during the MD process. Interestingly, membrane wetting occurred coincidently with the penetration of phenolic and heterocyclic organics. The wetting rate was obviously correlated with the feed composition and membrane surface properties. Ultimately, novel insights into the anti-wetting strategy of MD with bio-refractory organics was proposed, illustrating that the polyaluminum chloride/polyacrylamide coagulation not only removed contaminants which could accelerate membrane wetting, but also retarded membrane wetting by the complexation with organics. The deposition of these complexes on the membrane surface introduced a secondary hydrophilic layer on the hydrophobic substrate, which established a composite membrane structure with superior wetting resistance. These new findings would be beneficial to wetting control in membrane distillation for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of wetting-drying cycles on soil desiccation cracking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Chao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the desiccation cracking process is essential in analysing drought effects on soil hydraulic and mechanical properties through consideration of the atmosphere-ground interaction. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the consequence of wetting-drying cycles on the initiation and propagation characteristics of desiccation cracks on soil surface. Initially saturated slurry specimens were prepared and subjected to five subsequent wetting-drying cycles. Image processing technique was employed to quantitatively analyze the morphology characteristics of crack patterns formed during each drying path. The results show that the desiccation cracking behaviour of soil is significantly affected by the wetting-drying cycles. Before the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the surface crack ratio and the average crack width increases while the average clod area decreases with increasing the number of wetting-drying cycles. The number of intersections and crack segments per unit area reaches the peak values after the second wetting-drying cycle. After the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the effect of increasing wetting-drying cycles on crack patterns is insignificant. Moreover, it is observed that the applied wetting-drying cycles are accompanied by a continual reconstruction of soil structure. The initial homogenous slurry structure is completely replaced with aggregated structure after the third cycles, and a significant increase in the inter-aggregate porosity can be observed.

  12. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  14. Mechanisms of wet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    A research programme is currently under way at BNL and MEL to investigate the possible use of Hydrogen Peroxide with metal ion catalysts as a wet oxidation treatment system for CEGB organic radioactive wastes. The published literature relating to the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide is reviewed and the links with practical waste management by wet oxidation are examined. Alternative wet oxidation systems are described and the similarities to the CEGB research effort are noted. (author)

  15. Robust Non-Wetting PTFE Surfaces by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability, which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here, robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters, both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.

  16. Robust non-wetting PTFE surfaces by femtosecond laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Lehr, Jorge; Danielczak, Lisa; Leask, Richard; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-08

    Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability,which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here,robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters,both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.

  17. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  18. Variability of extreme wet events over Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libanda Brigadier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of extreme wet events are well documented by several studies around the world. These effects are exacerbated in developing countries like Malawi that have insufficient risk reduction strategies and capacity to cope with extreme wet weather. Ardent monitoring of the variability of extreme wet events over Malawi is therefore imperative. The use of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI has been recommended by many studies as an effective way of quantifying extreme wet events. In this study, ETCCDI indices were used to examine the number of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall days; daily and five-day maximum rainfall; very wet and extremely wet days; annual wet days and simple daily intensity. The Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT was employed at 5% significance level before any statistical test was done. Trend analysis was done using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall statistical test. All stations were found to be homogeneous apart from Mimosa. Trend results show high temporal and spatial variability with the only significant results being: increase in daily maximum rainfall (Rx1day over Karonga and Bvumbwe, increase in five-day maximum rainfall (Rx5day over Bvumbwe. Mzimba and Chileka recorded a significant decrease in very wet days (R95p while a significant increase was observed over Thyolo. Chileka was the only station which observed a significant trend (decrease in extremely wet rainfall (R99p. Mzimba was the only station that reported a significant trend (decrease in annual wet-day rainfall total (PRCPTOT and Thyolo was the only station that reported a significant trend (increase in simple daily intensity (SDII. Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that, during wet years, Malawi is characterised by an anomalous convergence of strong south-easterly and north-easterly winds. This convergence is the main rain bringing mechanism to Malawi.

  19. Eddy correlation measurements in wet environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, R. H.; Migliori, L.; O Kane, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Feale catchment is a low-lying peaty area of 200 km^2 situated in southwest Ireland that is subject to inundation by flooding. The catchment lies adjacent to the Feale River and is subject to tidal signals as well as runoff processes. Various mitigation strategies are being investigated to reduce the damage due to flooding. Part of the effort has required development of a detailed hydrologic balance for the study area which is a wet pasture environment with local field drains that are typically flooded. An eddy correlation system was installed in the summer of 2002 to measure components of the energy balance, including evapotranspiration, along with special sensors to measure other hydrologic variables particular to this study. Data collected will be essential for validation of surface flux models to be developed for this site. Data filtering is performed using a combination of software developed by the Boundary-Layer Group (BLG) at Oregon State University together with modifications made to this system for conditions at this site. This automated procedure greatly reduces the tedious inspection of individual records. The package of tests, developed by the BLG for both tower and aircraft high frequency data, checks for electronic spiking, signal dropout, unrealistic magnitudes, extreme higher moment statistics, as well as other error scenarios not covered by the instrumentation diagnostics built into the system. Critical parameter values for each potential error were developed by applying the tests to real fast response turbulent time series. Potential instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and unusual physical situations records are flagged for removal or further analysis. A final visual inspection step is required to minimize rejection of physically unusual but real behavior in the time series. The problems of data management, data quality control, individual instrumentation sensitivity, potential underestimation of latent and sensible heat

  20. Slow, Wet and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Fowl Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Carta; Mario Cruccu; Francesco Desogus

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results obtained at a pilot plant which works with a slow, wet and catalytic pyrolysis process of dry fowl manure. This kind of process mainly consists in the cracking of the organic matrix and in the following reaction of carbon with water, which is either already contained in the organic feed or added, to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Reactions are conducted in a rotating reactor maintained at a temperature of 500°C; the requi...

  1. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  2. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  3. Water wizards : reshaping wet nature and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, van der E.B.A.; Disco, C.

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates how humans ‘networked’ wet nature and how this affected the shaping of Dutch society. First, it takes a grand view of Dutch history and describes how wet network building intertwined with the shaping of the Dutch landscape, its economy and its polity. Second, it investigates

  4. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet (W...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe or...

  9. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  10. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  11. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  12. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  13. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-05-07

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  14. Wet gas compression. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics within a centrifugal compressor exposed to wet gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Trond Gammelsaeter

    2012-07-01

    revealed when the GMF was reduced (i.e., the surge margin increased). The instability characteristic changed when liquid was present. Dynamic pressure sensors fluch-mounted in the diffuser were used to detect instability inception was revealed when the GMF was reduced (i.e., the surge margin increased). The instability characteristic changed when liquid was present. Dynamic pressure sensors fluch-mounted in the diffuser were used to detect instability inception and evolution by analyzing the measurements in frequency domain. The liquid influenced the dynamic pressure measurements. Analysis revealed an increased amplification of low-frequency amplitudes with decreasing GMF. Exact identification on instability inception was obscure at low GMF. Two different methods for instability detection were evaluated (.i.e., torque measurements and stagnation pressure measurements through a reversed-installed pitot probe at impeller inlet. Both methods were validated with the dynamic pressure measurements and identified instability onset at equal volume flow. Visual observation of wet gas surge process was performed to obtain knowledge of its characteristics. The surge was characterized as a gradual process initiated with an expanding annulus ring of reversed water flow at the impeller shroud inlet pipe while the gas volume flow was gradually reduced until the liquid showed a completely chaotic flow path and stringent liquid flow reversal. The expanding annulus ring was a precursor to surge that may be detected by instrumentation and utilized in a surge protection system. The main contributions of this work are presented in three international papers contained in the appendices. (Author)

  15. The Effect of Wetting on The Course of The Drum Granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczyk Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics were determined.

  16. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  17. Creating gradient wetting surfaces via electroless displacement of zinc-coated carbon steel by nickel ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong; Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Chen, Haining

    2018-03-01

    Gradient wetting surfaces are getting increasing attention due to their wide application in multiple fields such as droplet movement and biosorption. However, the fabrication processes of full gradient wetting surfaces are still complex and costly. In present work, a facile and low-cost chemical immersion method was used to create a full gradient wetting surface. By controlling the displacement time in Ni2+ solution, the prepared surfaces perform hydrophilic to superhydrophilic. After being modified by stearic acid, the gradient hydrophilic surfaces convert into hydrophobic. The surface morphology, composition, and wetting behaviors of the as-prepared surfaces were systematically studied and discussed. The gradient wetting property could be attributed to the change in microroughness and surface energy. In addition, these surfaces also exhibited excellent self-cleaning and wax prevention properties. Furthermore, high stability and corrosion resistance were also found for these surfaces, which further highlight their promising practical applications in many fields.

  18. Development of an electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbedel, Bernd; Kazak, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a novel electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling of different materials, in which the milling beads are moved under a time- and local-variable magnetic field. A possibility to optimize the milling process in such a milling machine by simulation of the vector gradient distribution of the electromagnetic field in the process room is presented. The mathematical model and simulation methods based on standard software packages are worked out. The results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements of the electromagnetic field in the working chamber of a developed and manufactured laboratory plant correlate well with each other. Using the obtained operating parameters, dry milling experiments with crushed cement clinker and wet milling experiments of organic agents in the laboratory plant are performed and the results are discussed here.

  19. Analytical modeling of wet compression of gas turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are of importance to the power generation industry because of the potential of enhanced cycle efficiencies with moderate incremental cost. Humidification of the working fluid to result in evaporative cooling during compression is a key operation in these cycles. Previous simulations of this operation were carried out via numerical integration. The present work is aimed at modeling the wet-compression process with approximate analytical solutions instead. A thermodynamic analysis of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur during evaporation is presented. The transient behavior of important variables in wet compression such as droplet diameter, droplet mass, gas and droplet temperature, and evaporation rate is investigated. The effects of system parameters on variables such as droplet evaporation time, compressor outlet temperature and input work are also considered. Results from this work exhibit good agreement with those of previous numerical work.

  20. Comparison of Wet and Dry Grinding in Electromagnetic Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ogonowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of dry and wet grinding process in an electromagnetic mill is presented in this paper. The research was conducted in a batch copper ore grinding. Batch mode allows for precise parametrization and constant repetitive conditions of the experiments. The following key aspects were tested: processing time, feed size, size of the grinding media, mass of the material and graining media, and density of the pulp. The particles size distribution of the product samples was analyzed in the laboratory after each experiment. The paper discusses the experimental results as well as the concept of dry and wet grinding and classification circuits for the electromagnetic mill. The main points of the discussion are the size reduction effectiveness and power consumption of the entire system.

  1. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  2. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  3. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as that resulting from removing grapes from a...

  4. Medications to Treat Bed-Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest that depression plays a role in the cause of bed-wetting. This type of drug is thought to work one of several ways: by changing the child's sleep and wakening pattern by affecting the time ...

  5. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  6. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  7. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  8. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radjenović

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community, extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process.

  9. Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.

    1995-01-01

    . As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...... term reduces the thickness by the amount proportional to r0-1/3...

  10. Novel applications of biomass wet pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaa, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)], email: mika.sillanpaa@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    Production of carbonaceous material from unconventional wet biomass sources by thermal processing offers interesting novel opportunities and application possibilities in different fields. Thermal treatment at low temperatures refers to torrefication in general. Disadvantage in this technique is that biomass has to be dried first which consumes a lot energy and time and limits use of biomass materials widely. In wetpyrolysis (hydrothermal carbonization, HTC), biomass source can be wetter, like wood, household wastes, manure or industrial wastewater sludge. Reaction takes place in water environment at higher temperature (180-250 deg C) and pressure which is self-generated. Typically reaction system is high pressure reactor also called autoclave. Comparing to torrefaction HTC produces more solid yield, water soluble organic compounds but formation is low during reaction. Properties of the product can be easily modified by changing reaction conditions, utilization of additives or catalysts. Novel materials obtained by this technique will be used in different applications in water treatment and it will be also interesting to compare purification efficiency of these materials to activated carbon.

  11. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  12. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  13. Wetting Behavior of Calcium Ferrite Slags on Cristobalite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingrui; Lv, Xuewei; Wei, Ruirui; Xu, Jian; Bai, Chenguang

    2018-03-01

    Calcium ferrite (CF) is a significant intermediate adhesive phase in high-basicity sinters. The wettability between calcium ferrite (CF) and gangue plays an important role in the assimilation process. The wettability of CF-based slags, in which a constant amount (2 mass pct.) of Al2O3, MgO, SiO2, and TiO2 was added, on solid SiO2 (cristobalite) substrates at 1523 K (1250 °C) was investigated. The interfacial microstructure and spreading mechanisms were discussed for each sample. All the tested slag samples exhibited good wettability on the SiO2 substrate. The initial apparent contact angles were in the range of 20 to 50 deg, while the final apparent contact angles were 5 deg. The wetting process could be divided into three stages on the basis of the change in diameter, namely the "linear spreading" stage, "spreading rate reduction" stage, and "wetting equilibrium" stage. It was found that the CF-SiO2 wetting system exhibits dissolutive wetting and the dissolution of SiO2 into slag influences its spreading process. The spreading rate increases with a decrease in the ratio of viscosity to interfacial tension, which is a result of the addition of Al2O3, MgO, SiO2, and TiO2. After cooling, a deep corrosion pit was formed in the substrate and a diffusion layer was generated in front of the residual slag zone; further, some SiO2 and Fe2O3 solid solutions precipitated in the slag.

  14. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg{sup 0} using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Anchao, E-mail: aczhang@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids were employed for Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) played a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg{sup 0} removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg{sup 0} removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg{sup 0} removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag{sup 0} NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) may play a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  15. Calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared from wet chemically precipitated powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Salma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work calcium phosphates were synthesized by modified wet chemical precipitation route. Contrary to the conventional chemical precipitation route calcium hydroxide was homogenized with planetary mill. Milling calcium oxide and water in planetary ball mill as a first step of synthesis provides a highly dispersed calcium hydroxide suspension. The aim of this work was to study the influence of main processing parameters of wet chemical precipitation synthesis product and to control the morphology, phase and functional group composition and, consequently, thermal stability and microstructure of calcium phosphate bioceramics after thermal treatment. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium phosphates with different and reproducible phase compositions after thermal processing (hydroxyapatite [HAp], β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] and HAp/β-TCP by modified wet-chemical precipitation route. The β-TCP phase content in sintered bioceramics samples is found to be highly dependent on the changes in technological parameters and it can be controlled with ending pH, synthesis temperature and thermal treatment. Pure, crystalline and highly thermally stable (up to 1300°C HAp bioceramics with homogenous grainy microstructure, grain size up to 200–250 nm and high open porosity can be successfully obtained by powder synthesized at elevated synthesis temperature of 70°C and stabilizing ending pH at 9.

  16. Performance of a UASB reactor treating coffee wet wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia Puebla, Yans; Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; Janet Jiménez Hernández; Sánchez Girón, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the anaerobic digestion process of coffee wet wastewater processing. An UASB anaerobic reactor was operated in single-stage in mesophilic temperature controlled conditions (37±1ºC). The effect of both organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater was investigated. The OLR values considered in the single-stage UASB reactor varied in a range of 3,6-4,1 kgCOD m-3 d-1 and the HRT stayed in a range of 21,5-15,5 hours. The evaluation results show that the best performance of UASB reactor in single-stage was obtained at OLR of 3,6 kg COD m-3 d-1 with an average value of total and soluble COD removal of 77,2% and 83,4%, respectively, and average methane concentration in biogas of 61%. The present study suggests that the anaerobic digestion is suitable to treating coffee wet wastewater. (author)

  17. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  18. Numerical analysis of wet separation of particles by density differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markauskas, D.; Kruggel-Emden, H.

    2017-07-01

    Wet particle separation is widely used in mineral processing and plastic recycling to separate mixtures of particulate materials into further usable fractions due to density differences. This work presents efforts aiming to numerically analyze the wet separation of particles with different densities. In the current study the discrete element method (DEM) is used for the solid phase while the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used for modeling of the liquid phase. The two phases are coupled by the use of a volume averaging technique. In the current study, simulations of spherical particle separation were performed. In these simulations, a set of generated particles with two different densities is dropped into a rectangular container filled with liquid. The results of simulations with two different mixtures of particles demonstrated how separation depends on the densities of particles.

  19. Energy and heat balance in wet DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Viren; Moser, Alexander; Schaefer, Michael; Ritschel, Michael [BorgWarner Drivetrain Engineering GmbH, Ketsch (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Wet clutch systems are well known for their thermal robustness and versatility in a wide range of automotive applications. Conventional automatics have used them for a long time as torque converter lock-up clutches, shift elements and launch clutches. With the development of DCTs, wet clutch technology has evolved in terms of launch and shift performance, controllability, robustness and efficiency. This paper discusses improvements in the wet clutch and their impact on today's vehicle applications in terms of heat and energy management. Thermal robustness is a crucial aspect for an automatic transmission. In addition to the clutch thermal performance, the influence of transmission oil cooler and oil sump warm-up behavior are discussed. Based on our latest development activities, test results and simulations, we shall discuss the latest friction material enhancement and its impact on DCTs in terms of efficiency and performance. Drag loss is a much-discussed topic during the development of wet clutch systems. This paper discusses in detail the cause and break-up of various energy losses in a wet DCT. Efficient energy management strategies for actuation systems, cooling, and lubrication, clutch apply, and pre-selection in modern power trains with engine start / stop are evaluated based on the latest test and simulation results. Finally, the paper summarizes the performance and efficiency optimized moist clutch system. (orig.)

  20. A kinetic model of municipal sludge degradation during non-catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Pike, Arrian; Wilson, David I; Baroutian, Saeid; Andrews, John; Gapes, Daniel J

    2015-12-15

    Wet oxidation is a successful process for the treatment of municipal sludge. In addition, the resulting effluent from wet oxidation is a useful carbon source for subsequent biological nutrient removal processes in wastewater treatment. Owing to limitations with current kinetic models, this study produced a kinetic model which predicts the concentrations of key intermediate components during wet oxidation. The model was regressed from lab-scale experiments and then subsequently validated using data from a wet oxidation pilot plant. The model was shown to be accurate in predicting the concentrations of each component, and produced good results when applied to a plant 500 times larger in size. A statistical study was undertaken to investigate the validity of the regressed model parameters. Finally the usefulness of the model was demonstrated by suggesting optimum operating conditions such that volatile fatty acids were maximised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Breath figures" on leaf surfaces-formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    "Microscopic leaf wetness" means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 μm, microscopic leaf wetness is about two orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the type and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g., ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  2. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  3. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  4. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  5. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  6. Rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jonathon S; Fu, Rong; Worden, John R; Chakraborty, Sudip; Clinton, Nicholas E; Risi, Camille; Sun, Ying; Yin, Lei

    2017-08-08

    Although it is well established that transpiration contributes much of the water for rainfall over Amazonia, it remains unclear whether transpiration helps to drive or merely responds to the seasonal cycle of rainfall. Here, we use multiple independent satellite datasets to show that rainforest transpiration enables an increase of shallow convection that moistens and destabilizes the atmosphere during the initial stages of the dry-to-wet season transition. This shallow convection moisture pump (SCMP) preconditions the atmosphere at the regional scale for a rapid increase in rain-bearing deep convection, which in turn drives moisture convergence and wet season onset 2-3 mo before the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Aerosols produced by late dry season biomass burning may alter the efficiency of the SCMP. Our results highlight the mechanisms by which interactions among land surface processes, atmospheric convection, and biomass burning may alter the timing of wet season onset and provide a mechanistic framework for understanding how deforestation extends the dry season and enhances regional vulnerability to drought.

  7. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  8. Random Vibration Testing of Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Advanced wet tantalum capacitors allow for improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the systems that is especially beneficial for space electronics. Due to launch-related stresses, acceptance testing of all space systems includes random vibration test (RVT). However, many types of advanced wet tantalum capacitors cannot pass consistently RVT at conditions specified in MIL-PRF-39006, which impedes their use in space projects. This requires a closer look at the existing requirements, modes and mechanisms of failures, specifics of test conditions, and acceptance criteria. In this work, different lots of advanced wet tantalum capacitors from four manufacturers have been tested at step stress random vibration conditions while their currents were monitored before, during, and after the testing. It has been shown that the robustness of the parts and their reliability are mostly due to effective self-healing processes and limited current spiking or minor scintillations caused by RVT do not increase the risk of failures during operation. A simple model for scintillations events has been used to simulate current spiking during RVT and optimize test conditions. The significance of scintillations and possible effects of gas generation have been discussed and test acceptance criteria for limited current spiking have been suggested.

  9. Wet milling versus co-precipitation in magnetite ferrofluid preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almásy László

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various uses of ferrofluids for technical applications continuously raise the interest in improvement and optimization of preparation methods. This paper deals with preparation of finely granulated magnetite particles coated with oleic acid in hydrocarbon suspensions following either chemical co-precipitation from iron salt precursors or wet milling of micron size magnetite powder with the goal to compare the benefits and disadvantages of each method. Microstructural measurements showed that both methods gave similar magnetite particle size of 10-15 nm. Higher saturation magnetization was achieved for the wet-milled magnetite suspension compared to relatively rapid co-precipitation synthesis. Different efficacies of ferrophase incorporation into kerosene could be related to the different mechanisms of oleic acid bonding to nanoparticle surface. The comparative data show that wet milling represents a practicable alternative to the traditional co-precipitation since despite of longer processing time, chemicals impact on environment can be avoided as well as the remnant water in the final product.

  10. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  11. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  12. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravarik, Kamil; Holicka, Zuzana; Pekar, Anton; Zatkulak, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and wet LLW generated during operation as well as decommissioning of NPPs is treated with different methods and fixed in a suitable fixation matrix so that a final product meets required criteria for its disposal in a final repository. Cementation is an important process used for fixation of liquid and wet radioactive waste such as concentrate, spent resins and sludge. Active cement grout is also used for fixation of low level solid radioactive waste loaded in final packing containers. VUJE Inc. has been engaged in research of cementation for long. The laboratory for analyzing radioactive waste properties, prescription of cementation formulation and estimation of final cement product properties has been established. Experimental, semi-production cementation plant has been built to optimize operation parameters of cementation. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet LLW is described in the presented paper. VUJE has assisted in commissioning of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. Cement formulations for treatment of concentrate, spent resins and sludge have been developed. Research studies on the stability of a final concrete packaging container for disposal in repository have been performed. Gained experience has been further utilized for design and manufacture of several cementation plants for treatment of various liquid and wet LLW. Their main technological and technical parameters as well as characterization of treated waste are described in the paper. Applications include the Mochovce Final Treatment Centre, Movable Cementation Facility utilizing in-drum mixing for treatment of sludge, Cementation Facility for treatment of tritiated water in Latvia and Cementation Facility for fixation of liquid and solid institutional radioactive waste in Bulgaria, which utilizes lost stirrer mixer. (author)

  13. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...

  14. Critical Casimir forces and anomalous wetting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) With Dirichlet boundary conditions, the critical temperature in the film is sig- ... studies: new experiments should identify the origin of the L-dependence, and ... and complete wetting should occur as T approaches Tt. The above argument is ...

  15. Wetted surface area of recreational boats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; van Vlaardingen PLA; ICH; VSP

    2018-01-01

    The wetted surface area of recreational craft is often treated with special paint that prevents growth of algae and other organisms. The active substances in this paint (antifouling) are also emitted into the water. The extent of this emission is among others determined by the treated surface area.

  16. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  17. Wet steam turbines for CANDU-Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, C.H.L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical characteristics of 4 wet steam turbine aggregates used in the Pickering nuclear power station are reported on along with operational experience. So far, the general experience was positive. Furthermore, plans are mentioned to use this type of turbines in other CANDU reactors. (UA) [de

  18. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  19. Control technology for crystalline silica exposures in construction: wet abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Vijay; Heitbrink, William

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to document the effect that wet abrasive blasting has on reducing worker exposure to crystalline silica, which has been associated with silicosis and premature death. In this study, worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica was monitored during wet abrasive blasting on the exterior walls of a parking garage to remove surface concrete and expose the underlying aggregate. In this process a wet sand mix comprised of 80% dry sand and 20% water was used. Sampling and analysis revealed that the geometric mean respirable quartz concentration was 0.2 mg/m(3) for workers conducting abrasive blasting and 0.06 mg/m(3) for helpers. When abrasive blasting was conducted in areas that apparently had reduced natural ventilation, dust exposures appeared to increase. When compared with other published data, this case study suggests that wet abrasive blasting causes less exposure to crystalline silica than dry abrasive blasting.

  20. Review of specific effects in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The impact of source-term characteristics -and the processes that modify them post release- on dry and wet deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Brearley, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of the work the source-term characteristics potentially influencing behaviour were identified and examined. It was concluded that a number of source characteristics, in addition to those conventionally provided for consequence assessment, could significantly influence deposition behaviour. Linking with this, a review was undertaken of past reactor-accident risk assessment and more recent source-term studies to pick out information, if any, on the parameters of interest. The second half of the study resulted in a list of processes capable of transforming the released material vis-a-vis deposition characteristics, including processes occurring in the near field associated with the initial release transient and also those occurring over a longer time span as the plume travels downwind. Scoping calculations were performed for some of the processes in the context of idealized accident scenarios, leading to the conclusions that in some circumstances post-release mechanisms could have an important impact on the deposition behaviour of released material. Statistical theory was used to describe the behaviour of a plume both before and after detachment, and the limitations of the theory were discussed. A review of the lateral wind velocity spectra was undertaken so that simplified spectra could be constructed and used to predict the plume behaviour as a function of travel time, stability category and release duration. It was found that commonly used methods of allowing for release duration overpredicted the dependence, in general, upon release duration. For example the adoption of a stability-independent meandering term would lead to the underprediction of threshold effects such as early death and land/crop interdiction. In addition, theory indicated that the 'Y' curves for different stability categories would converge gradually with increasing travel time

  1. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  2. ‘Breath figures’ on leaf surfaces – formation and effects of microscopic leaf wetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen eBurkhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Microscopic leaf wetness’ means minute amounts of persistent liquid water on leaf surfaces which are invisible to the naked eye. The water is mainly maintained by transpired water vapor condensing onto the leaf surface and to attached leaf surface particles. With an estimated average thickness of less than 1 µm, microscopic leaf wetness it is about 2 orders of magnitude thinner than morning dewfall. The most important physical processes which reduce the saturation vapor pressure and promote condensation are cuticular absorption and the deliquescence of hygroscopic leaf surface particles. Deliquescent salts form highly concentrated solutions. Depending on the amount and concentration of the dissolved ions, the physicochemical properties of microscopic leaf wetness can be considerably different from those of pure water. Microscopic leaf wetness can form continuous thin layers on hydrophobic leaf surfaces and in specific cases can act similar to surfactants, enabling a strong potential influence on the foliar exchange of ions. Microscopic leaf wetness can also enhance the dissolution, the emission, and the reaction of specific atmospheric trace gases e.g. ammonia, SO2, or ozone, leading to a strong potential role for microscopic leaf wetness in plant/atmosphere interaction. Due to its difficult detection, there is little knowledge about the occurrence and the properties of microscopic leaf wetness. However, based on the existing evidence and on physicochemical reasoning it can be hypothesized that microscopic leaf wetness occurs on almost any plant worldwide and often permanently, and that it significantly influences the exchange processes of the leaf surface with its neighboring compartments, i.e., the plant interior and the atmosphere. The omission of microscopic water in general leaf wetness concepts has caused far-reaching, misleading conclusions in the past.

  3. Energy conservation and dust production in wet rotary cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N J; Fischbach, F A

    1976-12-01

    Energy conservation is currently a major concern of the cement industry. A comparison of data supplied by the U.S. Federal Energy Administration with that gathered in an extensive private study incorporating 29 wet cement plants indicates that a significant reduction of the energy consumed can be accomplished by decreasing the amount of dust generated in the process. Energy saving of 8 percent through dust suppression appears possible by increasing the slurry moisture and by using hammermills rather than impactors as the crushing technique.

  4. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...... carried out at temperatures from 180-260 degree C and reaction times of 8-24 min. The chloride liberated provides information on the rate constants. Considering the measured Cl- and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values, we find hydrolysis and oxidation processes to be interdependent. The main products...

  5. Expediency of wet-mix shotcreting in mines of Vostoktsvetmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnik, YuN

    2018-03-01

    This paper offers a substantiation of the transition from heavy and difficult-to-install steel frame support to the cheaper and simpler reinforced shotcrete lining (at the same bearing-capacity of the support). The process line for the preparation of the shotcrete mix is designed. The author of the paper presents calculation of the material inputs and labor costs of installation of different support types in Kazakhstan Mines. The economic efficiency of the wet-mix shotcrete spraying technology is illustrated in terms of Orlov and Artemevsk Mines.

  6. Predictive modeling of reactive wetting and metal joining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B.

    2013-09-01

    The performance, reproducibility and reliability of metal joints are complex functions of the detailed history of physical processes involved in their creation. Prediction and control of these processes constitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy and reactive wetting. Understanding this process requires coupling strong molecularscale chemistry at the interface with microscopic (diffusion) and macroscopic mass transport (flow) inside the liquid followed by subsequent cooling and solidification of the new metal mixture. The final joint displays compositional heterogeneity and its resulting microstructure largely determines the success or failure of the entire component. At present there exists no computational tool at Sandia that can predict the formation and success of a braze joint, as current capabilities lack the ability to capture surface/interface reactions and their effect on interface properties. This situation precludes us from implementing a proactive strategy to deal with joining problems. Here, we describe what is needed to arrive at a predictive modeling and simulation capability for multicomponent metals with complicated phase diagrams for melting and solidification, incorporating dissolutive and composition-dependent wetting.

  7. Application of pH regulator 65 to wet processing of textiles%pH值控制剂65在印染加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力民; 李春光; 苏长智; 张万伟; 秦新波

    2012-01-01

    pH值控制剂65系有机酯和有机羧酸盐复配而成,它能够完全中和纤维内部的碱剂而不损伤织物强力,将布面的pH值控制在7.0~7.5.pH值控制剂65可解决敏感色织物、增白织物的pH值控制以及织物泛黄等问题,且与各种功能性整理剂相容性好.%pH regulator 65 is a complex of organic ester and organic carboxylate. The pH regulator 65 can completely neutralize the base in the internal fiber and stablize the pH value of fabric surface at 7~7.5 without strength loss. It can solve the problems of pH controlling and fabric yellowing in processing of sensitive and whitening fabric, and has good compatibility with all kinds of functional finishing agents.

  8. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  9. Wet precipitators for sulphuric acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojanpera, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    Both the service requirements and design construction details have changed considerably in recent years for wet electrostatic precipitators as used for gas cleaning ahead of metallurgical sulphuric acid plants. Increased concern over acid quality has resulted in more emphasis on dust efficiencies compared to collection of acid mist. Also, higher static operating pressures have caused large structural loads on casing and internal components. In this paper these two issues are addressed in the following ways: Recognition that all dusts do not collect similarly. The mechanism by which various dusts collect affect the design of the entire wet gas cleaning system. Use of both traditional and newer materials of construction to accommodate the higher design pressures while still maintaining corrosion resistance

  10. New advances in wet scrubbing improvement efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, A.R. [Altech Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Wet scrubbing systems are the most versatile and cost efficient of all air pollution abatement technologies. This paper presented System REITHER{sup TM} which is a new generation of venturi scrubber. The advantages of this design are that it is simple and compact, has high removal efficiencies for sub-micron dusts or aerosols and it is flexible to handle any mass flow rate. It also provides high and constant reliability, is easy to control and has the potential to absorb gaseous pollutants. Another advantage is that it can handle corrosive streams through corrosion resistant materials. Innovations in wet scrubbing have made it possible to provide reliable and efficient separation of fine particles, corrosive aerosols and gases. New technology provides industrial engineers with a cost effective option when control air emissions is required. 1 fig.

  11. Facts and fallacies in wet deposition modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ApSimon, H.M.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Manning, P.M.; Simms, K.

    1987-01-01

    Following a reactor accident, relatively high contamination at ground level can occur, even at quite long distances from the source, if the pollutant cloud encounters intense precipitation. To estimate such contamination and its extent properly, it is necessary to take into account the spatial and temporal structure of rain patterns and their motion. Currently, models of wet deposition are rather crude. Source meteorology is usually used and is clearly inadequate. Furthermore, no allowance is made for the dynamic nature of rainfall, which occurs as a result of vertical air motions and convergence; nor for the different scavenging mechanism operating in and below cloud. Meteorological information available on these aspects of wet deposition is reviewed, and their importance and inclusion in modelling and prediction of resulting ground contamination is indicated. Some of the pitfalls of simple modelling procedures are illustrated. (author)

  12. Avoided critical behavior in dynamically forced wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeijer, Jacco H; Delon, Giles; Fermigier, Marc; Andreotti, Bruno

    2006-05-05

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. In this Letter we study the dynamical wetting transition at which a liquid film gets deposited by withdrawing a vertical plate out of a liquid reservoir. It has recently been predicted that this wetting transition is critical with diverging time scales and coincides with the disappearance of stationary menisci. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the transition is due to the formation of a solitary wave, well below the critical point. As a consequence, relaxation times remain finite at threshold. The structure of the liquid deposited on the plate involves a capillary ridge that does not trivially match the Landau-Levich film.

  13. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  14. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle.

  16. The wetting behavior of alkanes on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragil, Karine; Broseta, Daniel; Kalaydjian, Francois [Institut Francais du Petrole, BP 311, 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex (France); Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques [ENS, Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Indekeu, Joseph [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-06-06

    This paper presents recent experimental and theoretical results concerning the wetting behavior of n-alkanes on water as a function of thermodynamic conditions (i.e., temperature, pressure, etc.). The transition from lenses to a macroscopically thick film, that takes place when the temperature is increased, occurs for n-alkanes on water in a manner very different from that encountered in other fluid systems. For n-pentane on water, ellipsometric measurements reveal that the growth of the pentane layer to a macroscopically thick film occurs in a continuous manner, for a temperature ({approx}53C) corresponding to a change in the sign of the Hamaker constant. A theoretical approach based on the Cahn-Landau theory, which takes into account long-range (van der Waals) forces, enables us to explain the mechanism of this continuous wetting transition. This transition is preceded (at a lower temperature) by a discontinuous transition from a thin film (of adsorbed molecules) to a thick (but not macroscopically thick) film. The latter transition was not visible for pentane on water (it should occur below the freezing temperature for water), but we expect to observe it for longer alkanes (e.g., hexane) on water. Work is underway to examine the wetting behavior of oil/brine systems more representative of reservoir conditions

  17. Design Aspects of Wet Scrubber System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Bang, Young-suk; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Doo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The water pool in the wet scrubber system has advantage to cope with decay heat based on the thermal hydraulic balance such as condensation and evaporation inside it. This study focuses on the design aspects of the wet scrubber system to estimate the required water pool mass during the mission time and size of the scrubbing tank including inner structures. The design of the wet scrubber system include the estimation of the required water mass during the mission time and sizing of the scrubber vessel to contain the water pool. The condensation due to the inlet steam and evaporation due to the steam and non-condensable gas superheat and decay heat from filtered fission products should be considered to estimate the water mass required to maintain its function during the mission time. On the other hand, the level swelling due to the noncondensable gas is another important design aspect on the sizing of the scrubber vessel and determination of the entry elevation of the filtration components such as the droplet separator or filter. The minimum water level based on the minimum collapsed water level should be higher than the exit of scrubber nozzle

  18. Ceramic joining through reactive wetting of alumina with calcium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phase analysis of the fractured joint surface clearly indicate reactive wetting of the alumina ceramics. This wetting enhances ... ally considered oxide materials for many applications. .... three cases but is more pronounced in the case of C12A7.

  19. Testing of wet scrap recovery equipment for mixed oxide scrap reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiter, J.A.; Klem, M.J.; Owen, T.J.

    1984-08-01

    The Wet Scrap Recovery (WSR) program was initiated at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) by Westinghouse Hanford Company in Richland, Washington to demonstrate fuel fabrication scrap recovery and reconversion to fuel grade oxide powder using the continuous coprecipitation-calcination (COPRECAL) conversion process. Advancements in process control equipment and instrumentation were also developed and demonstrated

  20. Subcritical wet air oxidation of organic solvents and chelating agents of the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachir, Souley

    1999-01-01

    This document deals with the environment control, more specially organic solvents and chelating agents destruction, employed in the nuclear industry. This work details the subcritical wet air oxidation process. Another part of the document deals with the possible coupling between this process and the biodegradation technic in the framework of the sewage sludges treatment. (A.L.B.)

  1. Wet air oxidation of seedcorn wastes containing pesticides and insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, M.; Schlaefer, O.; Onyeche, T.I.; Schroeder, C.; Bormann, H.; Schaefer, S. [CUTEC-Inst. GmbH (Clausthal Environment Technology Inst.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Wet air oxidation as an alternative treatment process to pyrolysis and combustion of seedcorn wastes was investigated in lab-scale experiments. Due to solid condition of the seed corn waste, the process has been adapted by repeated spraying of water on the seed corn bulk to avoid the production of sludge and its subsequent dewatering. Original seed corns from industrial production plants were used for a degradation kinetic study under smooth wet air oxidation conditions. The temperatures were between 80 and 150 C, the pressure from 1 to 4.5 bar and the pH at different values from 3 to 13. Degradation rates for five different compounds of pesticides and insecticides, namely Imidacloprid, Thiram, Hymexazol, Carbofuran and Tefluthrin were conducted. These compounds represent the recently used in agricultural seedcorn applications. The degradation rate depends linearly on temperature between 80 and 150 C. At 120 C the lowest degradation rate was found for Tefluthrin by 25 mg/h per L reaction volume while the highest degradation rate to be conducted was for Imidacloprid at 363 mg/h L. (orig.)

  2. Wetting of polymer melts on coated and uncoated steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Contraires, Elise; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Larochette, Mathieu; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the wetting of three different commercial polymer melts on various coated and uncoated steel surfaces is described in this report. The wettability of steel and coatings (three different titanium nitride coatings, TiN, TiNOx, TiNOy, a chromium coating, CrN, and a diamond-like carbon coating, DLC) used for mold in polymer processing is determined at different temperatures between 25 °C and 120 °C. Contact angle measurements of melted polypropylene (PP), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) on steel and on the different coatings were performed to investigate the wetting behavior under closer-to-processing conditions. Recommendations for good measurement conditions were proposed. Moreover, the surface free energy of each melt polymer was determined. The works of adhesion between all polymers and all substrates were established. Among all tested polymers, the lowest value of the works of adhesion is calculated for ABS and for PC thereafter, and the highest value is calculated for PP. These results will be particularly important for such applications as determining the extent to which these polymers can contribute to the replication quality in injection molding.

  3. Uranium problem in production of wet phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecka, H; Gorecki, H [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland)

    1980-01-01

    The balance of the uranium in the wet dihydrate method was presented. This balance shows that a large quantity of the uranium compounds shift from mineral phosphate rock to liquid phase of decomposition pulp (about 70-85% U) and the rest moves to phosphogypsum (about 15-25% U). The contents of uranium in phosphate rock imported for our country and in products and by-products of the fertilizer industry, were determined. Concentration of uranium in the phosphogypsum is dependent on the type of mineral rock and the process of phosphogypsum crystallization. Analysis of the uranium contents in phosphogypsum samples and results of the sedimentation analysis indicated influence of the specific surface of phosphogypsum crystals on the uranium concentration. Investigation of the sets of samples obtained in the industrial plant proved that phosphogypsum cake washed counter-currently on the filter contained from 10 to 20 ..mu..g U/g. The radioactivity of these samples fluctuated from 35 to 60 pCi/g. Using solution sulphuric acid of concentration in range 2-4% by weight H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to washing and repulpation of the phosphogypsum enables to reduce its radioactivity to level below 25 pCi/g. This processing makes possible to utilize this waste material in the building industry. Extraction of uranium from the wet phosphoric acid using kerosen solution of the reaction product between octanol -1 and phosphorus pentaoxide showed possibility to recover over 80% of uranium contained in phosphate rock.

  4. Fabrication of bio-inspired nitinol alloy surface with tunable anisotropic wetting and high adhesive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan L; Zhao, Yue C; Yang, Cheng J; Wang, Fu J; Liu, Xian P; Jing, Xiu B

    2018-10-01

    In this paper, micro/nano-scale structures were fabricated on nitinol alloy (NiTi) to realize tunable anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. Laser texturing and silanization process are utilized to change the morphological and chemical properties of substrates. It is noted that these treated substrates exhibit the joint characteristics of anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. In order to investigate the influences of laser-texturing and silanization processes on NiTi, these surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), a white light confocal microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and goniometer. The relationship between water volume and anisotropic wetting was also established. From the experimental testing, we can obtain the following conclusions: (1) the anisotropic wetting characterized by the difference between the water contact angles (WCAs) in the vertical and parallel directions ranges from 0° to 20.3°, which is far more than the value of natural rice leaves. (2) the water sliding angles (WSAs) kept stable at 180°, successfully mimicking the adhesive ability of rose petals. (3) the silanization process could strengthen the hydrophobicity but weaken anisotropic wetting. These bio-inspired NiTi surfaces have a tremendous potential applications such as microfluidic devices, bio-mimetic materials fabrication and lab on chip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of wet work in the cleaning industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F H W; Van Der Harst, J J; Schuttelaar, M L; Groothoff, J W; Coenraads, P J

    Wet work is the main cause of occupational contact dermatitis in the cleaning industry. Dermatologists and occupational physicians need to base their primary and secondary prevention for workers in the cleaning industry on the characteristics of wet work exposures. We quantified the burden of wet

  6. How Does a Liquid Wet a Solid? Hydrodynamics of Dynamic Contact Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    A contact line is defined at the intersection of a solid surface with the interface between two immiscible fluids. When one fluid displaces another immiscible fluid along a solid surface, the process is called dynamic wetting and a "moving" contact line (one whose position relative to the solid changes in time) often appears. The physics of dynamic wetting controls such natural and industrial processes as spraying of paints and insecticides, dishwashing, film formation and rupture in the eye and in the alveoli, application of coatings, printing, drying and imbibition of fibrous materials, oil recovery from porous rocks, and microfluidics.

  7. Wet Process Induced Phase Transited Drug Delivery System as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non-disintegrating, asymmetric membrane capsular system for a poorly water soluble drug, flurbiprofen, was developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Asymmetric membrane capsules were made by phase inversion. The effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied.

  8. Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Croft

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases are investigated in a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM under a set of limiting assumptions for the wet removal of the entrained aerosols. The limiting assumptions for the wet removal of entrained aerosols are negligible scavenging and vigorous scavenging (either through activation, with size-dependent impaction scavenging, or with the prescribed fractions of the standard model. To facilitate this process-based study, an explicit representation of cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol mass and number, for the purpose of wet removal, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM model. This replaces and is compared with the prescribed cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol fraction scavenging scheme of the standard model.

    A 20% to 35% uncertainty in simulated global, annual mean aerosol mass burdens and optical depth (AOD is attributed to different assumptions for the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases. Assumptions about the removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases control modeled upper tropospheric aerosol concentrations by as much as one order of magnitude.

    Simulated aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases contribute 20% to 50% of modeled global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (about 5% to 10% of the total dry and wet deposition, depending on the aerosol species, when including wet scavenging of those entrained aerosols (either by activation, size-dependent impaction, or with the prescribed fraction scheme. Among the simulations, the prescribed fraction and size-dependent impaction schemes yield the largest global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (by about two-fold. However, the prescribed fraction scheme has more vigorous convective mixed-phase wet removal (by two to five-fold relative to the size-dependent impaction

  9. Uncertainty associated with convective wet removal of entrained aerosols in a global climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B.; Pierce, J. R.; Martin, R. V.; Hoose, C.; Lohmann, U.

    2012-11-01

    The uncertainties associated with the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases are investigated in a global aerosol-climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) under a set of limiting assumptions for the wet removal of the entrained aerosols. The limiting assumptions for the wet removal of entrained aerosols are negligible scavenging and vigorous scavenging (either through activation, with size-dependent impaction scavenging, or with the prescribed fractions of the standard model). To facilitate this process-based study, an explicit representation of cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol mass and number, for the purpose of wet removal, is introduced into the ECHAM5-HAM model. This replaces and is compared with the prescribed cloud-droplet-borne and ice-crystal-borne aerosol fraction scavenging scheme of the standard model. A 20% to 35% uncertainty in simulated global, annual mean aerosol mass burdens and optical depth (AOD) is attributed to different assumptions for the wet removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases. Assumptions about the removal of aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases control modeled upper tropospheric aerosol concentrations by as much as one order of magnitude. Simulated aerosols entrained above convective cloud bases contribute 20% to 50% of modeled global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (about 5% to 10% of the total dry and wet deposition), depending on the aerosol species, when including wet scavenging of those entrained aerosols (either by activation, size-dependent impaction, or with the prescribed fraction scheme). Among the simulations, the prescribed fraction and size-dependent impaction schemes yield the largest global, annual mean aerosol mass convective wet deposition (by about two-fold). However, the prescribed fraction scheme has more vigorous convective mixed-phase wet removal (by two to five-fold relative to the size-dependent impaction scheme) since nearly all

  10. Conversion of wet glass to melt at lower seismogenic zone conditions: Implications for pseudotachylyte creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Brooks; Lockner, David A.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2018-01-01

    Coseismic frictional melting and the production of quenched glass called pseudotachylyte is a recurring process during earthquakes. To investigate how glassy materials affect the postseismic strength and stability of faults, obsidian gouges were sheared under dry and wet conditions from 200°C to 300°C at ~150 MPa effective normal stress. Dry glass exhibited a brittle rheology at all conditions tested, exhibiting friction values and microstructures consistent with siliciclastic materials. Likewise, wet glass at 200°C exhibited a brittle rheology. In contrast, wet gouges at 300°C transitioned from brittle sliding to linear‐viscous (Newtonian) flow at strain rates water was the dominant process reducing the viscosity and promoting viscous flow. As much as 5 wt % water diffused into the glass. These results may provide insight into postseismic‐slip behaviors and challenge some interpretations of fault kinematics based on studies assuming that pseudotachylyte formation and flow is solely coseismic.

  11. Antecedent wetness conditions based on ERS scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    SummarySoil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in environmental processes mainly for the role of rainfall partitioning into runoff and infiltration. Therefore, for storm rainfall-runoff modeling the estimation of the antecedent wetness conditions ( AWC) is one of the most important aspect. In this context, this study investigates the potential of scatterometer on board of the ERS satellites for the assessment of wetness conditions in three Tiber sub-catchments (Central Italy), of which one includes an experimental area for soil moisture monitoring. The satellite soil moisture data are taken from the ERS/METOP soil moisture archive. First, the scatterometer-derived soil wetness index ( SWI) data are compared with two on-site soil moisture data sets acquired by different methodologies on areas of different extension ranging from 0.01 km 2 to ˜60 km 2. Moreover, the reliability of SWI to estimate the AWC at a catchment scale is investigated considering the relationship between SWI and the soil potential maximum retention parameter, S, of the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) method for abstraction. Several flood events occurred from 1992 to 2005 are selected for this purpose. Specifically, the performance of the SWI for S estimation is compared with two antecedent precipitation indices ( API) and one base flow index ( BFI). The S values obtained through the observed direct runoff volume and rainfall depth are used as benchmark. Results show the great reliability of the SWI for the estimation of wetness conditions both at the plot and catchment scale despite the complex orography of the investigated areas. As far as the comparison with on site soil moisture data set is concerned, the SWI is found quite reliable in representing the soil moisture at layer depth of 15 cm, with a mean correlation coefficient equal to 0.81. The characteristic time length parameter variations, as expected, is depended on soil type, with values in accordance with

  12. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated

  13. Dynamic Wet Etching of Silicon through Isopropanol Alcohol Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago S. Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Isopropanol (IPA availability during the anisotropic etching of silicon in Potassium Hydroxide (KOH solutions was investigated. Squares of 8 to 40 µm were patterned to (100 oriented silicon wafers through DWL (Direct Writing Laser photolithography. The wet etching process was performed inside an open HDPE (High Density Polyethylene flask with ultrasonic agitation. IPA volume and evaporation was studied in a dynamic etching process, and subsequent influence on the silicon etching was inspected. For the tested conditions, evaporation rates for water vapor and IPA were determined as approximately 0.0417 mL/min and 0.175 mL/min, respectively. Results demonstrate that IPA availability, and not concentration, plays an important role in the definition of the final structure. Transversal SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis demonstrates a correlation between microloading effects (as a consequence of structure spacing and the angle formed towards the (100 plane.

  14. Wetting phenomena in films of molecular hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, U.; Conradt, R.; Herminghaus, S.; Leiderer, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated various aspects of the wetting behavior of hydrogen films (including the heavier isotopes) using surface plasmon resonance, light scattering, and photoelectron emission. Studies in the vicinity of the triple point (T 3 (H 2 )=13,96 K) confirmed the known >, and gave no indications for a prewetting transition in this range. At low temperatures (T 3 /3) the equilibrium film thickness reaches only a few monolayers. Thicker films, prepared by quench-condensation of H 2 gas at 1.5 K, undergo a dewetting process during annealing: most of the film material contracts to clusters, and in between the films thins down to its equilibrium thickness. This surface diffusion process is thermally activated, with an activation energy of 23 K (in the case of H 2 ). The dewetting kinetics has not revealed any indication for a surface-molten layer on the solid films at low temperatures, or for a superfluid component

  15. Cohesion-Induced Stabilization in Stick-Slip Dynamics of Weakly Wet, Sheared Granular Fault Gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorostkar, Omid; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan

    2018-03-01

    We use three-dimensional discrete element calculations to study stick-slip dynamics in a weakly wet granular layer designed to simulate fault gouge. The granular gouge is constituted by 8,000 spherical particles with a polydisperse size distribution. At very low liquid content, liquids impose cohesive and viscous forces on particles. Our simulations show that by increasing the liquid content, friction increases and granular layer shows higher recurrence time between slip events. We also observe that slip events exhibit larger friction drop and layer compaction in wet system compared to dry. We demonstrate that a small volume of liquid induces cohesive forces between wet particles that are responsible for an increase in coordination number leading to a more stable arrangement of particles. This stabilization is evidenced with 2 orders of magnitude lower particle kinetic energy in wet system during stick phase. Similar to previous experimental studies, we observe enhanced frictional strength for wet granular layers. In experiments, the physicochemical processes are believed to be the main reason for such behavior; we show, however, that at low confining stresses, the hydromechanical effects of induced cohesion are sufficient for observed behavior. Our simulations illuminate the role of particle interactions and demonstrate the conditions under which induced cohesion plays a significant role in fault zone processes, including slip initiation, weakening, and failure.

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rock by Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, Dag Chun

    2001-09-01

    The main theme of this thesis is an experimental investigation of spontaneous imbibition (SI) of aqueous cationic surfactant solution into oil-wet carbonate (chalk- and dolomite cores). The static imbibition process is believed to represent the matrix flow of oil and water in a fractured reservoir. It was known that aqueous solution of C{sub 12}-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br (C12TAB) was able to imbibe spontaneously into nearly oil-wet chalk material, but the underlying mechanism was not understood. The present work was therefore initiated, with the following objectives: (1) Put forward a hypothesis for the chemical mechanism underlying the SI of C12TAB solutions into oil-wet chalk material based on experimental data and (2) Perform screening tests of low-cost commercially available surfactants for their ability to displace oil by SI of water into oil-wet carbonate rock material. It is essential for optimal use of the surfactant in field application to have detailed knowledge about the mechanism underlying the SI process. The thesis also discusses some preliminary experimental results and suggests mechanisms for enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock induced by supply of thermal energy.

  17. Wetted-region structure in horizontal unsaturated fractures: Water entry through the surrounding porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Norton, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Small-scale processes that influence wetted structure within the plane of a horizontal fracture as the fracture wets or drains through the matrix are investigated. Our approach integrates both aperture-scale modeling and physical experimentation. Several types of aperture-scale models have been defined and implemented. A series of physical experimental systems that allow us to measure wetted-region structure as a function of system parameters and water pressure head in analogue fractures also have been designed. In our preliminary proof-of-concept experiment, hysteresis is clearly evident in the measured saturation/pressure relation, as is the process of air entrapment, which causes a reduction in the connected areas between blocks and the wetted region available for flow in the plane of the fracture. A percolation threshold where the system is quickly spanned, allowing fluid conduction in the fracture plane, is observed which is analogous to that found in the aperture-scale models. A fractal wetted and entrapped-region structure is suggested by both experiment and modeling. This structure implies that flow tortuosity for both flow in the fracture and for inter-block fluid transfer is a scale-dependent function of pressure head

  18. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Award: Onset of Dynamic Wetting Failure - The Mechanics of High-Speed Fluid Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandre, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting is crucial to processes where a liquid displaces another fluid along a solid surface, such as the deposition of a coating liquid onto a moving substrate. Dynamic wetting fails when process speed exceeds some critical value, leading to incomplete fluid displacement and transient phenomena that impact a variety of applications, such as microfluidic devices, oil-recovery systems, and splashing droplets. Liquid coating processes are particularly sensitive to wetting failure, which can induce air entrainment and other catastrophic coating defects. Despite the industrial incentives for careful control of wetting behavior, the hydrodynamic factors that influence the transition to wetting failure remain poorly understood from empirical and theoretical perspectives. This work investigates the fundamentals of wetting failure in a variety of systems that are relevant to industrial coating flows. A hydrodynamic model is developed where an advancing fluid displaces a receding fluid along a smooth, moving substrate. Numerical solutions predict the onset of wetting failure at a critical substrate speed, which coincides with a turning point in the steady-state solution path for a given set of system parameters. Flow-field analysis reveals a physical mechanism where wetting failure results when capillary forces can no longer support the pressure gradients necessary to steadily displace the receding fluid. Novel experimental systems are used to measure the substrate speeds and meniscus shapes associated with the onset of air entrainment during wetting failure. Using high-speed visualization techniques, air entrainment is identified by the elongation of triangular air films with system-dependent size. Air films become unstable to thickness perturbations and ultimately rupture, leading to the entrainment of air bubbles. Meniscus confinement in a narrow gap between the substrate and a stationary plate is shown to delay air entrainment to higher speeds for a variety of

  19. Development of a wet gas flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreussi, P.; Ciandri, P.; Faluomi, V. [TRA Sistemi, Pisa (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A new multiphase flowmeter, particularly suited for wet gas metering, has been developed. The meter working principle is the isokinetic sampling of the gas-liquid mixture, followed by separation and individual metering of the gas and the liquid phase. The liquid flowrate is derived from the value of the sampled liquid flowrate. The gas flowrate is measured with a multiphase nozzle. Preliminary tests have shown that both the gas and the liquid flowrates can be determined with an error less than 5%. The meter can be autocalibrated and allows the water-cut to be measured with any prescribed precision. (author)

  20. Performance test of wet type decontamination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. P.; Kim, E. G.; Min, D. K.; Jun, Y. B.; Lee, H. K.; Seu, H. S.; Kwon, H. M.; Hong, K.P.

    2003-01-01

    The intervention area located at rear hot cell can be contaminated by hot cell maintenance work. For effective decontamination of the intervention floor a wet type decontamination device was developed. The device was assembled with a brush rotating part, a washing liquid supplying part, an intake part for recovering contaminated liquid and a device moving cart part. The device was made of stainless steel for easy decontamination and corrosion resistance. The function test carried out at intervention area of the PIE facility showed good performance

  1. Wetting transitions: First order or second order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teletzke, G.F.; Scriven, L.E.; Davis, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization of Sullivan's recently proposed theory of the equilibrium contact angle, the angle at which a fluid interface meets a solid surface, is investigated. The generalized theory admits either a first-order or second-order transition from a nonzero contact angle to perfect wetting as a critical point is approached, in contrast to Sullivan's original theory, which predicts only a second-order transition. The predictions of this computationally convenient theory are in qualitative agreement with a more rigorous theory to be presented in a future publication

  2. The Influence of Dynamic Contact Angle on Wetting Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame, Enrique; Garoff, Steven

    2005-01-01

    When surface tension forces dominate, and regardless of whether the situation is static or dynamic, the contact angle (the angle the interface between two immiscible fluids makes when it contacts a solid) is the key parameter that determines the shape of a fluid-fluid interface. The static contact angle is easy to measure and implement in models predicting static capillary surface shapes and such associated quantities as pressure drops. By contrast, when the interface moves relative to the solid (as in dynamic wetting processes) the dynamic contact angle is not identified unambiguously because it depends on the geometry of the system Consequently, its determination becomes problematic and measurements in one geometry cannot be applied in another for prediction purposes. However, knowing how to measure and use the dynamic contact angle is crucial to determine such dynamics as a microsystem throughput reliably. In this talk we will present experimental and analytical efforts aimed at resolving modeling issues present in dynamic wetting. We will review experiments that show the inadequacy of the usual hydrodynamic model when a fluid-fluid meniscus moves over a solid surface such as the wall of a small tube or duct. We will then present analytical results that show how to parametrize these problems in a predictive manner. We will illustrate these ideas by showing how to implement the method in numerical fluid mechanical calculations.

  3. Wet scrubber technology for tritium confinement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevezentsev, A.N., E-mail: alexander.perevezentsev@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Andreev, B.M.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Pak, Yu.S.; Ovcharov, A.V.; Marunich, S.A. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, 125047 Miusskaya Sq. 9, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    Operation of the ITER machine with tritium plasma requires tritium confinement systems to protect workers and the environment. Tritium confinement at ITER is based on multistage approach. The final stage provides tritium confinement in building sectors and consists of building's walls as physical barriers and control of sub-atmospheric pressure in those volumes as a dynamic barrier. The dynamic part of the confinement function shall be provided by safety important components that are available all the time when required. Detritiation of air prior to its release to the environment is based on catalytic conversion of tritium containing gaseous species to water vapour followed by their isotopic exchange with liquid water in scrubber column of packed bed type. Wet scrubber technology has been selected because of its advantages over conventional air detritiation technique based on gas drying by water adsorption. The most important design target of system availability was very difficult to meet with conventional water adsorption driers. This paper presents results of experimental trial for validation of wet scrubber technology application in the ITER tritium confinement system and process evaluation using developed simulation computer code.

  4. Evaporation and wet oxidation of steam generator cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, P.N. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) is used in metal-cleaning formulations. Usually the form of the EDTA used is the tetra ammonium salt. When these powerful cleaning solutions are used in steam generators, they attract the key metals of interest--iron and copper. A reduction in the volume of these cleaners and EDTA destruction is required to meet waste management and disposal standards. One method of volume reduction is described: concentration by evaporation. Once volume is reduced, the liquid waste can then be further volume reduced and treated for EDTA content through the use of wet oxidation. The effect of this process on the total organic carbon (TOC) in the form of EDTA contained in the copper as well as the iron spent cleaning solutions is reviewed, including regression analysis of selected benchmark and production data. A regressive analysis is made of the relationship between the EDTA and the TOC analyzed in the wet-oxidation batch residuals as well as the summary effects of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, and reaction time on the percentage of TOC destroyed

  5. Heavy metals removals from wet market wastewater by phycoremediation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jais, N. M.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Apandi, N.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The wet market provided fresh foodstuff. Unfortunately, the sullage commonly discharged directly to the drainage without any treatment. Hence, this research was focused on culturing the Scenedesmus sp. and implemented the phycoremediation process to wet market wastewater and to measure the heavy metal removals by Scenedesmus sp. There are two different time collected samples: (1) Sample at 7 a.m. and (2) Sample at 9 a.m.. The five samples were collected for each time sampling from of the Parit Raja Public Market, Batu Pahat wastewater (with additional of five different concentrations of Scenedesmus sp. which are 1.235x106, 1.224x106, 1.220x106, 1.213x106 and 1.203x106 cell/ml). This experiment was conducted within eight days for culturing Scenedesmus sp. and phycoremediation within another eight days. The analysis was done with changes of DO and pH and heavy metals removal during phycoremediation. Based on the result, the optimum efficiency removals for each heavy metal had achieved (36.62-100%) and the optimum concentration for Sample 7 a.m. and Sample 9 a.m. is Concentration 1 (1.235x106 cell/ml) obtained 81.18-100% of heavy metal removals. Concentration of microalgae is statistically correlated well with Fe (p0.05) in influencing high nutrient removal in the wastewater.

  6. The impact of intermediate wet states on two-phase flow in porous media, studied by network modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, Linda Kaada

    2006-04-15

    Reservoir wettability is a measure of a rocks preference for the oil and/or the brine phase. Wettability has a dominant impact on fluid movements in porous media, hence oil displacement in reservoir rocks. Understanding the local wettability and the effect of wettability on the fluid movements are therefore of interest in relation to oil recovery processes. Contrary to the earlier believed homogenous wetted cases where the porous media was strongly oil-wet for carbonate reservoirs or strongly water-wet for clastic reservoirs, it is now believed that most reservoir rocks experience some kind of intermediate wet state. Since wettability affects oil recovery, different classes of intermediate wettability are expected to have different impacts on the fluid flow processes. The major subject treated in this thesis is how different intermediate wet states affect fluid flow parameters which are important for the oil recovery. This is done by use of a capillary dominated network model of two-phase flow, where the network is based on a model of reconstructed sandstone. The existence of different intermediate wet classes is argued in Paper I, while Paper II, III and IV analyse the effect different intermediate wet classes have on wettability indices, residual oil saturation, capillary pressure and relative permeability (author)

  7. A critical analysis of one standard and five methods to monitor surface wetness and time-of-wetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario; della Valle, Antonio; Becherini, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    Surface wetness is a synergistic factor to determine atmospheric corrosion, monument weathering, mould growth, sick buildings, etc. However, its detection and monitoring are neither easy nor homogeneous, for a number of factors that may affect readings. Various types of methods and sensors, either commercial or prototypes built in the lab, have been investigated and compared, i.e. the international standard ISO 9223 to evaluate corrosivity after wetness and time-of-wetness; indirect evaluation of wetness, based on the dew point calculated after the output of temperature and relative humidity sensors and direct measurements by means of capacitive wetness sensors, safety sensors, rain sensors (also known as leaf wetness sensors), infrared reflection sensors and fibre optic sensors. A comparison between the different methods is presented, specifying physical principles, forms of wetting to which they are respondent (i.e. condensation, ice melting, splashing drops, percolation and capillary rise), critical factors, use and cost.

  8. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  9. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    energy, which has been the practice up to now, the low temperature exhaust gases after having served as drying agent, are lead out into the environment; a simple change of process integration that has a profound effect on the performance. Four different cycles have been studied. These are the Simple IFGT...... fueled by dry biomass assuming negligible pressure loss in the heat exchanger and the combustion chamber, the IFGT fueled with wet biomass (Wet IFGT) assuming no pressure losses, and finally both the Simple and the Wet IFGT incorporating typical data for pressure losses of commercially available micro...

  10. What's So Bad about Being Wet All Over: Investigating Leaf Surface Wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents investigations of leaf surface wetness that provide ideal opportunities for students to explore the relationships between leaf form and function, to study surface conditions of leaves and plant physiology, and to make predictions about plant adaptation in different environments. Describes simple procedures for exploring questions related…

  11. Reactive wetting by liquid sodium on thin Au platin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Hamada, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    For practical use of an under-sodium viewer, the behavior of sodium wetting is investigated by modeling the reactive and non-reactive wetting of metallic-plated steels by liquid sodium to simulate sodium wetting. The non-reactive wetting simulation results showed good agreement with Tanner's law, in which the time dependencies of the droplet radius and contact angle are expressed as R N ∝ t 1/10 and θ∝ t -3/10 , respectively; therefore, the model was considered suitable for the simulation. To simulate reactive wetting, the model of fluid flow induced by the interfacial reaction was incorporated into the simulation of non-reactive wetting. The reactive wetting simulation results, such as the behavior of the precursor liquid film and central droplet, showed good agreement with sodium wetting experiments using thin Au plating at 250°C. An important result of the reactive wetting simulation is that the gradient of the reaction energy at the interface appeared on the new interface around the triple line, and that fluid flow was induced. This interfacial reactivity during sodium wetting of thin Au plating was enhanced by the reaction of sodium and nickel oxide through pinholes in the plating. (author)

  12. Hydrate formation during wet granulation studied by spectroscopic methods and multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna; Rantanen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Milja

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to follow hydrate formation of two structurally related drugs, theophylline and caffeine, during wet granulation using fast and nondestructive spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Anhydrous theophylline and caffeine were granulated with purified water. Charge-coupled device (CCD......) Raman spectroscopy was compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in following hydrate formation of drugs during wet granulation (off-line). To perform an at-line process analysis, the effect of water addition was monitored by NIR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA). The changes...

  13. Doubly Reentrant Cavities Prevent Catastrophic Wetting Transitions on Intrinsically Wetting Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Domingues, Eddy

    2017-06-05

    Omniphobic surfaces, i.e. which repel all known liquids, have proven of value in applications ranging from membrane distillation to underwater drag reduction. A limitation of currently employed omniphobic surfaces is that they rely on perfluorinated coatings, increasing cost and environmental impact, and preventing applications in harsh environments. There is, thus, a keen interest in rendering conventional materials, such as plastics, omniphobic by micro/nano-texturing rather than via chemical make-up, with notable success having been achieved for silica surfaces with doubly reentrant micropillars. However, we found a critical limitation of microtextures comprising of pillars that they undergo catastrophic wetting transitions (apparent contact angles, θr → 0° from θr > 90°) in the presence of localized physical damages/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. In response, a doubly reentrant cavity microtexture is introduced, which can prevent catastrophic wetting transitions in the presence of localized structural damage/defects or on immersion in wetting liquids. Remarkably, our silica surfaces with doubly reentrant cavities could exhibited apparent contact angles, θr ≈ 135° for mineral oil, where the intrinsic contact angle, θo ≈ 20°. Further, when immersed in mineral oil or water, doubly reentrant microtextures in silica (θo ≈ 40° for water) were not penetrated even after several days of investigation. Thus, microtextures comprising of doubly reentrant cavities might enable applications of conventional materials without chemical modifications, especially in scenarios that are prone to localized damages or immersion in wetting liquids, e.g. hydrodynamic drag reduction and membrane distillation.

  14. Field emission characteristics of SnO2/CNT composite prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SnO2/CNT composites were prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation at 60 °C. The process was optimized by varying the microwave power and reaction time. Raman analysis showed the typical features of the rutile phase of as-synthesized SnO2...

  15. A method to eliminate wetting during the homogenization of HgCdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of HgCdTe samples to fused silica ampoule walls, or 'wetting', during the homogenization process was eliminated by adopting a slower heating rate. The idea is to decrease Cd activity in the sample so as to reduce the rate of reaction between Cd and the silica wall.

  16. Sporulation dynamics and spore heat resistance in wet and dry biofilms of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions and growth history can affect the sporulation process as well as subsequent properties of formed spores. The sporulation dynamics was studied in wet and air-dried biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS) and polystyrene (PS) for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and the

  17. Porous stainless steel hollow fiber membranes via dry-wet spinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Porous stainless steel hollow fibers have been prepared via the dry–wet spinning process, based on phase inversion of a particle loaded polymer solution, followed by sintering. The morphology of the green fibers combines sponge like structures and macro voids, and is related to the dynamics of the

  18. Modeling early in situ wetting of a compacted bentonite buffer installed in low permeable crystalline bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessirier, B.; Frampton, A.; Fransson, À.; Jarsjö, J.

    2016-08-01

    The repository concept for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and Finland is planned to be constructed in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock and with an engineered bentonite buffer to embed the waste canisters. An important stage in such a deep repository is the postclosure phase following the deposition and the backfilling operations when the initially unsaturated buffer material gets hydrated by the groundwater delivered by the natural bedrock. We use numerical simulations to interpret observations on buffer wetting gathered during an in situ campaign, the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment, in which unsaturated bentonite columns were introduced into deposition holes in the floor of a 417 m deep tunnel at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. Our objectives are to assess the performance of state-of-the-art flow models in reproducing the buffer wetting process and to investigate to which extent dependable predictions of buffer wetting times and saturation patterns can be made based on information collected prior to buffer insertion. This would be important for preventing insertion into unsuitable bedrock environments. Field data and modeling results indicate the development of a de-saturated zone in the rock and show that in most cases, the presence or absence of fractures and flow heterogeneity are more important factors for correct wetting predictions than the total inflow. For instance, for an equal open-hole inflow value, homogeneous inflow yields much more rapid buffer wetting than cases where fractures are represented explicitly thus creating heterogeneous inflow distributions.

  19. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production. PMID:24195081

  20. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  1. The Role of Surface Chemistry in Adhesion and Wetting of Gecko Toe Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badge, Ila; Stark, Alyssa Y.; Paoloni, Eva L.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-10-01

    An array of micron-sized setal hairs offers geckos a unique ability to walk on vertical surfaces using van der Waals interactions. Although many studies have focused on the role of surface morphology of the hairs, very little is known about the role of surface chemistry on wetting and adhesion. We expect that both surface chemistry and morphology are important, not only to achieve optimum dry adhesion but also for increased efficiency in self-cleaning of water and adhesion under wet conditions. Here, we used a plasma-based vapor deposition process to coat the hairy patterns on gecko toe pad sheds with polar and non-polar coatings without significantly perturbing the setal morphology. By a comparison of wetting across treatments, we show that the intrinsic surface of gecko setae has a water contact angle between 70-90°. As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass). Surprisingly under wet and dry conditions the adhesion was comparable on the hydrophobic surface, independent of the surface chemistry of the setal hairs. This work highlights the need to utilize morphology and surface chemistry in developing successful synthetic adhesives with desirable adhesion and self-cleaning properties.

  2. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  3. Soil water retention curves of remoulded clay on drying and wetting paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiwei; Zhang Jian

    2010-01-01

    The present research focuses on the laboratory measurement of the Soil Water Retention Curve (SWRC), that expresses the relationship between water content (gravimetric or volumetric) or degree of saturation and soil suction. The SWRC plays an important role in an unsaturated soil mechanics framework and is required for the numerical modelling of any process of flow and transport in unsaturated soil problems, already as a part of constitutive model of unsaturated soil. Six remoulded London Clay samples were performed SWRC testing on the drying and wetting path, meanwhile measurement the volume change. The effect of initial water content and various drying/wetting paths were considered in the tests. The results of SWRC show that hysteretic characteristic in boundary drying/wetting curve, the water holding capacity was increased due to the increase of the initial water content. The shape of the SWRC strongly depended on the volume change. (authors)

  4. Wetting properties of hybrid structure with hydrophilic ridges and hydrophobic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Choi, Su Young; Park, Min Soo; Cho, Young Hak

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we fabricated a hybrid structure where the upper surface of the ridge is hydrophilic and the inner surface of the channel is hydrophobic. Laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) process was performed to machine the hybrid structure on a Pyrex glass substrate. Wetting properties were evaluated from static contact angles (CAs) measurement in parallel and orthogonal directions. The water droplet on the hybrid structure was in the Cassie-Baxter state and showed anisotropic wetting property along groove lines. Moisture condensation studies under humid condition indicated that water droplets grew and coalesced on the ridge with hydrophilicity. Furthermore, water-oil separation was tested using a microfluidic chip with the developed hybrid structure. In case of hybrid microfluidic chip, the water could not flow into channel but the hexadecane could flow due to the capillary pressure difference.

  5. Pharmacologic Treatment of Wet Type Age-related Macular Degeneration; Current and Evolving Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Najafabadi, Hoda; Daftarian, Narsis; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2017-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration as the major cause of blindness in the elderly population has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. This retinal disorder is characterized by the photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells loss, occurring within the macula. The disease represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a multifactorial disease resulting from a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental risk factors. AMD is classified into two different types, dry and wet. Wet AMD is in close relation with angiogenesis and inflammatory processes.A variety of anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory drugs have been proposed for the treatment of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the pharmacological therapies of the wet form of AMD and focus on new drugs that are currently in different stages of research and development.

  6. An analytical model on thermal performance evaluation of counter flow wet cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analytical model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in a counter flow wet cooling tower, with the assumption that the enthalpy of the saturated air is a linear function of the water surface temperature. The performance of the proposed analytical model is validated in some typical cases. The validation reveals that, when cooling range is in a certain interval, the proposed model is not only comparable with the accurate model, but also can reduce computational complexity. In addition, with the proposed analytical model, the thermal performance of the counter flow wet cooling towers in power plants is calculated. The results show that the proposed analytical model can be applied to evaluate and predict the thermal performance of counter flow wet cooling towers.

  7. Biodiesel production from wet municipal sludge: evaluation of in situ transesterification using xylene as a cosolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, O K; Song, J S; Cha, D K; Lee, J W

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a method to produce biodiesel from wet wastewater sludge. Xylene was used as an alternative cosolvent to hexane for transesterification in order to enhance the biodiesel yield from wet wastewater sludge. The water present in the sludge could be separated during transesterification by employing xylene, which has a higher boiling point than water. Xylene enhanced the biodiesel yield up to 8.12%, which was 2.5 times higher than hexane. It was comparable to the maximum biodiesel yield of 9.68% obtained from dried sludge. Xylene could reduce either the reaction time or methanol consumption, when compared to hexane for a similar yield. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content of the biodiesel increased approximately two fold by changing the cosolvent from hexane to xylene. The transesterification method using xylene as a cosolvent can be applied effectively and economically for biodiesel recovery from wet wastewater sludge without drying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritive value of wet distillers' solubles for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility and nitrogen (N metabolism were studied to evaluate the nutritive value of wet barley distillers’ solubles (DSB from an integrated starch-ethanol process for pigs. Eight castrated male pigs (live weight 72-103 kg were used in a 8 x 3 cyclic change-over design, where the diets were arranged factorially 2x2. The corresponding factors were the protein source (DSB or soya bean meal (SBM and the protein level (131 or 162 g crude protein (CP/kg dry matter (DM. Faeces and urine were collected in total. The four diets comprised barley, barley starch, minerals and vitamins with either DSB or SBM as the main source of protein. The digestibility of CP(p

  9. Limestone-Concentrate-Pellet Roasting in wet Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    A roast process for treating chalcopyrite concentrate was developed. The investigation of the reaction of limestone-concentrate-pellet in a wet carbon dioxide flow was carried out by means of a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine at which temperatures the roasting reaction would take place. The thermodynamic calculations on the roast reaction were made by the use of SOLGASMIX-PV program. The TGA curves and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the conversion of chalcopyrite into bornite took place at about 975K, and the conversion of bornite into chalcocite at 1065-1123K. The thermodynamic calculations also showed that the sulfur released was fixed as calcium sulfide within roasted pellets. X-ray diffraction examination identified these phases in products.

  10. Device for removing radioactive solids in wet gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Miyo, Hiroaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable removal and decontamination of radioactive solids in wet gases simply, easily and securely by removing radioactive solids in gases by filteration and applying microwaves to filters to evaporate condensed moistures. Constitution: Objects to be heated such as solutions, sludges and solids containing radioactive substances are placed in an evaporation vessel and a microwave generator is operated. Microwaves are applied to the objects in the evaporation vessel through a shielding plate and filters. The objects are evaporated and exhausted gases are passed through the filters and sent to an exhaust gas processing system by way of an exhaust gas pipe. Condensed moistures deposited on the filters which would otherwise cause cloggings are evaporated being heated by the microwaves to prevent cloggings. The number of stages for the filters may optionally be adjusted depending on the extent of the contamination in the exhaust gases. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Modelling and investigation of partial wetting surfaces for drop dynamics using lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravinraj, T., E-mail: pravinraj1711@gmail.com; Patrikar, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • A LBM model on partial wetting surface for droplet dynamics is presented by introducing a simple initial partial wetting boundary condition in SC model. • With our approach one can tune the splitting volume and time by carefully choosing strip width and position. • It is shown that the droplet spreading on chemically heterogeneous surfaces can be controlled not only by Weber number but also by tuning strip width ratio. • The directional transportation of a droplet due to chemical wetting gradient is simulated and analyzed using hybrid thermodynamic-image processing technique. • Microstructure surface and its influence on the directional wetting based transportation of droplet are demonstrated. - Abstract: Partial wetting surfaces and its influence on the droplet movement of micro and nano scale being contemplated for many useful applications. The dynamics of the droplet usually analyzed with a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In this paper, the influence of partial wetting surface on the dynamics of droplet is systematically analyzed for various cases. Splitting of droplets due to chemical gradient of the surface is studied and analyses of splitting time for various widths of the strips for different Weber numbers are computed. With the proposed model one can tune the splitting volume and time by carefully choosing a strip width and droplet position. The droplet spreading on chemically heterogeneous surfaces shows that the spreading can be controlled not only by parameters of Weber number but also by tuning strip width ratio. The transportation of the droplet from hydrophobic surface to hydrophilic surface due to chemical gradient is simulated and analyzed using our hybrid thermodynamic-image processing technique. The results prove that with the progress of time the surface free energy decreases with increase in spreading area. Finally, the transportation of a droplet on microstructure gradient is demonstrated. The model explains

  12. Image quality of digital mammography images produced using wet and dry laser imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khalifah, K.; Brindhaban, A.; AlArfaj, R.; Jassim, O.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A study was carried out to compare the quality of digital mammographic images printed or processed by a wet laser imaging system and a dedicated mammographic dry laser imaging system. Material and methods: Digital images of a tissue equivalent breast phantom were obtained using a GE Senographe 2000D digital mammography system and different target/filter combinations of the X-ray tube. These images were printed on films using the Fuji FL-IM D wet laser imaging system and the Kodak DryView 8600 dry laser imaging system. The quality of images was assessed in terms of detectability of microcalcifications and simulated tumour masses by five radiologists. In addition, the contrast index and speed index of the two systems were measured using the step wedge in the phantom. The unpaired, unequal variance t-test was used to test any statistically significant differences. Results: There were no significant (p < 0.05) differences between the images printed using the two systems in terms of microcalcification and tumour mass detectability. The wet system resulted in slightly higher contrast index while the dry system showed significantly higher speed index. Conclusion: Both wet and dry laser imaging systems can produce mammography images of good quality on which 0.2 mm microcalcifications and 2 mm tumour masses can be detected. Dry systems are preferable due to the absence of wet chemical processing and solid or liquid chemical waste. The wet laser imaging systems, however, still represent a useful alternative to dry laser imaging systems for mammography studies

  13. Proteomic effects of wet cupping (Al-hijamah).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaiman, Amer A

    2018-01-01

    Wet cupping (Al-hijamah) is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient's skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.

  14. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a catalytic system for gasification of wet biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J.; Phelps, M.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A gasification system is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory that can be used with high-moisture biomass feedstocks. The system operates at 350{degrees}C and 205 atm using a liquid water phase as the processing medium. Since a pressurized system is used, the wet biomass can be fed as a slurry to the reactor without drying. Through the development of catalysts, a useful processing system has been produced. This paper includes assessment of processing test results of different catalysts. Reactor system results including batch, bench-scale continuous, and engineering-scale processing results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this catalytic gasification system to biomass. The system has utility both for direct conversion of biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for treatment of unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. By the use of this system high conversions of biomass to fuel gas can be achieved. Medium-Btu is the primary product. Potential exists for recovery/recycle of some of the unreacted inorganic components from the biomass in the aqueous byproduct stream.

  16. Delivery to the Wet Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This portion of a picture acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera documents the delivery of soil to one of four Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cells on the 30th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Approximately one cubic centimeter of this soil was then introduced into the cell and mixed with water for chemical analysis. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE WET WIPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-02-18

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant{trademark} Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  18. Beryllium Measurement In Commercially Available Wet Wipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans-Mcdonald, L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis for beryllium by fluorescence is now an established method which is used in many government-run laboratories and commercial facilities. This study investigates the use of this technique using commercially available wet wipes. The fluorescence method is widely documented and has been approved as a standard test method by ASTM International and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The procedure involves dissolution of samples in aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution and then adding a small aliquot to a basic hydroxybenzoquinoline sulfonate fluorescent dye (Berylliant(trademark) Inc. Detection Solution Part No. CH-2) , and measuring the fluorescence. This method is specific to beryllium. This work explores the use of three different commercial wipes spiked with beryllium, as beryllium acetate or as beryllium oxide and subsequent analysis by optical fluorescence. The effect of possible interfering metals such as Fe, Ti and Pu in the wipe medium is also examined.

  19. Engineering Non-Wetting Antimicrobial Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Desmond

    This research presents novel techniques and a review of commercially available fabrics for their antimicrobial potential. Based on previous research into the advantages of superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces against bacterial contamination, insights into what can make a superhydrophobic fabric inherently antimicrobial were analyzed. Through comparing the characterization results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometry to microbiology experiments, hypotheses into the relationship between the contact area of a bacterial solution and the extent of contamination is developed. Contact scenario experiments, involving the use of fluorescence microscopy and calculating colony forming units, proved that the contamination potential of any fabric is due to the wetting state exhibited by the fabric, as well as the extent of surface texturing. Transmission experiments, utilizing a novel technique of stamping a contaminated fabric, outlined the importance of retention of solutions or bacteria during interactions within the hospital environment on the extent of contamination.

  20. Wet chemical synthesis of soluble gold nanogaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Titoo; Tang, Qingxin; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    NRs) in aqueous solution. Through controlled end-to-end assembly of the AuNRs into dimers or chains, facilitated via target molecules, they can be used as electrical contacts. In this way, the preparation of AuNR-molecule-AuNR junctions by wet chemical methods may afford a large number of identical devices...... with little variation in the interface between molecule and electrode (AuNR). In this Account, we highlight recent progress in using chemically synthesized AuNRs as building blocks for molecular electronic applications. We outline the general synthesis and properties of AuNRs and describe the aqueous growth...... in the nanogaps lets us spectroscopically characterize the molecules via surface-enhanced Raman scattering. We discuss the incorporation of oligopeptides functionalized with acetylene units having uniquely identifiable vibrational modes. This acetylene moiety allows chemical reactions to be performed in the gaps...

  1. Textile UWB Antenna Bending and Wet Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai A. R. Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vision and ideas of wearable computing systems describe future electronic systems as an integral part of our everyday clothing that provides the wearer with such intelligent personal assistants. Recently, there has been growing interest in the antenna community to merge between wearable systems technology, ultrawideband (UWB technology and textile technology. This work aimed to make closer steps towards real wearability by investigating the possibilities of designing wearable UWB antenna where textile materials are used for the substrate as well as the conducting parts of the designed antenna. Two types of conducting materials have been used for conducting parts, while a nonconducting fabric has been used as antenna substrate material. A set of comparative results of the proposed design were presented and discussed. Moreover, effects on the return loss by means of measurements for each fabricated antenna prototype under bent and fully wet conditions were discussed in more details.

  2. THERMAL TRANSFERS IN WET HYPERBARIC ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara STANCIU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat losses of human body are greater in underwater environment than in dry, normal atmosphere, due to the great heat capacity of water. Body temperature of divers in immersion was studied taking into account the pressure the divers are subjected to. The theoretic equation that describes the total heat transfer- at both levels: skin and respiratory system- was established, considering conduction, convection and respiratory gas heating and humidification. The body temperature of the divers was measured in a series of dives at different depths of immersion, conducted in the wet simulator of the Diving Center, in Constanta. The experimental results were in good accordance with the temperature predicted by the mathematical model.

  3. From soaking wet to bone dry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Nicolajsen, Sascha Veggerby

    2015-01-01

    A hydrological gradient from pond to dry limestone pavements on the Island of Öland, South Sweden. Methods Plant community composition and six morpho-physiogical plant traits were measured along a pronounced gradient in water supply and soil depth. The strength of filtering was quantified using a trait...... and resistance to water loss on drying. For individual traits, the strength of filtering waxes and wanes along the gradient. This strongly suggests that the mechanism, through which species are filtered into communities, acts through different traits as environmental conditions change along the gradient......, and most traits are strongly filtered only in parts of the gradient (e.g. root porosity in wet soils and water loss on drying on thin dry soils). Evidence for congruence between trait dispersion indices and the CATS model was established, underpinning the importance to plant community assembly...

  4. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  5. Wetting morphologies on randomly oriented fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, Alban; Boulogne, François; Soh, Beatrice; Dressaire, Emilie; Stone, Howard A

    2015-06-01

    We characterize the different morphologies adopted by a drop of liquid placed on two randomly oriented fibers, which is a first step toward understanding the wetting of fibrous networks. The present work reviews previous modeling for parallel and touching crossed fibers and extends it to an arbitrary orientation of the fibers characterized by the tilting angle and the minimum spacing distance. Depending on the volume of liquid, the spacing distance between fibers and the angle between the fibers, we highlight that the liquid can adopt three different equilibrium morphologies: 1) a column morphology in which the liquid spreads between the fibers, 2) a mixed morphology where a drop grows at one end of the column or 3) a single drop located at the node. We capture the different morphologies observed using an analytical model that predicts the equilibrium configuration of the liquid based on the geometry of the fibers and the volume of liquid.

  6. Wetting Transition and Line Tension of Oil on Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, H.; Aratono, M.

    Wetting has attracted wide attention in the field of applied chemistry because of its crucial importance in industrial operations such as coating, painting, and lubrication. Here, we summarize our fundamental understandings of surfactant-assisted wetting transitions which we have found and studied for the last ten years. The difference between the surfactant-assisted wetting transitions and existing ones is discussed. Moreover, the relation between wetting transitions and the stability of the three-phase contact line is examined in terms of the line tension of oil lenses.

  7. Microbial safety and overall quality of cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole fruit after wet steam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been associated with outbreaks of Salmonellosis. Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and physiological processes. The objectives of this study were to use a wet steam process to 1) reduce ind...

  8. WetLab-2: Providing Quantitative PCR Capabilities on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy Kar Chuen; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis David; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a system capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project has developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage that it uses non-toxic chemicals, alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is transferred into a pipette and then dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. These reaction tubes are mounted on rotors to centrifuge the liquid to the reaction window of the tube using a cordless drill. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The resulting process takes less than 30 min to have tubes ready for loading into the qRT-PCR unit.The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, the Cepheid SmartCycler, that will fly in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color detection. The ability to detect up to four fluorescent channels will enable multiplex assays that can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system will have the capability to downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and to uplink new programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The

  9. Differences in CAPE between wet and dry spells of the monsoon over the southeastern peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, T. S.; Rao, T. N.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-03-01

    In the present research we explored the variability of convective available potential energy (CAPE) during wet and dry spells over southeast India. Comparison between India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations and reanalysis products (NCEP, ERA-interim, and MERRA) reconfirms that gridded data sets can be utilized to fill the void of observations. Later, GPS radiosonde measurements made at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E) Andre analysis output are utilized to address key scientific issues related to CAPE over the southeastern peninsular region. They are: (1) How does CAPE vary between different spells of the Indian summer monsoon (i.e., from wet to dry spell)? (2) Does differences in CAPE and in the vertical structure of buoyancy between spells are localized features over Gadanki or observed all over southeastern peninsular region? (3) What physical/dynamical processes are responsible for the differences in CAPE between spells and how do they affect the convection growth in dry spell? Interestingly, CAPE is higher in wet spell than in dry spell, in contrast to the observations made elsewhere over land and warm oceans. Similar feature (high CAPE in wet spell) is observed at all grid points in the southeastern peninsular India. Furthermore, vertical buoyancy profiles show only one peak in the middle-upper troposphere in wet spell, while two peaks are observed in most of the profiles (66%) in dry spell over the entire study region in all the reanalysis products. Plausible mechanisms are discussed for the observed CAPE differences. They are, among others, timing of sounding with reference to rain occurrence, rapid buildup of surface instabilities, moistening of lower troposphere by evaporation of the surface moisture in wet spell, enhanced low-level moisture convergence, evaporation of rain in relatively warm and dry atmosphere, and reduction of positive buoyancy in dry spell. The omnipresence of stable layers and strong and deep shear in the presence of weak updrafts

  10. Dry-wet variations and cause analysis in Northeast China at multi-time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Pan, Feifei; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Liting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Pengyu; Wei, Pei; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-07-01

    Global warming has caused unevenly distributed changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, which has and will certainly impact on the wet-dry variations. Based on daily meteorological data collected at 91 weather stations in Northeast China (NEC), the spatiotemporal characteristics of dry and wet climatic variables (precipitation, crop reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and humid index (HI)) are analyzed, and the probable reasons causing the changes in these variables are discussed during the period of 1961-2014. Precipitation showed non-significant trend over the period of 1961-2014, while ET0 showed a significant decreasing trend, which led to climate wetting in NEC. The period of 2001-2012 exhibited smaller semiarid area and larger humid area compared to the period of 1961-1980, indicating NEC has experienced wetting process at decadal scale. ET0 was most sensitive to relative humidity, and wind speed was the second most sensitive variable. Sunshine hours and temperature were found to be less influential to ET0 in the study area. The changes in wind speed in the recent 54 years have caused the greatest influence on ET0, followed by temperature. For each month, wind speed was the most significant variable causing ET0 reduction in all months except July. Temperature, as a dominant factor, made a positive contribution to ET0 in February and March, as well as sunshine hours in June and July, and relative humidity in August and September. In summary, NEC has experienced noticeable climate wetting due to the significantly decreasing ET0, and the decrease in wind speed was the biggest contributor for the ET0 reduction. Although agricultural drought crisis is expected to be partly alleviated, regional water resources management and planning in Northeast China should consider the potential water shortage and water conflict in the future because of spatiotemporal dry-wet variations in NEC.

  11. Characterization of wet aggregate stability of soils by ¹H-NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, C; Meyer, M; Schaumann, G E

    2015-09-01

    For the assessment of soil structural stability against hydraulic stress, wet sieving or constant head permeability tests are typically used but rather limited in their intrinsic information value. The multiple applications of several tests is the only possibility to assess important processes and mechanisms during soil aggregate breakdown, e.g. the influences of soil fragment release or differential swelling on the porous systems of soils or soil aggregate columns. Consequently, the development of new techniques for a faster and more detailed wet aggregate stability assessment is required. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry ((1)H-NMR relaxometry) might provide these requirements because it has already been successfully applied on soils. We evaluated the potential of (1)H-NMR relaxometry for the assessment of wet aggregate stability of soils, with more detailed information on occurring mechanisms at the same time. Therefore, we conducted single wet sieving and constant head permeability tests on untreated and 1% polyacrylic acid-treated soil aggregates of different textures and organic matter contents, subsequently measured by (1)H-NMR relaxometry after percolation. The stability of the soil aggregates were mainly depending on their organic matter contents and the type of aggregate stabilization, whereby additional effects of clay swelling on the measured wet aggregate stability were identified by the transverse relaxation time (T2) distributions. Regression analyses showed that only the percentage of water stable aggregates could be determined accurately from percolated soil aggregate columns by (1)H-NMR relaxometry measurements. (1)H-NMR relaxometry seems a promising technique for wet aggregate stability measurements but should be further developed for nonpercolated aggregate columns and real soil samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. LED based opto-wetting platforms for micromixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tony; Narayanan Unni, Harikrishnan

    2018-02-01

    The digital microfluidics utilizes the gradient in wettability for droplet transportation. This paper reports a novel technique of LED induced wetting ( Opto-wetting) where a single low power LED (Light emitting diode) emitting light of wavelength 395nm peak with luminous intensity of 300mcd (milli candela) is used to move two droplets of 20μL each on a photo responsive substrate of azobenzene (C12H10N2) coated PDMS (Poly Dimethyl Siloxane) substrate. The PDMS substrate of size 5cmx2cmx0.5cm were modified by thin film coating of Azobenzene dissolved in olive oil solution. The LED was aligned vertically on the top of the substrate. The pulsed operation of LED induces a spatial gradient of surface energy due to the reversible process of photo isomerization of Azobenzene molecules coated on the surface. The Photo-isomerization changes the conformation of the molecules thereby changing its surface energy .The change in surface energy of the substrate induces a change in contact angle of the droplet which initiates its movement. Two water droplets each of 20μL were dispensed on the substrate using micro syringe. Two droplets which were initially at a few cm distance apart were gradually moved towards the focus of light and merged together. The urine droplets (20μL) were moved and mixed with the red dye reagent (20μL) by controlling the light intensity of the LED. This concept provides a cost effective technique of droplet manipulation in the Lab on a chip domain where various multiplexed operations on proteins and DNA droplets can be done for point of care diagnostics.

  13. Influence of Storage of Wet Arabica Parchment Prior to Wet Hulling on Moulds Development, OchratoxinA Contamination, and Cup Quality of Mandheling Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Ismayadi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Mandheling coffee has been a well known specialty coffees for decades and the demand for this coffee is currently increasing. This coffee is characterised by low acidity, heavy-complex body, spicy-little earthy and fruity flavor. Mandheling coffee is produced by smallholder farmers in the highland surrounding Lake TobaNorth Sumatra in an unique way i.e. following de-pulping and 1–2 days sundrying, wet parchment is stored for varying periods up to a few weeks, the parchments are then de-hulled when still wet (40–45% moisture content then the beans sundried. The handling procedure presumably contributes to the unique cup character of Mandheling coffee. On the other hand the storage of wet pachments may cause mould growth and mycotoxin contamination. This trial was designed to study the influence of storage of wet parchments prior to wet hulling on mould development, OTA contamination and cup Mandheling characteristic of the coffee product. The normal wet process, drying of parchment thoroughly to 12% moisture content was used as the control. Parchment coffees (6 lots used for this trial were drawn from farmers and collectors in the region. The wet parchments (41.74–53.96% moisture content were stored for 1 (D1, 7 (D7 and 14 (D14 days in PE sacks in a warehouse in the region. During the storage period, when there was visible mould growth, the parchments were spread on a plastic sheet inside the warehouse, as per common practice to suppress the mould growth. Following storage, the wet parchment was de-hulled and then sun-dried to a moisture content of 12% (MC12% or dried to a moisture content of 17%, and held in storage for 3 weeks prior to final drying to 12% mc. The ‘normal wet process’ i.e. fresh-non stored parchments dried thoroughly to 12%, were used as the control. Parameters measured were visual evaluation, mould infestation, a w, moisture content (MC on the stored parchment; while for dried beans mould infestation, OTA content and

  14. Experienced materials in wet limestone-gypsum FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Hiroshima (Japan). Hiroshima Research and Development Center; Iwashita, K.; Ochi, E.; Higuchi, T. [Mitsubishi heavy Industry, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    This study was made on the corrosion resistivity evaluation method used for material selection in the Wet Limestone-Gypsum FGD system with examples of various process configuration, their corrosion environment, and the materials used in them. The wet limestone-gypsum process FGD plant is broadly divided into two types-ash-separated (dual-loop) process, and ash-mixed (single-loop) process-depending on whether the flue gas is separated from ash before being led into the absorber or led as it is into the absorber mixed with ash. Presently, the single-loop process has become the mainstream process however. The dual -loop process comprises a dedusting tower (quencher) and an absorption tower (absorber). In the quencher ash is removed with sprayed water where most of the HCl, HF etc., and a part of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} contained in the flue gas are also removed with absorption. On the contrary, in the single-loop process which is configured of only the absorber, the flue gas is introduced into it as it is contained with ash, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, HCl, HF etc. The corrosion environment in these plants largely differs depending on the process type and condition. The absorber recirculated liquid has various ion inclusions among which Cl{sup {minus}} promotes pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion while SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} inhibits these corrosions. Both Cl{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} cover an extremely large range between 25 to 100,000 ppm and 564 to 73,600 ppm respectively, and their influence on the corrosion is related to their activity which is decided by Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +} and liquid temperature. The balance of these ions is decided by the gas composition, limestone composition, make-up water and wastewater mass balance etc., of individual plants. Accordingly, materials of FGD plant are selected on the basis of evaluated results of corrosion resistivity test made under such simulated process conditions of

  15. A new laser grating velocimeter-granulometer for highly concentrated wet steam flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.R.; Cartellier, A.; Bauche, P.; Courant, J.J.; Kleitz, A.; Martin, P.

    1992-01-01

    A new Laser Grating Velocimeter-Granulometer has been designed and manufactured for EDF applications concerning wet steam turbines. A signal processing system based on FFT technique, similar to the one used for PDPA systems, has been adapted for this probe. In this paper the technical details of design and manufacturing of the probe and its signal processing system are described. Some of the results obtained during the qualification and testing of the probe are also provided. (authors). 9 figs., 17 refs

  16. A fast response miniature probe for wet steam flow field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosdas, Ilias; Mansour, Michel; Abhari, Reza S; Kalfas, Anestis I

    2016-01-01

    Modern steam turbines require operational flexibility due to renewable energies’ increasing share of the electrical grid. Additionally, the continuous increase in energy demand necessitates efficient design of the steam turbines as well as power output augmentation. The long turbine rotor blades at the machines’ last stages are prone to mechanical vibrations and as a consequence time-resolved experimental data under wet steam conditions are essential for the development of large-scale low-pressure steam turbines. This paper presents a novel fast response miniature heated probe for unsteady wet steam flow field measurements. The probe has a tip diameter of 2.5 mm, and a miniature heater cartridge ensures uncontaminated pressure taps from condensed water. The probe is capable of providing the unsteady flow angles, total and static pressure as well as the flow Mach number. The operating principle and calibration procedure are described in the current work and a detailed uncertainty analysis demonstrates the capability of the new probe to perform accurate flow field measurements under wet steam conditions. In order to exclude any data possibly corrupted by droplets’ impact or evaporation from the heating process, a filtering algorithm was developed and implemented in the post-processing phase of the measured data. In the last part of this paper the probe is used in an experimental steam turbine test facility and measurements are conducted at the inlet and exit of the last stage with an average wetness mass fraction of 8.0%. (paper)

  17. Role of wetting and drying cycles in formation and growth of soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Lopez, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Soil structure directly determines important soil physical properties including porosity, hydraulic conductivity, water retention, and mechanical strength and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In response to the various processes that occur within it, soil structure evolves continuously at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We hypothesize that the rhythm of the evolution is controlled by wetting and drying cycles. Here, we will present a mathematical description of the role of wetting and drying cycles in the formation and stabilization of soil aggregates with emphasis on two important roles of wetting and drying cycles: (1) transport and deposition of organic and inorganic cementing agents at the most effective locations, (2) chemical and physical alteration of cementing agents during desiccation and the resultant semi-permanent bonding (or bond hardening). Our results demonstrate that size and strength of aggregates are determined by particle size, degree of dryness, number of wetting-drying cycles, as well as concentration and solubility of dissolved and/or colloidal cementing agents. These results are in general agreement with experimental observations obtained from the literature.

  18. Soil aggregate formation: the role of wetting-drying cycles in the genesis of interparticle bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In nature, soil is continually exposed to wetting (e.g., rainfall and diffusive flow) and drying (e.g., evaporation, diffusive flow and plant uptake). These natural wetting and drying cycles of soils are physical events that profoundly affect the development of soil structure, aggregate stability, carbon (C) flux and mineralization. We hypothesize that drying of capillary water transports suspended and/or dissolved cementing agents toward inter-particle contacts and eventually deposits part of the colloidal mass forming inter-particle bonds. Here, we will show the role of wetting and drying cycles on soil aggregation and stabilization and how these cycles transport and deposit organic cementing agents at the inter-particle contact. We found that aggregates of sand and silt particles can be formed by subjecting loose particles to wetting-drying cycles in the presence of dilute solutions of organic matter that mimic root or microbial exudates. Moreover, majority of the organic matter was deposited in the contact region between the sand particles, where the water accumulates during drying. The model predictions and aggregate stability measurements are supported by scanning electron micrographs that clearly show the process of aggregate formation.

  19. Progress on lipid extraction from wet algal biomass for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; González González, Lina M; Chan, William; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-11-01

    Lipid recovery and purification from microalgal cells continues to be a significant bottleneck in biodiesel production due to high costs involved and a high energy demand. Therefore, there is a considerable necessity to develop an extraction method which meets the essential requirements of being safe, cost-effective, robust, efficient, selective, environmentally friendly, feasible for large-scale production and free of product contamination. The use of wet concentrated algal biomass as a feedstock for oil extraction is especially desirable as it would avoid the requirement for further concentration and/or drying. This would save considerable costs and circumvent at least two lengthy processes during algae-based oil production. This article provides an overview on recent progress that has been made on the extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass. The biggest contributing factors appear to be the composition of algal cell walls, pre-treatments of biomass and the use of solvents (e.g. a solvent mixture or solvent-free lipid extraction). We compare recently developed wet extraction processes for oleaginous microalgae and make recommendations towards future research to improve lipid extraction from wet algal biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    A chloroform-free novel process for the efficient production of biodiesel from wet microalgae is proposed. Crude biodiesel is produced through extraction with hexane after microwave-assisted transesterification (EHMT) of lipids in wet microalgae. Effects of different parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, methanol dosage, and catalyst dosage, on fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) yield are investigated. The yield of FAME extracted into the hexane from the wet microalgae is increased 6-fold after the transesterification of lipids. The yield of FAME obtained through EHMT of lipids in wet microalgae is comparable to that obtained through direct transesterification of dried microalgae biomass with chloroform; however, FAME content in crude biodiesel obtained through EHMT is 86.74%, while that in crude biodiesel obtained through the chloroform-based process is 75.93%. EHMT ensures that polar pigments present in microalgae are not extracted into crude biodiesel, which leads to a 50% reduction in nitrogen content in crude biodiesel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Moving contact lines in partial wetting: bridging the gap across the scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Amir; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; McKinley, Gareth; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    The spreading and dewetting of liquid films on solid substrates is a common phenomenon in nature and industry from a snail secreting a mucosal film to printing and coating processes. A quantitative description of these phenomena, however, requires a detailed understanding of the flow physics at the nanoscale as the intermolecular interactions become important close to the contact line. Classical hydrodynamic theory describes wetting as an interplay between viscous and interfacial forces, neglecting the intermolecular interactions, leading to a paradox known as the moving contact line singularity. By contrast, molecular kinetic theory describes wetting as an activated process, neglecting the bulk hydrodynamics in the spreading viscous fluid film altogether. Here, we show that our recently developed model for thin liquid films in partial wetting, which properly incorporates the role of van der Waals interactions in a thin spreading fluid layer into a height-dependent surface tension, bridges the gap between these two approaches and leads to a unified framework for the description of wetting phenomena. We further use our model to investigate the instability and dewetting of nanometric liquid films, and show that it brings theoretical predictions closer to experimental observations.

  2. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  3. Phase change materials and the perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  4. Bianchi Type-I Universe with wet dark fluid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi-type Universe; wet dark fluid; cosmological parameters. Abstract. The Bianchi Type-I Universe filled with dark energy from a wet dark fluid has been considered. A new equation of ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  5. Phase Change Materials and the perception of wetness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are increasingly incorporated in textiles in order to serve as a thermal buffer when humans change from a hot to a cold environment and the reverse. Due to the absence of wetness sensors in the skin, cooling of the skin may be perceived as a sensation of wetness instead

  6. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  7. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  8. Wetting in a Colloidal Liquid-Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, W. K.; Besseling, N. A.; Stuart, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  9. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    OpenAIRE

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  10. Exposure of the hands to wet work in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, F.H.W.; Lensen, G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Coenraads, P.J.

    Prevention of hand dermatitis among nurses can be achieved by reduction of wet-work exposure. A preventive programme should be based on knowledge of exposure levels. An accurate method to assess such exposure levels is needed. Duration and frequency of wet-work activities were assessed by a

  11. Wetted Foam Liquid DT Layer ICF Experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Peterson, R. R.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Bradley, P. A.; Yin, L.; Wilson, D. C.; Haines, B. M.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    A key physics issue in indirect-drive ICF relates to the understanding of the limitations on hot spot convergence ratio (CR), principally set by the hohlraum drive symmetry, the capsule mounting hardware (the ``tent''), and the capsule fill tube. An additional key physics issue relates to the complex process by which a hot spot must be dynamically formed from the inner ice surface in a DT ice-layer implosion. These physics issues have helped to motivate the development of a new liquid DT layer wetted foam platform at the NIF that provides an ability to form the hot spot from DT vapor and experimentally study and understand hot spot formation at a variety of CR's in the range of 12hot spot and the low adiabat cold fuel during the stagnation process and can allow for a fundamentally different (and potentially more robust) process of hot spot formation. This new experimental platform is currently being used in a series of experiments to discover a range of CR's at which DT layered implosions will have understandable performance - providing a sound basis from which to determine the requirements for ICF ignition. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. Green Gasification Technology for Wet Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Chong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world now is facing two energy related threats which are lack of sustainable, secure and affordable energy supplies and the environmental damage acquired in producing and consuming ever-increasing amount of energy. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, increasing energy prices reminds us that an affordable energy plays an important role in economic growth and human development. To overcome the abovementioned problem, we cannot continue much longer to consume finite reserves of fossil fuels, the use of which contributes to global warming. Preferably, the world should move towards more sustainable energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy and biomass. However, the abovementioned challenges may not be met solely by introduction of sustainable energy forms. We also need to use energy more efficiently. Developing and introducing more efficient energy conversion technologies is therefore important, for fossil fuels as well as renewable fuels. This assignment addresses the question how biomass may be used more efficiently and economically than it is being used today. Wider use of biomass, a clean and renewable feedstock may extend the lifetime of our fossil fuels resources and alleviate global warming problems. Another advantage of using of biomass as a source of energy is to make developed countries less interdependent on oil-exporting countries, and thereby reduce political tension. Furthermore, the economies of agricultural regions growing energy crops benefit as new jobs are created. Keywords: energy, gasification, sustainable, wet biomass

  13. Photochemical organonitrate formation in wet aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong Bin; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jin Young; Turpin, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    Water is the most abundant component of atmospheric fine aerosol. However, despite rapid progress, multiphase chemistry involving wet aerosols is still poorly understood. In this work, we report results from smog chamber photooxidation of glyoxal- and OH-containing ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the presence of NOx and O3 at high and low relative humidity. Particles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). During the 3 h irradiation, OH oxidation products of glyoxal that are also produced in dilute aqueous solutions (e.g., oxalic acids and tartaric acids) were formed in both ammonium sulfate (AS) aerosols and sulfuric acid (SA) aerosols. However, the major products were organonitrogens (CHNO), organosulfates (CHOS), and organonitrogen sulfates (CHNOS). These were also the dominant products formed in the dark chamber, indicating non-radical formation. In the humid chamber (> 70 % relative humidity, RH), two main products for both AS and SA aerosols were organonitrates, which appeared at m / z- 147 and 226. They were formed in the aqueous phase via non-radical reactions of glyoxal and nitric acid, and their formation was enhanced by photochemistry because of the photochemical formation of nitric acid via reactions of peroxy radicals, NOx and OH during the irradiation.

  14. Colloid Zirconia Binder of Improved Wetting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Para

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of colloid zirconia aqueous sol, used as a binder in the investment casting industry, werethoroughly determined. The size of the particles was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the zeta potential of theparticles was measured by microelectrophoresis. The average size of the particles was 13 nm and the zeta potential waspositive, equal to 30 mV. The size distribution of particles deposited on mica surface was also determined using AFMmeasurements. The wetting properties of the binder suspension were determined for the paraffin/air interface using the shapeanalysis of pendant and sessile drops. The perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, an anionic surfactant, the non-ionic fluorinatedsurfactants Zonyl FSO-100 and Rokafenol RN8, and the mixtures of the surfactants were studied. Our investigations showedthat the Zonyl-FSO surfactant and its mixture with Rokafenol effectively reduced the dynamic contact angle from the initialvalue of 94° to the value of 30°. Such low contact angles represent an essential improvement of zirconia binder wettability,thus widen the range of applicability in investment casting of finely shaped details.

  15. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-01-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions in air were twice as high when compared with shakes while perching. Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking. PMID:22072447

  16. Adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions by wetted and non-wetted synthetic sorbents:dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Berkhout, J.T.A.M.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation the dynamics of the adsorption of several chlorinated hydrocarbons onto wetted and non-wetted synthetic sorbents was studied. A single particle model was developed to describe the adsorption behavior. The values of the mass transfer coefficient, needed to describe the

  17. Quantification of wet-work exposure in nurses using a newly developed wet-work exposure monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Maaike J.; Behroozy, Ali; Verberk, Maarten M.; Semple, Sean; Kezic, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is an important work-related disease. A major cause of OCD is 'wet work': frequent contact of the skin with water, soap, detergents, or occlusive gloves. The German guidance TRGS 401 recommends that the duration of wet work (including use of occlusive gloves)

  18. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption - Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Peñate, I; Julcour-Lebigue, C; Jáuregui-Haza, U J; Wilhelm, A M; Delmas, H

    2012-06-30

    The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A study on electric properties for pulse laser annealing of ITO film after wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.; Lin, H.K.; Li, C.H.; Chen, L.X.; Lee, C.C.; Wu, C.W.; Huang, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electric properties of ITO thin film after UV or IR laser annealing and wet etching was analyzed via grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and residual stress measurement. The laser annealing process readily induced microcracks or quasi-microcracks on the ITO thin film due to the residual tension stress of crystalline phase transformation between irradiated and non-irradiated areas, and these defects then became the preferred sites for a higher etching rate, resulting in discontinuities in the ITO thin film after the wet etching process. The discontinuities in the residual ITO thin film obstruct carrier transmission and further result in electric failure. - Highlights: ► The laser annealing process induces microcracks in InSnO 2 thin films. ► The defects result in higher local etching rate during wet etching. ► These process defects originate from residual tension stress. ► Decreasing the thermal shock is suggested in order to reduce these process defects.

  20. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the IDAF (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) international program, this study aims to study the chemical composition of precipitation and associated wet deposition at the rural site of Djougou in Benin, representative of a West and Central African wet savanna. Five hundred and thirty rainfall samples were collected at Djougou, Benin, from July 2005 to December 2009 to provide a unique database. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed for inorganic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-) and organic (HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2H5COO-, C2O42-) ions, using ion chromatography. The 530 collected rain events represent a total of 5706.1 mm of rainfall compared to the measured pluviometry 6138.9 mm, indicating that the collection efficiency is about 93%. The order of total annual loading rates for soluble cations is NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. For soluble anions the order of loading is carbonates > HCOO- > NO3- > CH3COO- > SO42- > Cl- > C2O42- > C2H5COO-. In the wet savanna of Djougou, 86% of the measured pH values range between 4.7 and 5.7 with a median pH of 5.19, corresponding to a VWM (Volume Weighed Mean) H+ concentration of 6.46 μeq·L-1. This acidity results from a mixture of mineral and organic acids. The annual sea salt contribution was computed for K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- and represents 4.2% of K+, 41% of Mg2+, 1.3% of Ca2+, and 7.4% of SO42-. These results show that K+, Ca2+, SO42-, and Mg2+ were mainly of non-marine origin. The marine contribution is estimated at 9%. The results of the chemical composition of rainwater of Djougou indicates that, except for the carbonates, ammonium has the highest VWM concentration (14.3 μeq·L-1) and nitrate concentration is 8.2 μeq·L-1. The distribution of monthly VWM concentration for all ions is computed and shows the highest values during the dry season, comparing to the wet season. Identified nitrogenous compound sources (NOx and NH3) are domestic animals, natural emissions from savanna soils, biomass

  1. Wetting behavior of mixtures of water and nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Li-Jen

    2005-07-19

    Five binary water + C4Ej mixtures, water + n-C4E0, water + 2-C4E0, water + iso-C4E0, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, were chosen to perform the surface/interfacial tension measurements over the experimental temperature range from 10 to 85 degrees C at the normal pressure by using a homemade pendent drop/bubble tensiometer. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH(2i+1)(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase is systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient resulting from the experimental data of surface/interfacial tensions measurements. For those systems with a lower critical solution temperature, for example, water + n-C6E2, water + n-C4E1, and water + iso-C4E1, a wetting transition from partial wetting to nonwetting is always observed when the system is brought to close to its lower critical solution temperature. On the other hand, to start with a partial wetting CiEj-rich phase, a wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting is always observed when the system is driven to approach its upper critical solution temperature. The effect of hydrophobicity of CiEj on the wetting behavior of the CiEj-rich phase at the interface separating gas and the aqueous phase was carefully investigated by using five sets of mixtures: (1) water + n-C4E0, water + n-C5E0, and water + n-C6E0; (2) water + 2-C4E0 and water + 2-C5E0; (3) water + 2-C4E0 and water + n-C4E0; (4) water + n-C4E1, water + n-C5E1, and water + n-C6E1; (5) water + n-C4E0 and water + n-C4E1. The CiEj-rich phase would tend to drive away from complete wetting (or nonwetting) to partial wetting with an increase in the hydrophobicity of CiEj in the binary water + CiEj system. All the wetting behavior observed in the water + CiEj mixtures is consistent with the prediction of the critical point wetting theory of Cahn.

  2. Wet plume atop of the flattening slab: Insight into intraplate volcanism in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lijuan

    2017-08-01

    Geophysical observations imply the intraplate volcanism in East Asia is related to dehydration of slab stagnating in the transition zone. To better understand the dynamics of such process, a thermochemical mantle convection model is constructed to simulate numerically the thermal evolution of slab and the transportation of water in the process of slab downgoing, flattening and stagnation. Equation of water transfer is included, and water effects on density and viscosity are considered. Model results indicate the warming of slab by surrounding mantle is rather slow. Water could be successfully dragged into the transition zone if the reference viscosity of the hydrous layer (with initial water of 2 wt%) is higher than 1017 Pa s and that of mantle is 1021 Pa s. Wet plumes could then originate in the flat-lying part of the slab, relatively far from the trench. Generally, the viscosity of the hydrous layer governs the initiation of wet plume, whereas the viscosity of the overlying mantle wedge controls the activity of the ascending wet plumes - they are more active in the weaker wedge. The complex fluid flow superposed by corner flow and free thermal convection influences greatly the water transport pattern in the upper mantle. Modeling results together with previous modeling infer three stages of water circulation in the big mantle wedge: 1) water is brought into the mantle transition zone by downward subducting slab under some specific thermo-rheological conditions, otherwise water is released at shallow depth near wedge tip; 2) wet plume generates from surface of the flattening slab warmed by surrounding mantle, and 3) water spreads over the big mantle wedge. Wet plume from the flattening Pacific Plate arrives at the lithospheric base and induces melting, which can explain the intraplate Cenozoic volcanoes in East Asia.

  3. Wetted foam liquid fuel ICF target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R E; Leeper, R J; Yi, S A; Kline, J L; Zylstra, A B; Peterson, R R; Shah, R; Braun, T; Biener, J; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Nikroo, A; Hopkins, L Berzak; Ho, D; LePape, S; Meezan, N B

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a new NIF experimental platform that employs wetted foam liquid fuel layer ICF capsules. We will use the liquid fuel layer capsules in a NIF sub-scale experimental campaign to explore the relationship between hot spot convergence ratio (CR) and the predictability of hot spot formation. DT liquid layer ICF capsules allow for flexibility in hot spot CR via the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density. Our hypothesis is that the predictive capability of hot spot formation is robust and 1D-like for a relatively low CR hot spot (CR∼15), but will become less reliable as hot spot CR is increased to CR>20. Simulations indicate that backing off on hot spot CR is an excellent way to reduce capsule instability growth and to improve robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries. In the initial experiments, we will test our hypothesis by measuring hot spot size, neutron yield, ion temperature, and burn width to infer hot spot pressure and compare to predictions for implosions with hot spot CR's in the range of 12 to 25. Larger scale experiments are also being designed, and we will advance from sub-scale to full-scale NIF experiments to determine if 1D-like behavior at low CR is retained as the scale-size is increased. The long-term objective is to develop a liquid fuel layer ICF capsule platform with robust thermonuclear burn, modest CR, and significant α-heating with burn propagation. (paper)

  4. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergens, M C; Schempp, N

    2010-01-01

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  5. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  6. [Automatic Classification of Dry Cough and Wet Cough Based on Improved Reverse Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping; Mo, Hongqiang; Zheng, Zeguang

    2016-04-01

    Automatic classification of different types of cough plays an important role in clinical.In the previous research of cough classification or cough recognition,traditional Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients(MFCC)which extracts feature mainly from low frequency band is usually used as feature expression.In this paper,by analyzing the distributions of spectral energy of dry/wet cough,it is found that spectral difference of two types of cough exits mainly in middle frequency band and high frequency band.To better reflect the spectral difference of dry cough and wet cough,an improved method of extracting reverse MFCC is proposed.In this method,reverse Mel filter-bank in which filters are allocated in reverse Mel scale is adopted and is improved by placing filters only in the frequency band with high spectral energy.As a result,features are mainly extracted from the frequency band where two types of cough show both high spectral energy and distinguished difference.Detailed process of accessing improved reverse MFCC was introduced and hidden Markov models trained by 60 dry cough and 60 wet cough were used as cough classification model.Classification experiment results for 120 dry cough and 85 wet cough showed that,compared to traditional MFCC,better classification performance was achieved by the proposed method and the total classification accuracy was raised from 89.76%to 93.66%.

  7. The wet compression technology for gas turbine power plants: Thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Pierfederici, Alessandro; Trucco, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines from a thermodynamic point of view the effects of wet compression on gas turbine power plants, particularly analysing the influence of ambient conditions on the plant performance. The results of the mathematical model, implemented in 'Matlab' software, have been compared with the simulation results presented in literature and in particular the values of the 'evaporative rate', proposed in Araimo et al. [L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Thermodynamic analysis of the wet compression process in heavy duty gas turbine compressors, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1249-1263; L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Wet compression technology applied to heavy duty gas turbines - GT power augmentation and efficiency upgrade, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1265-1277] by 'Gas Turbines Department' of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., have been taken into account to validate the model. The simulator permits to investigate the effects of the fogging and wet compression techniques and estimate the power and efficiency gain of heavy duty gas turbines operating in hot and arid conditions

  8. Imaging and etching, soft x-ray microscopy on whole wet cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.R.; Pine, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have produced images of whole wet tissue culture cells with the Stony Brook/BNL scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). For fixed cells the authors have taken images at theoretical resolutions of ∼50-75nm, and in practice have measured FWHM of features down to near 100nm, without any exotic image processing. For unfixed (i.e., initially live) cells the authors have imaged with 100nm pixels and measured features down to 250nm. In order to do this the authors have developed, tested and used a wet cell for maintaining fixed or live cells on the STXM stage during imaging. The design of the wet cell and the culture substrates that go with it make the STXM compatible with almost all standard systems for surface adherent tissue culture. The authors will show some new images of whole wet fixed and unfixed cells, with visible sub-micron features. The authors will also report data that helps to characterize the tissue damage due to x-ray absorption during STXM imaging

  9. Stabilization study on a wet-granule tableting method for a compression-sensitive benzodiazepine receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Megumi; Himi, Satoshi; Iwata, Motokazu

    2010-03-01

    SX-3228, 6-benzyl-3-(5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one, is a newly-synthesized benzodiazepine receptor agonist intended to be developed as a tablet preparation. This compound, however, becomes chemically unstable due to decreased crystallinity when it undergoes mechanical treatments such as grinding and compression. A wet-granule tableting method, where wet granules are compressed before being dried, was therefore investigated as it has the advantage of producing tablets of sufficient hardness at quite low compression pressures. The results of the stability testing showed that the drug substance was chemically considerably more stable in wet-granule compression tablets compared to conventional tablets. Furthermore, the drug substance was found to be relatively chemically stable in wet-granule compression tablets even when high compression pressure was used and the effect of this pressure was small. After investigating the reason for this excellent stability, it became evident that near-isotropic pressure was exerted on the crystals of the drug substance because almost all the empty spaces in the tablets were occupied with water during the wet-granule compression process. Decreases in crystallinity of the drug substance were thus small, making the drug substance chemically stable in the wet-granule compression tablets. We believe that this novel approach could be useful for many other compounds that are destabilized by mechanical treatments.

  10. The biology of skin wetness perception and its implications in manual function and for reproducing complex somatosensory signals in neuroprosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Ackerley, Rochelle

    2017-04-01

    Our perception of skin wetness is generated readily, yet humans have no known receptor (hygroreceptor) to signal this directly. It is easy to imagine the sensation of water running over our hands or the feel of rain on our skin. The synthetic sensation of wetness is thought to be produced from a combination of specific skin thermal and tactile inputs, registered through thermoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, respectively. The present review explores how thermal and tactile afference from the periphery can generate the percept of wetness centrally. We propose that the main signals include information about skin cooling, signaled primarily by thinly myelinated thermoreceptors, and rapid changes in touch, through fast-conducting, myelinated mechanoreceptors. Potential central sites for integration of these signals, and thus the perception of skin wetness, include the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and the insula cortex. The interactions underlying these processes can also be modeled to aid in understanding and engineering the mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the role that sensing wetness could play in precision grip and the dexterous manipulation of objects. We expand on these lines of inquiry to the application of the knowledge in designing and creating skin sensory feedback in prosthetics. The addition of real-time, complex sensory signals would mark a significant advance in the use and incorporation of prosthetic body parts for amputees in everyday life. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Little is known about the underlying mechanisms that generate the perception of skin wetness. Humans have no specific hygroreceptor, and thus temperature and touch information combine to produce wetness sensations. The present review covers the potential mechanisms leading to the perception of wetness, both peripherally and centrally, along with their implications for manual function. These insights are relevant to inform the design of neuroengineering interfaces, such as sensory

  11. Solving the Controversy on the Wetting Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donggyu; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J; Ryu, Seunghwa

    2015-10-26

    Since its discovery, the wetting transparency of graphene, the transmission of the substrate wetting property over graphene coating, has gained significant attention due to its versatility for potential applications. Yet, there have been debates on the interpretation and validity of the wetting transparency. Here, we present a theory taking two previously disregarded factors into account and elucidate the origin of the partial wetting transparency. We show that the liquid bulk modulus is crucial to accurately calculate the van der Waals interactions between the liquid and the surface, and that various wetting states on rough surfaces must be considered to understand a wide range of contact angle measurements that cannot be fitted with a theory considering the flat surface. In addition, we reveal that the wetting characteristic of the substrate almost vanishes when covered by any coating as thick as graphene double layers. Our findings reveal a more complete picture of the wetting transparency of graphene as well as other atomically thin coatings, and can be applied to study various surface engineering problems requiring wettability-tuning.

  12. Microbial safety and overall quality of cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole cantaloupe after wet steam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been associated with outbreaks of Salmonelosis disease and the minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and physiological processes. In this study, we evaluated the effect of minimal wet steam t...

  13. EB curable wetting resins for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, L.; Ansel, R.E.; Murray, K.P.; Schmid, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic media industry is studying means to improve the recording density, durability, product uniformity and production efficiency and to reduce wetting agent migration in the magnetic film. The use of electron beam curable resin binders for magnetic coatings is one of the approaches being studied for this. This paper compares the wetting efficiencies of several electron beam curable systems with a conventional resin and a conventional wetting agent. In this study it has been demonstrated that EB resins can be designed to effect proper magnetic pigment dispersion

  14. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  15. Condensation and Wetting Dynamics on Micro/Nano-Structured Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olceroglu, Emre

    Because of their adjustable wetting characteristics, micro/nanostructured surfaces are attractive for the enhancement of phase-change heat transfer where liquid-solid-vapor interactions are important. Condensation, evaporation, and boiling processes are traditionally used in a variety of applications including water harvesting, desalination, industrial power generation, HVAC, and thermal management systems. Although they have been studied by numerous researchers, there is currently a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which structured surfaces improve heat transfer during phase-change. This PhD dissertation focuses on condensation onto engineered surfaces including fabrication aspect, the physics of phase-change, and the operational limitations of engineered surfaces. While superhydrophobic condensation has been shown to produce high heat transfer rates, several critical issues remain in the field. These include surface manufacturability, heat transfer coefficient measurement limitations at low heat fluxes, failure due to surface flooding at high supersaturations, insufficient modeling of droplet growth rates, and the inherent issues associated with maintenance of non-wetted surface structures. Each of these issues is investigated in this thesis, leading to several contributions to the field of condensation on engineered surfaces. A variety of engineered surfaces have been fabricated and characterized, including nanostructured and hierarchically-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used here as a biological template for the fabrication of nickel nanostructures, which are subsequently functionalized to achieve superhydrophobicity. This technique is simple and sustainable, and requires no applied heat or external power, thus making it easily extendable to a variety of common heat transfer materials and complex geometries. To measure heat transfer rates during superhydrophobic condensation in the presence of non

  16. Influence of wet chemical cleaning on quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Gao Pin; Wang Hong-Gang; Li Biao; Chang Ben-Kang

    2013-01-01

    GaN samples 1–3 are cleaned by a 2:2:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%) to de-ionized water; hydrochloric acid (37%); or a 4:1 solution of sulfuric acid (98%) to hydrogen peroxide (30%). The samples are activated by Cs/O after the same annealing process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after the different ways of wet chemical cleaning shows: sample 1 has the largest proportion of Ga, N, and O among the three samples, while its C content is the lowest. After activation the quantum efficiency curves show sample 1 has the best photocathode performance. We think the wet chemical cleaning method is a process which will mainly remove C contamination. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of physical and environmental performances for wet-white leather manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiabo; Puig Vidal, Rita; Sang, Jun; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation results of physical and environmental performances for a novel wet-white (chrome-free) leather manufacturing. The tanning process is optimized as 15 wt% tannic acid (TA) combination with 4 wt% Laponite nanoclay, giving the leather with shrinkage temperature (Ts) above 86 °C. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements indicate that Laponite can be evenly and tightly bound within the leather matrix, which is fu...

  19. The wetted solid---A generalization of the Plateau problem and its implications for sintered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, P.; Bernholc, J.; Berry, R.S.; Carrera-Patino, M.E.; Andresen, B.

    1990-01-01

    A new generalization of the Plateau problem that includes the constraint of enclosing a given region is introduced. Physically, the problem is important insofar as it bears on sintering processes and the structure of wetted porous media. Some primal and dual characterizations of the solutions are offered and aspects of the problem are illustrated in one and two dimensions in order to clarify the combinatorial elements and demonstrate the importance of numerous local minima

  20. The wetted solid - a generalization of Plateau's problem and its implications for sintered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, P.; Berry, R.S.; Carrera-Patino, M.E.; Chicago Univ., IL; Andresen, B.

    1988-01-01

    We introduce a new generalization of the Plateau problem which includes the constraint of enclosing a given region. Physically the problem is important insofar as it bears on sintering processes and on the structure of wetted porous media. Some primal and dual characterizations of the solutions are offered, and aspects of the problem are illustrated in one and two dimensions in order to clarify the combinatorial elements and to demonstrate the importance of numerous local minima. (orig.)

  1. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  2. Effect of annealing conditions on the molecular properties and wetting of viscoelastic bitumen substrates by liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, in the production of asphalt concrete, bitumen and mineral aggregates are heated and mixed at temperatures above 100 °C. After the mixing process bitumen ideally coats the mineral aggregates and remains in the form of thin films. Because bitumen is highly temperature sensitive, the study of its properties in terms of chemistry, microstructure and rheology as a function of different annealing conditions is very relevant. The resultant molecular properties have a direct correlation to bitumen macroscopic response to liquids such as water, which is of extreme relevance to the understanding of the detrimental effect of water on asphalt pavements. The wetting characteristics play a crucial role on the extension of detachment of bitumen from the mineral aggregates when asphalt is exposed to wet conditions. Therefore, in this work, the effect of the annealing temperature and cooling history on the chemistry, microstructure and wetting of bitumen films was studied. Crystalline microstructures were identified in bulk and on the surface of the bitumen films. Larger crystals presenting higher crystallinity degree were identified when the annealed bitumen films were cooled slowly. Moreover, higher annealing temperatures increased the oxidation level. The change of the rheological properties due to the alterations of the annealing conditions produced changes in the wetting characteristics. For instance, the advancing motion of a liquid drop on the viscoelastic bitumen substrate presented an intermittent behaviour due to the deformation of bitumen at the liquid-bitumen-air contact line. Consequently, changes in the contact angles were also observed. Keywords: Bitumen, Crystallization, Oxidation, Advancing contact angle, Wetting

  3. Amorphization of Fe-based alloy via wet mechanical alloying assisted by PCA decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neamţu, B.V., E-mail: Bogdan.Neamtu@stm.utcluj.ro [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, H.F.; Marinca, T.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, BP166, F-38042, Grenoble (France); Pană, O. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Amorphization of Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 20}B{sub 5} (at.%) alloy has been attempted both by wet and dry mechanical alloying starting from a mixture of elemental powders. Powder amorphization was not achieved even after 140 hours of dry mechanical alloying. Using the same milling parameters, when wet mechanical alloying was used, the powder amorphization was achieved after 40 h of milling. Our assumption regarding the powder amorphization capability enhancement by contamination with carbon was proved by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements which revealed the presence of carbon in the chemical composition of the wet mechanically alloyed sample. Using shorter milling times and several process control agents (PCA) (ethanol, oleic acid and benzene) with different carbon content it was proved that the milling duration required for powder amorphization is linked to the carbon content of the PCA. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermomagnetic (TG) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements performed to the heated samples revealed the fact that, the crystallisation occurs at 488 °C, thus leading to the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe{sub 2}B. Thermogravimetry measurements performed under H{sub 2} atmosphere, showed the same amount of contamination with C, which is about 2.3 wt%, for the amorphous samples regardless of the type of PCA. Saturation magnetisation of the wet milled samples decreases upon increasing milling time. In the case of the amorphous samples wet milled with benzene up to 20 h and with oleic acid up to 30 h, the saturation magnetisation has roughly the same value, indicating the same degree of contamination. The XRD performed on the samples milled using the same parameters, revealed that powder amorphization can be achieved even via dry milling, just by adding the equivalent amount of elemental C calculated from the TG plots. This proves that in this system by considering the atomic species which can contaminate the powder, they can be

  4. Wetting transitions: A functional renormalization-group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.; Huse, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A linear functional renormalization group is introduced as a framework in which to treat various wetting transitions of films on substrates. A unified treatment of the wetting transition in three dimensions with short-range interactions is given. The results of Brezin, Halperin, and Leibler in their three different regimes are reproduced along with new results on the multicritical behavior connecting the various regimes. In addition, the critical behavior as the coexistence curve is approached at complete wetting is analyzed. Wetting in the presence of long-range substrate-film interactions that fall off as power laws is also studied. The possible effects of the nonlinear terms in the renormalization group are examined briefly and it appears that they do not alter the critical behavior found using the truncated linear renormalization group

  5. Mercury Wet Scavenging and Deposition Differences by Precipitation Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Holmes, Christopher D; Landing, William M

    2017-03-07

    We analyze the effect of precipitation type on mercury wet deposition using a new database of individual rain events spanning the contiguous United States. Measurements from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) containing single rainfall events were identified and classified into six precipitation types. Mercury concentrations in surface precipitation follow a power law of precipitation depth that is modulated by precipitation system morphology. After controlling for precipitation depth, the highest mercury deposition occurs in supercell thunderstorms, with decreasing deposition in disorganized thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCS), extratropical cyclones, light rain, and land-falling tropical cyclones. Convective morphologies (supercells, disorganized, and QLCS) enhance wet deposition by a factor of at least 1.6 relative to nonconvective morphologies. Mercury wet deposition also varies by geographic region and season. After controlling for other factors, we find that mercury wet deposition is greater over high-elevation sites, seasonally during summer, and in convective precipitation.

  6. Variation of runoff source areas under different soil wetness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-03

    Apr 3, 2018 ... and dry antecedent soil wetness (the dominant soil moisture ... the initial abstraction of rainfall to be equal to 20% of the maximum potential soil water ...... ZAREI H (2012) Baseflow separation using isotopic techniques and.

  7. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  8. Comparison of wet and dry storage of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.

    1998-06-01

    Technologies for interim storage of spent nuclear fuels are reviewed. Pros and cons of wet and dry storage are discussed. No conclusions about preferences for one or the other technologies can be made

  9. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  10. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  11. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data (NODC Accession 9400037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Profiles of Chlorophyll data from NASA Goddard and Phytoplankton wet weight data in this accession was submitted by Mr. Charles R. McClain of US National...

  12. Making cassava flour safe using the wetting method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wetting method is simple and easy to use, the traditional thick porridge ... correlation between the percentage monthly incidence of konzo and .... Brain. 1990; 113: 223–35. Banea JP, Bradbury JH, Mandombi C, Nahimana D, Denton. 12.

  13. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption - Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quesada-Penate, I. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Julcour-Lebigue, C., E-mail: carine.julcour@ensiacet.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France); Jauregui-Haza, U. J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Habana (Cuba); Wilhelm, A. M.; Delmas, H. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, 4, Allee Emile Monso, F-31432 Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31432 Toulouse (France)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient hybrid adsorption-regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  14. Degradation of paracetamol by catalytic wet air oxidation and sequential adsorption – Catalytic wet air oxidation on activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada-Peñate, I.; Julcour-Lebigue, C.; Jáuregui-Haza, U.J.; Wilhelm, A.M.; Delmas, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three activated carbons (AC) compared as adsorbents and oxidation catalysts. ► Similar evolution for catalytic and adsorptive properties of AC over reuses. ► Acidic and mesoporous AC to be preferred, despite lower initial efficiency. ► Oxidative degradation of paracetamol improves biodegradability. ► Convenient hybrid adsorption–regenerative oxidation process for continuous treatment. - Abstract: The concern about the fate of pharmaceutical products has raised owing to the increasing contamination of rivers, lakes and groundwater. The aim of this paper is to evaluate two different processes for paracetamol removal. The catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of paracetamol on activated carbon was investigated both as a water treatment technique using an autoclave reactor and as a regenerative treatment of the carbon after adsorption in a sequential fixed bed process. Three activated carbons (ACs) from different source materials were used as catalysts: two microporous basic ACs (S23 and C1) and a meso- and micro-porous acidic one (L27). During the first CWAO experiment the adsorption capacity and catalytic performance of fresh S23 and C1 were higher than those of fresh L27 despite its higher surface area. This situation changed after AC reuse, as finally L27 gave the best results after five CWAO cycles. Respirometry tests with activated sludge revealed that in the studied conditions the use of CWAO enhanced the aerobic biodegradability of the effluent. In the ADOX process L27 also showed better oxidation performances and regeneration efficiency. This different ageing was examined through AC physico-chemical properties.

  15. Advance of Wetting Front in Silt Loam Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under drip irrigation , the plant's root is concentrated inside the wetted bulb (region. Thus, the development of these roots and the plant production are greatly affected by the wetting pattern. Therefore, the wetting pattern of soil under drip irrigation must be taken into consideration in the design of drip irrigation system for both single dripping source or multi-overlapping wetting patterns of dripping water sources.2The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of initial water content of the soil and spacing between two adjacent dripping sources with different flow rate on the movement of the wetting front.This study included 16 tests for monitoring the advancement of the wetting front with time during and after the water application phase. The water advance and water distribution measurement are carried out for two cases of the soil profile: for the first case with initial volumetric water content of 4.08% and for the second case with initial volumetric water content of 12.24%. Two spacing between the emitter were tested 25cm and 50 cm using application flow rates of 0.606, 1.212, 1.818, and 2.424 cm3 /min/cm to show the combined effect of spacing and flow rate on the performance of two adjacent emitter.The study proposed a method for determining the spacing between the two emitting sources , the water application rate and watering time. The proposed method depends on a wetted zone whose depth is equal to the root zone depth with a values equals to the maximum vertical advance of the wetting front underneath the drip line at time when this depth is equal to the depth of wetting at mid­point between the drip line. the study revealed that both the vertical water advance in soil underneath the emitter and the horizontal advance of the wetting front is larger than those in the case of single emitter.Furthermore, the vertical water advance increases with the decrease spacing between the two drip lines. Also, the horizontal advance of the

  16. Solid state de-wetting observed for vapor deposited copper films on carbon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrank, C.; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C.; Neubauer, E.; Bangert, H.; Bergauer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Copper-Carbon composites are a good example for novel materials consisting of components with extremely different physical and chemical properties. They have a high potential for an application as heat sinks for electronic components, but the joining of the two materials is a difficult task. To obtain reasonable mechanical and thermal contact between copper and carbon the following route was chosen. First glassy-carbon substrates were subjected to an RF-Nitrogen plasma treatment. Then 300 nm thick copper coatings were sputter-deposited on the plasma treated surface within the same vacuum chamber. Finally, the samples were removed from the deposition chamber and either investigated immediately or thermally annealed at 850 deg. C under high vacuum conditions (10 -4 Pa). While non-annealed copper-coatings were continuous and showed excellent adhesion values of approximately 700 N/cm 2 , the heat treated samples lose their continuity by a de-wetting process. At the beginning holes are formed, then a labyrinth-like morphology develops and finally the coating consists of isolated droplets. All these processes occur well below the melting temperature of copper and were observed by AFM and SEM. The mechanism of this solid-state de-wetting process is investigated in relation to the recent literature on de-wetting and its consequences on the manufacturing of copper-carbon composites are discussed

  17. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  18. Results on (UNPublished Wet Runs on Pulsating DB White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handler G.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available I have collected all the WET archival data on the pulsating DB white dwarf stars (DBVs and re-reduced them. In addition, the WET has recently observed three DBVs. Preliminary results on PG 1115+158, PG 1351+489, KUV 05134+2605, PG 1654+160 and PG 1456+103 are presented, and the future use of the data is outlined.

  19. Wetting-dewetting films: the role of structural forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh

    2014-04-01

    The liquid wetting and dewetting of solids are ubiquitous phenomena that occur in everyday life. Understanding the nature of these phenomena is beneficial for research and technological applications. However, despite their importance, the phenomena are still not well understood because of the nature of the substrate's surface energy non-ideality and dynamics. This paper illustrates the mechanisms and applications of liquid wetting and dewetting on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. We discuss the classical understanding and application of wetting and film stability criteria based on the Frumkin-Derjaguin disjoining pressure model. The roles of the film critical thickness and capillary pressure on the film instability based on the disjoining pressure isotherm are elucidated, as are the criteria for stable and unstable wet films. We consider the film area in the model for the film stability and the applicable experiments. This paper also addresses the two classic film instability mechanisms for suspended liquid films based on the conditions of the free energy criteria originally proposed by de Vries (nucleation hole formation) and Vrij-Scheludko (capillary waves vs. van der Waals forces) that were later adapted to explain dewetting. We include a discussion of the mechanisms of nanofilm wetting and dewetting on a solid substrate based on nanoparticles' tendency to form a 2D layer and 2D inlayer in the film under the wetting film's surface confinement. We also present our view on the future of wetting-dewetting modeling and its applications in developing emerging technologies. We believe the review and analysis presented here will benefit the current and future understanding of the wetting-dewetting phenomena, as well as aid in the development of novel products and technologies. © 2013.

  20. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008